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Geography.

A Groundhog Case? Marcel E. Pichot, (retired), Lake Superior State University

The Waldensian Epic has always been given a place of choice on the shelves of most American and European libraries. The faith, courage and tenacity of these medieval dissidents remain a subject of admiration, respect, and inspiration. Fleeing organized persecution and massacre, the Vaudois from northern Italy and southern France found progressively refuge in the highest summits of the French Alps. There, through the centuries, they developed an extraordinary micro culture of survival and resilience. Grouping themselves by families, they founded tiny villages where they surprisingly developed an astonishing level of intellectual and spiritual maturity in spite of the atrocious cruelty of nature and their contemporaries.

The purpose of this paper is to present the extraordinary destiny of the smallest of those villages, and to show how, Dormihouse, the Village of the Groundhogs, located at an altitude of 6,000 feet, after surviving the tumultuous centuries of French history under the successive monarchies, became recognized in the early 20th century, through a mysterious concordance of events and circumstances, in the prestigious realms of arts, education, and religion, not only in Europe and the United States but literally in most nations in the world.

Assessing Campsite Impacts: A Critique and Proposal. Anne Santa Maria, Grand Valley State University

During the summer of 2010, United States Forest Service personnel conducted a study that was focused on inventorying human ecological and social impacts on dispersed campsites in a large eastern national forest. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the research method used by the Forest Service and to propose an improved inventory method. The inventory methods employed by the Forest Service personnel were questionable from a scientific standpoint, and the proposed method would be a more effective use of limited human and economic resources. The new technique would allow the Forest Service to more efficiently gather information about the distribution and condition of campsites and would help inform management decisions.

Bilingualism and Biculturalism in Quebec. Bethany Benson, Saginaw Valley State University

"Je me souviens" (1 remember) the motto of Quebec license plates, speaks to the orientation of a people whose identity has always been in the past. For over 250 years many French Canadians have 'remembered' the British conquest, which separated them from France. Although the British did not strip the French Canadians of their cultural identity, the conquering of Quebec gave rise to the idea that there were two founders of Canada: the French and the British. The French Canadians living in Quebec (or Quebecois) have consideredthemselves a separate 'society' within Canada since the British conquered them. Today, French Canadians face the challenge of keeping their heritage alive amidst both Anglo Canadian culture and an increased presence of immigrants. Canada's linguistic geography reflects historical circumstances, which can be seen through fertility, immigration and linguistic migration.

China's New Agricultural Geography: Provincial Shifts in Grain Production and Yields from 2000 to 2008. Gregory Veeck, Western Michigan University

Wide-ranging reform of China's agricultural sector over the course of the past decade is bringing about a dramatic transformation of the nation's farm sector that has gone largely unrecognized. Unprecedented levels of investment by national and provincial government agencies, matched with creative and ambitious new laws, regulations and programs dedicated to a complete overhaul of production, processing, transport, and marketing systems are converging to create an increasingly modern farm sector vastly different from that of the early reform era, admittedly also an era of great success. This paper will introduce and analyze a series of maps showing shifting patterns in China's grain production by province and region. The fastest increases in production tend to be either poorer provinces or the low-population density provinces of the Northeast. For rice, traditional high producers such as Jiangsu, Guangdong, Guangxi and Sichuan all reported declines in gross production despite higher yields, while the Northeastern Provinces. (Liaoning--up 34.1%, Jilin--up 54.5%, and Heilongjiang--up 45.7%) and historically poorly endowed Jiangxi (up 24.8%), and Anhui (up 13.3%) recorded significant increases. This significant reshuffling raises some important ecological implications for the Northeastern Provinces. Water consumption in all three of these provinces now exceeds annual replacement.

Climate Change in the State of Michigan, 1950-2009. Michael T. Vollbach, Oakland Community College

According to a recent Gallup poll, a little more than a third of the U.S. population believes that global warming is taking place and less than one-third believe it is something to be concerned about. Many Americans believe that global warming is a hoax developed by liberals. Over the last year, a legacy climate project has been created at Oakland Community College to study temperature and precipitation increase and decrease. This project has studied all 83 counties in Michigan and compared the most recent 30 years to the 30 years that precede to develop conclusions regarding warming and cooling in our state. The research has not yet centered itself on why the climate may have changed, but seeks to conclusively present data on whether climate has changed in the state of Michigan. In conclusion, a discussion regarding climate trends in the state will take place.

Effect of Centerline Rumble Strips on Head On and Sideswipe Automobile Accidents. Miles Hunsinger, Grand Valley State University

In 2008, Michigan Department Transportation began a project to mill 5,700 miles of centerline rumble strips (CLRS) on selected Michigan trunklines at a total cost of approximately $8 million. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of centerline rumble strips on the number of head on and sideswipe collisions in the state of Michigan. Existing data was used to test the research question. The data were obtained from the Michigan Traffic Crash Facts and the Michigan Department Transportation for 2004 through 2009. The results indicate a significant decrease in head on and sideswipe collisions after installation of centerline rumble strips.

Key words: rumble strips, highway collisions, Michigan

Implementing a Street and Property Identification System: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana. Grace A. Ecklu, Western Michigan University

An increasing problem in rapidly growing cities of developing countries is lack of a functional and standardized address system to support management of resources and provision of necessary facilities and services. In Accra, Ghana, previous attempts to develop an address system have been fragmented in nature and largely unsuccessful. This paper examines the reasons why previous attempts have failed and how a physical address system can be successfully implemented within the Ghanaian context. Based on interviews with a key City Planner and a sample of residents of Accra, the paper identifies political, administrative, technical and socio-cultural challenges as major gaps which need to be bridged in order for an effective physical address system to be established. Furthermore, weaknesses in the local government system in Ghana present a major structural and institutional hurdle which hinders the successful implementation of projects of this nature and scale. Therefore, in order for a street and property address system to be successfully established, there first needs to be a reorganization of the district planning machinery before specific strategies directly related to street addressing can be applied.

Michigan Inland Lake Water Quality and Surrounding Land Cover Change, 1998 to 2005. Zach Christian-Rotramel, Grand Valley State University

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between land cover change and water quality (transparency), in Michigan inland lakes between the years 1998 and 2005. Water quality data were obtained from the Michigan Clean Water Corps (MiCorps) and processed in Microsoft Excel to display a percent change between the two study years. The lakes studied showed a change ranging between a 21.62% increase to a--26.00% decrease in transparency. Aerial images were obtained from Michigan's DOQQ (Digital Ortho Quarter Quad) image archive, land cover types were digitized in ArcGIS for each lake studied. Each image was classified into six use/cover categories including agriculture, barren land, forest, grass, urban development, and water. A regression analysis was used to determine change in land cover types.

Muslims Without Mosques, Mosques Without Muslims: Muslim Immigration and the Establishment of Mosques in North America, 1920-2010. Roy Cole, Grand Valley State University and Enzo Crescentini, Western Michigan University

The purpose of this study was to examine the diffusion of Islam in North America through the investigation of immigration and mosque establishment from 1920 to the present. Data on mosque location, type of Islam, country of origin of the congregation, and date of of each mosque's establishment were obtained from the Harvard Pluralism Project, Internet sites that serve the Muslim population, and mosque websites themselves. Results indicate there were three causes of Muslim immigration to North America. In addition, it was found that mosque establishment follows a stepwise process over time and space, that the establishment of mosques in North America had two peak periods, and that mosque creation dropped off markedly after 2001.
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Publication:Michigan Academician
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Mar 22, 2013
Words:1478
Previous Article:French & Italian language & literature.
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