Genetic diversity assessment and its importance on crop improvement in ethiopia: potentials and challenges.
The knowledge of genetic diversity has provided a good opportunity for plant breeders, to develop superior crop cultivar with desirable property which is quit suitable for both farmer, consumers, traders for commercial purpose and to Secure food consumption (Narain, 2000). The diversity within crop appears to be high which is confusing for plant breeders to breed that genotype (Cubry et al., 2008). So that, it is crucial to study the genetic diversity of plant for further study, genetic improvement and conservation of germplasm for breeding purpose (Desalegn et al., 2008). For example, researchers to avoid taxonomic confusion, to depict genetic distance of coffee genotype and to provide basic breeding information for breeders' research has been done using molecular markers, biochemical test and morphological trait (Desalegn et al., 2008).
The basic steps in meaningful breeding program are studying the genetic diversity of plant material using reliable and accurate means. Comprehensively, to explain the divergence of plant cultivar breeder can use diverse data sets from the morphology of plant, biochemical nature and genetic makeup of the crop (Mostafa, 2011). In order that to determine and characterize the genetic relationship between cultivars using friendly software package aids to generate reliable and useful information for researchers. The fundamental reason for undertaking diversity analysis also stems from the trend of monitoring diversity. The human and material resource to trace poverty has been identified and explained by a strong motive of different econometrics, but it fails to identify basic crop improvement techniques to address food insecurity problem in the world (Baudoin et al., 2001).
Genetic diversity assessment plays a pivotal role in crop improvement. It provides information about the evolution of genetic divergence and serves a podium for specific procreation objectives. It identifies parental combinations useful to create segregating progenies with maxim genetic potential for advance selection, as demonstrated by (Barrett and Kidwell, 1998).For example, the genetic diversity of faba bean based on morphological data was investigate to provide meaningful breeding information in Ethiopia (Gemechu Keneni et al., 2005). Commercial varieties of field pea were characterized using IRAP, SSR and RBIP and, they become a good potential planting material source for researchers and breeders to improve its production (Smykal et al., 2008).
In addition diversity analysis is also required for global perspective of agrobiodiversity and molecular evolution. Comparison of various ecotypes, for instance, cultivated and related wild coffees were compared and identified interms of quality (Cubry et al., 2008). There have been some molecular studies on estimating the existing genetic diversity among selected enset collections of the country. Birmeta et al (2002) did RAPD analysis of genetic diversity among different enset clones from Southern Ethiopia. Absence of gene flow from wild to cultivated enset has also been reported from RAPD-based study made on the wild and cultivated enset gene pools (Birmeta et al., 2004). Therefore, molecular characterization of the available germplasm, with a better sampling coverage and the use of informative molecular markers may produce a good estimate of the genetic diversity for utilization in further improvement of the crop and its conservation. The phylogeny obtained from the most recent research is always indicator of the progress of the diversity.
Now a day, plant breeders has tried a lot to increase production and productivity of market oriented, quality, disease resistance, pest resistance, drought resistance and nutracutical crops using characterized planting materials which is as such effective to address food insecurity problem. On the other hand, lack of knowledge about the genetic diversity of domestic crops is jamming the improvement of crop production. Usually, a plant breeder has been waste much resource, time and a lot energy to improve crop production without knowing variability of plant which was little significant in crop improvement (Winter and Kahl, 1995).
Genetic diversity assessment is at juvenile stage due to the presence of limited research in the specific varieties of Ethiopia. Generally, the taxonomic classification and characterization of the varieties is critical for crop improvement even if it is not well developed in Ethiopia. Farmer varieties and their wild type contributed to advancements of the economic sector and agricultural sector of Ethiopia for they are adapted to various agro ecosystems of the country (Negash Almaz, 2001).
