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Geography and Tourism: Glossary.

ABC Islands The Netherlands Antilles Islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao.

Absolute Location The position or place of a point on the surface of the earth expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude.

Accessibility The ease by which interchange or travel can occur between two places or people.

Acropolis The upper fortified part or citadel of the ancient Greek city of Athens.

Adriatic Of or pertaining to the Adriatic Sea or to the people inhabiting its islands and its coast The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean, 500 miles long and up to 140 miles wide, between Italy and Croatia.

Affluence A high level of income (wealth).

African Pertaining to Africa, its people, or its language; a person born in Africa.

African Riviera The coastal area of the Ivory Coast between Abidjan and Sassandra of beautiful beaches, plantations, casinos, and picturesque fishing villages.

Afrikaaners An Afrikaan-speaking descendant of the early Dutch settlers to South Africa.

Aiga The extended family groups in traditional Samoan cultures.

Alemannic A High-German dialect spoken in Alsace, parts of southern Germany, and Switzerland.

Alhambra Moorish palace in Granada built on the hill overlooking the city. It has imposing towers and halls, rooms decorated with lacy carvings, colored tiles, and gold mosaics, and courtyards with fountains, hidden gardens, and hedges.

Alluvial Deposits of mud, silt, and sand by rivers and streams. Alluvial plains adjoin many larger rivers. Alluvial deltas mark the mouths of rivers, such as the Mississippi. Alluvial fans mark the outlet of canyons of streams.

Alps An alpine chain of high, rugged mountains in central Europe.

Altitudinal Zonation Vertical regions of South and Middle America. Each zone has a different physical, environmental, and population characteristic.

Amazon A river of South America that originates in the Peruvian Andes and flows north then east through northern Brazil to the Atlantic Ocean.

Amazon Basin The lowland, tropical rain forest area of the Amazon River drainage region in South America.

AMTRAK Name used by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (a semipublic corporation formed by the Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 and charged with managing and rejuvenating United States intercity passenger railroad service).

Ancient Cities Cities that developed early in the history of humankind.

Andalusia A region of southern Spain comprising the provinces of Almeria, Granada, Jaen, Malaga, Cadiz, Cordoba, Huelva, and Seville. Strongly influenced by the Moors of Northern Africa.

Andes A 4,000-mile-long mountain system stretching the length of western South America from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego.

Anglican A member of the Church of England or any church related to it.

Anthropology The study of the origins (including the physical, social, and cultural development and behavior) of humankind.

Arabian Plateau Plateau in the Arabian Peninsula.

Arawaks Indian people living in parts of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guyana; the language spoken by these Indians.

Archaeological The study of material evidences of human life and culture in past ages.

Archipelago A group or chain of islands in close proximity to one another.

Arid China The dry western and north western regions of China.

Ashkenazim Jews from Western and Central Europe. Asia The largest of the continents, it occupies the eastern portion of the Eurasian landmass and adjacent islands.

Asiatic Russia The southern regions of Russia bordering on Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan that are Islamic and of Asian origin.

Atacama Arid desert of Chile between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains. One of the driest deserts in the world.

Atolls Coral islands that are low and have an open lagoon surrounded by a reef.

Austro-Hungarian Empire A former dual monarchy of central Europe, formed by the union of Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, and parts of Poland.

Baksheesh A tip in Arab countries.

Balance of Payments Statement of international monetary transactions; the amount of money leaving a country for goods and services, as opposed to that spent to purchase goods and services within a country.

Balkan Peninsula A peninsula in southeastern Europe including the countries of Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria.

Barrios Low-income neighborhoods in Middle and South America.

Basques A people of obscure racial and linguistic origin who retained autonomy until the nineteenth century. Concentrated in Northwestern Spain and Southern France (around the Pyrenees Mountains).

Bazaar An Arabic market usually consisting of a street or streets lined with shops and stalls.

Bedouin Nomadic group in the Middle East and North Africa.

Biomass The amount of vegetative (organic) matter in an ecosystem in a designated surface area.

Boers Descendants of Dutch colonists in South Africa.

Bord Failte Eireann Irish National Tourist Board.

Border Towns Towns and cities along borders between two countries that receive large numbers of day visitors.

Buddha A representation of Gautama Buddha who was the originator of Buddhism.

Buddhism A religion found today in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Korea; an attempt to reform the Hindu belief system. Buddhism maintains that the path of salvation is based on four truths. These truths are: first, recognition that life is full of suffering; second, awareness that desire is the cause of suffering; third, that happiness and satisfaction (the end of suffering) come from overcoming desires; and fourth, that proper conduct, including honesty, forgiveness, compassion, and consideration, is the means of overcoming cravings and desire.

