Geoelectromagnetic field and consciousness quantum.
A physically grounded model of a consciousness quantum associated with free radical spins of biomembranes is proposed. In essence, is the consciousness quantum physically valid as a fundamental constant of [10.sup.40] [spins.sup.2]? According to our concept, consciousness quantum transduction is possible in a geoelectromagnetic field of 0.5 Oe by a 1.4 MHz electromagnetic wave under conditions of magnetic resonance. At the same time, the rationale presented requires further consideration.
The consciousness quantum ([Q.sub.c]) was first introduced as a fundamental constant in an article entitled "Fundamental Constants of Living Nature (Human)," albeit without any detailed explanation. (1) The consciousness quantum was estimated at [10.sup.40] [spins.sup.2]; this value can be found in a set of estimated values of a microcosm, including the quantum states mentioned in the above article.
In a subsequent article, we attempted to assign a physical reality to [Q.sub.c], defined the derivation and dimension of this value, and substantiated possible states of the human body for the manifestation of one or several [Q.sub.c]. (2) Over the past 10-15 years, we have concentrated on the spin, coherent, and magnetic effects in biological systems, primarily in the phospholipid layers of biomembranes. (3, 4) These works allowed us to ground the main fundamental constant of a unique representative of living nature--the human being--as well as its role in evaluating the effect of the geomagnetic field (GMF) on the acts of consciousness and cognitative excitation, and on human life on Earth in general.
The role of consciousness is at present being studied by a number of Russian and foreign scientists, among whom are distinguished by their consistency and passion. (5-10) Let us remember that J. McFadden first presented a serious attempt to consider the dynamics of biological systems at the quantum level, of finding quantum states existing in living cells. (11, 12) However, these works include descriptive and subjective data (although, in a number of cases, experimental attempts were made to confirm the effect of consciousness).
The wide variety of life on Earth was created, and continues to exist, due to continuous interaction with various environmental factors, by adapting to and taking advantage of their effects and the changes they induce. Most of these factors are of an electromagnetic nature. The most complete description of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and living nature can be found in works by Presman, Dubrov and Bingi. (13-15)
Scientists have consistently discovered new types of natural electromagnetic radiation in different parts of the spectrum. The long-studied range of solar radiation (from infrared to ultraviolet rays) was complemented by the range of ionizing radiation (X-rays) of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. In the lower frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum, the discovery of slow periodic changes (seasonal, monthly and daily) in the Earth's magnetic and electric fields was followed by the discovery of short-period oscillations of its magnetic field with frequencies of up to hundreds of Hertz. Studies of atmospheric discharges demonstrated that the resulting electromagnetic radiation covered a wide range of wavelengths, from superlong to ultrashort. Solar and galactic radiation of meter to millimeter wavelengths was discovered last. Electromagnetic fields and radiation of all the bands of the natural electromagnetic spectrum literally permeate the Earth's biosphere.
In the spectrum range where hv > kT (for temperatures typical for living organisms), i.e., from infrared to X-rays, all kinds of biological activity are more or less known. The situation was different for the wide range of electromagnetic spectrum where hv < kT, which ranges from microwave to infralow frequencies down to the zero frequency (static electric and magnetic fields).
For a long time, electromagnetic fields were thought to have no effect on living organisms. This conclusion was supported by simple physical considerations, since energy quanta in this spectrum part are much lower than the mean kinetic energy of molecules (hv < kT). The absorption of electromagnetic fields by living tissues can be mediated only by increased molecular rotation as a whole, i.e., by electromagnetic-to-thermal energy conversion, while the absorption of static or slow variable electric and magnetic fields can affect molecular orientation. According to calculations, thermal effects of electromagnetic fields significant to the organism can be expected for only high-intensity radiations, in the order of [10.sup.2] and up to [10.sup.6] V/m for microwave and infralow frequencies, respectively, i.e., for intensities by many orders of magnitude higher than natural electromagnetic fields of the biosphere. Concerning the biologically significant effect of molecular orientation under the influence of static or slow variable fields, it is possible for the interaction energies no less than kT. At the same time, the magnetic and electric intensities should be at least [10.sup.3] Oe and [10.sup.5] V/m, respectively, which is by several orders of magnitude higher than the magnetic and electric intensities of the Earth. Based on the understanding of prerequisites for possible energy interactions between electromagnetic fields and tissues of living organisms, physicists were skeptical about occasional biological descriptions of animal and human responses to electromagnetic fields of much lower intensities than required for the thermal effect.
