Geodynamic network Karkonosze results of the 2001 and 2002 campaigns.
The Karkonosze Mts. exemplify a mountain massif built by granites and forming up a slightly-concentrated, uniform block remaining a trench. These granites called, the Karkonosze Granites" stand a base for the main massif's structure of the Karkonosze as well as for the Jelenia Gora Valley. The mentioned area is surrounded by older rock structures: from the West and the North-West of Izerskie Mts., from the North of Kaczawskie Mts., from the North--East of Rudawy Janowickie Mts. and from the East of the Lasocki Ridge (Fig.1). The southern--Czech part of the Karkonosze Mts. is built of granites (western site) and older Proterosoic rocks.
The rock massif of Karkonosze Mts. was created as a result of intrusion which had been consisting of some magma-invades, 300-310 million years ago (Pin et al., 1988). Since their setting, the Karkonosze Granite as a lighter material than its neighborhood has presented a tendency to rising. This movement was significantly active in the period of Carbon and Perm. Also in Tertiary the movement was activated again and the actual gravimetric researches confirm that the investigated area has not been in isostatic balance yet. Hence, the lifting tendencies would still be able to be observed (Krolikowski et al., 1995).
Considering, that the area is differentiated and unstable in a geological and tectonic sense and also that new vertical movements were noticed during scientific studies (Mierzejewski, 1998), the Karkonosze Mts. and their neighbourhood seem to be one of the most active geological regions in Poland and hence, further researches would be correct and justified.
For determination of such movements, in the spring 2001 in the Karkonosze Mts. and adjacent areas, the research network of 19 points (Fig.1) stabilised by concrete blocks was set. All the pillars were set either on parent rock or in the ground (on the rocky floor) below the freezing level. Such points are equipped by force-centring heads which enable very precise instrument setting. The presented localisation was preceded by careful literature studies: (Mierzejewski, 1985, 1988; Oberc, 1985; Muller, 1993), as well as by consultations and site inspections.
Measurements of contemporary local geodynamic movements have been realised in a year--cycles by the use of the satellite GPS method completed by gravimetric and classical surveys. In time of the GPS measurements, over selected points the local atmosphere parameters as temperature, pressure and relative air humidity have been registered.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
GPS MEASURING CAMPAIGNS 2001 AND 2002
Observations of the survey campaign 2001 were realised between the 31.08-2.09 and on the 4.09.2001 (the days: 244, 245, 246 and 249). Organisation of measurements has been presented in (Kontny et al., 2002).
Measurements in 2002 were performed in the days: 24 and 25 as well as in the 27-28 Aug 2002 (the days: 236, 237, 239, 240). After modification of the rules of measurements in relation to the year 2001 over all the network points the 24-hour observations were performed. However, on selected points the observations were continued through all the four days and on the other points, through two days--the situation has been presented in the (Fig. 2).
GPS DATA PROCESSING
The computation process of the obtained data has been realised by using the Bernese GPS Software ver. 4.2 using Bernese Processing Engine (BPE) module (Hugentobler et al., 2001) following the strategy of local network solution described in (Bosy and Kontny, 1998; Kontny et al., 2002; Bosy et al., 2003). The CODE precise orbits (coming from the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe, Berne) have been used. The Earth rotation parameters as well as the pole motions also from CODE have been used. Antennas phase centre characteristics have been obtained from IGS and US National Geodetic Survey --Geosciences Research Division. Geocentric and geographic coordinates have been computed in the ITRF2000 reference frame. Calculations have been realised for user base-lines definition: year 2001 (Kontny et al., 2002), year 2002 (Fig. 3) and with wide-lane ambiguity solution strategy including regional CODE ionosphere model.
Connection of the normal equation segments of daily sessions referred to particular years has been performed by the combined method (Brockmann, 1996) with the use of ADDNEQ module. In the (Fig. 4) it has been presented the accuracy characteristic (RMS) of obtained components (N, E, U) particular points' coordinates for the year 2001 and 2002 respectively.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The Fig. 5 presents a comparison of accuracy obtained for particular sessions (measuring days) in relation to the combined solution of the network in the year 2001 and 2002.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Obtained results have presented a significant accuracy improvement in accordance with evaluation of the 2001 campaign's results. Increase of observation time as well as application of the same antennas additionally equipped by ground plane rings have caused a significant accuracy improvement as well as repeatability of the 2002 campaign in comparison to the results of the 2001 campaign.
