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Genetic Variability of Exotic Sugarcane Genotypes.

1. Introduction

Sugarcane is the leading sugar producing crop in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It provides about 75% of the sugar harvested for human consumption [1,2]. The average yield of sugarcane in Bangladesh is about 41.2 tons/hectare which is far below from the existing standard; therefore, possibilities could be exploited through collaboration among research stations and progressive growers [3]. Sugarcane is a long duration field crop which occupies the land up to 12-18 months for its maturity. It is considered as a time-consuming crop compared to other traditional field crops grown in Bangladesh. Therefore, sustainability of sugarcane cultivation in this country is threatened. To sustain sugarcane production and to improve the productivity, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrient management, and improved sugar recovery are of the major concerns. Development of varieties is important consideration that would be highly productive and tolerant against biotic and abiotic factors with the changing climate. Coefficients of variation with heritability as well as genetic advance are very essential to improve any trait of sugarcane because this would help in informing whether or not the desired objective can be achieved from the material [4]. Therefore, the objective of present study was to narrate the nature and extent of genetic variability and phenotypic and genotypic variability of sugarcane varieties in some exotic traits in Bangladesh.

2. Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at Regional Station, Bangladesh Sugar crop Research Institute, Gazipur, during 201213 cropping season under Madhupur Tract soil, following Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Nine exotic genotypes of sugarcane, namely, GT11, GT15, GT17, VMC86-550, HoCP85-845, HoCP96-540, HoCP95-988, HoCP91-555, and CB45-3, were collected from Quarantine Station, Bangladesh Sugar Crop Research Institute, Gazipur. The two-eyed setts of each genotype were planted in 6 m x 5 m size plot. Line to line distance was 1 m and plot to plot was 2 m. Setts were placed in the furrow following end to end method. Data were collected on different growth and yield contributing characters. Intercultural operations like weeding, earthen-up, mulching, and irrigation were done as per required schedule. Leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index) was estimated using a SPAD-502 plus chlorophyll meter [5]. The collected data were analyzed by different statistical software, namely. MSTAT-C [6], PLABSTAT, and STAR [7] program for variability and diversity analysis. Analysis of variance was performed using the Plant Breeding Statistical Program [8].

2.1. Estimation of Genotypic and Phenotypic Variances. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were calculated using the following formula [9,10]:

Genotypic variance ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.g]) = GMS - EMS/r, (1)

where GMS is genotypic mean square, EMS is error mean square, r is number of replication, and phenotypic variance is ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.p]) = [[sigma].sup.2.sub.g] + [[sigma].sup.2.sub.e].

2.2. Estimation of Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) and Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV). Phenotypic (PCV) and genotypic (GCV) coefficients of variation were evaluated according to the methods as follows [10-13]:

Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV)

= [[sigma].sup.2.sub.g]/[bar.X] x 100, (2)

where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.g] is genotypic variance and [bar.X] is population mean.

Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV)

= [[sigma].sup.2.sub.p]/[bar.X] x 100, (3)

where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.p] is phenotypic variance and [bar.X] is population mean.

2.3. Estimation of Heritability. Broad-sense heritability ([h.sup.2]) for mean values was calculated using PABSTAT [8], following the formula described by [9,10,14,15]:

Heritability ([h.sup.2.sub.b]) = [[sigma].sup.2.sub.g]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.p] x 100, (4)

where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.g] is genotypic variance and [[sigma].sup.2.sub.p] is phenotypic variance.

2.4. Estimation of Genetic Advance. Genetic advance (GA) was estimated accordance to the methods illustrated [10, 16, 17]:

Genetic advance (GA) = [h.sup.2.sub.b] x K x [[sigma].sub.p], (5)

where [h.sup.2.sub.b] is heritability in broad sense, K = K is the selection differential value which is 2.06 at 5% selection intensity, and [[sigma].sub.p] is phenotypic standard deviation.

2.5. Estimation of Correlation Coefficient. The genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients between growth and yield contributing character were calculated as follows [13]:

[mathematical expression not reproducible]. (6)

[Cov.sub.(g)1,2] is genotypic covariance between the variables X and [mathematical expression not reproducible] is genotypic variance of the variable [X.sub.1], and [mathematical expression not reproducible] is genotypic variance of the variable [X.sub.2].

[mathematical expression not reproducible]. (7)

[Cov.sub.(p)1,2] is phenotypic covariance between the variables X and [mathematical expression not reproducible] is phenotypic variance of the variable [X.sub.1], and [mathematical expression not reproducible] is Phenotypic variance of the variable [X.sub.2].