Caldera A large crater formed by volcanic explosion or by collapse of a volcanic cone.

Caliph The leader, both religious and secular, of a Moslem state.

Calypso Music of the West Indies centered in Trinidad. Uses improvised lyrics on topical or humorous subjects.

Canadian Shield The low, crystalline rock shield that extends over half of Canada, from Labrador southwest around Hudson Bay and northwest to the Arctic Ocean.

Capital A town or city that is the official seat of government in a state, nation, or other political entity.

Capital Transfers A part of the balance of payments in which money is transferred from one country to another in the form of foreign aid or some kind of cash grant.

Caravanserai Inn for travelers and traders along the Silk Road and other routes of Central Asia.

Caribbean An area of the Atlantic Ocean bordered by North America, Central America, and South America; characterized by its warm climate and beaches; a major tourism area.

Caribbean Tourism Organization A Caribbean organization consisting of eighteen countries that provides statistics and deals with common tourism problems of the region.

Caribs Original inhabitants of the Lesser Antilles and northern South America.

Carrying Capacity The number of animals, crops, or people an area can support on a continual basis without degrading the environment. The carrying capacity varies with technology, land-use techniques, and geographic characteristics.

Castellano A regional dialect of Catalonia in northwestern Spain.

Castle A stronghold or a fortified medieval town.

Cataracts A series of large waterfalls.

Cathedral Cities Cities in which a dominant characteristic of the landscape is the cathedral.

Cathedrals Large, impressive churches that contain the official throne of the bishop.

Catholic A member of any Catholic Church, particularly Roman Catholic.

Catholic Inquisition The medieval effort of the Catholic Church to combat heresy.

Caucasians A division of humanity comprising the major ethnic groups of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia.

CEDOK The official tourism organization of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Celt An ancient people of western and central Europe, including the Britons and the Gauls.

Celtic A subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.

Central America Consists of all the countries south of the Mexican border to the northern border of Colombia.

Central Location Places that are located central to their market.

Central Place A community that possesses a certain measure of centrality and forms the urban focus for a particular region.

Central Planning Planning and economic development that are controlled by the central government.

Chateau A French castle or manor house.

Chinese A native of China, a person of Chinese ancestry, or a group of Sino-Tibetan languages and dialects spoken in East Asia.

Christian Those who follow the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Christianity The Christian religion, based on the teachings of Jesus.

Cinder Cone The cone formed in the center of a volcano.

Circular Tours Tours that visit a number of places between the origin and return point in a circular manner.

Cirque A steep hollow occurring at the upper end of mountain valleys. Formed by glaciation.

Civil War A war between two factions or regions of one country.

Climate Generalized statement of the prevailing weather conditions at a given place, based upon statistics of a long period of record and including average values, departures from those averages, and the probabilities associated with those departures.

Colonial Of or relating to being controlled by a European or other foreign power. Individuals in the controlled countries may be called colonials.

Colonial Territories Territories controlled by a foreign power.

Common Market Name given to a group of fifteen European countries (as of 1996) that belong to a supranational association to promote their economic interests. The official name is the European Union (EU).

Commonwealth Formerly the Commonwealth of England, today it refers to independent countries that were once colonies of England and are now part of a political community. Major member countries include the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, and Canada.

Commonwealth of Independent States The newly independent republics of the former Soviet Union except Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Communism The economic system whereby all factors of production are owned by the state in the name of the workers. Private ownership is nonexistent and competition is unacceptable. Individuals perform for the benefit of society rather than the individual.

Compatriots A fellow countryman. China considers Chinese overseas residents of Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau as compatriots.

Complementarity Production of goods or services by two or more places in a mutually beneficial fashion.

Coniferous A cone-bearing evergreen tree with needle leaves, straight trunks, and short branches.

Continent One of the major landmasses of the world; Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

Continental Europe The countries of Europe that are on the continent.

Continental Islands The large islands of the Pacific stretching from the Southeast Asian mainland to Australia.

Continentality A characteristic of climate in large landmasses where the land heats and cools quickly, creating large daily and yearly changes in temperature.

Copper Belt The area of Zambia and Zaire that has a large concentration of copper.

Coptic The Christian Church of Egypt.

Coral Atoll A coral island or islands with a reef surrounding a lagoon.

Coral Reef A marine ridge or mound consisting of compacted coral.

Creole Persons born of European descent in the West Indies or Spanish America. The French patois is spoken by these people.

Crown Colony Colony of Great Britain. Cruise Ships Luxury passenger ships in which the purpose is vacation and recreation in a given region of the world.

Cultural Centers Cultural attractions that display and maintain important cultural artifacts and ways of life.

Cultural Geography The study of peoples and their works, the site, situation, and specific time.

Cultural Hearth A region of origin for a group of people.

