Alcestis Barcinonensis, Terentianus Maurus, and that hero of an anonymous novel, Apollonius of Tyre. In addition John Morgan, as thorough as ever, considers the fragments of Greek fiction, de Blois the treatment of emperor and empire by Greek-speaking authors of the third century (actually the `insiders' Cassius Dio and Herodian and the `others', Philostratus, Ps.-Aelius Aristides, Dexippus, Porphyrius, and `the Christians'), J. E. Atkinson Curtius Rufus (a piece really belonging to an earlier volume because of this historian's date), and, in another supplement to an early publication, Luigi Torraca some (singularly trivial?) linguistic points in Plutarch's Moralia. What does one do with ANRW? When one despairs of finding an item which is central or penetrating, you suddenly come across an absolutely vital article or an invaluable bibliography which, at least partially, reconciles the reader to what precedes and what follows, all of which is most frustrating. I strongly suspect that the two essays from (B)(**)Portraits(23) most likely to be read are Christopher Pelling's discussion of Cassius Dio (117-44) and the historian's combination of `annalistic mode' and `a more biographical method' (`a cross between a Suetonius and a Tacitus') and Averil Cameron's analysis of Eusebius' Vita Constantini (145-74), a work which `is first and foremost apologetic ... a prototype for a saint's life' (173). It would be a pity, however, if Swain on `biography and biographic in the literature of the Roman Empire' (1-37) were missed. Extracts from pretty nearly all the exponents (and critics) of this approach to mythology (but no Geoffrey Kirk) are represented in The Myth and Ritual Theory: an Anthology.(24) Much is to be discovered as you make your way from Robertson Smith, who started it all off, to H. S. Versnel, though extracts, however generous, may be rather annoying in formulating and illustrating an argument only partially. The first two-thirds of (B)(*)The Three Worlds of Paul of Tarsus(25) is taken up with the essential background information to enable the reader to understand the native cultures, hellenization, and Roman rule. Everything a student needs to know, for example, about the languages of the East Mediterranean, is fully described and geographical, historical, and political details are conveyed with a light touch. My only reservation and regret is that, in the final third, `Paul's cities' are not surveyed, and illustrated, at greater length, since over forty are touched upon. Ideal for the student whether pursuing a classical or a theological course, this modest but neatly balanced book can be read through at a single sitting and enthusiasm sustained to the end. The story of the early Christians is continued in the third part of volume 26 of (B)(**)Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt,(26) the major topics considered being Jewish-Christian relations and the Roman `content' in the NT and Acts. I would single out as being of a special interest Lichtenberger on Josephus and Paul in Rome, Saddington on Roman personnel in the NT, and Justin Taylor's examination of Paul's Second Missionary Journey, from Antioch through Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea, and Athens to Corinth. These three papers have much light to shed on the workings of the Roman Empire and on those operating the system. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that everything conceivably available has had to be dragged in to make a book however slim out of the martyrdom of Perpetua, and so (B)Perpetua's Passion(27) has chapters on Rome, Carthage, Christian Community, Prison, the Arena, and Aftermath. Something appears to have gone wrong with the `map' of Roman Carthage (35) where military and commercial harbours are fused together and the latter has been labelled `tophet'; I am also puzzled by the statement that the Cardo runs from left to right and the Decumanus runs top to bottom (39). With undiminished vigour an `old Master' is at it once again and the result is Ramsay Macmullen's latest, (B)Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries.(28) How, why, in what shape, and to what extent did paganism survive the `triumph' of Christianity? These are the questions posed and convincingly answered by Peter Brown's only rival when it comes to knowledge, and understanding, of the most varied, and often very obscure, source material. Notes and Bibliogaphy (161-275) show an equally unrivalled acquaintance with the secondary evidence. The `flow' from old to new is charted with a wealth of examples, conversion being made because of inducements (and intimidation) and a process of assimilation, e.g., in the cult of the dead or festivals so that `what Eusebius had ridiculed in pagan practice continued unchanged, except in the Powers addressed' (156). The material and the spiritual so often seem to be in direct opposition, but there is really no conflict between Christ's scorn of worldly wealth and the magnificent material culture of the churches of Late Antiquity: after all, the three kings presented the babe with gold, frankincense, and myrrh and these, presumably, were appropriate gifts. This is the argument advanced in (B)(**)God and Gold in Late Antiquity,(29) a book in which the evidence is weighed for `Roman splendour' or elite display, `the riches of Scripture' or the developing Christian symbolic tradition, `the art of