Based on the available literature, this paper reviews the importance of taxonomic classification and genetic diversity assessment of Ethiopian crops; Gaps in Developing Taxonomy of Ethiopian crops and minimizing taxonomic confusions, Monitoring diversity for crop improvement, Alterations in landscape features, Significance of Germplasm Conservation, Gap in morphological characterization, Global perspective of agro biodiversity and molecular evolution, Emergence of tissue culture technology in Ethiopia, Germplasm improvement for breeder.
GAPS IN DEVELOPING TAXONOMY OF CROPS IN ETHIOPIA
Taxonomic classification of crops is the primary task before launching ample of projects which could be of breeding experiment or whatever. Obviously, most of the crops are part of global biodiversity. Hence, there is no "taxonomy of crop" specific to Ethiopia. But, the gene pool is not monotonous throughout the globe revealing that there could be specific variety pertinent to Ethiopia. That's why it is always underlined that the taxonomy of Ethiopian crops is at its juvenile stage for the presence of limited research in the specific varieties of Ethiopia.
Generally, the taxonomic classification and characterization of the varieties is not well developed in Ethiopia. Farmer varieties and their wild type contributed to advancements of the economic sector and agricultural sector of Ethiopia for they are adapted to various agro ecosystems of the country (Negash Almaz, 2001). It has been long time since landraces came in to the attention of Ethiopian researchers. Most of the researches were morphological characterizations based on superficial features although there has been encouraging efforts for molecular characterization to know diversity of crop. Thus, it is high time to scale up the level of research and allot full time engagement in the molecular characterization of landraces. Classification at family, genus and species level of Ethiopian crops is quite advanced for it follows a global trend.
However, classification at subspecies and variety level remains to be a challenge especially when we think of the entire farmer varieties. On farm characterization had been undertaken throughout the development of the Agricultural sector in Ethiopia. Recent advancement in biological science is introducing molecular tools to detect variation at the genetic level. There is a growing concern of molecular characterization research in Ethiopian crops even though it is unsatisfactory.
The taxonomical hierarchy of farmer varieties, wild types, subspecies of crops and others will be completely resolved via the applications of tools of biological science at molecular level. The farmer varieties are given a vernacular or local name. Different ethnic groups may give different name for same crop resulting in confusion (Negash Almaz, 2001). Convergent evolution also complicates taxonomy of Ethiopian crops. Due to similar environmental factors detected in various agroecosystems, crops of different taxonomic group may appear similar morphologically and this has to be resolved. Consequently, the ultimate remedy to find resolution for this confusion lies within the molecular machineries of cell, which are novel tools for they determine a given trait or phenotype, which is a reflection of the genes or alleles hosted in the entire genome (Rohlf., 2002).
POTENTIAL OF MONITORING DIVERSITY FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT
The application of molecular markers for monitoring DNA sequence variation was underlined (Bagali et al., 2010). Monitoring genetic diversity is of paramount importance even if some species of crops are over studied at molecular level in Ethiopia (Table 2). The task of characterization is a continuous process. Anthropogenic and environmental burdens may lead to a decrease in the overall diversity. Crop genetic diversity is threatened due to loss of farmer varieties following a subsequent replacement by selected seed, drought conditions, forest destruction, soil erosion, invasion and other factors. In evolutionary time scale, there could be splitting of species of crops via events of speciation and merging of different species of crops. Sometimes, hybrids are created due to a random cross in the natural population. Frequently, transgenic crops are adopted as a technology. These plants may reproduce with native crops and affect the native allele frequency. Eventually, mutation due to the existence of mutagens may affect allele frequency of native crops if mutation occurs randomly. Thus, it is desirable to undertake monitoring study to avail the most updated taxonomy.