Cultural Links Ties and interactions between two cultures.

Currents The patterns or movements of air and water in a constant direction.

Czar The emperor in the former Russian Empire.

Daibutsu Great Buddha. A huge 700-year-old bronze image of Buddha.

Danube The major river of southeastern Europe.

Deccan Plateau A triangular plateau extending over most of peninsular India.

Deciduous A tree that loses its leaves at the beginning of winter or the start of the dry season.

Delta A flat, fertile lowland created by a river as it deposits its load of soil near the mouth when the water slows.

Demilitarized Zone An area wherein military control forces, weapons, and installations may not be established.

Demokratization The movement to democracy in the former Soviet Union.

Desert A region that is barren or partially barren and receives little or no rainfall.

Desert Pavement A relatively smooth area in a desert region with pebbles closely packed together to create a hard surface.

Developing The economic development of a country associated with industrialization and an improved standard of living for its people.

Double-cropping The planting, cultivation, and harvesting of two crops successively within a single year on the same farmland.

Druids A priestly caste of ancient Gaul and Britain that performs incantations and enchantments.

Druze A member of a religious sect in Syria and Lebanon whose primarily Muslim religion contains some elements of Christianity.

Eastern Orthodox Division of Catholicism derived from the church of the Byzantine Empire that acknowledges the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople.

Economic The production, development, and management of material wealth of a country, household, or business enterprise.

Economic Colonialism The control of a less industrialized economy or businesses by companies in an industrialized country.

Ecotourism Tourism that is based on interest in nature and the environment.

Edo The early name of Tokyo during the Shogunate government in the 1600s.

English Channel A portion of the Atlantic Ocean between England and France, connected with the North Sea by the Strait of Dover.

Environment The total circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms, including physical, cultural, and social surroundings.

EU European Union. (See Common Market.)

Euronesians Persons of mixed European and Polynesian ancestry.

European Cities The major cities of Europe.

European Plain Low, flat, fertile area of Western Europe.

European Russia The area west of the Ural mountains of Slavic origins. The Russian ethnic group predominates the area and is the area of most of the population of Russia.

Excursionist A temporary visitor staying less than 24 hours in a country.

Fall Line The point in rivers on the coastal plain at which waterfalls occur, thus limiting navigation up stream. Cities and industrial centers are often located at the fall line.

Far East An area commonly including the Koreas, Japan, China, and the islands belonging to them. Sometimes used to refer to all of Asia east of Afghanistan. Fens A low-lying, marshy land.

Fjord Narrow, steep-sided, elongated, and coastal valley deepened by glacier ice that has since melted away, allowing the sea to create an inlet. Found especially along the coasts of Norway, Alaska, and New Zealand where they are important tourist attractions.

Flood Plain The level, low valley floor bordering a river.

Folk Culture The way of life of a traditional society.

FONATUR Mexican State planning office; Fondo Nacional De Fomento al Turismo.

Forbidden City Palace of the former emperors of China in Beijing.

Friday Mosque Islamic mosques in which Friday prayers are held.

Gaelic The language of the Gaels. The Celtic language of the Irish and the Scottish Highlanders.

Game Reserve Area set aside by government legislation to protect and manage the habitat of wild animals. animals. While preservation is a major goal, controlled accessibility by visitors for viewing, photographing, and in some cases hunting is also desired.

Game Viewing The national parks of Africa provide an opportunity for visitors to watch animals in a natural setting.

Gaming Official name for gambling entertainment, especially in the United States.

Gauchos An Argentine cowboy in the Pampas region. Geographic Location Where something is permanently located; an area on a map.

Geography The study of the earth as the home of mankind.

Geomancy The belief that the earth has a spirit and can influence human activities.

Ghetto A section or quarter of a European city to which Jews were restricted. Also used to refer to slum areas of American cities or any poor section of a city whose population is dominated by a distinct ethnic group.

Ginza Major shopping street in Tokyo.

Glacial Drift Glacial deposits on the earth's surface.

Glacial Features Landscape features resulting from glaciation.

Glaciation An area which at one time was covered by glaciers.

Glacier-burst The breaking opening of glaciers.

Glasnost A Russian term meaning "openness." It refers to an open policy in social, economic, and political issues that was introduced in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s.

Global Interdependence The dependency of countries and regions of the world upon each other for production of goods.

Glockenspiel Clock and tower in German-speaking countries.

Golden Ring A group of cities northeast of Moscow that illustrate Russian history and culture consisting of old Russian Orthodox churches, monasteries, and convents. The towns are almost living museums of Russian architecture and life.

Golden Triangle The area of India encompassing Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur; a major tourism region in India.

Gothic The architectural, painting, cultural, and literary style prevalent in Western Europe from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries.

