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Genetics diversity investigation in F2 generation based phonological, phenotypic and quantitative traits in wheat.


Based on current scientific progress, the human being has been successful in enhancing agricultural products by increasing product yield by employing the latest technology in agricultural and specially improved breeding research. In this relation, correction plans are considered as main issue in agricultural research to improve the quality and quantity of the agricultural products (Vojdani, 1996). World production of wheat was measured 674 million ton/year during 2009-2010 compared to 682 million ton/ year during 2008-2009 (FAO 2010). Wheat was sown in Iran during 2008 and 2009 over an area of 5250250 and 6647367 hectares respectively. During these years 7956647 and 13484457 tons/ hec products were produced (FAO 2008, 2009).

Motzo and Vijiyanta (2007) showed that phonologic traits time is one of the main factors in yield in conformity in defined environment. In Mediterranean environments, the proper period for flowering in dry farming wheat is accompanied by spring freezing, late dryness and thermal stress.

Increase of the population and food crisis in underdeveloped and developing countries and several benefits of wheat compared with other products have led to consider wheat as sociopolitical product Pena and et all (2002) investigated cold resistance in germination phase for early and uniform production (Cruz, et al., 2006). Native cultivars of the original areas and diversity of the breeds are considered main gene reservoirs for improvement of the plant.

Iran as an origin and center of wheat and its wild relatives has rich genetics diversity for improvement of the bread wheat (Lavasani Jam, 1994).

Genetic improvement of seed yield potential in world wealthy systems was 1 percent in year from 1960. It can be referred to investigations in Mexico (Sayre et al., 1997), Argentina (Abbate et al, 1998), France (Brandcourt et al., 2003), and England (Shearman et al., 2005).

Knowledge about changes in physiologic traits and wheat yield potential genetics improvement is necessary for identification of yield limiting factors and determination of the plant amendment strategies (Foulkses et al., 2007). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report and agriculture organization statistics, more than seventy percent of agriculture products area belongs to corn and from this amount twenty-two percent is allocated to wheat (FAO, 2005). According to ever-increasing population, improvement of genetics methods and increase of yield according to place and time and employing new techniques in order to change plant genetic structure are necessary (Mohammad khani, 2005). Enhancement of plant products is resulted from employing genetics technology and science and improvement of plant and agriculture as honor of human being (Mohammad khani and et al., 2005). Study of population of F2 resulted from two parents by different forms of one trait provides access to mentioned trait inheritance and separation of environmental and genetics effects and even genetics localization. The aim of this study is to investigate opposite morphologic traits and manner of inheritance of spring, glume and ear form traits. According to this fact that possibility of enhancement of agricultural area is limited, increase of production by enhancement of yield in area unit and product quality and reduction of losses will be achieved. Certainly, high qualitative and quantitative production of wheat cultivar by more compatibility and yield sustainability play an important role in wheat production enhancement plan (Zohary and et al., 2003).

Materials and Methods

-Place Of Experiment:

In order to study genetics diversity in F2 wheat population by using morphological and RAPD molecular markers, this research was carried out in Kashan biotechnology and research institute, Iran.

-Climate Of The Area:

Gamsar is Located on 51.26' east and 33.45' north by 1900 m from sea level like a green belt with branches along with low slope allies of central mountains in 6275 hectare. Its climate is temperate in spring and summer and cold in winter (Wikipedia, 2010).

F2 wheat population, Faisalabad x FM36 line was used. Faisalabad was amended in Pakistani Faisalabad agricultural research center. It is a spring cultivar with no concentrated ears. But FM36 in a semi-spring line with concentrated cars need to make spring line. This line was obtained by hybridizing of Mexican and Falchetto cultivars.

-Plant Culture:

Two parent FM36 and Faisalabad seeds lines and 10 lines of F2 with distance of 10 cm were cultured in middle of Isfand 2009 and finally 20 plants from each parent and 180 plants from F2 population were obtained. The 3x3 m plot was uniform. The length of each line was 2m and distance between lines was 20 cm. Sampling was carried out in middle of lines by observing marginal effects. Since repeated genotypes of F2 population were impossible so small plots were selected in to reduce environmental effects.