2.6. Estimation of Path Coefficient. Direct and indirect path coefficient was calculated as described [18]:

[mathematical expression not reproducible], (8)

where [r.sub.yi] is the correlation coefficient between the ith causal variable (Xi) and effect variable (y), [r.sub.ii,] r is the correlation coefficient between the ith and i'th causal variables, [P.sub.yi] is the path coefficient (direct effect) of the ith causal variable (Xi), and [r.sub.ii], [P.sub.yi], is the indirect effect of the ith causal variable via the i'th causal variable. To determine the direct effect, square matrices of the correlation coefficients between independent traits in all possible pairs were inverted and multiplied by the correlation coefficient between the independent and dependent traits.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Variance Components. The analysis of variance for all characters showed statistically highly significant (p [less than or equal to] 0.01) among the genotypes except chlorophyll (Table 1). Similar results were also found in case of number of millable canes, individual cane weight, cane height, and sucrose% [19]. These results indicated that there were greater variations among the exotic genotypes that might support the design of a breeding program for sugarcane improvement. As stated, the PCV (phenotypic coefficient of variation) and GCV (genotypic coefficient of variation) values are ranked as low, medium, and high with 0 to 10%, 10 to 20%, and >20%, respectively [20]. High GCV were recorded for fresh leaf weight (22.51), millable cane (22.28), bud size (24.02), and individual cane weight (37.79); while leaf blade width (19.43), dried leaf weight (15.42), number of tillers (16.20), and cane diameter (17.58) showed medium GCV and leaf blade length (4.45), chlorophyll content (5.39), number of internodes (5.00), internode length (8.55), plant height (7.14), stalk length (4.38), and brix% (7.05) exhibited low GCV. High phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were also recorded for leaf blade width (20.31), fresh leaf weight (22.78), millable cane (23.19), bud size (24.87), and individual cane weight (37.96) but moderate PCVs were recorded for dried leaf weight (18.26), number of tillers (17.64), cane diameter (18.16), and chlorophyll content (11.88); in contrast, remaining traits showed low PCV (Table 2). High genotypic coefficient of variation (37.79) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (37.96) were found in individual cane weight [21]. The estimated phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits indicating greater environmental influence on these traits for total variation. High GCV and PCV indicated that selection may be effective based on these characters and their phenotypic expression would be good indication of the genotypic potential [22]. Mean performance of different genotypes had wider variation in performance values for different traits (Table 3).

3.2. Heritability and Genetic Advance. Heritability values are categorized as low (0-30%), moderate (30-60%), and high (60% and above) [23]. The characters of leaf blade length, leaf blade width, fresh leaf weight, dried leaf weight, number of tillers, millable cane, bud size, cane diameter, number of internodes, internode length, plant height, stalk length, brix%, and individual cane weight showed high heritability except chlorophyll content (45.3%) (Table 2). The heritability for millable canes number (88%), stalk diameter (85%), and cane weight (84%) were also reported in sugarcane [19]. Similar results were found for those characters [16, 22]. It indicates that simple selection based on phenotype for these traits might be effective method for sugarcane variety improvement breeding program. The highest genetic advance was found in millable cane (10.645) and the lowest in stalk length (0.005; Table 2).

3.3. Correlation Coefficient. The pairwise simple correlation coefficient (r) among various variables of nine exotic genotypes is presented in Table 4. Individual cane weight showed positive and highly significant correlation with cane diameter (r = 0.942**), internode length (r = 0.837**), and stalk length (r = 0.775*). There was also positive significant correlation of individual cane weight with leaf blade width (r = 0.784*), fresh leaf weight (r = 0.807**), dried leaf weight (r = 0.765*), nonsignificant positive correlation with leaf blade length (r = 0.453), bud size (r = 0.078), chlorophyll content (r = 0.014), number of internodes (r = 0.523), plant height (r = 0.522), and brix% (r = 0.482). By contrast, number of tillers (r = -0.721*) and millable cane (r = -0.707*) had negative significant correlations with individual cane weight. Positive and highly significant correlation between cane yield and its components, namely, single cane weight, stalk length, and millable canes number, was reported [24-26]. It was also observed that cane diameter has significant positive correlation with cane yield [27]. Millable canes number had negatively significant correlation with cane diameter (r = -0.722*), internode length (r = -0.676*), and brix% (r = -0.742*). It was also reported that millable canes number had negative significant correlation with cane diameter (r = -0.722*) [24]. It is obvious that single cane weight, stalk length, millable canes number, stalk diameter, and number of internodes can be considered together in a positive direction towards an ultimate aim of developing high yielding sugarcane clone.