Grand Tour Itinerary of extended duration or relative luxury. Started in the eighteenth century for the sons of wealthy Western Europeans who traveled for some 3 years. Major destination was Florence, Italy.

Great Barrier Reef The extensive coral reef off the northeast coast of Australia.

Great Dividing Range The major mountain range of Australia located in the southeast of the continent.

Great Trek The Dutch, who settled South Africa, became in conflict with British. The Dutch, as a group, moved to the interior of South Africa.

Great Wall The Great Wall of China was completed about 200 B.C. It was built to protect China's eastern farmers from the pastoral herders of the Asian interior.

Greco-Roman Pertaining to the culture of both Greece and Rome.

Greek Islands The islands of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean that are culturally and politically Greek.

Gulf Stream A warm ocean current of the North Atlantic issuing from the Gulf of Mexico and flowing east through the Straits of Florida, then northeast along the southeastern coast of the United States, then east to the North Atlantic current.

Hacienda A term referring to large estates in Latin America, commonly used in Mexico.

Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. The Islamic religion includes the belief that each believer should ideally make the pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime.

Hall of Fame Museum that honors outstanding individuals in a particular sport or endeavor.

Han The ethnic group referred to as Chinese.

Hanging Valley The valley of a tributary that enters a main river valley from a considerable height above the bed of the latter, and so forms rapids or waterfalls.

Hanseatic League A mercantile association of towns formed to control trading throughout Europe in the Middle Ages.

Health Resort Complex of facilities and natural features used by tourists interested in health-giving qualities, such as mineral waters, sun, air, exercise, and expert health personnel.

Hemisphere The northern or southern half of the earth as divided by the equator; the eastern or western half as divided by the Prime Meridian.

Hidden Economy The trading, bartering, buying, and selling of goods without a record for government accountability.

Himalayas A high mountain range in south central Asia.

Hinduism The religion of the majority of the population of India.

Historical Houses Houses preserved for historical purposes, frequently important for tourism.

HIV Human immunodeficiency virus. The virus associated with AIDS.

Holiday A day established by law or custom on which ordinary work is suspended; outside the United States, a vacation or time away from work.

Holy Week The week before Easter in Christianity.

Horn of Africa The area of Ethiopia and Somalia that extends out into the Indian Ocean.

Humid China The hot, humid area of eastern China. Hurricanes Tropical cyclonic winds in excess of 75 miles per hour.

IATA (See International Air Transportation Association.) Iberian Peninsula A 230,000-square-mile peninsula in Europe occupied by Spain and Portugal.

Ibero-European European people of the Iberian Peninsula or the influence of this region.

Impact Envisioned or actual consequences (negative or positive) of a decision. The impact may be economic, sociocultural, political, environmental, or other; direct or indirect; intended or not; favorable or unfavorable.

Indian Indigenous populations of North and South America.

Indian Markets Markets in Latin American countries with Indian populations. Usually held once a week, the market allows Indians to exchange, sell, and buy goods and products.

Industrial A highly developed industry.

Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution involved the substitution of machine power for muscle power sources, allowing production increases and creating a growth in demand for resources.

Industry A business employing labor, as the tourist industry.

Infrastructure Investments, such as utilities (water, sewer, electricity), transport (roads, harbors, airports), site development, health care, and schools.

Insularity An island or, by extension, being isolated like an island.

Interaction The relationship between places in terms of tourism, trade, etc., that creates joint action. International Air Transportation Association (IATA) World association of international airlines. It promotes a unified system on international routes by setting fares, rates, safety standards, and the appointment of travel agents to sell international tickets.

International Date Line The line where the date changes by exactly one day as it is crossed. It is approximately 180 degrees West or East.

International Travel Itinerary involving the crossing of the border between countries, usually requiring some degree of formal permission or recognition. Intervening Opportunities The substitution of a desired destination for a location similar but closer in time and cost.

Intourist The privatized travel agency of Russia and countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. Invisible Exports Tourism, banking or other services that do not result in the export of goods.

Invisible Trade The flow of invisible exports and imports out of and into a country.

Iron Gate Gorges created by rock masses between the Hungarian Plain and the Wallachian Plain of the Danube River.

Islam Religion founded by the prophet Mohammed (Muhammad) in Saudi Arabia around 624 A.D. Islam is the name of the religion and means submission to the will of one God (Allah). Muslim or Moslem refers to a member, one who submits himself or herself to the will of Allah.

Islamic The Moslem religion.

Islamic Cities Cities that have developed according to Islamic beliefs and are in the Islamic cultural region.

Islamic Fundamentalism The movement among some Islamic faithful to return to more conservative Muslim beliefs, practices, and social-political systems.

Islamic Law Some countries of the Islamic World base their political and legal systems on the Koran, the holy book of Islam.