persuasion' or the symbolic visual expression of excellence as revealed by wall mosaics, and `the Christian display of wealth' or how, to a large extent, tensions in the deployment of splendour were overcome. On the way much is to be discovered, about gold, jewels, and dress as an indication of status, gold as an image of the morally good, and, of the greatest general concern, those glorious mosaics with a solid gold background and, frequently, a cross as the central element. I must own up at once and admit to having found the style, and some of the contents, of (B)(**)Wax Tablets of the Mind(30) more than a little irritating. It is in a somewhat desultory fashion that this book attempts to examine the relationship between literacy, orality, and memory. Memory, it is maintained, became more and not less important given time, since `memory became the classical means of cognitively organizing and, most significantly, retrieving words' (71), a conclusion related to the type of display available. One consequence was the development of techniques to enhance natural memory, by Simonides, the sophists, Aristotle, and the author of the ad Herennium. I gained appreciably more from the final `Writing habits of the literate' with its sections on tools, `desks', reading stands, libraries, and taking notes and chapters on composition and genres. An army is reputed to march on its stomach, hence the value of a book like (B)Panis Militaris(31) which takes into account so many aspects of the Roman army and especially its food supplies and preparation. All of this is beautifully illustrated though I don't know about picture no. 76 or the actual food (194 ff.) however appetizing the sausages (no. 92) or the `porcellum laureatum' (no. 94) look. In order for an army to move you need roads and some Roman roads, traversed by the military in antiquity, can still be traced today as is clearly shown by Romische Strasse in ihrer Landschaft,(32) a look at what happened to five roads leading from Rome after the end of the ancient world, the Via Appia, Via Cassia, Via Flaminia, Via Salaria, and Via Valeria. The pictures are lavish but much of a muchness, that is, paving blocks; it's good to see a water colour from our own Edward Lear (135). The first thing likely to strike the reader as (B)(*)Greek and Roman Technology, a Sourcebook(33) is opened will be its sheer length (and commensurate high price?). Although much had to be omitted, more than 750 passages by 148 authors (from Linear B to Theophanes) plus inscriptions and papyri are squeezed in. Apart from the obvious -- sources of energy and basic mechanical devices, agriculture, food-processing, mining and quarrying, metallurgy, construction and hydraulic engineering, household crafts and workshop production, transport and trade, record-keeping (= time-keeping and writing and literacy), and military technology (little wonder the book is so thick and heavy) -- the first chapter covers `the rise of humans and human technology' and the last `attitudes towards labour, innovation, and technology'. Comprehensive certainly but is there too much to handle within the limited time that university courses now allow? Presumably selection (or a double module or full credit?) is the answer. The bibliographies attached to the chapters are extensive and excellent. But I can't help thinking all the time of the very first sentence -- `this book is the product of a long gestation' -- and the female elephant, a powerful, intelligent and not unattractive creature but altogether too ungainly to keep in the house! At the same time it's amazing what you can locate in this collection as a quick glance at almost any section rapidly reveals. Handford's Penguin Aesop, now more than 40 years old, provided translations of 207 fables, not 182 as is stated in its replacement (xxiv), Aesop, the Complete Fables,(34) an assemblage of 358 items (= Chambry's edition) described as `an ancient joke book' (xviii), which is certainly not how I would classify them. I also find the introduction a trifle breathless -- look at its opening: `Aesop's Fables -- what a ring it has to it!' -- and more than a touch patronizing; you will be better advised to consult the much briefer entry `Fable' in the new OCD. The notes attached to the fables with their references to parallels are helpful, though these also can be somewhat `precious' as in the case, for instance, of the very different notes accompanying 124 and 254. I wish I could see the jokes thought to be embodied in these lithe stories (`a very large proportion ..., perhaps more than half, are formulated as jokes', 1) as readily as the translators; many of them seem to me to be far from pleasant, even gruesome. Paul Cartledge supplies a spirited introduction and quite detailed notes (184-229) to the new translation (B)(*)Xenophon, Hiero the Tyrant and Other Treatises(35) (in fact the Agesilaus, Hipparchicus, de Re Equestri, Cynegeticus, and Poroi), a bonus and much-needed aid if the fourth century B.C. is to be studied. A good job is made of re-assessing an essentially conservative thinker whose major preoccupations are identified as `proper piety towards the gods' and `the leadership of men'. Three further titles have appeared in Liverpool's enterprising series Translated Texts for Historians, (B)Hilary of Poitiers, (B)Lives of the Visigothic Fathers, and (B)Optatus: Against the Donatists.