3.4. Path Coefficient Analysis. Path coefficient analysis was performed to partition the correlation coefficient value towards individual cane weight into direct and indirect effect to get the real scenario of that trait into target variable. The results of path coefficient analysis revealed that cane diameter had maximum positive direct effect on individual cane weight (0.748) followed by internode length (0.676), number of tillers (0.410), chlorophyll (0.308), dried leaf weight (0.272), leaf blade length (0.229), and number of internodes (0.188) (Table 5). Path coefficient analyses indicated that plant height was less important contributors than stalk diameter and stalk number for enhancing cane yield [28]. It was reported that numbers of internodes were the major contributors to cane yield per plot [29]. This study indicates that cane diameter, number of internodes, length of internode, and stalk length were most important for getting higher individual cane weight as well as improvement of sugarcane yield. Therefore, selection based on number of millable canes and single cane weight might directly increase sugarcane yield.

3.5. Divergence of Genotypes. All the genotypes were clustered on the basis of agglomerative cluster analysis, where specifications were made based on Euclidean distance matrix (Table 6) and grouping was made on average clustering method. Based on these two methods together the nine genotypes were clustered into three groups named as cluster I, cluster II, and cluster III (Figure 1). Cluster II included 4 genotypes (GT 11, GT 15, GT 17, and VMC 86-550). Similarly, cluster III also included 4 genotypes (HoCP85-845, HoCP95-988, HoCP91-555, and HoCP96-540). By contrast, only genotype CB45-3 belonged to cluster I.

4. Conclusion

The study indicated that there is wide genetic variability among the tested genotypes for growth and yield characters. Moreover, the results showed high GCV for millable cane (22.28) and individual cane weight (37.79), while leaf blade length (4.45), chlorophyll content (5.39), number of internodes (5.00), internode length (8.55), plant height (7.14), stalk length (4.38), and brix% (7.05) showed low GCV. High phenotypic coefficient of variation was also recorded for millable cane (23.19) and individual cane weight (37.96). Path coefficient value in plant height is less important than stalk diameter and stalk number as a component of cane yield. Therefore, path coefficient, GCV, and PCV together might be helpful for effective selection. However, selection of candidate genotypes should also be performed considering those characters with high values of heritability because they magnify the genetic advance to progenies.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5202913

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of the paper.

References

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M. N. Alam, (1) Ujjal Kumar Nath, (2) K. M. R. Karim, (3) M. M. Ahmed, (1) and R. Y. Mitul (2)

(1) Bangladesh Sugarcrop Research Institute, Regional Station, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh

(2) Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2200, Bangladesh

(3) Bangladesh Sugarcrop Research Institute, Ishurdi, Pabna 6620, Bangladesh

Correspondence should be addressed to M. N. Alam; jimbsri@yahoo.com

Received 30 May 2017; Accepted 11 September 2017; Published 3 December 2017

Academic Editor: Shamsul Hayat

Caption: Figure 1: Dendrogram based on mean performance of variables among 9 exotic sugarcane genotypes according to average clustering and Euclidean distance method, where 1 is GT11,2 is GT15,3 is GT17, 4 is VMC86-550,5 is HoCP85-845, 6 is HoCP96-540, 7 is HoCP95-988, 8 is HoCP91-555, and 9 is CB45-3.
Table 1: Analysis of variances for 15 characters of 9 exotic sugarcane
genotypes.

Sources       df    LBL     LBW      FLW      DLW     NT      MC

Genotype      8    125.15   1.45   1906.43   84.37   12.34   14.91
Replication   2     2.81    0.01    5.15     29.48   1.59    2.01
Error         16    4.95    0.04    15.19    9.98    0.72    0.41

Sources       Bud size   Chlorophyll     Cane     Number of
                           content     diameter   internodes

Genotype       252.24       46.67        0.42        8.04
Replication    13.70        0.62         0.01        1.93
Error           5.94        26.25        0.01        1.30

Sources       Internode   Plant    Stalk    Brix%   ICW
               length     height   length

Genotype        2.71       0.32     0.19    6.00    0.72
Replication     0.81       0.12     0.02    2.02    0.00
Error           0.06       0.02     0.01    0.37    0.00

Note. LBL = leaf blade length, LBW = leaf blade width, FLW = fresh
leaf weight, DLW = dried leaf weight, NT = number of tillers, MC =
millable cane, BS = bud size, chlorophyll, CD = cane diameter, NI =
number of internodes, IL = internode length, PH = plant height, SL =
stalk length, brix%, and ICW = individual cane weight.