Islamic World The countries of North Africa, the Middle East, and South and Southeast Asia where the great majority of the people are Muslims.

Island A landmass that is smaller than a continent and surrounded by water.

Isolation The condition of being geographically cut off or far removed from mainstreams of thought and action. It also denotes a lack of receptivity to outside influences, caused at least partially by inaccessibility.

Jainism A branch of Hinduism that denies the existence of a perfect or supreme being.

Japan Alps The central mountain region of Japan. Jet Age The era since the development and use of the jet engine.

Jewish Characteristic of the Jews, their religion, or their customs.

Jungle An area of dense vegetation and trees, normally referring to tropical like conditions.

Karst Topography A limestone region of hills, gullies, and valleys in which most or all of the drainage is by underground channels, the surface being dry and barren.

Kasbah The old native quarter consisting of housing, the citadel, and the palace, in Arabic cities of North Africa.

Kimono A long, loose, widesleeved Japanese robe, worn with a broad sash.

Koran The book of sacred writings of the Prophet Muhammad.

Kremlin The old walled fortress from which the czars ruled the Russian Empire. Now home to the government of Russia, it is also an important tourist attraction.

Lake A large inland body of fresh or salt water. Lake Kinnereth Name given to the Sea of Galilee by the Israelis.

Landforms The configuration of the land surface into distinctive forms, such as hills, valleys, and plateaus.

Language Any method of communicating ideas by a system of symbolic sounds, or the corresponding written symbols where a written form of the language exists.

Latitude Angular distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Leeward The side of an island or mountain that is opposite to the side that receives the prevailing winds.

Legal Systems A system of law.

Leisure Freedom from time-consuming duties, responsibilities, or activities; free time.

Lifestyle A person's way of life as indicated by the daily or regular activities of the person in clothing, food, drink, leisure, opinions, occupation, work, friendships, and the like. Lifestyle factors are a major influence on a person's tourism behavior and preferences.

Lingua Franca Refers to use of a second language spoken and understood by many peoples to overcome diversity of language in an area.

Location Where something is found.

Loch A lake, fjord, or arm of the sea in Scotland.

Loess Fertile soil created of fine dust deposited by wind.

Longitude Distance east or west of the meridian of Greenwich, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Lutheran A branch of Protestantism started by Martin Luther, common in Northern Europe and areas settled by migrants from this area.

Madrassa Islamic school or seminary training young men.

Maquiladoras Industrial plants established along the Mexican-United States border given special import and export considerations.

Maritime A climate characterized by moderate temperature, medium to high rainfall, and generally high humidity. Usually found along coasts.

Maritime Influence Of or relating to the influence of the ocean on countries with a maritime location.

Massif Central Plateau region of southeastern France.

Masurian Lake District Lake region in Poland.

Matai Chief of Samoan traditional society.

Matrilineal A society in which ancestry is traced through the female line.

Mayan World Circuit The countries of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador have begun joint marketing of the Mayan ruins in Middle America.

Mecca The most sacred city in Islam. Muslims face Mecca for daily prayers and make pilgrimages to the city.

Medieval (Middle Ages) Period of time in history from A.D. 700 to A.D. 1500.

Medina The site of the Prophet Muhammad's tomb in eastern Saudi Arabia.

Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea, the region surrounding the sea, or the climatic type found in the area characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, warm winters that are excellent for coastal tourism. Melanesians A cultural group of people who have very dark skins and dark hair.

Memorial An object or event designed to commemorate a person or event.

Meridians Great circles passing around the poles at right angles to the equator.

Mesa Central The southern half of the plateau region of Mexico containing the valleys of Mexico, Huamantla, Puebla, Toluca, Morelia, and Guadalajara.

Mesa del Norte The northern half of the Mexican plateau.

Mestizo An individual in Latin America whose parentage and lineage are composed of both European and Indian descent.

Mezzogiorno The southern part of Italy. An area economically behind northern Italy.

Micronesians Inhabitants of a small island group in the Pacific north of Melanesia and east of the Philippines.

Middle America The region from the northern Mexican border to the southern Panamanian border.

Middle Class People who occupy a social or economic position between the laboring class and those who are wealthy in terms of land or money.

Middle East The area in Asia and Africa between and including Morocco in the west, Pakistan in the east, Turkey in the north, and the Arabian Peninsula in the south.

Midnight Sun At high latitudes around midsummer the sun does not sink below the horizon and so may be seen at midnight.

Ming Tombs The burial tombs of the rulers during the Ming Dynasty (1364-1644).

Mobility The ability to travel easily and quickly. Monsoon Technically refers to a seasonal reversal of winds, but it also brings heavy precipitation.

