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Geographical dispersion pattern of northern zagrous parts in Islam Abad Gharb and introduction of biological shapes related to them.


The study of the vegetative coverage of a region in order to exploit its natural sources is of great importance. Islam Abad Gharb is located in Kermanshah between 45, 24 min to 38, 30 min of the eastern longitude and 33, 36 min to 35, 15 min of the northern latitude. Its extent is about 4654, and it is 1335 m above sea level. This city is dry according to amperage formula. It is a mountain city with an average annual rain of 414/72 m. The highest average temperature is 37[degrees]C in August, and the lowest average temperature is--20[degrees]C in December. The vegetative coverage of the region was determined based on the floristic method, and the biological shape of each plant was determined generally. There are 79 families, 225 genera, and 335 species. Six big families are: Brassicaceae (28 spp.), Gramineae (27 spp.), Papilionaceae (26 spp.), Apiaceae (24 spp.). Compositeae (29 spp.), and Labitate (17 spp.). Therophytes are the most common and compromise 47% of all plants. Others are Hemicryptophytes (24%), Phanerophytes (12%), and Geophytes (10%), that is, 54% of Iranian-Toranian plant.

Keywords: Islam Abade Gharb; Northern Zagrous; Geographical dispersion; Flora


Among the countries located in western south Asia, Iran has the most diversity of plants, and it is because of its large extent, climate, and topography. Climate diversity has led to an interesting ecosystem in the country that each family of plant has its own genus and species. Plants are live creatures, and humankind is dependent on them forever because plants are the sources of food, oxygen, energy, main materials, and medicinal drugs. However, plants are not treated by us the same as animals. It may be because they do not show any senility as do animals [1]. Although such an ecosystem is of great importance for Islam Abad Gharb, natural habitats have been extensively destroyed by humankind in different ways, especially through agricultural activities, so many valuable species have vanished. However, a natural ecosystem can be seen in the region, yet researchers have had a less head to it. Islam Abad Gharb is located in Kermanshah [2]. It is bounded by Paveh and Gavanrood in the north, Sarpolzahab and Gillangharb in the west, Ilam in the south, and Kermanshah in the east. It is between 45, 24 min to 38, 30 min of the eastern longitude and 33, 36 min to 35, 15 min of the northern latitude. Its extent is about 4654, and it is 1335 m above sea level. It is a mountain city with an average annual rain of 414/72 m. The highest average temperature is 37[degrees]C in August, and the lowest average temperature is--20[degrees]C in December. Figure 1 shows the rain curve-temperature of Islam Abade Gharb.

Materials and Methods

To introduce the regions' flora, plants were collected from different regions from early march to late June in 2014. In this investigation, perfect samples were used and all vegetative samples, after the preparation of herbarium, were investigated in Payamenoor's herbarium and the herbarium of the agricultural faculty of Razi University; their identification was done after being fixed on herbarium sheets.

- Yazd flora [3], Iranica flora [4], herbal plants [5], names of Iranian plants dictionary [6], and plant ranking [7], Iran's chromophytes [8], Iran's astragalus [9].

- Iran's flora, butterfly-shaped family, Kermanshah flora.

- Application of Lu method--phytosociology in the determination of intergenus [10].

- Introduction of growth flora in the drainage basin of kerned [11].

- Introduction of 72 eatable plants in Kermanshah and Kordestan [12].

- Iraq flora [13] and Turkey flora [14].

- Introduction of flora and determination of the biological shape of growth elements [2].

- Common code of families and genus of Iran's flora [11].

- Investigation of the flora of Dalaho mountain in Kermanshah [1].

- Iran's weeds [15], herbal plants [5], Europe's flora [16].

Raunchier ranking was used for the determination of biological shapes [10]. This ranking is based on the unpleasant condition for growth.


Floristic investigations showed that in the region of study, there are 79 families, 255 genera, and 335 species. The families have the most diversity are Composite (29 spp.), Brassicaceae (28 spp.), Gramineae (27 spp.), Papilionaceae (26 spp.), Apiaceae (24 spp.), Labiateae (17 spp.). The results showed that the Composite family has the most diversity of all (Figure 2).

Moreover, the floristic investigation in the region show that the subspecies of Acer monspessulanum L. grow in all the growth regions of Zagrous, including western Azarbaijan, Kordestan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan, Gharmahal Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Fars, and Khozestan.