Regardless of these categorical conclusions, biologists have continued attempts to experimentally demonstrate a biological effect of electromagnetic fields and static magnetic field at intensities much lower than the theoretic threshold. Biological research demonstrates that various organisms, from microorganisms to humans, are sensitive to the magnetic field and to various electromagnetic bands by tens of orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical thresholds. Different responses of organisms to electromagnetic fields are generated at intensities that are hundreds, thousands, and even millions times lower than the theoretical values predicted on the basis of the energy nature of biological effects of electromagnetic fields. The sensitivity to repeated superweak electromagnetic fields is particularly high, which suggests their cumulative effect on the organisms. High sensitivity to electromagnetic fields is manifested in full measure only for integrated organisms, while it is much lower for isolated organs, cells, and even more so for protein solutions.
While the frequency and time-modulation parameters of electromagnetic fields essentially differ from natural ones, responses of organisms are generated at higher electromagnetic intensities, which are, however, much lower than the theoretical thresholds. Under these conditions, the responses are manifested as various disturbances in the control of physiological functions (heart rate, blood pressure, metabolic processes, etc.) or in sensations (visual, auditory and tactile perception in humans, or changes in emotional state from depressive to epileptic in animals). The induced disturbances are particularly pronounced in developmental control. Clear abnormalities are observed in pathologies.
The pattern and degree of biological effects of electromagnetic fields in an original manner depend on electromagnetic parameters. Sometimes these effects are most pronounced for certain "optimal" electromagnetic intensities, in other cases they increase as the intensity decreases. Otherwise, they have opposite direction at low and high intensities. As concerns the dependence on the frequency and time-modulation parameters of electromagnetic fields, it is observed for specific responses (conditioned response, changed orientation, and sensations). At the same time, electromagnetic field-induced disorders of vital activity control are virtually independent of these parameters.
Analysis of these empirical patterns suggests that the biological effects of weak fields, which cannot be explained by their energy interaction with the matter of living tissues, can be due to the information interaction between electromagnetic fields and the cybernetic systems of the organism perceiving environmental information and, accordingly, controlling their vital activity.
Thus, we may say that living nature used natural environmental electromagnetic fields as information sources, providing for continuous adaptation of organisms to the changes in various environmental factors, i.e., for coordination of vital processes and regulatory changes, and for protection from spontaneous changes. This made possible the use of electromagnetic fields as information carriers providing for the interference at all hierarchical levels of living nature organization from the cell to the biosphere. Formation of data communications mediated by electromagnetic fields, in addition to other known types of data transmission mediated by sense organs and the nervous and endocrine systems, was substantiated to reliability and efficiency of the "biological radio."
To date, the effect of static geomagnetic field (GMF) remains the most enigmatic. GMF is commonly described by four parameters: horizontal (H) and vertical (Z) intensity components, inclination angle (I), and declination angle (D). H value peaks at the equator (0.3-0.4 Oe) and decreases to hundredths of oersted at the poles; while Z decreases from 0.6-0.7 Oe at the poles to almost zero at the equator. In magnetic anomaly locations, Z values can be much higher (or lower) than in neighboring regions.
Elements of the Earth's magnetism are subject to temporary variations; magnetic activity variations expressed in [gamma] = 10-5 Oe. The variations looking arbitrary on the face of it are called magnetic perturbations or (in the case of greater impact) magnetic storms. These perturbations are manifested in three forms: cophased, which appear sporadically and go on the whole planet at once; local, which are limited to certain region on the Earth's surface; and permanent, which are continuously observed at certain locations on the Earth's surface. The intensity of the GMP horizontal component can reach several thousands [gamma], while the permanent variations (up to hundreds [gamma]) are observed continuously all day long, regardless of total magnetic activity.
These types of magnetic activity result from solar activity associated with the number of sunspots as well as sunbursts. Hence, variations in magnetic activity are accordingly periodic.
Finally, there is a group of periodic magnetic perturbations called short-period variations, or magnetic micropulsations. The periods of these oscillations cover the range from hundredths of a second to several minutes, while the amplitude does not exceed several [gamma], i.e., the whole frequency range of periodic geomagnetic oscillations ranges from 10-5 to hundreds of hertz.
Atmospherics are electromagnetic fields caused by atmospheric discharges. The frequency range of atmospherics is wide--from hundreds of hertz to tens of megahertz. Their intensity peaks at frequencies around 10 kHz and decrease as frequency increases. In the vicinity of lightning discharges, the intensity of the electric component of electromagnetic field of atmospherics is in the range of tens, hundreds, and even thousands V/m at frequencies around 10 kHz.