Moonscape A view or picture of the surface of the moon or, by extension, any desolate landscape. Moors A Muslim people living mainly in northern Africa who invaded Spain in ancient times.

Mosque A Muslim house of worship.

Mt. Fuji The highest peak in Japan (12,388 ft), it is considered a sacred mountain. It is 70 miles west southwest of Tokyo.

Mt. Kenya The highest mountain in Kenya (17,058 feet).

Mt. Kilimanjaro Highest mountain in Africa (19,340 feet).

Mountains A mass of land considerably higher than its surroundings, and of greater altitude than a hill. Muslim (Moslem) A follower of Islam.

Nation Refers to a group of people with a distinct culture that may or may not coincide with political boundaries.

National Museum A museum that contains several artifacts and documents of national interest, or a museum designated as the official repository of such items.

National Park Area designated by the federal government for public education and enjoyment. In some cases, such areas must be limited in access to preserve their unique qualities. Areas so designated are unique by reason of history, geological formations, or ecological resources.

National Trust An organization in Great Britain dedicated to the preservation of historical sites.

Nation-state A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. A political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people.

Nile A river in East and North Africa and the longest on the continent (3,405 miles).

North Atlantic Drift The relatively warm currents of the Atlantic resulting from the Gulf Stream.

Nucleated Settlements A closely packed settlement, village, or hamlet sharply demarcated from adjoining farmlands.

Oasis A fertile green spot in a desert created by a spring, well, or other local water source.

Oceania The islands of the South Pacific.

Office Ladies Japanese women who are single and work in offices.

Old Quarter The old part of a town, which characterizes the history of a town.

Orient The countries of the Asian continent, excluding Russia and the former states of the Soviet Union.

Orographic Precipitation Precipitation caused by an air mass being forced to cross a physical barrier, such as a mountain range.

Ottoman Referring to the empire centered on Turkey, 1299 to 1923 A.D.

Ottoman Empire The Turkish Empire from 1299 to 1919 in southwestern Asia, northeastern Africa, and southeastern Europe. The capital was Constantinople. Also known as the Turkish Empire.

Outback The arid interior of Australia.

Overseas Chinese Chinese who live outside of China.

Package Tour Any prearranged (usually prepaid) journey to one or more destinations and returning to the point of departure. Includes transportation, accommodations, meals, sightseeing, and other components of travel.

Pagan One who is not a member of an organized religion.

Pagoda A religious building of the Orient, such as an ornate Hindu temple or many-storied Buddhist tower.

Pampas The plains of South America extending for nearly 1,000 miles from the lower Parana River to south central Argentina. It is an important livestock-raising area.

Parallels Parallels of latitude are lines drawn round the earth parallel to the equator and may thus be described as approximate circles with the two poles as centers. The circles become smaller with increasing proximity to the poles.

Party Customer or group of customers to be serviced in the same way; members of the same tour group.

Patagonia Region in South America south of the Limay and Rio Negro rivers to the Strait of Magellan. It is barren tableland between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean.

Patrilineal A society in which ancestry is traced through the male line.

Peninsula A long, narrow projection of land into water.

Peninsular Having the characteristics of a peninsula, as Europe is peninsular.

Perception The view or understanding of a place or people.

Perestroika Russian term meaning restructuring.

One of the key ideas of the late 1980s that helped lead to the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Permafrost Permanently frozen water in the soil and bedrock, as much as 1,000 feet in depth, producing the effect of completely frozen ground. Generally found in high latitudes, it can thaw near the surface during the brief summer season.

Phoenician An inhabitant of ancient Phoenicia. Pidgin A simplified language used to communicate in areas with numerous distinct languages.

Piedmont Hilly, rolling land, lying at the foot of a mountain range and forming a transition between mountain and plain.

Pilgrimage Travel to and for the purpose of visiting a location regarded as sacred by the traveler.

Pinyin Created by China's communist government to simplify the written form of the Chinese language throughout China.

Place Any specific site that can be recognized, as a town, house, and so forth.

Plateau Upland surface, more or less flat and horizontal, upheld by resistant beds of sedimentary rock or lava flows and bounded by a steep cliff.

Playa Lakes Shallow lakes in flat-bottomed desert basins. They are generally dry or small during the driest season, but expand or fill when it rains.

PLO Palestine Liberation Organization, founded in 1962 by displaced Arabs from Israel.

Po Valley The agricultural and industrial heartland of Northern Italy.

Polder Land adjacent to shore reclaimed from the sea by constructing dikes and pumping out the water.

Pollution Foreign matter placed into nature by human activity.

Polynesia An area east of Micronesia and Melanesia. It forms a triangle stretching from the Hawaiian Islands to Chile's Easter Island to New Zealand.