ALTERATIONS IN LANDSCAPE FEATURES
The diversities of the crops are due to landscape variation, climate change, edaphic and other environmental factors. Above all, topography may attribute to minor genetic differences detected within same species. The agroecological zones are quite varying. A digital map of the ecosystem is available at this moment (Eticha et al., 2010). The articulated lands of Ethiopia with the unique topography created following tectonic movements and numerous geological events attributes to the diverse agroecosystem. The traditional classification like "Dega", "Weyna Dega", "Kola" and the like emanated from altitudinal difference and other factors. All in all, in this unique landscape, various endemic species, farmer varieties and unique ecosystems are harbored and a variety of crops are cultivated. Wild types of various domesticated crops occur. Following the diversity of the crops, much more effort had been attempted to undertake morphological characterizations.
Ethiopia is one of the Vavilov centers meaning centre of origin for various crops. Most probably, the landscape variation attributes for that diversity detected to qualify the country for Vailovian center. Ethiopia is mentioned to be centre of origin for Abyssinian hard wheat, poulard wheat, emmer, Polish wheat, barley, grain sorghum, pearl millet, African millet, cowpea, flax, teff, sesame, castor bean, garden cress, coffee, okra, myrrh and indigo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page). There is a continuous change happening to the landscape following a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A typical example is the process of desertification which occurs in dry land and desert habitats. This may contribute to microhabitat variation that may affect crop diversity. For example, the diversity of barely in Ethiopia is quite high for an extended history of cultivation and variant agroecosystems (Eticha et al., 2010).
Environmental factors as a varied soil types, altitudinal variation and climatic factors attribute to the diversity of barely manifested in Ethiopia. The morphologically characterized landraces of barley (Ababadhas, Abashewaye, Balame, Butuji, Garbuguracha, Hadho, Kate, Kitankite, Luka'a, Muga, Samareta, Shamari, Sidamo and Warkina) collected from west showa showed that alteration of landscape feature is the cause for the divergence of barely genotype (Eticha et al., 2010). Beside this, 568 SSR markers were developed for molecular characterization of Barley collected from Tunisia, Syria and Danemark to demonstrate the effect of environment on barley species (Chaabane et al., 2009).
Barriers may be created following change happening to a land mass. Thus, the diversity detected in the present time will never remain the same given there is a continual variation in landscape. The overall implication of this review is diversity of crops has no limit and there is no time to ascertain that the entire diversity is studied once and for all to support conventional plant breeding.
SIGNIFICANCE OF GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF CROPS
Intimidation on various crops leads to the urgent need of characterizing the plant to launch appropriate conservation programs for breeding purpose. There is a continual loss of land races. Above all, there is usually under-representation of in-situ and ex-situ sites. Even for some species, in-situ and ex-situ conservation approaches may not be commenced. With the aid of molecular markers, exsitu and in-situ conservation and genetic diversity conservation is possible (Bagali et al., 2010). It is common to encounter limited number of accessions in gene bank. As it has been said repeatedly, the Ethiopian crops are under extensive human induced pressure and natural disasters. Preserving species is uneasy before knowing diversity at gene, species and ecosystem/agroecosystem level. A case study on coffee guides to select and conserve populations to encompass maximum genetic diversity instead of conserving the entire population for it is cumbersome and impractical from resource point of view (Alemayehu Teresa, 2007). It has been said that improving and utilizing crops are hindered by insufficient knowledge about the genetic diversity (Negash Almaz 2001). It is critical to investigate the molecular diversity of the crops either to update existing information or initiate establishment of field genebank/community gene bank, botanical garden, green house, preservation in test tube and tissue culture based preservation means.
Gene bank of Ethiopia has collected seeds of the various Ethiopian crops. For instance, germplasm of Ethiopian crops is not necessarily in Ethiopia. There is wild coffee collection in CIRAD, French Guiana (Cubry et al, 2008). These collections may not be characterized well except attempts in morphological level characterization although there have been several attempts of molecular characterization. Local experts usually encounters duplicates, same thing coded as different variety in gene bank. Some accessions in gene bank may not be characterized even at morphological level. During collection, collectors who deposit seed in gene bank might skip critical places endemic to a particular crop. Epigenetic changes may happen to stored and conserved seeds. With the aid of markers, seed mixtures, duplications and genetic drift will be studied. This reveals that undertaking molecular characterization will aid to evaluate the existing status about the existing germplasm.