-Measured Morphologic and Phonologic Traits:

Morphologic and phonologic traits were measured in the parents and F2 bushes. These traits were measured by ruler by accuracy of %1cm and they weighed with digital scale with accuracy of %1g. the traits sere as follow: The height of the bush, the length of ears, number of claw, straw weight, seed yield in bush, glume, ear density, number of days till appearance of ear, number of days till physiologic growth, need to making spring cultivar, total dry matter and harvest index.

-Data Analysis:

T-test was carried out by using software STATIICA Analysis of morphological data coefficients and x2 test for quality traits were conducted by software SAS 6.2 and SPSS 11.5 respectively.

Results and Discussion

1-Differences Between Parents:

According to this fact that hybrid parents were different in traits like need to making spring cultivar and density of ears and hair-like glume, cv. Faisalabad was completely spring breed with open ears but line FM36 is semi spring cultivar with concentrated ears And showed F2 divergent traits.

Their inheritance pattern was studied in next section. The parents were different in some quantitative traits (Table 1) T-test showed that the results of hybridizing of the parents were meaningfully different from traits like length of ears, weight of seed in plant, ear density ratio, and number of days till appearance of ear, and physiologic growth and harvest index.

Faisalabad cultivar was high form length of ear, weight of seed in the plant and harvest index and it was low in traits such as ear density, number days till appearing ear, number of days dill physiologic maturity relative to FM 36. There was no meaningful difference in other traits, except number of ears, height of bush, and weight of straw. Number of claw and biologic performance was high in Faisalabad.

Line FM36 entered stem phase later than Faisalabad because of semi-spring trait. Also, the distances between appearance of ear and physiologic growth were 34 and 25 days in Faisalabad and FM36 lines respectively that indicates short--term period of filling seed in FM36 line relative to Faisalabad. Gonzalez and et al (2003) found that in semi-spring cultivars, the length of filling seed was reduced because of late ear appearance. The number of fertile flowers depends on ear dry matter in germination period (Kirby, 1999).

Increase length of ear growth enhances number of fertile flower and ear dry matter in germination period and yield potential (Slafer et al., 2001) so, it is probable that above factors interfere in low mean seed weight in line FM 36.

2-Correlation Coefficient Between Traits:

Correlation and regression methods are used in order to determine the relationship among variables. Correlation coefficient shows the relationship between two variables that they affected by the common factors. In other words, correlation coefficient determines the strong and weakness and direction for following of the changes of both variables. According to table 2, there is a positive and significant correlation among plant Height, ear length, straw yield, number of fertile spike relative to produced dry matter, harvest index and kernel yield in plant. While number of days until earring and number of days to physiological maturity has negative and significant correlation with kernel yield. in this case ear length (r=0.82 *) and dry matter (r=0.72 *) showed the highest correlation coefficient with kernel yield in plant (Table 2) Leilah et al. (2004) in a research on yield and yield components obtained similar results. The negative correlation of number of the days till earring by kernel yield per plant indicates that genotypes with less growth period show high kernel yield. Early earring of wheat plans cause that the time of filling seed dose not coincide with warm weather and the level of fertilization and repletion of the photosynthesis in seed are increased. In this relation, spring cultivars are needed because of higher positive correlation with number of days till earring that it leads to delay in earring and negative effect on yield.

In other hand, the high correlation of need to spring cultivar and date of earring (r=0.82) show that need to spring cultivars affects on ear appearance. In experiment by other authors it was identified that flowering time determines main genetic traits and it is affected by genes responsive to mineralization, photoperiod sensitivity and early maturity (Pankora, Kaster 1998, Law 2000 and Kato and et al 2003). There is no significant correlation between hairy glume and traits. Ear Number, had high correlation with straw yield(r=0.85), kernel yield in plant (r=0.71) and as result with produced dry matter (Table 2). Kumbhar and et al (2000) and Collaku (1999) reported that efficacy of the claw production affects positively on improvement of the yield.