Figure 2: Piechart of plant species distribution in high species family

Com      14%
Bra      13%
Gra      13%
Papi     12%
Api      11%
Lab       8%
Cary      5%
Eup       5%
Bora      4%
Runu      4%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


The largest genera in the region are Euphorbai (7 spp.), Allium (5 spp.), Trifolium (5 spp.), Convolvulus (4 spp.), Hordum (4 spp.), and Salvia (4 spp).

The percentages of biological shapes of plants in the region are: 47% (Therophytes), 24% (Hemichriptophytes), 12% (Phanerophytes), 10% (Geophytes), 30% (Chamaephytes), 2% (Hydrophytes), and 2% (Halophytes).

The geographical dispersion of the plants in the region is as follows:

Iranian-Toranian (54%), European-Syrian (30%), Sahara-Sydney (11%), and worldwide (5%).


The flora of the region has been investigated for the first time, and it was clear that the flora has 255 genera, 335 species, and 79 families. Composite (29 spp), Brassicaceae (28 spp), Gramineae (27 spp), Papilionaceae (26 spp), Apliaceae (24 spp.), and Labiateae (17 spp) are the most common. Euphorbiae (7 spp.) is the largest genus in the region, and the lowest growth shapes belong to: trophits (47%), Hydrophytes (02%), Halophytes (02%).

In terms of vegetative geography, Islam Abad Gharb belongs to Iranian-Toranian area, and it is confirmed by the results that show that more than half of the species (54%) are in this region. The comparison of chorotypes of plants in different habitats show that Iranian-toranian species increases with the increase in height while Sahara-Sandi species decreases. Among the trees and shrubs are Quercus brantii, Q. infectoria, Q. libani, var persica: Cratagus pontica, Daphne mucronata, Cerasus microcarpa subsp. tortuosa, Acer monspessulanum subsp., and Amygdalus orientalis subsp. orientalis.
Figure 4: The percentage of growth elements of the regions' plants

IT          54%
IT-ES       30%
TT-SS       11%
IT-ES-SS     5%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


This research was funded by the Payame Noor University (PNU).


(1.) Ghahraman A (2008) Iran's Colorful Flora, VI-II. Research Center of Jungles Press.

(2.) Khanhasani M, Khodakarami Y (2005) Introduction of flora and determination of biological shape, growth elements, etoecology, chorology of reserved region of Aianolkash in Kermanshah, brief of articles in 13th conference, pp. 273-274.

(3.) Muzafarian V (2000) Flora of Yazd. Yazd: Yazd Press.

(4.) Rechinger KH (1987) Flora Iranica (N.140 and 157). Graz: Akademische Druck--und Verlagsanstalt.

(5.) Zargari A (1991) Herbal Plants, V1-5. Tehran: Tehran University Press.

(6.) Muzafarian V (1993) Plant Ranking, VI-II. Tehran: Daneshe Emrooz Press.

(7.) Muzafarian V (1995) Names of Plants Dictionary. Tehran: Farhangemoaser Press.

(8.) Ghahraman A (1993) Iran's Chromophytes (vegetal systematic), V I-IV. University Center Press.

(9.) Masomi A (2004) Iran's Gavan, VI-II. Jungle Research Press.

(10.) Atari M, Asgari Nematian M (2005) Application of lo-phytosociology in determination of Astragalus gossypinus in Hamadan, Kordestan, Arak, abief of articles of 13th internal conference and the first international conference on Iran's biology, Novini Press, p. 235.

(11.) Ghahraman A (1995) Common Code of Iran's Flora Genus and Families. Tehran: Pejvak Press.

(12.) Masomi SM (1997) Introduction of 72 eatable plants in Kermanshah and kordestan. Zaiton Mag 132: 44-xxx.

(13.) Townsend CC, Guest E, Al-Ravi A (1974) Flora of Iraq, Vol. 3. Iraq: Published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform of the Republic of Iraq.

(14.) Davis PH (1969) Flora of Turkey, Vol. 3. Edinburgh: Edinburgh at the University Press.

(15.) Karimi A (1994) Iran's Weeds. Tehran: Markazenashr Press.