GAP IN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION
The Ethiopian agroecosystems which affects the physical appearance of economically important crop is poorly understood. Perhaps, the existing agroecosystem is always under revision. The forest cover, land cover and land use classification is poorly understood though to date, there is positive insight. Thus, scientists who conducted morphological characterization in Ethiopian crops may not undertake intensive allocation of wild crops for knowledge gap in the updated agroecosystem map of Ethiopia. They may visit similar agroecosystems during morphological characterization. This couldn't hood to detect exact crop variation, because the physical appearances of crops are highly sensitive to environmental factor.
For example, current updates of in the science of coffea arabica revealed that this species is frequently studied via morphological characterization to resolve fallacies of classical taxonomy but it was not as such informative to classify the botanical base of this species. But, no single researcher is here to continue research about molecular characterization of coffee. Although several authors conducted research on this species, it is never exhaustive and representative of the whole part of the country. It is possible to hypothesize that not all parts of Ethiopian places are studied for their coffee genetic diversity. It is not doubtful to say every scientist visit south west Ethiopia (centre of origin for coffee) to study the molecular ecology of Coffee. But, there could be other places which we need to explore. Even north western Ethiopia, which is not known as coffee endemic area, was identified for coffee collection (Desalegn et al., 2008). For example, one may explore the south eastern part of Ethiopia, which seems to lack intensive molecular characterization research of the Hare coffea, which is hypothesized to be the source for the Coffee cultivated in Yemen. The former study might be inadequate calling for further research. It is high time to explore the entire diversity of Ethiopian coffee using molecular markers besides the pre-existing studies. Generally, thus, it is highly likely that there are places in Ethiopia, which are not explored and studied for their crop genetic diversity.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE OF AGRO BIODIVERSITY AND MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
Comparison of various ecotypes is the day of the trend. Speciation events could happen some years back in evolutionary time scale. That speciation might happen during segregation of a big land mass that could happen following disasters like continental drift. So, it is good to collect samples from different countries and bioregions for implementing comparative approach of phylogenic study to document global agrobiodiversity and understand pattern of diversity globally. For example, most of the researches about Coffee were not studied based on collections from a single country. Coffee collected from France, Uganda and Ethiopia was characterized (Cubry et al., 2008). Coffee collected from Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Costa Rica, La Reunion, Coted'Ivoire, Yemen, Ethiopia and Sudan were characterized using AFLP and SSR (Anthony et al. 2002; Moncada and McCouch, 2004). Barely collected from Tunisia, Syria and Denmark were characterized using SSR (Chaabane et al., 2009). In addition collection of Pisum sativum from Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Jordan, Algeria, Tajikistan, Nepal, Turkey, Iran, Greece, Rusian Federation, India, Ethiopia, Germany, United Kingdom, Rusian Federation, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Algeria and Egypt were characterized using SSR markers (Nasiri et al., 2009).
Fundamental biology in the area of molecular science is also far from advancement in Ethiopia. Unique genes harbored in the Ethiopian crops must be over studied to increase our understanding about fundamental evolutionary biology. Understanding evolutionary aspects like plant evolution from wild type may enhance future attempts in laboratory evolution, which happens in relatively short period of time. New networks of evolutionary units or an updated phylogenetic tree can be discovered should studies direct towards consideration of samples from different countries. The phylogeny obtained from the most recent research is always indicator of the progress of the diversity. So, it is equally important to trace evolutionary origin of crops and deduce a biologically sensible evolutionary tree/ endrogram.