The correlation among traits like straw yield, kernel yield in plant and number of spike, number of days to earing was higher than correlation between numbers of days to physiological maturity. So, gens controlling of these traits are continues with gens controlling of number of days to appearance of the ear. It seems that the plant life ends by begging of the summer even before complete filling of seeds. So, there is sufficient chance for filling of the seeds by early appearance of the ears and this process affects on increase of production and storing of the materials. The plant chlorophyll and number of spike are determined in growth stage. After this stage, the formation of ear does not play role in this trait. Also, we expect that by increase of number of days to physiological maturity the chance of filling of the seeds is increased. There was a negative correlation between kernel yield in plant and days to physiological maturity .So, there was a positive correlation between days till earing and physiological maturity (r=0/46**). In genotypes by more days to physiological maturity the days of earring were high. Thus seed filling period was not increased and in these genotypes the same time confine has been transferred a few days to hot days of the year.

Ear number is related directly to number of seed in the earring. According to the researchers number of the seeds in the ear is one of the main yield component that has direct and positive relation(Asseng and et al, 2002, Mohammad 1999, Leila and et al 2004). But in this research increase of spikelet did not affect on kernel yield in plant and it did not show the significant correlation(table 2). And only increase of straw yield in plant (r=0/25**) increased total dry matter in plant (r=0/22**). As a result, the relationship between number of spikelet with yield index was negative(r=0/18**). The positive correlation between this trait (ear number) and number of days to physiological maturity (r=0/24**) indicates that it is probable that end of growth period of bushes by more spikelet was coincided with hot months(july and August) and as a result the seeds were not filled completely. In addition, the length of spring cultivars and severity of irradiation affect on growth of ear in wheat and when there is no optimal condition, it leads to lack of coordination in ear growth and the growth of the first and end spikelet is delayed and this delay causes paralyze of florets(Mohammadi & Moore, 2003). A high correlation was observed between need to making spring cultivar and number of days till earring in this research. In genotypes needed to making spring cultivar, the ears were grew lately(r=0/82**), so it empowers probability of paralyze of the florets. In other hand in a research conducted by Mohammadi and et al (2003) on several wheat cultivars like Faisalabad it was reveled that fertilization of the ear tip is controlled by two dominated gens. Recessive hemozigut state of these genes causes to paralyze of the ear tip in the wheat in the condition that the plant is under stress. In the mentioned experiment, it was concluded that Faisalabad cultivar as one of the parent of F2 population of the study carries a recessive gene for paralyze of the ear tip. So the tip florets are paralyzed under stress and this property is transferrable to the results. In this research according to the cultivation of the plants in the field and possibility of intangible stress during plant growth period the paralyze of the florets in F2 generation can be one of the reasons for non influence of the number of the spikelet on seed yield in genotypes of the studied wheat F2 generation. Of course it should be investigated.

Correlation of accumulation in the ear was negative and significant (r=-0/74**) and higher than positive correlation with ear number elet (r=0/34**) .In other words, accumulation ear is result of short ear axis relative to ear number. As a result accumulation ear does not affect on number of the seeds and yield.

Leila and et al (2004) concluded that 5 traits of ear length, number of ear, harvest index and total produced dry matter in plant influenced significantly on kernel yield. Straw and seed as two elements of the dry matter had the highest correlation with this trait. Since increase in stem and leaves and number of produced ears and number of spike effect on both elements of biologic function so they showed high correlation with this trait. There was a significant and positive correlation among produced dry matter, plant heigth, ear length and ear number. There was a negative correlation between number of days till earring and need to making spring cultivar (table 2).

Among the studied traits, there was a significant correlation between the kernel yield and date of appearance and there was a negative correlation with harvest index (table 2). Narasimhamoorthy and et al (2006) studied the seed yield and yield components and they concluded that the harvest index had the highest positive and negative correlation with these traits. In the mentioned study, harvest index and plant height showed negative correlation. But there is a positive correlation among these traits probably because of positive correlation between length and seed weight in this research. There was a positive correlation among harvest index and number of spike and produced dry matter and there was a significant and negative correlation among need to making spring cultivar, date of appearing ear, number of days to physiological maturity, ear density and ear number (table 2). The negative traits effect on kernel yield and yield components in plant influence negatively on the traits. The different role of yield and yield components in different experiments depend on improvement strategies used in different areas. In this relation in addition to yield and yield components, the role of harvest index has been confirmed in different studies (Royo and et al, 2006, Zhou and et al, 2005).