(16.) Tutin TG, Heywood VH (1968) Flora Europaea, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farahnaz Nooraii (*), Allahyar Kamarii

Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

(*)Corresponding author: Nooraii F, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Received: Dec 24, 2016; Accepted: Feb 2, 2017; Published: Feb 9, 2017

Copyright: [C] 2017 Nooraii and Kamarii. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Table 1: Plant name and family in the study area (Karyotype and region

Plant name and family                           Karyotype  Region
Acantholimon olivieri (Jaub. & spach) Boiss.    Ch         IT
Acanthophyllum caespitosum Boiss.               Ch         IT
Acer negundo L.                                 Ph         ES-IT
Acer monspessulanum L.                          Ph         ES-IT
Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch                     He         IT
Adonis aestivalis L.                            Th         IT
Aegilops crassa Boiss                           Th         ES-IT
Aegilops cylin drica Host.                      Th         SS-IT
Aethionema carneum (Banks et Soland.)
B. Fedtsch.                                     Th         IT
Aethionema grandiflorum Hohen.         Th         ES-IT
Agropyron trichophorum (Link) Richter           He         ES-IT
Ajuga chamaecistus Ging.                        He         IT
Alcea hohenackeri (Boiss. & Huet) Boiss.        Th         IT
Alhagi camelorum Fisch.                         Ch         IT
Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse                  Th         IT
Allium eriophyllum Boiss. Var. eriophyllum      Ge         SS-IT
Altheae hirsuta L.                              Th         ES-IT
Alyssum strigosum Banks & Soland.               Th         IT
Alyssum margin atum Steud ex Bioss.             Th         SS-IT
Alyssum spp.                                    Th         IT
Amaranthus retroflexus L.                       Th         IT
Amygdalus haussknechtii
(c. K Schneider.) Bornm                         Ph         IT
Amygdalus lycioides Spach Var.                  Ph         ES-IT
Amygdalus scoparia Spach.                       Ph         IT
Anchusa italica Retz.                           He         ES-SS-IT
Anchusa cF.                                     He         IT
Andrachne telephioides L.                       He         ES-IT
Anisosciadium orientale Dc.                     Th         SS-IT
Anthemis altissima L.                           Th         ES-IT
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm                He         ES
Antirrhinum sp.                                 Th         ES-IT
Arabis aucheri Boiss.                           Th         IT
Arabis caucasica Willd.                         Th         IT-ES
Aristolochia Bottae-jaub & spach                He         IT
Artedia squamata L.                             Th         IT
Arum conphalloides Ky. ex schott                Ge         IT
Arum giganteum A. Ghahreman                     Ge         IT
Arundo donax L.                                 Hel        ES-IT
Astragalus (Sect. platon ychium Bunge.          Ch         ES-IT
Astragalus (tragacantha) Sp.                    Ch         IT
Astragalus michauxianus Boiss.                  Ch         IT
Avena cF. Wiestii Steud.                        He         ES-IT
Avena fatua L.                                  Th         ES-IT
Bellevalia pycnantha (C.koch) A.Los.            Ge         IT
Biarum cardu chorum (Schott) Engl.              Ge         IT
Biebersteinia multi fida DC.                    C          ES-IT
Biscutella didyma L.                            Th         SS-IT
bursd-pastoris L. Medicus                       Th         ES-IT
Boissiera squarrosa Hochst.                     Th         ES-IT
Bongardia chrysogonum (L.) Boiss.               Ge         IT
Bromus danth oniae Trin.                        Th         ES-IT
Bromus sericeus Drobov.                         Th         ES-IT
Bryoni multiflora Boiss.                        He         IT
Bryonia dioica Jacq.                            He         IT
Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem.                   Th         IT
Bupleurum rotundifolium L.                      Th         IT
Calendula officinalhs L.                        Th         IT
Callipeltis cucallaria (L.) Stev.               Th         SS-IT
Campanula flaccidula Vatke.                     Th         IT
Campanula erinus L.                             Th         SS-IT
Cannabis sativa L.                              Th         ES
Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.                       Th         ES-IT
Carduus arabicus Jacq. ex Murray                Th         IT
Carrichtera annua (L.) D.                       Th         SS-IT
Carrichtera annua (L.) Dc.                      Th         SS-IT
Carthamus tinctorius L.                         Th         IT
Celtis cauca sica Willd.                        Ph         IT