EMERGENCE OF TISSUE CULTURE TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA
Tissue culture is the in vitro aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs or whole plant under controlled nutritional and environmental conditions (Thorpe, 2007) often to produce the clones of plants. The science of plant tissue culture takes its roots from proposal of, Schleiden and Schwann (1838), that cell is the basic unit of all living organisms. Based on this premise, in 1902, Gottlieb Haberlandt, a German physiologist, attempted to culture isolated single palisade cells from leaves in knop's salt solution enriched with sucrose for the first time. Plant tissue culture is done in the countries namely Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo and some projects have already been commercialized (Mtui, 2011). Plant tissue culture technology is the likely opportunity for Ethiopian agricultural system towards improving agricultural yields (Hussain et al., 2012).
Advancement in tissue culture calls for molecular characterization. Tissue culture experiments that are conducted at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research and other places release tissue culture pure lines. For example, Ethiopia has a number of plants generated from a tissue culture experiment. Although the country has no prolonged experience in tissue culture, presently tissue culture experiments are expanding (Seid, 2013). Recently there are many tissue culture protocols developed in majority of crops in Ethiopia (Table 3). And National Agricultural biotechnology Research Center of Ethiopia also launched various tissue culture programs in crops like enset, sweet potato, grape etc. In addition there are some commercial tissue culture laboratories in Ethiopia including Tigray biotechnology institute (TBI) and Amhara tissue culture laboratories. This rapid expansion of the program will be accompanied with release of varieties propagated from tissue culture in the near future.
The objectives of tissue culture experiments, the explants source and the status vary in different crop (Table 3). In most tissue culture experiments like the experiments conducted at EIAR, generating identical progeny is the principal aim, thus, there shouldn't be diverse clones. However, there are variant clones with minor genetic difference due to the existence of somaclonal variation (a variation occurring in plant tissue culture). This variation could be due to point mutation, gene duplication, and chromosomal rearrangement, changes in number of chromosome, transposable element movement and DNA methylation and occur in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast may be contributes by the hormone 2, 4-D (Larkin Philip; Bagali et al., 2010). It could be created by the various factors during manipulation of a tissue culture. This variation is crucial in germplasm improvement programs like acquiring disease resistant plant. In tissue culture experiments which have aim of generating uniform clones, soma clonal variation is disadvantageous. It may have effect on the genetic composition in occasional cases. During somatic embryogenesis and callus production of cotton using 2, 4-D, variation at DNA level was detected in cell lines based on characterization studies conducted using RAPD and SSR markers (Jin et al., 2008).
For instance, studying the genetic diversity of crops using markers have an immense applications to detect genetic variations, identification of cultivar and planning of breeding. Combining the right alleles is of great significance for breeding. Thus, characterization using molecular markers has a considerable importance to design an effective program in breeding. Crop improvement has a value of achieving a desired genetic combination from different lines, selecting specific genotypes from a bunch of genotypes and maintaining and perpetuating the favorite genotype (Clegg et al., 1999). Conventional breeding takes long years like 8 and 12 years. It takes much time and relies on the external environment. Shortly, a variety with better yield and rich in nutrition can be produced via marker assisted selection and breeding. Also molecular breeding to investigate biotic and a biotic stress is possible using molecular markers (Bagali et al., 2010).
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF PLANTS IN ETHIOPIA
Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and applications in crop production include plant tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, molecular markers for disease diagnosis and genetic diversity. Know a day, based on the available genetic diversity research result breeders has been released many improved crop varieties within a short period of time without wasting to much energy to secure food consumption in the country. Its productivity is increased from time to time.
Ethiopian government development strategy recognizes the leading role of agriculture in the economy and stipulates that for the country to record rapid economic prosperity. The strategy identifies information and communication technology and biotechnology as essential tools for genetic diversity assessment and rapid transformation of largely subsistence mode of production to market-oriented production enterprises that ultimately lead to industrialization.