The main location of atmospherics is confined to the continental tropical belt and thunderstorm activity decreases with altitude. Diel and seasonal periodicity is known for thunderstorm activity; it also depends on solar activity and increases during sunbursts.
The frequency range of solar and galactic radiations is quite wide, from 10 MHz to 10 kHz. The intensity of solar radiation is directly related to solar activity. The intensity of galactic radiations at 100 MHz is in the range of W/m2/MHz. The intensity of radiations has diel periodicity due to the rotation of the Earth relative to radiation sources. In addition, radiation intensity varies with the period of 27-28 days, corresponding to the rotation of the sun and, finally, with an 11-year period of solar activity.
In the low and high frequency bands, electromagnetic-to-thermal energy conversion is largely accompanied by conductivity losses resulting from Joule heat release in tissues with the induced ion currents. For frequencies below ~10 MHz, human body size is too low relative to wave-length, while tissues can be considered as a conducting medium. Hence, the quasi-steady requirements are met and static field calculations apply. In the ultrahigh and microwave frequency bands, electromagnetic- to-thermal energy conversions are accompanied by both conductivity and dielectric losses. In this case, the proportion of dielectric losses in total absorption of electromagnetic energy by tissues increases with frequency. For instance, the losses associated with water molecule relaxation in tissues at 1, 10, and 30 GHz amount to about 50 percent, 90 percent, and 98 percent of total losses, respectively.
For these frequency bands (above 100 MHz), human body size is comparable with wave length, or exceeds it. Hence, body tissues cannot be considered a conducting medium; moreover, different tissues cannot be considered as electrically homogeneous. In other words, the quasi-steady requirements are not met and one should take into account the flow of waves, a fraction of which is reflected from the body while the rest is gradually absorbed by electrically heterogeneous tissues.
Spin interactions in the recombination kinetics of radical pairs is perhaps the only mechanism of GMP effect. In this case, the leading role of spin, coherent, and magnetic effects is manifested in biomembranes. (4) Spin effects are related to ultrafine electron--nucleus interactions (ENI)--and are manifested in the kinetics of biochemical reactions at the stage of free radical pair formation. (16) The overall spin state of the radical pair determines their further involvement in the process. A pair born in the singlet spin state recombines; in triplet spin state, dissociates. However, ENI-induced, singlet-triplet intercombination transitions are possible during the lifetime of a pair. This is the essence of spin effects. Magnetic field additionally induces singlet-triplet intercombination transitions and the optimal effect is achieved when the magnetic field intensity equals the ENI constant. Finally, coherent effects in spin systems can be promoted by various factors: the presence of a third radical in a pair (spin catalysis), modulation of external electromagnetic field, etc. The set of spin effects is very rich in catalytic reactions resulting from nervous or CNS-controlled excitation. (17, 18)
Now let us imagine a set of available real physical values and constants in order to numerically express (evaluate) Qc, considering that spin effects are somehow transformed into kinetic bias of the main biochemical reactions. We assume that Qc is a spin value, i.e., contains a certain number of spins of only free radicals either stable or unstable. (2) In this case, conscious acts of each individual should include Qc multiplied by a number equal to or greater than unity. Elementary conscious acts includes single Qc. Hence, we need to evaluate the possible number of spins involved in a given cogitative process during normal or extreme vital activity. Second, we should propose a mechanism of initiation of spin conference in Qc and the corresponding formation of an information field to be transmitted to space.
Communication between humans and space is essential for life on Earth, since it owes its existence to a set of correlations, laws, and physical constants of cosmic level. (19)
Human organisms includes 80 percent water in different states. Water molecules are a potential source of free radical hydroxyl HO. The total number of water molecules is in the order of 5.1026. This value is multiplied by the number of stable free radicals estimated as 8.1013 (considering that the number of stable radicals is 109 - 1010 /g wet tissue). Assuming the number of stable radicals as an energy constant and taking into account the full concentration of hydroxyl radicals, we have the resource of radical spins in a consciousness act in the order of 4 4.1040 spin2: Qc = kC, where k is the constant of stable free radical number and C is the concentration or potential quantity of HO during excitation in a cognitative act of consciousness. We have Qc value, an energy field effect or cognitative effort promoting the corresponding surge (quantum) of spin interaction in biochemical reactions. (2,17) The phospholipid layers of biomembranes with their free-radical autocatalytic peroxidation are proposed as the coordinating factor of this Qc effect (Table 1). (18) The membranes and water are the essence of spin coherent interaction in membrane conductivity during excitation.
