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Slant Drilling in Michigan: Diffusion of a Critical Resource Extraction Technology. Robert V. Brady, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI 49307

Slant drilling, also called directional drilling has been an important technology used in the Petroleum Industry in Michigan for decades. Initially, as everywhere, wells drilled for oil and gas in Michigan were drilled vertically. If they deviated from vertical it was an unintended consequence of local geological conditions, such as subsurface faults. Eventually, it became apparent that valuable oil and gas targets were also present at locations that could not be reached by drilling a simple vertical (or straight) well. Sometimes, potential oil and gas reservoirs were thought to be located beneath cultural features, such as schools, businesses, or residential neighborhoods. Similarly, it was speculated that some reservoirs were present beneath natural features such as wetlands, rivers, and lakes. In other instances it was suspected that known reservoirs extended beneath various cultural and/or natural features. Slant drilling provided an opportunity to gain access to many of these inconveniently located possibly productive zones. In still other cases, especially during the heyday of the Niagaran reef play from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, proximity indicators encountered on vertically drilled holes could justify slant drilling to find the suspected nearby reservoirs. Finally, sine the 1980s a variation on slant drilling, called horizontal drilling, has enabled substantially greater recovery from a number of reservoirs around the State.

Revitalization of Urban Historic Centers in Latin America. Jorge A. Brea, Central Michigan University, Department of Geography, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859

During the last few decades virtually all historic centers of major Latin American cities have experienced profound changes in land uses and in function. After decades of demographic decline, physical decay and economic blight, these historic places began to receive a great deal of attention from the public and private sectors. Government officials and development companies recognized the economic value of these districts. The desire to expand urban tourism has led to the restoration of historic urban cores. Unfortunately, this process has often been accompanied by displacement of residents and economic activities that do not serve tourists. This paper focuses on the restoration of the colonial city of Santo Domingo and its potential impact on the national economy as well as on the city's residents.

Concept of Exurbs in South Korea. Jaerin (Jay) Chung, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

The exurb is one of popular residential styles in the USA and Western European countries. The term emerged about 20 years ago as a residential area that is situated outside a metropolitan area, even further out than suburbs. It is also a part of the urban sprawl phenomena. This sprawl, however, created a host of other problems. To help tackle some of the problems associated with exurb style expansion, in 1999, the US government implemented the Smart Growth plan for supporting the planning of infrastructure for these exurban areas. This could be a very good example to apply to South Korea to solve similar problems around the capital city of Seoul. During the last 40 years, Seoul became one of the largest cities in East Asia. In 2000, the population of the inner city stopped growing, as some of the residents started to move out, and the satellite cities have grown larger. While the government has encouraged and planned for these high-density satellite cities, they have not come to grips with American style low-density exurban development on the periphery. This paper argues that the South Korean government should create plans and policies to support the growth of this exurban development.

Identifying Lake-effect Snowfall Events in the Long-term Snowfall Records of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Jennifer J. Johnson, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI 49307

Lake-effect snowfall comprises a significant portion of the wintertime precipitation occurring in the lake-effect belts to the lee of each of the Great Lakes. A number of studies have suggested that lake-effect snowfall has been increasing for several decades, a trend that has a large potential to impact the hydrology of the region. Daily snowfall data present a challenge to examining this trend directly because the type of snowfall is never recorded, and there is no way to separate lake-effect snowfall events from snowfall associated with synoptic mechanisms such as fronts. However, the lake-effect mechanism occurs only within a limited area and consequently has a distinct spatial pattern. Discriminant analysis applied to snowfall data is shown to be somewhat" successful in identifying snowfall events with a lake-effect spatial distribution. A discriminant model is developed for Lakes Erie and Ontario, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. When applied to the data, the model generates a calendar of likely lake-effect events that can then be separated from the rest of the record and used to study the lake-effect mechanism more directly. Future research will include adding other types of data to the model in order to improve the classification accuracy.

Mapping Suitable Wild Turkey Habitat in Michigan. Nikkia T. Mittan, Western Michigan University, Department of Geography, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

At the turn of the 20th century, wild turkeys in Michigan were nearly extinct because of unregulated hunting. In the 1950's wildlife biologists began a reintroduction program in both the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula of Michigan. The turkeys were released into areas considered to be viable habitats, and since that time the wild turkey population has flourished. Understanding where suitable habitat is located is important for determining population densities. Farmers living in an area considered to have prime wild turkey habitat could expect crop damage; hunting in that area could keep the population from exploding. 1 his paper examines three adjacent counties in the western hall of Lower Michigan, with varying turkey densities classified by MDNR as low, medium and high. Through the use of G1S, remote sensing, and Fragstats, suitable habitat was located. Wild turkeys prefer forested areas with some fragmentation of open lands and agricultural lands, and rarely do they stray far from reliable water sources. Landsat 7 orthorectifed data was used to classify landcovers and patch metrics were calculated using Fragstats. Results were combined with CIS buffers to ensure that the patches identified as areas of prime habitat are near water sources.