Diversity of plant genetic resource is very crucial asset for human kind that Agriculturist should not lost and attention should be given to evaluate the diversity for breeding feature. The production and productivity of crops should be highly supported by modern technology to examine the diversity of planting materials which are increasingly required to be accessible for feeding a burgeoning world population in future. Assessing genetic variability of crops is essential for its further improvement by providing options for the breeders to develop new superior crop varieties and hybrids within a short period of time without wasting too much time, energy and resource. This can be highly achieved by molecular characterization of Plant genetic resource. Molecular markers are central tools for measuring the diversity of plant species. Many important factors are considered when we are going to choose tools for genetic diversity such as Low assay cost, affordable hardware, throughput, convenience, and ease of assay development and automation.
Now it is possible to characterize a large number of genotypes using high throughput molecular marker technologies with limited time and resource which is ensuring speedy and quality of data generated. Many software package are available to evaluate and/or asses molecular diversity which speed up selection of superior varieties for breeding programs and plant breeders to speed up the crop improvement. Therefore, we believe that this paper provides useful and fashionable information for breeders; it improves the understanding of molecular tools for students about molecular characterization and also practical applicability to the researchers.
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Abebaw Misganaw is at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Obssi Dessalegn is at the University of Gondar department of Biotechnology, Gondar, Ethiopia
Obssi Dessalegn, University of Gondar department of Biotechnology, Ethiopia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Genetic diversity assessment and its importance on crop improvement Crops list Assessment method Brassica juncea Biochemical, Morphological markers and SSR bread wheat tandemly repeated DNA motifs Cassava SSR marker Common Bean principal component analysis varimax rotation and method Fenugreek AFLP analysis Maize SSR Marker Maize Morphological and molecular methods Mango Multivariate analysis Naked barley Agromorphological traits, biochemical and molecular markers Oilseed AFLP, ISSR and SSR rape, lotus, markers coffee Pea SSR Markers physic nut Morphological and biochemical Potato AFLP markers Rice Molecular markers, SSR Sesame AFLP Shorea Tumbaggia RAPD Sorghum Morph-physiological Sorghum SSR sunflower Dynamic modeling Tea RAPD Tobacco Morphological analysis and ISSR methods Tomato Morphological and molecular marker method wheat Biochemical, agromorphological and physiological and RAPD Analysis white clover AFLP Yam AFLP, SSR and ISSR Crops list Diversity Assessment for (specific trait) Brassica juncea For discriminating genotypes, phenotypic variability, Genetic distance, high seed yield, high oil content together with low amount of glucosinolate in seed meal and low erucic acid bread wheat For integrative biodiversity indicators such as HT*, that take into account the full range of factors (varietal richness, spatial evenness, between- variety genetic diversity and within- variety genetic diversity) Cassava Genetic differentiation among accessions from different regions Common Bean For improvement of nitrogen fixation ability and seed production Fenugreek For relationship of accessions from Iraq and Pakistan Maize pro-vitamin A content Maize Effects of Transgenic Maize in Mexico Mango For genetic divergence, morphological characters and geographical distribution Naked barley To determine the relationships of genetic distance estimates Oilseed