Significant increase of accuracy of determination of points position in campaign 2002 is probably the result of:
* double extension of observation time at particular points;
* use of the same antenna types on points in several observation days;
* applying of ground plane rings at each used antenna;
* excluding of casual uncertainty in antenna height measurements by applying of a simple but useful device;
* height increase of the same antennas used for enlarging of distance between the antenna and a terrain surface (introduction of special adapters).
To improve the determined points' heights in the survey campaigns 2001 and 2002 it has been planed to implement into data processing a meteorological data both measured and interpolated with the use of the method presented in (Borkowski et al., 2002). On selected points it is intended to determine heights by geometrical levelling. Such issue allows to find an optimal modelling method of troposphere delay and finally, to determine the points' heights by the method of satellite GPS levelling.
Borkowski, A., Bosy, J. and Kontny, B.: 2002, Meteorological data and determination of heights in local GPS networks--preliminary results. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Geodesy and Cartography, Volume 5, Issue 2. Available Online http://www.ejpau.media.pl.
Bosy, J. and Kontny, B.: 1998, Strategy of GPS data processing in local geodynamical networks, Reports on Geodesy No. 9(39), Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy.
Bosy, J., Figurski, M. and Wielgosz, P.: 2003, A strategy for GPS data processing in a precise local network during high solar activity, GPS Solutions, Springer-Verlag 2003 (in press).
Brockmann, E.: 1996, Combination of Solutions for Geodetic and Geodynamic Applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) PhD. dissertation, Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
Hugentobler, U., Schaer, S. and Fridez, P.: 2001, Bernese GPS Software Version 4.2, Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, pp. 515.
Kontny, B., Bosy, J. and Makolski, K.: 2002, GPS network, Karkonosze"--Preliminary results of campaign 2001, Acta Montana, Ser. A Geodynamics, No 20 (124),Praha 2002 pp. 25-29.
Krolikowski, Cz. and Petecki, Z. :1995, Grawimetric map od Poland. Bouguer's anomalies--scale 1:750000, Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (in Polish).
Makolski, K., Mierzejewski, M. and Kaczalek, M.: 2002, Geodynamic research concerning recent movements in the Karkonosze Mts and Karkonosze foreland, Acta Montnana Ser. A Geodynamics, No 20 (124),Praha 2002 pp. 93-96.
Mierzejewski, M. P.: 1985, Geology of granit part of Karkonosze Mts. Monography Polish Karkonosze, Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk--Wroclaw, Warszawa, pp. 16-41 (in Polish).
Mierzejewski, P. M.: 1998, Symptoms of recent vertical movments within the granitic massif of Karkonosze Mts. Geoecological Problems of the Karkonosze Mountains--Przesieka 1997, Wydawnictwo Acarus, Poznan 1998. pp. 93-96 (in Polish).
Muller, B.: 1993, Tectonic stress in Europe, Diss. Univ. (TH), Karlsruhe.
Oberc, J.: 1985, Geological structure of fore-granite rock series of Karkonosze Monography Polish Karkonosze--Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk--Wroclaw, Warszawa, pp. 9 -16.
Pin et al. (1988)--, Etude izotopique Rb-Sr du granite du Karkonosze", w: (Lorenc, Majerowicz) (Ets.) Petrologie et geologie du socle Varisque des Sudetes Polonaises: resultats de la co-operation eture les Universites de Wroclaw et Clermont Ferrand 43-47, Wroclaw, (Wroclaw University, Institute of Geologic Studies).
Krzysztof MAKOLSKI and Jaroslaw BOSY
Department of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, Agricultural University of Wroclaw, Grunwaldzka 53, 50-357 Wroclaw, Poland, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
* Research has been financed by the Scientific Research Committee grant obtained for the 9T12E01619 project "Geodynamic research concerning recent movements in the Karkonosze Mts and Karkonosze foreland".
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|Author:||Makolski, Krzysztof; Bosy, Jaroslaw|
|Publication:||Acta Montana. Serie A: Geodynamics|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2004|
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