Centaurea virgata Lam.                          Th         IT
Centaurea depressa M. B.                        Th         IT
Centaurea irritans Wagenitz.                    Th         IT
Centaurea koeieana Bornm.                       Th         IT
Centaurium minus Moench.                        Th         ES-IT
Centeaurea solstitialis L.                      Th         IT
Cephalaria sp.                                  Th         IT
Cerastium dichotomum L.                         Th         IT
Cerasus vulgaris Miller, Gard.                  Ph         ES-IT
Ceratocephalus falcate (L.) Pers.               Th         IT
Cercis siliguastrum L.                          Ph         ES-IT
Ceterach officinarum D.c                        He         IT
Chaenorhinum sp. (DC) Reichenb.                 He         ES-IT
Chardinia orientalis (L.) O. kuntza             Th         ES-IT
Charophyllum macropodum Boiss.                  He         IT
Chorzophora obliqua (VahL.) Juss.               Ph         IT
Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Juss.                Th         IT
Cicer arietinum L.                              Th         SS-IT
Cichorium intybus L.                            He         IT
Clypeola jonthlaspi L.                          Th         TH-ES
Consolida oliveriana (D. C) Schrod.             Th         IT
Consolida orientalis (Gay) Schrod.              Th         IT
Consolida tomentosa (Aucher) Schrod.            Th         IT
Convolulus schira zianus Boiss.                 Th         IT
Convolvulus stachydiflius Choisy                Th         SS-IT
Convolvulus arvensis L.                         Th         SS-IT
Convolvulus commutatus Boiss.                   Th         IT
Corydalis verticillaris DC.                     Ge         IT
Corylus avellana L.                             Ph         ES-IT
Crataegus pontica C. Koch                       Ph         IT
Crepis sp.                                      Th         ES-IT
Crocus haussknechtii Boiss.                     Ge         IT
Cydonia oblonga Miller, Gard.                   Ph         ES-IT
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                     Ge         ES-IT
Cynoglossum creticum Miller                     He         ES-IT
Cyperus alternifolius L.                        He         IT
Cyperus cf Longus L.                            Hel        IT
cyprium Murb. Lunds Univ. Rumex                 Th         SS-IT
Daphna mucronata Royle.                         Ch         ES-IT
Datrlorrhiza umbroza (Kar. et kir.) Nevski      Ge         ES-IT
Datura stramonium L.                            Th         SS-ES-IT
Descurainia sophia (L.) webb et Berth.          Th         IT
Dianthus orientalis Adama subsp. Orientalis     Th         SS-IT
Dianthus persicus Hausskn. Mitt.                Th         IT
Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss                Th         SS-ES-IT
Echi nophora platyloba Dc.                      He         IT
Echinoch loa crus--galli (L.)                   Th         ES-IT
Echinops pungens Traut V.                       He         IT
Erodium gruinum (L.)                            Th         IT
Erodium x yrrhnchum M.B.Subsp. oxyrrhum         Th         ES-IT
Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss.                     He         IT
Erysimum L.                                     Th         ES-IT
Allium ascalon icum L                           Th         ES-IT
Erodium cicutarum (L.) L.                       Th         ES-IT
Adianthum capillus-veneris L.                   Ph         ES-IT
Euphorbia SP.                                   He         IT
Euphorbia cheiradenia Boiss. et Hohen           He         ES-IT
Euphorbia falcata L.                            Th         ES-IT
Euphorbia seguieriana Necker subsp.
niciciana (Brorb).                              He         IT
Euphorbia splendida Mobayen                     He         IT
Euphorbia cond ylocrpa M.B                      He         ES-IT
Euphorbia heteradenia Jaub. & Spach.            He         IT
Euphorpia sp.                                   Th         IT
Falcaria vulgaris Beranh.                       He         SS-ES-IT
Ferulago angulata (schlecht) Boiss.             He         IT
Ferulago stellata Boiss.                        Th         IT
Ficus carica L.                                 Ph         ES-IT
Fragaria vesca L.                               He         ES
Fraxinus rotundifolia (Foangustifolia Vahi) L.  Ph         ES-IT
Gagea ova Stapf.                                Ge         IT
Gagea reticulate (pall.) Roem. et Schult.       Ge         IT
Galium sp.                                      Th         IT
Galium sp.                                      Th         IT
Geranium lucidum L.                             Th         ES-IT
Geranium sp.                                    Th         ES-IT
Geranium tuberosum L.                           Ge         ES-IT
Gladiolus sp.                                   Ge         IT
Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. & Huetin Boiss.    He         IT
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.                           Ge         IT
Gypsophila sp.                                  Th         IT
Heliocarya sp.                                  He         IT
Hesperis persica Boiss.                         Th         IT
Heteranthelium Pilifrum (Banks et soland.)      Th         IT
Hetero caryum szovitsianum (Fisch.
et c.A.Mey.) A.DC.                              Th         IT
Hibiscus syriacus L.                            Th         IT
Hibiscus trionum L.                             TH         IT
Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lag.                   Th         SS-IT
Hordeum glaacum Steud.                          Ge         ES-IT
Hordeum marinum Hudson.                         Th         ES-IT
Hordeum spontan eum C. Kock                     Th         IT
Hordrum bulbosum L.                             Ge         ES-IT
Hymenocrater longiforus Bench.                  Ch         IT
Hyoscyamus sp.                                  He         IT
Hypecoum pendulum L.                            Th         SS-ES-IT
Hypericum scabrum L.                            He         IT
Iris aucheri (Baker) sealy                      Ge         IT
Iris hymenospatha Mathew & Wendelbo             Ge         SS-IT
Iris reticulate M.B Var. reticulate             Ge         ES-IT
Isatis lustitanica L.                           Th         ES-IT
Isatis rephani folia Boiss                      Th         IT
Carex stenophyla                                Hel        IT
Rumex acetosa L                                 He         IT
Ixiolirion txtaricum (pall) Herb.               Ge         SS-ES-IT
Johrenia aramatica Rech. F. Unm bell.           He         IT
Juglana regia L.                                Ph         ES-IT
Juncus inflexus L.                              Hel        ES-IT
Juncus bufonius L.                              Hel        ES-IT
Juncus articulatus L.                           Hel        ES-IT
Kochia scoparia (L.) schard.                    Th         IT
Lactuca sp.                                     Th         IT
Lagoecia cuminoides L.                          Th         SS-IT
Lisaea heterocarpa
Lallemantia iberica (Stev.) Fishch. et
C. A. Mey.                                      Th         ES-IT
Lappula sp.                                     Th         IT
Lathyrus inconspicuous L.                       Th         ES-IT
Lens cyanea (Boiss. & Hohen.) Al                Th         SS-IT
Lens culinaris Mmedicus.                        TH         IT
Lepidium cartilagineum (J.marer) thell          Th         IT
Lepidium vesicarium L.                          Th         IT
Leptaleum filifolium (Willd.) Dc.               Th         ES-IT
Ligustrum vulgare L.                            Ph         IT
Linaria chalepensis (L.) Miller.                Th         SS-ES-IT
Linaria grandiflora Desf.                       Th         IT
Linum mucronatum Subsp. Assyriacum              Th         IT
Linum strictum L.                               TH         IT
Lolium pernne L.                                Th         ES-IT
Lonicera numm ulariifolia jaub. et Spach.       Ph         SS-IT
Loranthus europaeus Jacq Enum Stirp.            Ph         IT
Loranthus grewinkii Boiss et Buhse              Ph         IT
Lysimachia linum--stellatum L.                  Th         SS-ES-IT
Malabaila secacul (Miller) Boiss.               Ge         IT
Malva neglecta Wallr.                           Th         IT
Marrubium astracanicum Jacq.                    Ch         ES-IT
Marrubium sp.                                   He         IT
Matthiola sp.                                   Th         IT
Medicago sativa L.                              He         ES-IT
Melica persica subsp persica                    He         IT
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.                     Th         SS-IT
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr                 Th         IT
Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson                   He         ES-IT
Mentha sp.                                      He         IT
Milium vernal M.B                               Th         ES-IT
Mobayenii Ghahreman & Attar, Iran               He         IT
Morus alba L.                                   Ph         SS-ES-IT
Morus nigra L.                                  PH
Myriophllum verticillatum L.                    Hy         IT
Myriophyllum fabmersum L.                       Th (Hy)    IT
Neslia apiculata Fisch                          Th         IT-ES
Nigella arvensis L.                             Th         IT
Noae mucronata (Forsk.) Aschers                 Th         Eh-IT
Nonnea sp.                                      Th         ES-IT
Notobasis syriaca (L.)                          Th         SS-IT
Nuphar luteum (L.) Smith                        Hy         IT
Oliveria decumbens Vent.                        Th         SS-IT