3-Path Analysis:

The analysis of correlation coefficients of direct and indirect effects is possible by coefficients analysis (Dewey and Lu, 2002). Until now many researchers used this technique in different plants like wheat (Simane et al., 1993; Akanda and Mundt, 1999; Bhatt, 1999).

Figure 1 shows direct effects of number of days till appearing ear, length of ear on seed weight and correlation coefficient among these traits. The direct and indirect effects of traits on seed yield are shown in Table 3.

The direct effect of number of days till earring and ear length on kernel yield in plant is -0/613 and 0/39 respectively. According to the results of path coefficients the number of days till earring showed the highest direct and negative effect on kernel yield in plant and it applies negative effect on kernel yield by other variable.

Langu et al. (2002) showed that number of spike in plant and kernel yield in ear had direct positive effect on yield in one bush. In present study that ear length has the most positive correlation with kernel yield it applies the most indirect positive effect on kernel yield by number of days till earring.


4-Cluster Analysis:

Cluster analysis is used for determination of the traits identity categorized based on similarity and non similarity in main and secondary groups. This technique is used in selection of parent in improvement programs and modeling of the plants (Jaynes et al., 2003).

The Hierarchical Ward Clustering method was employed for categorization based on standard Euclidian intervals. In this method at first the clusters are categorized by the number of traits and gradually the traits with most similarity are categorized and finally when the similarities are reduced all groups are converted to one cluster. Eleven the traits were categorized to two groups (Figure 2): group one involves phonologic traits (number of days till earring, number of days to physiological maturity) and ear length and group two involves the remainder variables as agricultural traits.

According to figure 2 group two is divided to two subgroups in distance of 141/8. In the first subgroup the traits of kernel yield in plant, plant height, number of spike, ear density and harvest index ratio showed high correlation relative to kernel yield components in plant. Produced dry matter, straw yield and ear number were in subgroup two. So the similarity and tendency of dry matter toward straw yield and its total is higher than kernel yield per plant. Straw weight is the biggest element of produced dry matter. So harvest index as result of economic yield and biologic performance is reduced. Leila and et al (2004) categorized traits related to yield by cluster method so that kernel yield in m2 number of fertile spike, weight of hundred seed, number of seed in the ear, harvest index and dry matter were in one group and ear thickness, plant height, ear length and number of seed in the ear were in other group.

According to the results of categorization of quantitative traits a trait can be selected for investigation among traits of one similar group in future research on wheat specially two parental genotypes and ignore the others.



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Zahra Fakharian Kashani

Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Zahra Fakharian Kashani, Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Table 1: Comparison of studied quantitative traits in parents of
wheat hybrid based on t-test.

                                          Straw     Kernel    Number
                 Plant   Ear      Ear     yield in  yield in  of
Variation        height  length   number  plan      plant     spike

P1 (Faisalabad)  51.13   9.51     18.87   13.22     4.12      6.87
P2 (FM36)        46      7.24     19.62   10.81     1.82      6.44
t value          5.13    2.27 **  0.75    2.41      2.3 **    0.43

                 Ear               Days to        matter
                 density  Days to  physiological  in       Harvest
Variation        ratio    earring  maturity       plant    index

P1 (Faisalabad)  2.04     71.63    105.61         17.33    0.23
P2 (FM36)        2.74     89.23    115.26         12.42    0.14
t value          0.7 **   17.6 **  9.65 **        4.91     0.09 **

**: significant in 1% probability level.

Table 2: Correlation coefficient among studied traits in F2 genotypes.

