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Genetic component analysis for yield and morphological traits in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) genotypes.

Introduction

Among various kinds of millet (finger millet, foxtail millet, kodo millet, little millet, pearl millet and proso millet), the pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is the most popular one in Pakistan. It is mostly grown in rainfed ecologies across the country. Its stalk is used for fodder while grains are used for poultry feed however, very rarely consumed by people directly. Unlike some African countries for instance, in Ethiopia millet utilization is deep rooted in culture and its grain is used for making a native bread, injera, porridge and genfo (thick portridge) alone or mixed with teff (Eragrostic teft) maize and barley (Kebere et al, 2006). In Pakistan millet stalk as well as grain yields are quite low due to lack of improved varieties, drought stress and unimproved production technology. Furthermore, millets are mostly relegated to marginal land making more complications in getting the higher yield. Among all the factors responsible for low yield, the use oflocal land races is the most important problem to be addressed by the breeders. Old varieties must be replaced by new high yielding pure line varieties.

Germplasm is considered as raw material in many crop breeding programmes. For effective utilization of genetic variability in available germplasm, it is important prerequisite to evaluate and characterise the individual genotype. The progress in any crop improvement programme depends mainly upon the variability existing in the base population (Salini et al. 2010). Various genetic parameters like, genetic variability, genotypic co-efficient of variation, phenotypic co-efficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance are the important tools leading to choose the breeding approaches and methodology (either through simple selection or use of heterosis etc.). Shinde et al. (2010) suggested that use of broad sense heritability is apt for prediction of selection response to the entire genotypic value transmitted to progeny when selection is advanced through selfing. Johnson (1955) suggested that heritability values alone may not provide clear predictability of selection made. Therefore, heritability values along with estimates of genetic advance would be more reliable than heritability alone. Gupta and Mushonga (1992) studied grain yield and nine morphological traits and reported significant variation for all the traits. Heritability was high for days to flowering whereas low for finger length and 1000 grain weight. John (2006) observed high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) for number of productive tillers, number of fingers per ear and total dry matter production. Shanmuganathan et al. (2006) studied 104 pearl millet (P glaucum (L.) R.Br.) lines, and recorded maximum variation for all the traits. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for all characters except days to 50% flowering suggesting that these traits are governed by additive gene action and possibility of improving these characters through selection. Lakshmana et al. (2009) reported that the mean sum of squares were highly significant for most of the yield components indicating greater diversity among the 105 millet germplasm lines. Nandini (2010) indicated the need for partition of overall variability into heritable and non-heritable components with the help of appropriate statistical techniques. They noted high broad sense heritability for plant height, total tillers and productive tillers per plant.

Besides high genetic variation in most of the traits, PCV was greater than GCV for most of the characters. High value of heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of means were recorded for most of the characters indicating the important role of additive gene action for the expression of these characters (Govindaraj, 2011). Deshmukh et al. (1986) proposed that PCV and GCV values roughly more than 20% are regarded as higher and less than 10% considered to be lower and the values between 10% and 20% are medium. Ishaq et al. (2013) and Musa et al. (2013) estimated higher variation in most of the yield components while studying 15 pearl millet accessions. PCV estimates were higher than GCV estimates for all the studied characters displaying the influence of environmental effect. The characters like days to 50% flowering and days to maturity were under the control of additive genetic effects as they had shown high estimates of heritability and genetic advance.

Singh et al. (2013) reported highly significant differences among the specific hybrids of pearl millet and also noted high PCV and GCV for most of the traits. High values of heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean for some important traits indicate lesser influence of environment on these characters and prevalence of more additive gene action in their inheritance, hence, are amenable for simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for plant height; main stem diameter and harvest index (Vagadiya et al. 2013). Wolie et al. (2013) in their studies of 88 finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) germplasm noted significant (P<0.01) differences among the genotypes tested for yield and yield related agronomic characters. They recorded high GCV and PCV for number of tillers, number of ears, number of fingers per ear, finger length and biomass yield. High heritability coupled with high expected genetic advance as percent of mean was obtained for number of ears per plant, number of finger per ear, finger length and days to heading, biomass yield, 1000 kernel weight, lodging susceptibility and blast severity.