TBP (tubulin-based polymorphism), for rape, lotus, tubulin proteins and revealed high coffee genetic distances Pea For development of true hybrids physic nut For normal toxic and non toxic nature Potato Geographical differentiation in potato diversity. Rice Starch quality, germplasm assessment and utilization of the genetic diversity Sesame Geographical origins and morphological characteristics Shorea Tumbaggia For successful management and preservation of natural populations and conservation of the species Sorghum Assessment for drought tolerant Sorghum Genetic and geographical diversity, for various biotic and abiotic stresses and developing recombinant inbred line sunflower For assessment whether specific adaptation of cultivars. Tea Genetic variation among tea clone Tobacco For selecting superior and genetically divergent parents for hybridization to optimize the genetic variation of subsequent generations Tomato For high yielding tomato accessions wheat For endosperm proteins, assessment of parental variability and agronomic traits white clover Accurately quantify individual genetic structuring. Yam Estimate the genetic diversity maintained by traditional farmers Crops list Reference Brassica juncea (Singh, Bangari, Singh, & Tewari, 2011); (Vinu et al., 2013) bread wheat (Bonneuil et al., 2012) Cassava (Turyagyenda et al., 2012) Common Bean (Golparvar, 2011) Fenugreek (Al-Maamari, Al-Sadi, & Al-Saady, 2014) Maize (Adeyemo, Menkir, Melaku, & Omidiji, 2011) Maize (Ellstrand, Raven, Snow, & Solleiro, 2004) Mango (Majumder et al., 2013) Naked barley (Eshghi, Abrahimpour, Ojaghi, & Salayeva, 2012) Oilseed (Bardini et al., 2004); (Havlickova, rape, lotus, Jozova, Rychla, & Klima, 2014) coffee Pea (Ahmad, 2012) physic nut (Gohil & Pandya, 2008) Potato (Esfahani, Shiran, & Balali, 2009) Rice (AO et al., 2016); (Lin et al., 2012); (Li & Zhang, 2002) Sesame (G. M. Ali, Yasumoto, & Katsuta, 2007) Shorea Tumbaggia (Sasikala & Kamakshamma, 2015) Sorghum (M. Ali, Niaz, Abbas, Sabir, & Jabran, 2009) Sorghum (Kunyuga, 2012);(Madhusudhana, Balakrishna, Rajendrakumar, Seetharama, & Patil, 2012) sunflower (Casadebaig & Trepos, 2014) Tea (Shefali Boonerjee, M. Nurul Islam, 2013) Tobacco (Maryan, Lahiji, & Deylami, 2012) Tomato (Sciences, Naz, Zafrullah, Shahzadhi, & Munir, 2013) wheat (Jan et al., 2014) (Chavan & Patil, 2015); (Grewal et al, 2007); (Mishra et al., 2015); (Pordel-maragheh, 2013) white clover (Khanlou, Vandepitte, Asl, & B, 2011) Yam (Nascimento, Rodrigues, Koehler, Gepts, & Veasey, 2013) Table 2: Application of molecular markers to study the genetic diversity and/or phylogeny of plants from Ethiopia (adopted from Abraham, 2009). Crops/plants Marker type used African wild rice SSR Anchote ISSR Barley RFLP Brassica carinata RAPD Coffee Sequence of part of chloroplast genome Coffee RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, SSR (cultivated, forest) Endod AFLP, RAPD Enset AFLP, RAPD Ethiopian lenti Morphological and molecular Guizotia spp. ITS sequence Guizotia spp. AFLP; RAPD (weedy and wild) Hagenia abyssinica ISSR Highland maize AFLP Linseed AFLP Mustard AFLP potato SSR Sorghum AFLP, SSR, RAPD, ISSR Sweet sorghum SSR Tef RFLP, AFLP, SSR, ISSR, EST-SSR, SNP Wheat (tetraploid) SSR, EST-SSR Wild Sorghum RAPD, ISSR Yam AFLP Crops/plants Reference African wild rice Melaku et al., 2013 Anchote Bekele et al, 2014 Barley Demisse et al., 1998 Brassica carinata Teklewold and Becker, 2006 Coffee Tesfaye et al., 2007 Coffee Aga et al., 2003, Aga et al., 2005, (cultivated, forest) Silvestrini et al, 2007. Endod Semagn, 2002 Enset Negash et al., 2002, Birmeta et al., 2002 Ethiopian lenti Fikiru et al., 2010 Guizotia spp. Bekele et al., 2007 Guizotia spp. Geleta et al., 2007 (weedy and wild) Hagenia abyssinica Feyissa et al., 2007 Highland maize Beyene et al., 2006 Linseed Wakjira et al., 2005 Mustard Genet et al., 2005 potato Abebe et al., 2004 Sorghum