Population The total number of inhabitants of a particular race, group, or class in a specified area.

Population Density The number of people in a given area, usually a square mile or kilometer.

Port A place where goods are brought into and out of a country.

Poverty The condition of being poor. The lack of means to provide basic necessities of living.

Preexisting Forms The character of an area (physically and culturally) before changed as a result of tourism.

Prime Meridian Reference to meridian of zero longitude; normally accepted as the Greenwich Meridian.

Privatization The process of changing ownership of property from state ownership to private ownership.

Province A territory governed as an administrative or political unit or a country or empire.

Punic Of or relating to ancient Carthage.

Pyramid An ancient, massive monument with a broad base tapering to a point above. Found especially in Egypt and Mexico.

Qanat A gravity-fed underground irrigation tunnel in the Middle East.

Qing Zang The Tibetan Plateau.

Queues A term used in Britain, New Zealand, and Australia for a line of people waiting to purchase some service or product.

Racism The belief that one's own racial group is superior to others.

Rain Forest An area of dense broadleaf vegetation that receives heavy rainfall year-round.

Rainshadow Areas with low rainfall because they are on the leeward side of mountain ranges, which trap the moisture in air masses.

Region A specified area characterized by a common element; an area having naturally or arbitrarily assigned boundaries.

Relative Location Refers to location of a place or region with respect to other places or regions. Used interchangeably with situation.

Republic A political order that is not a monarchy.

Resort Geographic or business area offering a variety of facilities, services, and activities for the accommodation, use, and enjoyment of visitors.

Rift Valley Trench-like valley with steep, parallel sides; association with crustal spreading; East Africa's Rift Valley is the most famous.

Ring of Fire Volcanic mountain region encircling the Pacific Ocean.

River Valleys Valleys that have formed as a result of the rivers.

Riverine Located on or adjacent to a river.

Riverine Basins Basins formed as a result of rivers.

Riverine Population Concentrations The population clusters found in the river basins of the world.

Riviera A narrow coastal strip that is a famous resort area and extends along the Mediterranean Coast from Italy to France and includes the towns of Monte Carlo, Nice, and Cannes.

Roman Era A time period in history associated with the Roman Empire.

Romance Languages Languages that have developed from Vulgar Latin. The principal languages are French, Italian, Portuguese, Rumanian, and Spanish. Royalty A person of royal lineage.

Safari Lodges Lodges built in game parks and reserves from which visitors travel to view game. Sagas Poetry recounting the legends and beliefs of the pre-Christian Nordic-Germanic people who settled in Iceland.

Sahara The large desert of North Africa.

Sahel Semiarid zone across most of Africa between the southern margins of the arid Sahara and the moister savanna and forest zone to the south. St. Lawrence Major river between United States and Canada.

Sami Native people of the Arctic regions of Scandinavia. Sometimes referred to as Lapps.

Sanctuaries A reserve area in which animals or birds are protected from hunting or other molestations. Savanna The tropical regions of the world that have climates with seasonal wet and dry periods, or the grassland with scattered trees and bushes that characterizes this climate.

Scandinavia Geographically, it refers to the northwest European countries of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland. Finland is often included, although it is not technically part of Scandinavia.

Sensible Temperature The temperature as "sensed" (felt) by the body. Ninety degrees with high humidity feels hotter than 90 degrees with low humidity.

Sephardim One of the two main divisions of Jews. A Spanish or Portuguese Jew or one of his descendants.

Serengeti A national park in Tanzania known for its abundant wildlife.

Sex Tourism Tourism in which prostitution, pornography, and related activities are important attractions.

Shatterbelt Region located between stronger countries (or cultural-political forces) that is recurrently invaded and/or fragmented by aggressive neighbors.

Shiite An Islamic minority concentrated in Iran and Syria. They believe the leader of Islam should be a direct descendent of Muhammad.

Shinto The aboriginal religion of Japan, marked by the veneration of nature spirits and of ancestors. Shrine A sacred place.

Siberia A large region in Russia extending from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.

Sikh Member of a religion concentrated in the Punjab region of northwest India. Members are characterized by the common surname Singh, and males wear long hair, a full beard, a turban, and a dagger.

Sikhism A religious group that developed on the interface between Islam and Hinduism in India.

Site The internal locational attributes of a place, including its local spatial organization and physical setting.

Situation The external locational attributes of a place; its relative location with reference to other places.

Skane A region in southern Sweden. A popular tourist destination region.

Slavic A group of languages or peoples living in Eastern Europe.

Social and Cultural The way of life of a group of people.

Socialism A variety of political and economic theories and systems of social organization based on collective or governmental ownership and distribution of goods.

South Asia The countries of Asia south of the Himalayas.