The main objective of the present studies was to work out the extent of genetic variability in various plant traits in millet and to estimate the PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance that can be helpful in designing future breeding strategy for yield and other important traits in pearl millet.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted on 25 millet germplasm accessions at Arid Zone Research Institute, PARC, D.I. Khan, Pakistan during 2013. The trial was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Each genotype was maintained in plot size of 4 rows, 50 cm apart, 5 m long (10 [m.sup.2]) for gross area, while middle two rows were taken into consideration for recording the actual data. All the recommended agronomic practices including seed rate, irrigation, and weeding etc. were carried out uniformly during the crop season. The crop was kept weed free and also protected from insect pests. The data were recorded on various plant traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf area index, days to maturity, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant.

Analysis of variance into its various components was carried out for all traits using computer's software STATISTIX 9.1. The means of all the variables were separated through LSD at 0.05% level of probability to establish the level of significance (Steel and Torrie, 1997). The genetic parameters viz. genotypic co-efficient of variation, (GCV), phenotypic co-efficient of variation, (PCV), heritability (h2) broad sense (bs), genetic advance and genetic advance as percent of means (GAM) at 1% standardized selection differential were calculated as proposed by Singh and Chaudhary (1985); Honson et al. (1956); Johnson et al. (1955) and Burton (1952), respectively.

Results and Discussion

Days to 50% heading. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the millet genotypes for days to heading ranging from 57 to 77 days (Table 1). The lines SEL-2 No. 8781 and SL- GP 2013 were found early in heading initiation availing 57 days and remained distinguished to all the lines (Table 2). The lines ACC No. 8781, SEL-3 No. 8283 and SLACC No. 8784 were also among early heading lines with 58, 59 and 60 days, respectively. All these lines were statistically different from one another and also from rest of the genotypes. The line SEL-1 NO. 8802 took maximum days (77) and was statistically late among all the genotypes. These results are in accordance with the earlier workers including Wolie et al. (2013); Subi and Idris (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); Salini et al. (2010); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006); Kebere et al. (2006); John (2006); Gupta and Mushonga (1992). Wolie et al. (2013) also noted significant variation in days to heading in various millet germplasm.

Plant height. Plant height in fodder crops is an important trait which is directly proportional to stalk yield. Highly significant variability was observed for plant height in 25 different millet lines. Due to high genotypic diversity, the plant height ranged from 205 to 310.33 cm. The maximum tallest plants were found in lines SL N-K MILLET with the height of 310.33 cm. This line was statistically superior to all the lines used in this study. It was, however, followed by some other statistically divergent lines like, SLNo.8783, SEL-3 No. 8283, C-47 and SL ACC No. 8783 with height of 300, 295, 275, and 270 cm, respectively. Similarly, the lines SEL-No. 2NARC POP-1, SEL-1 No. 8802, SEL-2 No. 8778 and SL- GP 2013 had produced dwarf plant with height of 205, 310.33, 215.33 and218 cm, respectively. These lines were statistically distinct from one another. The results of Wolie et al. (2013); Subi and Idris (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006); Kebere et al. (2006) and Gupta and Mushonga (1992) and are in conformity with present observations regarding genetic variation in plant height in millet genotypes.

Number of leaves per plant. The number of leaves was found to be significantly different in various millet genotypes. The maximum leaves were counted from NARC SEL-21 (12.17/plant). This value was however statistically uniform to some other lines viz; SLNo.8783, GP- 2013 SL, SL ACC No. 8783, SEL-3 No. 8283, SL N-K MILLET and SL ACC No. 8784 with 11.93, 11.60,11.60,11.60,11.23,11.10, and 10.77 leaves/plant, respectively. The least number of leaves/plant were calculated from line SL- GP 2013 with only 7.17 leaves per plant. Rest of the 17 lines remained statistically similar in producing the number of leaves/plant. Musa et al. (2013); Ishaq et al. (2013); Wolie et al. (2013); Lakshmana et al. (2009); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006) and John (2006) have also shown significant differences in number of leaves and other morphological traits in millet.