Onobrychis sp.                                  Th         IT
Onobrychis melanotricha Boiss., Diagno.         Th         IT
Onosma sp.                                      He         SS-IT
Onosma sp.                                      Ge         SS-IT
Onosma bulbotrichum Dc.prodr.                   He         IT
Onosma macro ph yllum Bornm.                    He         IT
Ornithogalum sp.                                Ge         IT
Ornithogalum tenuifolium                        Ge         IT
Orobanche sp.                                   Th         IT
Orobanche alba Steph.                           Th         IT
Orochis anatolica Boiss.                        Ge         IT
Outreya cardui formis Jaub .et spach            He         ES-IT
Papaver rhoeas L.                               Th         SS-ES-IT
Parietaria alsinifolia Delile.                  Th         SS-IT
Parietaria judaica L.                           C          ES-IT
Phaseolus vulgaris L.                           Th         IT
Phleum iranica Um Brorn.                        Th         ES-IT
Phlomis olivieri Benth.                         He         ES-IT
Phlomis persica Boiss.                          He         ES-IT
Phlomis rigida Labill.                          He         IT
Phlomis sp.                                     He         Es-IT
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.
ex Steud.                                       Hel        SS-ES-IT
Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.                      He         ES-IT
Picris strigosa M. B. Subsp.                    He         IT
Pimpinella kostchyana Boiss.                    He         IT
Pimpinella eriocarpa Banks et Soland.           Th         SS-IT
Pinus eldarica Medw.                            Ph         ES
Pistacia mutica Fisch. et mey.                  Ph         SS-IT
Pisum sativum L.                                Th         SS-ES-IT
Plantago lanceolata L.                          He         SS-ES-IT
Plantago major L.                               He         ES-IT
Platanus orientalis L.                          Ph         IT
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco              Ph         IT
Plygonum lusuloides Jaub. & Spach.              Th         IT
Poa bulbosa L.                                  Th         ES-IT
Polygonum alpestre C. A Mey.                    Th         ES-IT
Polygonum sp.                                   Ch         ES-IT
Polytrichum sp.                                 Th         ES-IT
Populuscaspica Bornm.                           Ph         ES-IT
Potamogeton lucens L.                           Th         ES-IT
Prangos sp.                                     He         IT
Prangos ferulaceae (L.) Linadl.                 He         IT
Pterocephalus canus coulter ex Dc.              He         IT
Pterocephlus kurdicus Vatke.                    He         IT
Punica grantum L.                               Ph         ES-IT
Quercus brantii Lind L.                         Ph         IT
Quercus in fectoria olive. roy, Emp.            Ph         IT
Quercus longipes Stev.                          Ph         IT
Ranunculus sp.                                  Ge         IT
Ranunculus sp.                                  Ge         IT
Ranunculus sp.                                  Ge         IT
Ranunculus sp.                                  Ge         IT
Ranunculus arvensis L.                          Ge         IT
Ranunculus asiaticus L.                         Ge         IT
Ricinus communis L.                             Th         IT
Rosa sp.                                        Ph         IT
Rosa sp.                                        Ph         IT
Rosularia sempervium Var. Sempervium            He         IT
Rosularia sempervium (M.B.) Berger              He         IT
Rumex acetosella L.                             He         IT
Saccharum ravennae (L.) murray                  He         ES-IT
Salix alba L.                                   Ph         ES-IT
Salix acmophylla Boiss.                         Ph         ES-IT
Salix excelsa J. F. Gmel                        Ph         ES-IT
Salvia sp.                                      He         IT
Salvia bracteata Banks et Soland                He         IT
Salvia russellii Benth.                         He         IT
Salvia syricca L.                               He         ES-IT
Salvia multicaulis Vahl.                        He         ES-IT
Sanguisorba minor Scop.                         He         ES-IT
Scabiosa calocephala Boiss.                     Th         IT
Scandix pecten-veneris L                        Th         IT
Scariola orientalis (Boiss) Sojak Subsp.        He         IT
Scirpus lancustris L.                           Hel        IT
Scorzonera phaeopappa (Boiss.)                  Th         IT
Scrophularia deseti Del. Descr.                 He         SS-IT
Scrophularia striata Boiss.                     He         IT