Geleta et al., 2006, Ayana et al., 2000a; Tadesse & Feyissa, 2013 Sweet sorghum Disasa et al., 2016 Tef Bai et al., 1999, Bai et al., 2000, Yu et al., 2006, Yu et al, 2007, Zhang et al., 2001 Wheat (tetraploid) Yifru et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2007 Wild Sorghum Ayana et al., 2000b; Teshome & Feyissa, 2013 Yam Tamiru et al., 2007 AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; RAPD, Random amplified polymorphic DNA; SSR, single sequence repeats; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; EST, Expresses sequence tag; ISSR, Intersimple sequence repeats; REP-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR; ITS, internal transcribed spacer. Table 3: Explants source, main objectives and status of tissue culture protocols developed for some of crops in Ethiopia. Name Explants source Main objective Anchote Shoot tips, Micropropagation Banana Shoot tips, Micropropagation, Virus cleaning Black pepper Shoot tip Micropropagation Brassica spp. Anther Double haploid line development Korarima Rhizome lateral bud Micropropagation Cassava Meristem Micropropagation, Factors affecting in vitro propagation, Virus cleaning Citrus Seed Micropropagation, virus cleaning Coffee Leaf Micropropagation, in vitro disease screening and somatic embryo genesis Enset Shoot tip, zygotic Micropropagation, disease embryos free, Callus culture and somatic embryogenesis Garlic Meristem Micropropagation, virus cleaning Geranium Shoot tip Micropropagation Ginger Rhizome lateral bud Micropropagation Grapevine Shoot tip Micropropagation Hagenia abyssinica Shoot tip and leaf Micropropagation Niger Anther In vitro regeneration, Double haploid line development Noug Anther Embryogenic callus induction and regeneration pineapple Shoot tip, Slip Micropropagation, assess the potential of temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB) Plectrantus edulis Meristem Micropropagation Ethiopian dinchj potato Node Micropropagation, virus cleaning sweet potato Shoot meristem, Micropropagation, for leaf and petiole production of virus free planting material wheat unpollinated ovary Regeneration of plantlets Tef Floral part & Double haploid line embryo rescue development & Somatic cultures embryogenesis Yam Node Micropropagation Name Status Anchote Completed Banana Completed and being scaled up Black pepper Ongoing and in good Brassica spp. progress completed Korarima Completed Cassava completed Citrus Ongoing and in good progress Coffee Completed and being scaled up. Enset completed and in good progress for scaling up Garlic Initial stage Geranium Completed Ginger Completed Grapevine Completed Hagenia abyssinica Completed Niger Completed and in good progress for scale up Noug Completed pineapple Completed and being scaled up Plectrantus edulis Completed Ethiopian dinchj potato Completed and being scaled up sweet potato Completed wheat Completed Tef Completed and scaling up in good progress Yam Completed and to be scaled up Name Reference Anchote Yambo and Feyissa, 2013 Banana Dugassa and Feyissa, 2011 Black pepper Brassica spp. Abrha et al., 2014 Korarima (Tefera & Wannakrairoj, 2004) Cassava Beyene et al., 2010; Berhanu and Feyissa, 2013 Citrus Coffee Ahmed et al., 2013 Enset Negash et al., 2000; Gezahegn and Mekbib, 2016 Garlic Geranium Ginger Disasa et al.,2011 Grapevine Hagenia abyssinica Feyissa et al., 2005 Niger Disasa et al., 2011 Noug Disasa et al., 2010 pineapple Ayenew et al, 2013 Plectrantus edulis (Tsegaw & Feyissa, 2014) Ethiopian dinchj potato sweet potato Getu & Feyissa, 2012; Wondimu et al., 2012 wheat Getahun et al., 2013 Tef Getahun et al., 2012 Yam Dessalegn et al., 2015
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|Author:||Misganaw, Abebaw; Dessalegn, Obssi|
|Publication:||Journal of Commercial Biotechnology|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2017|
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