Leaf area index. Variation in leaf area index (LAI) was found to be significantly different due to diversified millet genotypes. The highest value was calculated for genotype SL No. 8783 with LAI of 308.33. It was, however, statistically at par with most of other lines namely, SL- GP 2013, MS-3, SEL-2 C-47, GP-2013 SL, C-47, SEL-4 No. 8802, GP-2013 SL-1, SLACNo. 8778 and NARC POP-1 with LAI value of 286.33, 293.67, 290.33, 287, 286.33, 284.67, 276, 272.67 and 260, respectively. The lowest value was shown by lines SL ACC No. 8783 and this line was also statistically at par with rest of the lines except SEL-1 No. 8802 which was statistically similar to other lines showing high value of LAI. These results are in accordance with findings of Subi and Idris (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); John (2006); Kebere et al.(2006); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006) and Gupta and Mushonga (1992).

Days to maturity. Days to maturity was significantly affected by various millet lines. The maturity period in present studies ranged from 96 to 103 days. The lines SEL-1 No. 8802 and SEL-1 No. 8807 were found late in maturity each availing 103 days. The lines SEL-1 No. 8807 was also late in days to heading and took maximum period (103 days) than all the genotypes used. The lines SEL-1 No. 8802 and E7 were, however, statistically similar to many other lines namely: SEL-2 No. 8778, SEL-4 No. 8802, NARC POP-1, GP- 2013 SL, C-47, SEL-2 C-47, SEL-3 No. 8283 and SL ACC No.8786 taking 101 to 102 days to maturity. The line SL N-K MILLET was found early as it took 96 days and was statistically at par with many other lines including GP-2013 SL, ACC No. 8781, SEL-1 No. 8778, SL No. 8783, SEL- No. 1 NARC POP-1, SL ACC No. 8784, NARC SEL-21 SEL-2 No. 8781 and SL AC No. 8778 which took less than 100 days to maturity.

It was generally noted that millet genotypes did not follow the same trend in maturity period as behaved in days to heading except line SEL-1 No. 8802 which remained early in both cases. Similar variation in phenology in millet genotypes have also been recorded by Subi and Idris (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); Salini et al. (2010); Kebere et al. (2006) and Gupta and Mushonga (1992).

1000 grain weight. Weight of grain plays an important role in final grain yield production. In present investigations, 1000 grain weight was found to be significantly divergent among 25 millet germplasm ranging from 9.67 to 19.67 g. The heaviest seeds with 19.67 g/1000-grains were produced by line ACC No. 8781 and it remained statistically greater than rest of the pearl millet lines used in these studies. Statistically similar and second best lines with value of 16.33, 16, 16, 16, 15.67, 15.67, 15.67, 15.67, 15.67 and 13.33 were SL No.8783, GP- 2013 SL, SL ACC No. 8783, SL ACC No. 8786, SEL-3 No. 8778, SEL-4 No. 8802, SEL-1 No. 8802, MS-3, GP- 2013 SL, SEL-2 C-47 and SL N-K MILLET, respectively. The lines SL AC No. 8778 and SEL-2 No. 8778 remained poor among all with 9.67 and 10 g of 1000- grain weight. Rest of the 11 lines showed lower grain weight (from 12 to 12.67 g) and were statistically uniform with each other. The earlier workers including Subi and Idris (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); Salini et al. (2010); Lakshmana et al. (2009); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006); Kebere et al. (2006) and Gupta and Mushonga (1992) also recorded similar observation regarding grain weight in millet genotypes.

Grain yield. The grain yield, a multigenic trait, is considered as dependent variable as it is the ultimate result of various ongoing morpho-physiological activities of plant. Being quantitative trait, it is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations. Grain yield may genetically be associated with all the plant traits in either direction (negative or positive). The characters having positive correlation with yield are believed to be yield components. Yield may vary from environment to environment and genotype to genotype depending upon the genetic makeup and its adaptability to given environment. In present studies, the variability in grain yield produced by different millet lines was found to be highly significantly different ranging from 12.50 to 132.70 g/plant. A high range of variability shows that, all millet genotypes belong to diversified genetic background. The highest grain yield was recorded by Line MS-3 (132.70 g) and it proved its superiority and remained statistically different from all the genotypes. It was followed by lines SEL-4 No. 8802 and SEL- No. 1 NARC POP-1 whichproduced 113.30 and 108.80 g yield/plant. These lines were statistically dissimilar to each other and all the remaining lines. Rest of the lines had produced less than 100 g yield/ plant. The lines SEL-1 No. 8807, SL ACC No.8786, SEL-3No. 8778 and GP-2013 SL remained substandard and produced less than 20 g/plant. The top three lines viz; MS-3, SEL-4 No. 8802 and SEL- No. 1 NARC POP-1 may further be utilized in experimentation and breeding programme. The variation in grain yield in different millet germ plasm have also been recorded by Subi and Idris (2013); Wolie et al. (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011); Salini et al. (2010); John (2006); Shanmuganathan et al. (2006); Kebere et al. (2006) and Gupta and Mushonga (1992).

Genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient of variation. Genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) ranged from 1.82 (days to maturity) to 68.06 (grain yield) and 2.23 (days to maturity) to 71.50 (grain yield), respectively. Generally, PCV estimates were slightly higher than GCV estimates for all the traits. The PCV and GCV estimates were 7.33 and 8.80for days to 50% heading, 11.32 and 12.12 for plant height, 8.79 and 14.10 for number of leaves per plant, 5.87 and 8.57 for leaf area index, 1.82 and 2.23 for days to maturity, 16.87 and 17.83 for 1000 grain weight and 68.06 and 71.50 for grain yield, respectively. The GCV and PCV estimates were found to be moderate for all the traits except grain yield suggesting that direct selection on yield basis may facilitate for breeding high yielding millet varieties. Deshmukh et al. (1986) proposed that PCV and GCV values roughly more than 20% are regarded as higher and less than 10% are considered to be lower and the values between 10% and 20% are medium. The estimates of GCA alone does not assess the amount of heritable variation; therefore, GCV computed in conjunction with heritability estimates would provide a better indication for selection on phenotypic performance basis (Burton, 1952). The higher PCV estimates than GCV have also been reported by many workers including Subi and Idris (2013); Wolie et al. (2013); Govindaraj et al. (2011) and Nandini (2010).

Heritability and genetic advance. Low, moderate and high [h.sup.2] were observed for various traits studied in present investigation. It was interestingly noted that physiological traits viz; number of leaves (47.11%) and leaf area index (46.75%) exhibited low heritability, phonological traits like, days to 50% heading (69.34%) and days to maturity (66.58%) exhibited moderate heritability while yield traits including plant height (87.36%), 1000- grain weight (89.54%) and grain yield (90.61%) have shown higher heritability values (Table 3). The results given in Table 3 further revealed a high variation in genetic advance ranging from 1.78 for number of leaves per plant to 83.86 for grain yield. The characters including number of leaves per plant (1.78), 1000- grain weight (5.85) and days to 50% heading (10.53) exhibited low genetic advance whereas leaf area index showed medium value of genetic advance (27). The highest genetic advance was calculated for plant height (68.70) and grain yield (83.86). Heritability values alone may not provide clear predictability of selection made (Johnson et al, 1955). Therefore, heritability values along with estimates of genetic advance would be more reliable than heritability alone (Lakshmana, 2009) and mere estimates of heritability only give the indication about the magnitude of inheritance of quantitative characters while, genetic advance helps in devising the selection procedure to be adopted in field crops (Jahnson et al., 1957). In present studies, the higher heritability was found associated with high genetic advance for plant height and grain yield suggesting the reliable selection index values. These results are in conformity with those of Nandini (2010) and Shinde et al. (2010). Shanmuganathan et al. (2006) suggested that use of broad sense heritability is apt for prediction of selection response to the entire genotypic value transmitted to progeny when selection is advanced through selfing. They also reported that characters including plant height, leaf area index, days to maturity, 1000- grain weight and grain yield exhibited very high heritability suggesting that simple selection would be sufficient for these traits for genetic improvement of desirable traits. In present studies, the characters like 1000- grain weight and grain yield besides high heritability, possessed high genetic advance as percent of means (GAM) indicating the influence of additive gene action, suggesting that selection for these traits could be quite effective for improving the grain yield in millet genotypes.