                                 Plant      Ear      Ear    yield in
                                 Height   length   Number    plant

Ear length                      0.26 **
Ear Number                       -0.09    0.36 **
Straw yield in plant             048 **   029 **
Kemel yield in plant            0.48 **   0.82 *    0.10    0.66 **
Number of spike                 0.33 **   0.17 *   0.20 *    0.85 *
Capillary glume                  -0.12     -0.06    0.04     -0.13
Accumulation ear                 -0.04              0.10      0.09
Ear density ratio               -0.32 **  -0.74 *  0.34 **   -0.10
Days to earring                 -0.28 **  -0.71 *   0.15    -0.25 **
Days to physiological maturity  -0.22 *    -0.11   0.24 **  -0.09 *
Need to making spring cultivar  -0.29 **   -0.07    0.12    -0.25 **
dry matter in plant               0.52    028 **    0.22
Harvest index                   0.30 **    0.04    -0.18 *    0.01

                                yield in   Number   Capillary
                                 plant    of spike    glume

Ear length
Ear Number
Straw yield in plant
Kemel yield in plant
Number of spike                 0.71 **
Capillary glume                  -0.07     -0.09
Accumulation ear                  0.06      0.09      0.09
Ear density ratio                 0.14     -0.03      0.09
Days to earring                 -0.89 *   -0.29 **    0.01
Days to physiological maturity  -0.21 *    -0.12      0.07
Need to making spring cultivar  0.37 **   -0.30 **    -0.02
dry matter in plant                         0.87      -0.12
Harvest index                    0.66 *    0.16 *     0.01

                                Accumulation  density  Days to
                                    ear        ratio   earring

Ear length
Ear Number
Straw yield in plant
Kemel yield in plant
Number of spike
Capillary glume
Accumulation ear
Ear density ratio                   0.42
Days to earring                    -0.07       0.15
Days to physiological maturity      0.10      0.27 **  0.46 **
Need to making spring cultivar     -0.06       0.14    0.82 **
dry matter in plant                 0.09       -0.12
Harvest index                       0.01      -0.15 *

                                                Need to
                                   Days to       making      dry
                                physiologicaly   spring   matter in
                                   maturity     cultivar    plant

Ear length
Ear Number
Straw yield in plant
Kemel yield in plant
Number of spike
Capillary glume
Accumulation ear
Ear density ratio
Days to earring
Days to physiological maturity
Need to making spring cultivar     0.40 **
dry matter in plant                 -0.13       -0.31 **
Harvest index                                   -0.35 **   0.22 *

*, **: Significant in 5% and %1 probability level respectively

Table 3: direct and indirect effects of remanded quantities traits in
regression model on Grain yield in the bush of the studied wheat.

                                      indirect effect

                         direct    Number of    Length of   Correlation
                         effects   days         the ears    coefficient
                                   until                    with
traits                             appearance               yield
                                   of the

Number of days until     -0.613    --           -0.28       -0.89
appearance of the ears

Length of the ears       0.39      0.43         --          0.82

Remained effects 0.36

Table 4: Elucidate intervals of quantitative traits studied in the
wheat genotypes based on cluster analysis.

                             Dry                              Ear
                            Matter     Days To      Days      Ear
                   Harvest    In    Physiological   Till    Density
Traits              Index   Plant     Maturity     Earring   Ratio

Plant Height

Ear Length

Ear Number

Straw Yield In

Kemel Yield In

Number Of Spike

Ear Density Ratio                                              0
Days Till Earring                                     0      1011

Days To                                   0          426     1425

Dry Matter In                 0         1282         873      171

Harvest Index         0      192        1450        1036      25

                           Kernel  Straw
                   Number  Yield   Yield   Ear
Traits               Of      In     In     Ear     Ear    Plant
                   Spike   Plant   Plant  Number  Length  Height

Plant Height                                                0

Ear Length                                          0      617

Ear Number                                  0      512     115

Straw Yield In                       0     106     586      70

Kemel Yield In               0      109    183     681      74

Number Of Spike      0       41     75     150     648      47

Ear Density Ratio    56      31     127    193     695      82
Days Till Earring   967     1001    909    820     397     933

Days To             1380    1414   1320    1233    773     1346

Dry Matter In       118     150     48      97     547     108

Harvest Index        77      45     148    218     719     105
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Kashani, Zahra Fakharian
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Oct 1, 2011
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