Southeast Asia The countries of Asia east of Myanmar to China and southeast to Papua New Guinea. Southern Alps Chain of high, scenic mountains in New Zealand.

Soviet Russian term meaning a council. Spa (See Health Resort.)

Spatial Interaction Interaction that occurs between two regions or places, such as trade or tourism.

State The formal name for the political units we commonly call countries.

Steppe Plains landforms with vegetation class consisting of short grasses sparsely distributed in clumps and bunches and some shrubs, widespread in areas of semiarid climate in continental interiors of North America and Eurasia; also called short-grass prairie.

Stupa A dome-shaped Buddhist shrine, often with a cupola on top.

Submergent Coast Coastal areas that have sunk.

Submergent Landforms Land areas that have sunk along coastal areas or river mouths, causing permanent flooding.

Subtropical Warm, humid areas on the eastern coasts of continents.

Sunni (Sunnite) The major religious division of Islam found in North Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia. Sun-Sea-Sand Coastal areas that have plentiful sun and sand are major attractors of tourists. Suq (Souk) Market areas in Arabic towns filled with shops and eating establishments.

Swahili An African Bantu language of eastern and central Africa. It is widely used as a lingua franca. Symbiotic Mutually beneficial relationships in which both parties in a relationship are better off than they would be if they were operating alone.

Taj Mahal The famed tomb in Agra, India, built between 1630 and 1652 by the emperor Shah Jahan for his second wife.

Taxes A contribution or levy for support of a government, or the fee charged members of an organization to support it.

Temple A sacred place of worship.

Territory An area of land; a district or region.

Tiananmen Square The major central square in Beijing, China. Around the square are the Forbidden City, Mao Zedong's mausoleum, and the People's Hall.

Tierra Caliente The hot coastal lowlands and piedmont (usually below 2,500 feet in elevation) in the Andes Mountains of Latin America.

Tierra Fria The cool upland elevations (usually above 6,000 feet) in the Andes Mountains of Latin America.

Tierra Templada The temperate middle elevations (usually between 2,500 and 6,000 feet) in the Andes Mountains of Latin America.

Time Zones The 24 longitudinal divisions of the earth's surface in which a standard time is kept. Each zone is 15 degrees of longitude in width, with local variations.

Tourist Any person traveling outside his or her normal commuting radius for the purpose of pleasure. A tourist is a person who has traveled away from home, is visiting other locations, and does not plan to relocate or stay away from home permanently.

Tourist Patrol Green patrol cars in Mexico that offer assistance to motorists in trouble.

Trade Unions A labor-specific union limited to people of that specific trade.

Transferability The level of ease or difficulty with which one can move from one place to another.

Transit Cities Cities where transit tourism is important. They are cities in which visitors change types of transportation or major directions when traveling.

Transportation The process of carrying passengers, goods, material, or the like.

Tribalism The practice of tribal religion. Tropical A hot and humid area.

Tropical Rain Forest Vegetation of dense forest areas in the tropics.

Trust Territories A trust territory is a former colonial holding assigned by the United Nations to one of the industrialized nations for development assistance.

Trustee A person holding legal title to a property. Tundra A zone between the northern limit of trees and the polar region in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Tundra areas have only one summer month with an average temperature above freezing; their vegetation is composed of grasses, sedges, lichens, and shrubs.

Turkic A region or subdivision of the Middle Eastern area.

Tyrol A mountain region in Austria east of Salzburg.

Urban Pertaining to a city; city life.

Village Small town.

Visigoths Members of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century A.D.

Volcanic Islands Islands that are volcanic in nature. Vulcanism Volcanic activity or force. The movement of magma from the interior of the Earth to or near the surface.

Wafaku The traditional Japanese clothing of a long robe with sleeves, wrapped with a special sash.

Wat A Buddhist monastery and temple.

Wealth An abundance or large quantity of a valued resource or material possessions.

Welfare Health, happiness, and general well-being; relief work.

Welfare State A country that provides a general social service coverage for their citizens in education, health, and unemployment benefits.

Westerlies The prevailing winds at the middle latitudes flowing from the west to the east.

Western Culture Characteristics typical of the western hemisphere.

White Gold The idea that a white beach or excellent white snow is as valuable as gold for tourists.

Wilderness An unsettled, uncultivated area left in its natural condition.

Windward Area or side of a mountain, island, or other location that receives the prevailing winds directly.

World War II A war fought from 1939 to 1945 in which the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, and other allies defeated Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Xerophytic A plant living in a region where little moisture is available. Its roots are long or enlarged, leaves are small and thick or lacking, as in cactus plants. The plant stores water for extremely long periods of time.

Yurt A circular, domed, portable tent used in Mongolia and by Mongols of Siberia.
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Publication:Geography of Travel & Tourism, 4th ed.
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2003
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