Integrating Active and Service Learning Watershed Management Projects into Undergraduate Geography Curriculum. Diane O'Connell, Schoolcraft College, Geography Department, Livonia, MI 48152

Active and service learning projects provide opportunity for undergraduates to apply geographic knowledge to real world problems. Schoolcraft College is located in the Bell Branch Subwatershed of the Rouge River; the Bell Branch flows through the southern portion of the campus. Water quality in the Rouge River Watershed has been degraded by point and non-point source pollution. Geography students at Schoolcraft College participate in two ongoing watershed management projects: benthic macro invertebrate sampling program, and storm water management mapping project. Students sample the macro invertebrate population and take water quality samples every fall and spring in the Bell Branch. Students utilize environmental problem solving skills to analyze changes in the stream, follow data collection protocols, and propose solutions to water quality concerns in this longitudinal study. Communities are required to have storm water management programs to improve water quality in streams. For the storm water mapping project, students use a survey grade GPS to map the location of manholes on campus, and create a CIS map that includes the CAD utility map and aerial photographs. These projects encourage students to become involved in community programs designed to improve the quality of water in our watershed.

Forestry-Based Industry in Michigan. C. Howard Richardson, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858

Forestry-based payrolls amount to 10% of all manufacturing payrolls in Michigan, and they add $9 billion to the State's economy. Forestry-based tourism and recreation add another $3 billion to Michigan's economy. Two years ago I read a paper before the Geography Session of the Michigan Academy. At that time 1 discussed forestry-based industry in Michigan using data that was derived from the 2004 Wood Products Manufacture's database. This data included the distribution of the number of employees by counties for Michigan. I figured the ratio of forestry -based employees in the Upper Peninsula at 15%, in the Northern Lower Peninsula at 8%, and in the Southern Lower Peninsula at 76%. This year I am using forestry-based data from the 2004 U.S. Census Bureau: County Business Patterns for Michigan. This data is derived from the annual payroll by counties. I computed the ratio of annual forestry-based payroll in the Upper Peninsula at 4%, in the Northern Lower Peninsula at 6%, and in the Southern Lower Peninsula at 90%. The challenge for this paper is to account for the percentage differences for the same region and for different regions using forest-based data from both sources.

Spring Water Mining, Pumping, and Diversion in Michigan. Donald Roy, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI 49307

The positions on both sides of the issue of spring water mining and pumping will be presented in light of the court case (still pending before the Michigan Supreme Court), the environmental, hydrological concerns and the political regulatory situation. Nestle/Ice Mountain seeks to expand its operations and at the grass roots there may be considerable opposition.

Using the New Natural Soil Drainage Index to Highlight and Explain Soil Wetness Patterns in Michigan. Kristine Stanley, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, Randall J. Schaetzl, Michigan State University, Department of Geography, Bast Lansing, MI 48824, and Frank Krist Jr., CIS and Spatial Analysis, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, USDA Forest Service

In this poster, we introduce a new index of soil wetness, referred to as the Natural Soil Drainage Index (DI). The DI is an ordinally-based measure of the amount of water soil contains and makes available to plants during long-term natural conditions. Soils with a DI of 0 are so thin and dry as to be practically bare bedrock or raw sand, and soils with DI values of 99 are almost continually waterlogged. Because DI is based on the long-term natural conditions, it can be derived for a given soil from the taxonomic subgroup and, if desired, can he further refined using slope percentage. We applied the DI to Michigan county-level soils data from the USDA-NRCS, by assigning each map unit a unique DI value. Our resulting DI map for Michigan is a representation of normal soil wetness, using a color ramp from (wet) purple to blue to green to yellow and orange (dry). In this paper, we discuss not only how the DI works but also how it can he applied, using examples from the state of Michigan to illustrate how maps of DI values can provide unique perspectives on landscape ecology and geomorphology.

Wind Turbines: A Preliminary Site Location Assessment of an Offshore Wind Farm in Lake Superior. Courtney Timmons and Robert Legg, Department of Geography, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855

Every year coal fired energy-plants release carbon dioxide in the gigatons. Wind turbines, on the other hand, can be used to generate clean energy by harnessing the power of wind. Establishing wind-turbine energy plants in terrestrial environments, however, ensues problems associated with excessive noise, visual-pollution, and low wind speeds. Off-shore environments provide a pragmatic solution to minimize the impact of these problems. A growing population in Michigan's Upper Peninsula (U.P.) currently requires an ever increasing demand for electrical power. An off-shore wind turbine facility located in Lake Superior could potentially provide a clean energy source to potentially elevate the current situation. The success of such a facility, however, relies on careful site selection and planning. To ensure a site is carefully selected, several critical factors must be considered. These critical factors include assessments of wind-speed, distance off-shore, impact on local wildlife and impact on in-lake shipping. The current investigation presents a preliminary investigation of site selection through analysis of the critical factors in a computerized mapping environment.

The Uneven Landscape: Differences in Urban and Rural Lifestyles and Opportunities in Contemporary China. Gregory Veeck, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

China's economic planners have recently announced (October 2006) that a major goal of the next five years will be the development of a "Harmonious Society". At the heart of this new policy effort is clear recognition that the past quarter century of 10% + annual economic growth has dramatically increased the gap between rich and poor in China resulting in protest and considerable frustration. Recognizing that rapid economic growth has historically always widened this gap, China's leaders are seeking ways to mitigate the problem while maintaining economic expansion. This presentation will juxtapose the lives of people in China's large urban areas with those living in rural China, specifically focusing on conditions lacing families living in rural Inner Mongolia with those for residents of' the coastal-region cities of Beijing, Qingdao, and Shanghai.

These abstracts were edited by the Geography Section Chair, Robert V. Brady
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Author:Brady, Robert V.
Publication:Michigan Academician
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
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