Conclusion

It has been observed that the millet germplasm used in the present studies were highly diversified leading to significant variation in all the characters under investigations. This indicates that millet accessions in hand belong to diversified sources that can be very helpful in breeding millet varieties. The lines including MS-3, SEL-4 No. 8802 and SEL- No. 1 NARC POP-1due to their best performance may be focused for future studies and be involved in breeding programme. Moderate (number of leaves per plant and leaf area index) to high (days to heading and days to maturity) heritability and very high heritability (1000- grain weight and grain yield) further indicated that, these traits were genetically controlled and possessed the higher level of variation among genotypes. The high heritability allied with high genetic advance for plant height and grain yield further indicated that, these characters were least affected by environment and indicated the presence of more additive gene that could contribute effectively for millet germplasm improvement through simple selection.

References

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Muhammad Yaqoob

Arid Zone Research Institute, Ratta Kulachi, D.I. Khan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

(received April 30, 2014; revised July 16, 2014; accepted October 22, 2014)

E-mail: yaqoobawan313@gmail.com
Table 1. Mean squares of various pearl millet genotypes
at Arid Zone Research Institute, D.I. Khan

Source of            Days to    Plant height    No. of leaves/
variation      D.F   heading    (cm)            plant

Replications   2     249.64     3782.52         12.75
Genotypes      24    78.93 **   2437.75 **      3.97 **
Error          48    10.14      112.19          1.081
CV%                  0.57       0.60            10.26

Source of      Leaf area    Days to    1000- grain    Grain yield/
variation      index        maturity   weight         plant (g)

Replications   3700         625.00     1.973          150.06
Genotypes      2578.09 **   11.58 *    517.08 *       3456.1 **
Error          927.18       1.66       0.64           115.41
CV%            11.93        13.65      5.77           3.45

* = significant at 0.05% level of probability;
** = significant at 0.01% level of probability.

Table 2. Mean performance of various pearl millet genotypes
at Arid Zone Research Institute, D.I. Khan

                          Days to    Plant height   No. of leaves/
Millet genotypes *        heading    (cm)           plant

MS-3                      68 E       240 I          9.60 DEF
SEL-4 No. 8802            69 D       245 H          9.20 F
SEL- No. 1 NARC POP- 1    66 F       240 I          10.10 CDEF
SEL-2 No. 8778            69 D       215.33 M       9.10 F
SEL-1 No. 8802            73 B       220 L          9.53 DEF
SEL-1 No. 8778            63 J       218L           9.23 F
SEL-2 C-47                72C        240 I          9.50 EF
NARC POP-1                73 B       238 I          10.00 CDEF
SEL- No. 2 NARC POP- 1    65 H       205 O          10.40 B-F
SL N-K MILLET             64 I       310.33 A       11.10 A-E
SL No.8783                64 I       300 B          11.93 AB
SL- GP 2013               57 N       218L           7.17 G
C-47                      63 J       275 D          10.27 B-F
SLACNo. 8778              63 J       225 L          9.10 F
ACC No. 8781              58 M       230.33 J       9.53 DEF
SEL-2 No. 8781            57 N       245 H          10.00 CDEF
SL ACC No. 8783           65 H       270.33 E       11.60 ABC
GP- 2013 SL               66 G       252 G          11.60 ABC
SL ACC No. 8784           60 J       260 F          10.77 A-F
SEL-3 No. 8283            59 K       295 C          11.23 ABCD
NARC SEL-21               64 I       270.33 E       12.17 A
GP- 2013 SL               63 J       250.33 G       11.60 ABC
SEL-3 No. 8778            73 B       250.33 D       9.23 F
SLACC No.8786             68 E       230.33 J       9.97 CDEF
SEL-1 No. 8807            77 A       210.33 N       9.50 EF

                          Leaf area     Days to    1000- grain
Millet genotypes *        index         maturity   weight (g)