Table 2: Component for variances, heritability in broad sense
([h.sup.2.sub.b]), and genetic advance (GA) for 15 variables of 9
exotic sugarcane genotypes.

Characters                 GV       EV       PV      GCV     PCV

Leaf blade length        40.07    4.947    45.02    4.45    4.71
Leaf blade width          0.47    0.043     0.51    19.43   20.31
Fresh leaf weight        630.41   15.190   645.60   22.51   22.78
Dried leaf weight        24.80    9.982    34.78    15.42   18.26
Number of tillers         3.88    0.718     4.59    16.20   17.64
Millable cane             4.84    0.405     5.24    22.28   23.19
Bud size                 82.10    5.935    88.04    24.02   24.87
Chlorophyll               6.80    26.253   33.06    5.39    11.88
Cane diameter             0.14    0.009     0.15    17.58   18.16
Number of internodes      2.25    1.301     3.55    5.00    6.29
Internode length          0.88    0.061     0.94    8.55    8.84
Plant height              0.10    0.017     0.12    7.14    7.69
Stalk length              0.02    0.011     0.03    4.38    5.63
Brix%                     1.88    0.370     2.25    7.05    7.71
Individual cane weight    0.24    0.002     0.24    37.79   37.96

Characters                 Heritability         GA
                         ([h.sup.2.sub.b])

Leaf blade length              94.3           61.456
Leaf blade width               95.7           28.618
Fresh leaf weight              98.8          1178.444
Dried leaf weight              84.4          187.288
Number of tillers              91.9           71.525
Millable cane                  96.1          105.069
Bud size                       96.6          464.190
Chlorophyll                    45.4           63.850
Cane diameter                  96.8           13.873
Number of internodes           79.6           19.402
Internode length               96.7           17.106
Plant height                   92.8           5.075
Stalk length                   77.9           1.489
Brix%                          91.4           21.757
Individual cane weight         99.6           38.115

Note. GV = genotypic variance, EV = error variance, PV = phenotypic
variance, GCV = genotypic coefficient of variation, and PCV =
phenotypic coefficient of variation.

Table 3: Mean performance of the exotic nine genotypes for 15
different variables.

                                             Genotypes

Variables                     GT 11    GT 15    GT 17     VMC
                                                         86-550

Leafblade length (cm)         143.28   143.71   150.35   143.66
Leafblade width (cm)           4.56     4.31     3.87     3.62
Fresh leaf weight (g)         136.67   133.33   128.67   144.33
Dried leaf weight (g)         38.67    38.00    37.33    36.00
Number of tillers/[m.sup.2]    9.67    10.33    13.00    11.67
Millable cane/[m.sup.2]        8.00     7.33    10.33     9.67
Bud size ([mm.sup.2])         40.50    53.84    29.82    46.58
Chlorophyll (spad)            48.67    45.03    46.07    49.23
Cane diameter (cm)             2.64     2.35     2.45     2.29
Number of internodes          30.00    33.00    29.00    28.67
Internode length (cm)         12.24    12.19    11.47    11.06
Plant height (m)               4.82     4.76     4.93     3.90
Stalk length (m)               3.13     3.05     3.14     3.15
Brix%                         19.83    19.38    19.02    19.77
Individual cane weight (kg)    1.88     1.68     1.64     1.48

                                             Genotypes

Variables                      HoCP     HoCP     HoCP     HoCP
                              85-845   96-540   95-988   91-555

Leafblade length (cm)         133.28   132.03   140.53   150.82
Leafblade width (cm)           3.69     3.16     3.0      3.12
Fresh leaf weight (g)         106.00   89.33    85.33    105.33
Dried leaf weight (g)         31.33    25.33     28.0    30.00
Number of tillers/[m.sup.2]   12.00    10.33    13.33    12.67
Millable cane/[m.sup.2]        9.67     7.67     11.0    10.50
Bud size ([mm.sup.2])         39.33    36.20    32.05    22.68
Chlorophyll (spad)            49.53    57.40    43.97    49.23
Cane diameter (cm)             1.89     1.96     2.0      2.07
Number of internodes          29.33    30.00     29.0    32.33
Internode length (cm)          9.44    11.34    10.64    10.57
Plant height (m)               4.40     4.61     4.45     4.41
Stalk length (m)               2.38     3.01     2.76     2.99
Brix%                         20.22    20.54    20.41    19.83
Individual cane weight (kg)    0.78     1.2      1.0      1.57