Senecio vulgaris L.                             Th         IT
Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit.                 Th         IT
Silene conoidea L.                              Th         IT
Silene dichotoma Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk.          Th         ES-IT
Silene morganae Freyn, Bull.                    Th         IT
Sinapis au cheri (Boiss.)                       Th         SS-IT
Sinapis arvensis L.                             Th         IT
Sisymbrium irio L.                              Th         IT
Smyrniopsis aucheri Boiss                       He         IT
Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss                      He         IT
Solanum melongena L.                            Th         SS-ES-IT
Solanum nigrum L.                               Th         SS-ES-IT
Solenanthus circinnatus Ledeb.                  He         ES-IT
Sophora alopecuroides L.                        He         ES-IT
Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench.                    Ge         ES-IT
Sorghum halo pensis (L.) pers                   Ge         ES-IT
Spartium junceum L.                             Ph         ES-IT
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden             Hy         ES-IT
Stachys benthamiana Boiss                       He         IT
Stachys kermanshahensis Rech. F. Pl.            He         IT
Stachysin inflata Bench.                        He         IT
Sterigmostemum Sulphureum (Banks
et Soland.) Bornm.                              Th         SS-IT
Stipa barba ta Desf.                            He         IT
Tamarix sp.                                     Ph         It
Taraxacum officinale Weber.                     He         IT
Taraxacum sp.                                   He         IT
Teucrium melissoides Boiss. et Hausskn.
et Boiss.                                       He         SS-IT
Teucrium polium L.                              He         IT
Teucrium parviflorum Schreb.                    He         IT
Physalis divaricata D.Don                       TH         ES-IT
Theligonum cynocrambe L.                        Th         IT
Thymelaea mesopotamica (C. Jeffrey)
B. Peterson                                     Th         SS-IT
Trifolium dasyurum C. Presl.                    Th         ES-IT
Trifolium grandi forum Schreb.                  Th         SS-ES-IT
Trifolium purpureum L.                          He         IT
Trifolium tomentosum L.                         Th         ES-IT
Trifolium campestre Schreb.                     TH         SS-ES-IT
Trigonella foenum - graecum L.                  Th         SS-IT
Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.                  Th         ES-IT
Typha latifolia L.                              Hel        SS-IT
Ulmus campetris L.                              Ph         ES-IT
Umbelicus intermedius Boiss.                    He         ES-IT
Umbilicus tropaeolifolius Boiss                 He         IT
Urtica dioica L. Var. dioica                    He         SS-ES-IT
Urtica pilulifera L.                            Th         SS-ES-IT
Vaccaria grand iflora (fisch. ex Dc.)           Th         IT
Vaccaria liniflora (Boiss& Hausskn)             Th         IT
Valeriana sp.                                   Th         ES-IT
Valerianella dufresnia Bunge et Boiss.          Th         ES-ES-IT
Vallerianella vesicaria (L.) moench, Meth.      Th         ES-IT
Verbascum sp.                                   He         ES-IT
Verbascum sp.                                   He         IT
Verbascum sp.                                   He         ES-IT
Verbascum cheiranthifolium Boiss.
Diagn.                                          He         ES-IT
Verbascum nudicaule (Wydl.) Takht.              Th         IT
Veronica anagallis-aquatic L. Subsp.
Oxycarpa (Boiss.)                               Th         IT
Vicia hyrcanica Fisch. et C.Amey                Th         IT
Viola occulta Lehmann, Ind. Sem.
Hort. Bot.                                      Th         ES-IT
Viola modesta Fenzl.                            Th         IT
Viola tricolor L. var. arvensis Murr.           Th         ES-IT
Xantium spinosum L.                             Th         IT
Xantium strumarium L.                           Th         ES-IT
Xeranthemum squarrosum Boiss.                   He         ES-IT
Zeugandra iranica P. H. davis Hook.             He         IT
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lem.                   He         IT
Ziziphora capitata L.                           Th         IT
Ziziphora tenuir L.                             Th         ES-IT
Zoegea leptaurea L.                             Th         IT
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Title Annotation:Research Article; Kermanshah, Iran
Author:Nooraii, Farahnaz; Kamarii, Allahyar
Publication:Biology and Medicine
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Mar 1, 2017
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