MS-3                      293.67 ABC    100 BCD    15.67 B
SEL-4 No. 8802            284.67 A-E    102 AB     15.67 B
SEL- No. 1 NARC POP- 1    235.33 E-J    98 BCDE    12.33 CD
SEL-2 No. 8778            218.00 HIJ    102 AB     10.00 E
SEL-1 No. 8802            257.67 B-I    103 A      15.67 B
SEL-1 No. 8778            237.00 D-J    97 CDEF    12.00 D
SEL-2 C-47                290.33 ABC    101 ABC    15.33 B
NARC POP-1                260.00 A-H    102 AB     12.00 D
SEL- No. 2 NARC POP- 1    224.33 GHIJ   100 BCD    12.67 CD
SL N-K MILLET             229.00 F-J    96 CDEF    13.33 C
SL No.8783                308.33 A      98 BCDE    16.33 B
SL- GP 2013               296.33 AB     100 BCD    12.67 CD
C-47                      286.33 ABCD   101 ABC    12.33 CD
SLACNo. 8778              272.67 A-G    99 BCDE    9.67 E
ACC No. 8781              229.33 F-J    97 CDEF    19.67 A
SEL-2 No. 8781            249.67 B-J    99 BCDE    12.33 CD
SL ACC No. 8783           202.33 J      100 BCD    16.00 B
GP- 2013 SL               287.00 ABCD   102 AB     15.67 B
SL ACC No. 8784           209.67 IJ     99 BCDE    12.67 CD
SEL-3 No. 8283            246.33 C-J    101 ABC    1267 CD
NARC SEL-21               248.33 B-J    99 BCDE    12.67 CD
GP- 2013 SL               276.00 A-F    97 CDEF    16.00 B
SEL-3 No. 8778            240.33 D-J    100 BCE    15.67 B
SLACC No.8786             244.33 C-J    101 ABC    16.00 B
SEL-1 No. 8807            252.00 B-J    103 A      12.67 CD

                          Grain yield/
Millet genotypes *        plant (g)

MS-3                      132.70 A
SEL-4 No. 8802            113.30 B
SEL- No. 1 NARC POP- 1    108.80 C
SEL-2 No. 8778            84.40 D
SEL-1 No. 8802            83.03 D
SEL-1 No. 8778            73.90 E
SEL-2 C-47                71.80 E
NARC POP-1                54.50 E
SEL- No. 2 NARC POP- 1    48.80 G
SL N-K MILLET             47.80 G
SL No.8783                46.30 GH
SL- GP 2013               44.50 H
C-47                      43.80 H
SLACNo. 8778              37.80 I
ACC No. 8781              35.30 IJ
SEL-2 No. 8781            33.80 J
SL ACC No. 8783           25.70 K
GP- 2013 SL               24.20 K
SL ACC No. 8784           21.40 L
SEL-3 No. 8283            20.20 L
NARC SEL-21               20.00 L
GP- 2013 SL               19.80 L
SEL-3 No. 8778            18.90 M
SLACC No.8786             15.50 N
SEL-1 No. 8807            12.50 O

* = the millet genotypes have been arranged in descending
order in merit of their grain yield.

Table 3. Mean, range, GCV, PCV, heritability ([h.sup.2])
and genetic advance estimates in various pearl millet genotypes
at Arid Zone Research Institute, D.I. Khan

Characters             Mean     Range               Variance
                                                Geno-      Pheno-
                                                typic      typic

Days to heading        65.32    57-77           4.788      5.75
Plant height (cm)      245.84   205-310.33      27.84      29.79
No. of leaves/plant    10.137   7.17-12.17      0.891      1.43
leaf area index        255.17   202.33-308.33   14.966     21.88
Days to maturity       99.88    92-108          1.818      2.23
1000- grain weight     13.867   9.67-19.67      2.34       2.47
Grain yield/plant(g)   49.029   12.50-132.70    33.37      35.06

                       Co-efficient         Heritability
Characters             of variability       (b.s.)
                       Geno-     Pheno-
                       typic     typic

Days to heading        7.33      8.80       69.34
Plant height (cm)      11.32     12.12      87.36
No. of leaves/plant    8.79      14.10      47.11
leaf area index        5.87      8.57       46.75
Days to maturity       1.82      2.23       66.58
1000- grain weight     16.87     17.83      89.54
Grain yield/plant(g)   68.06     71.50      90.61

                       Genetic     Genetic
Characters             advance *   advance
                                   as % of
                                   means

Days to heading        10.53       16.11
Plant height (cm)      68.70       27.94
No. ofleaves/plant     1.78        17.53
leaf area index        27.00       10.58
Days to maturity       3.92        3.92
1000- grain weight     5.85        42.16
Grain yield/plant(g)   83.86       171.04

* = at 1% standardized selection deferential.
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Author:Yaqoob, Muhammad
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Nov 1, 2015
Words:5144
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