                                     Genotypes

Variables                     CB 45-3      [+ or -]
                                        [LSD.sub.(0.05)]

Leafblade length (cm)         143.60          3.85
Leafblade width (cm)           2.33           0.36
Fresh leaf weight (g)          74.67          6.75
Dried leaf weight (g)          26.00          5.47
Number of tillers/[m.sup.2]    16.33          1.47
Millable cane/[m.sup.2]        14.67          1.10
Bud size ([mm.sup.2])          38.58          4.22
Chlorophyll (spad)             46.33          8.87
Cane diameter (cm)             1.36           0.17
Number of internodes           28.33          1.97
Internode length (cm)          9.92           0.43
Plant height (m)               4.16           0.22
Stalk length (m)               2.77           0.18
Brix%                          15.88          1.05
Individual cane weight (kg)    0.39           0.08

Table 4: Correlation coefficient matrix among different characters in
9 exotic sugarcane genotypes.

Variables                Leaf blade   Leaf blade   Fresh leaf
                           length       width        weight

Leaf blade width           0.090
Fresh leaf weight          0.354        0.856"
Dried leaf weight          0.438        0.892"      0.945**
Number of tillers          0.276       -0.795*       -0.613
Millable cane              0.279       -0.777*       -0.581
Bud size                   -0.300       0.442        0.439
Chlorophyll content        -0.552       -0.080       -0.123
Cane diameter              0.322       0.891**      0.865**
Number of internodes       0.235        0.370        0.247
Internode length           0.264        0.693*       0.627
Plant height               0.122        0.570        0.212
Stalk length               0.540        0.377        0.579
Brix%                      -0.329       0.455        0.304
Individual cane weight     0.453        0.784*      0.807**

Variables                Dried leaf     Number     Millable   Bud size
                           weight     of tillers     cane

Leaf blade width
Fresh leaf weight
Dried leaf weight
Number of tillers          -0.506
Millable cane              -0.484      0.981**
Bud size                   0.425        -0.373      -0.369
Chlorophyll content        -0.357       -0.421      -0.393     -0.099
Cane diameter             0.856**      -0.741*     -0.722*     0.171
Number of internodes       0.248        -0.471      -0.525     0.104
Internode length           0.639       -0.676*     -0.674*     0.345
Plant height               0.387        -0.433      -0.494     -0.108
Stalk length               0.500        -0.378      -0.359     0.088
Brix%                      0.170       -0.742*     -0.759*     -0.081
Individual cane weight     0.765*      -0.721*     -0.707*     0.078

Variables                Chlorophyll     Cane     Number of
                           content     diameter   internodes

Leaf blade width
Fresh leaf weight
Dried leaf weight
Number of tillers
Millable cane
Bud size
Chlorophyll content
Cane diameter              -0.077
Number of internodes        0.004       0.315
Internode length            0.001       0.795*      0.420
Plant height               -0.060       0.546       0.378
Stalk length                0.073       0.646       0.242
Brix%                       0.352       0.543       0.278
Individual cane weight      0.014      0.942**      0.523

Variables                Internode   Plant    Stalk    Brix%
                          length     height   length

Leaf blade width
Fresh leaf weight
Dried leaf weight
Number of tillers
Millable cane
Bud size
Chlorophyll content
Cane diameter
Number of internodes
Internode length
Plant height               0.598
Stalk length              0.831**    0.267
Brix%                      0.251     0.239    0.054
Individual cane weight    0.837**    0.522    0.775*   0.482

*, ** Significant at 5% and 1%, respectively.

Table 5: Path coefficient analysis showing direct (diagonal) and
indirect effects of different characters on individual cane weight of
sugarcane genotypes.