Examine the connection of spin and photon energy with consciousness quantum:
[Q.sub.c] = [10.sup.40][spin.sup.2] = [10.sup.40] [(h/4[pi]).sup.2],
where h/4[pi] - electron spin, h - Planck constant, E = hv - photon energy.
Then [Q.sub.c] as fundamental constant will have view:
[Q.sub.c] = [([10.sup.20] E/2[pi]v).sup.2], connected with the photon energy and frequency.
If spin system is in the magnetic field, then from condition E= g[Beta] x, [Q.sub.c] will have the final view:
[Q.sub.c] = [([10.sup.20] g[beta] x /2[pi]v).sup.2], where
g - electron g-factor (x 2),
[beta] - Bor magneton,
x - tension of magnetic field.
Is magnetic resonance possible in GMP (0.5 Oe) for the existing wave component around 1.4 MHz, assuming that the human body contains a sufficient concentration of free radicals? In order to clarify the physical picture of magnetic resonance (a phenomenon similar to electron paramagnetic resonance), let us consider how static and variable magnetic fields exert their effects on the energy levels of an isolated paramagnetic atom (or ion). In most chemical and biological systems studied by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR), the magnetic moments of the paramagnetic centers are either zero or insignificant for the recorded EPR channels orbital. Hence, we assume for simplicity that the paramagnetic properties of a sample are determined by total spins of the atom. In the absence of external magnetic fields, the energy of a free atom does not depend on spin orientation. In an external magnetic field, the energy level is split into (2S + 1) sublevels corresponding to different projections of the total spin S towards the GMP vector. In the simplest form of paramagnetic center with single unpaired electron, spin S = 1/2. This spin value corresponds to two Zeeman energy levels (Figure 1)
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
If the energy of quantum of the electromagnetic radiation influencing the system of spins in the external magnetic field equals the energy difference between the neighboring levels, such radiation will cause transitions between the energy levels. In this case, the variable magnetic field with its magnetic component perpendicular to the static field can equiprobably induce transitions between the sublevels. Such induced transitions are accompanied by spin reorientation. A transition to an upper level is accompanied by absorption of quantum of the electromagnetic radiation. Lower energy levels are believed to be more populated than the upper ones; hence, electromagnetic radiation is more likely to induce transitions to upper (energy absorption) rather than to lower levels (energy radiation). Accordingly, a paramagnetic sample will absorb energy of the electromagnetic field.
In order to understand why a paramagnetic system absorbs energy in conditions of a resonance, one should take into account the magnetic relaxation. The essence of this phenomenon is energy exchanged between paramagnetic particles and their interaction with the neighboring atoms and molecules. For instance, spins can give their energy to the lattice in crystals or to solvent molecules in liquids. In any case, it is common practice to mention interaction between spin and lattice, regardless of the actual aggregation state of matter. In a broad sense, the term lattice applies to all thermal degrees of freedom of a system, which can rapidly accept the energy absorbed by spins. Due to rapid radiation-free spin relaxation, the system has time to restore almost balanced proportions of the population of the Zeeman sublevels when the population of a lower level is higher compared to the upper one. That is why the number of induced bottom-to-top transitions responsible for energy absorption can exceed the number of induced top-to-bottom transitions. Thus, resonance absorption of energy of the electromagnetic radiation can prevail over radiation; although the situation can change for an open thermodynamic nonequilibrium system controlled by a consciousness act.
We would like to create the measuring system (suggested experiment) for direct experiments on the absorption and radiation of a 1.4 MHz electromagnetic wave mediated by human (operator), as we failed to find direct experiments in literature (Figure 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
However, numerous measurement experiments demonstrated the effect of humans on indications of a standard magnetometer, i.e., the effect of bioshunting under natural conditions. (20) At particular natural sites, operators can acquire unusual short-term psychological abilities (foresight, far hearing, temporal retrospect, etc.).
Positive emotions can also increase magnetometer indications, while negative emotions decrease them relative to background magnetic field indications. One can propose the presence of magnetic interactions not only of the type magnetic field--human, but also of the reverse type human--magnetic field along the vertical energy flow. The revealed effects in the above mentioned sites apply specific ecological restrictions on the residents and visitors. People at such sites (for instance, the Mountain Altai) can be exposed to unique influences with a strong impact on their physiology and psychophysiology. Such sites represent new areas of ecological risk. These phenomena require urgent interdisciplinary investigation (involving geophysics, physics, psychology, biophysics, and medicine). (21,22)
In conclusion, note that the essence of the exchange interaction between [Q.sub.c] and GMP can be reduced to the absorption and/or radiation of electromagnetic waves by the human body. Analytical data suggest resonance, field, and distant natures of this process, which is often mentioned in various publications.