Characters     LBL      LBW      FLW      DLW       NT       MC

LBW           0.229    -0.007   -0.037   0.119    0.113    -0.102
FLW           0.021    0.075    -0.090   0.243    -0.327   0.283
DLW           0.081    -0.065   0.104    0.257    -0.252   0.212
NT            0.100    -0.067   -0.099   0.272    -0.208   0.176
MC            0.063    0.060    0.064    -0.138   0.410    -0.357
BS            0.064    0.059    0.061    -0.132   0.403    0.364
Chlorophyll   -0.069   -0.033   -0.046   0.116    -0.153   0.134
CD            -0.126   0.006    0.013    -0.097   -0.173   0.143
NI            0.074    -0.067   -0.090   0.233    -0.305   0.263
IL            0.054    -0.028   -0.026   0.067    -0.194   0.191
PH            0.060    -0.052   -0.066   0.174    -0.278   0.246
SL            0.028    -0.043   -0.022   0.105    -0.178   0.180
Brix          0.123    -0.028   -0.061   0.136    -0.155   0.131
ICW           -0.075   -0.034   -0.032   0.046    -0.305   0.277

Characters      BS     Chlorophyll     CD       NI       IL       PH

LBW           0.068      -0.170      0.241    0.044    0.179    -0.040
FLW           -0.101     -0.025      0.667    0.070    0.469    -0.186
DLW           -0.100     -0.038      0.648    0.047    0.424    -0.069
NT            -0.097     -0.110      0.641    0.047    0.432    -0.126
MC            0.085      -0.130      -0.555   -0.089   -0.457   0.141
BS            0.084      -0.121      -0.541   -0.099   -0.456   0.161
Chlorophyll   -0.228     -0.030      0.128    0.020    0.233    0.035
CD            0.023       0.308      -0.058   0.001    0.001    0.020
NI            -0.039     -0.024      0.748    0.060    0.538    -0.178
IL            -0.024      0.001      0.236    0.188    0.284    -0.123
PH            -0.079      0.000      0.595    0.079    0.676    -0.195
SL            0.025      -0.018      0.409    0.071    0.405    0.326
Brix          -0.020      0.022      0.484    0.046    0.562    -0.087
ICW           0.018       0.108      0.407    0.053    0.170    -0.078

Characters      SL      Brix

LBW           -0.203   0.017
FLW           -0.141   -0.024
DLW           -0.217   -0.016
NT            -0.188   -0.009
MC            0.142    0.039
BS            0.135    0.040
Chlorophyll   -0.033   0.004
CD            -0.027   -0.018
NI            -0.242   -0.028
IL            -0.091   -0.014
PH            -0.312   -0.013
SL            -0.100   -0.012
Brix          -0.375   -0.003
ICW           -0.020   0.052

Residual effect = 0.019

Note. LBL = leaf blade length, LBW = leaf blade width, FLW = fresh leaf
weight, DLW = dried leaf weight, NT = number of tillers, MC = millable
cane, BS = bud size, chlorophyll, CD = cane diameter, NI = number of
internodes, IL = internode length, PH = plant height, SL = stalk
length, brix%, and ICW = individual cane weight.

Table 6: Euclidean distance matrix for 15 characters of 9 exotic
sugarcane genotypes.

Genotypes      GT 11      GT 15      GT 17     VMC 86-550

GT 11            0       2.773618   3.147112    3.972764
GT 15         2.773618      0       4.367265    4.508293
GT 17         3.147112   4.367265      0        4.097314
VMC 86-550    3.972764   4.508293   4.097314       0
HoCP 85-845   6.141488   6.214665   5.794336    4.92496
HoCP 96-540   5.404492   5.954076   5.814613    5.140553
HoCP 95-988   5.806524   5.983032   4.434417    4.613214
HoCP 91-555    5.1793    5.355682   3.806455    4.588661
CB 45-3       9.16596    8.923348   7.27551     7.020552

Genotypes     HoCP 85-845   HoCP 96-540   HoCP 95-988   HoCP 91-555

GT 11          6.141488      5.404492      5.806524       5.1793
GT 15          6.214665      5.954076      5.983032      5.355682
GT 17          5.794336      5.814613      4.434417      3.806455
VMC 86-550      4.92496      5.140553      4.613214      4.588661
HoCP 85-845        0         4.417262      3.307413      5.016917
HoCP 96-540    4.417262          0         4.538716      4.798698
HoCP 95-988    3.307413      4.538716          0         3.588104
HoCP 91-555    5.016917      4.798698      3.588104          0
CB 45-3        5.896278      7.331457       4.84463      6.315618

Genotypes     CB 45-3

GT 11         9.16596
GT 15         8.923348
GT 17         7.27551
VMC 86-550    7.020552
HoCP 85-845   5.896278
HoCP 96-540   7.331457
HoCP 95-988   4.84463
HoCP 91-555   6.315618
CB 45-3          0
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Alam, M.N.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Karim, K.M.R.; Ahmed, M.M.; Mitul, R.Y.
Publication:Scientifica
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:5191
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