(1.) Aristarkhov, V .M. (2005a). "Fundamental constant of wildlife (Person)." Consciousness and a physical reality, 10(2), 66-70.
(2.) Aristarkhov, V. M. (2005b). "Quantum of consciousness - a new fundamental constant." Consciousness and a physical reality, 10(1), 31-32.
Aristarkhov, V. M. (1992). "Kinetic model of a colouring process in a dispersion of multilayered liposomes." J. Phys. Chem, 66(7), 1880-1885.
(4.) Piruzjan, L. A., Aristarkhov, V. M. (2005). "Spin and magnetic effects in biosystems is a privilege of the phospholipid biomembranes." Reports of the Russian Academy of Science, 401(4), 560-562.
(5.) Dubrov, A. P. (2003). "Unknown Factors in Chronobiology." Frontier Perspectives, 12(2), 19-29.
(6.) Dubrov, A. P. (2004). "Superweak mental interaction." Consciousness and a physical reality, 9(5), 10-21.
(7.) Tiller, W. A. (ed.). (1997). Science and Human Transformation: Subtle Energies Intentionality and Consciousness. California: Pavior Publishing Walnut Creek.
(8.) Akimov, A. E. (ed.) (2000). Horizonts of a science and technologies of XX1 century. Moscow: Folium.
(9.) Vasilescu, Eu., Vasilescu, El. (2001). "Experimental Study on Precognition." J.Scientific Exploration, 15(3), 369-377.
(10.) Walker, E. H. (1985). "Quantum mechanics and parapsychology." J.Indian Psychology, (4), 21-26.
McFadden, J. (2001). Quantum Evolution. New York: WW Norton.
McFadden, J. and Al-Khalili, J. (1999). "A quantum mechanical model of adaptiv mutation." Biosystems, 50, 203-211.
(13.) Presman, A. S. (1968). Electromagnetic field and wildlife. Moscow: Science.
(14.) Dubrov, A. P. (1978). "Geomagnetic Field and Life." Geomagnetobiology. New York: Plenum Press Corp.
(15.) Bingi, V. N. (2002). Magnitobiology: experiments and models. Moscow: "MILTA."
(16.) Buchachenko, A. L., Sagdeev, R. Z. and Salikhov, K. M. (1978). Magnetic and spin effects in chemical reactions. Novosibirsk: "Science."
(17.) Piruzjan, L. A., Aristarkhov, V. M. (1969). "Possible power mechanisms accompanying occurrence of biopotential." Izvestia AS the USSR, ser. biol., 1, 69-85.
(18.) Piruzjan, L. A., Aristarkhov, V.M. (1971). "About participation of free radicals in the generation of the membrane potential." Izvestia AS the USSR, ser. biol., 5, 697-703.
(19.) Hegele, P. K. (2001). "Whether space on the person?" Search, 5, 12-13.
(20.) Dmitriev, A. N. (1998). Natural self-lighting formations. Novosibirsk: Edition of the mathematics Institute.
(21.) Lukatelli, F. D., Pejn, E. D. (1997). "Whether exists correlation between kosmophysics factors and occurrence of a manically-depressive psychosis?" Biophysics, 40(5), 1020-1024.
(22.) Chibrikin, V. M., Kashinskaja, I. V. and Udaltsova, N. V. (1997). "Dynamics of a social processes and geomagnetic activity. The geomagnetic response in monetary issue." Biophysics, 40(5), 1054-1059.
Vladimir M. Aristarkhov
Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences
ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow, 117994 Russia
Table 1 Name Structure Reaction Hydroxyl OH [Fe.sub.2+] + HOOH [right arrow] [Fe.sup.3] radical + H[O.sup.-] + OH [Fe.sup.2+] + Cl[O.sup.-] [right arrow] [Fe.sup.3+] + [Cl.sup.-] + OH Lipid LO [Fe.sub.2+] + LOOH [right arrow] radical [Fe.sup.3] + H[O.sup.-] + LO L LO + LH [right arrow] LH + L LOO L + [O.sub.2] [right arrow] LOO
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|Title Annotation:||effects on biomembranes|
|Author:||Aristarkhov, Vladimir M.|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2005|
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