(36) Hilary's Against Valens and Ursacius and Letter to the Emperor Constantius reflect the turmoil which shook the Church in the fourth century; the Lives date from the seventh century and, though hagiographies, give `us a wide spectrum of viewpoints from which to look at the history of the Visigothic period' (xxxvii); back to the fourth century, Optatus presents the case against the Donatists, thus complementing Donatist Martyr Stories (see G&R 45 , 116). What was said about Splendours of the Roman World (G&R 44 , 246) is equally true of its companion volume (B)Splendours of Ancient Greece:(37) don't bother with the text, be content to gape at the pictures, and here I would mention as less obvious or new but fully worthy of being included the gold funerary mask from Sindos (45), gold jewelry (70-7), Riace bronzes (136-9), and Paestum's Tomb of the Diver (262-3; see also 12-13). The photos and reconstructions of particular sites are spectacular, but I do find the way in which the material is ordered often little short of being bizarre: why, to quote a single example, have a couple of gold masks from Mycenae on pages 116-17 but another couple so very much later on page 189, and is it really true that the chryselephantine statues from Delphi were found `in a sort of warehouse' (212)? Of a particular interest in Greece from the Air(38) are shots of the Acropolis (scaffolding and all), Delos, Kameiros, the theatre at Epidauros, Olympia, and the tholos at Delphi. The latest part of (**)(A) Lexicon of Greek Personal Names(39) extends the regional onomastic picture to include the Peloponnese, western Greece, and Sicily and Magna Graecia. Shackleton Bailey's (**)Selected Classical Papers(40) is what you would expect, that is, in the main, 24 pieces labelled `Latin Philology'. I gasped as I glanced at the list of passages discussed (419-42) and its staggering range of authors, from Aeschylus to the scarcely familiar Volcatius Sedigitus. No one can accuse this scholar of resting on his laurels when `Forthcoming' includes `in preparation' Loeb editions of Cicero and Valerius Maximus. I wonder -- would anybody else today dare refer to `the enlightened system' which enabled pupils to abandon `such uncongenial studies as mathematics and science and concentrate on Greek and Latin' (363)? (B)(**)Classical Culture and the Idea of Rome in Eighteenth-Century England(41) argues the case for the British century from 1688 ranking `as outstanding in the degree to which its cultural and political elite appropriated and assimilated classical, and particularly Roman, habits of mind' (165). The facts that Britain had been a Roman province for over 350 years and that the study of its archaeology was now firmly established by `pioneers' like Stukeley, the Gale brothers, and Horsley further facilitated the adoption of Roman models, a process only too apparent when one contemplates the sculpture and buildings of the period and none more so than the Grenville Monument at Stowe, a rostral column decorated with the projecting beaks of captured enemy ships (pl. 16).
(1.) An Introduction to the Ancient World. By L. de Blois and R. J. van der Spek. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xx + 321, with figures, diagrams, and maps. Hardback 45.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 14.99 [pounds sterling].
(2.) Greek Civilization. An Introduction. Edited by Brian A. Sparkes. Blackwell, Oxford, 1998. Pp. xxi + 344, with plates, figures, and tables. Hardback 55.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 14.99 [pounds sterling].
(3.) Masterpieces of the J. Paul Getty Museum. Antiquities. Thames & Hudson, London, 1997. Pp. 127, with colour illustrations. Hardback 22.50 [pounds sterling], paperback 12.95 [pounds sterling].
(4.) The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace. Orpheus Unmasked. Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology. By Z. H. Archibald. Oxford U.P., 1998. Pp. xxiii + 370, with 49 plates and 133 figures. 80.00 [pounds sterling].
(5.) Petra. Antike Felsstadt zwischen arabisher Tradition und griechischer Norm. Zaberns Bildbande zur Archaologie. Edited by Thomas Weber and Robert Wenning. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1997. Pp. iv + 172, with 188 illustrations. DM.68.
(6.) Warriors into Traders. The Power of the Market in Early Greece. Classics and Contemporary Thought V. By David W. Tandy. University of California Press, 1997. Pp. xv + 296, with 13 figures, 12 tables, and 4 maps. 35.00 [pounds sterling].
(7.) Household Interests. Property, Marriage Strategies, and Family Dynamics in Ancient Athens. By Cheryl Anne Cox. Princeton U.P., 1998. Pp. xx + 253, with 4 figures and 9 tables. 33.95 [pounds sterling].
(8.) Greeks bearing Gifts. The Public Use of Private Relationships in the Greek World, 435-323 B.C. By Lynette G. Mitchell. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xiv + 248. 40.00 [pounds sterling].
(9.) The Mask of the Parasite. A Pathology of Roman Patronage. By Cynthia Damon. University of Michigan Press, 1997. Pp. ix + 307. $42.50.
(10.) Unterhaltung beim griechischen Symposion. Darbietungen, Spiele und Wettkampfe yon homerischer bis in spatklassische Zeit. By Alfred Schaller. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1997. Pp. 128, with 56 plates. DM. 110.
(11.) Hellenistic Constructs. Essays in Culture, History, and Historiography. Hellenistic Culture and Society Vol. XXVI. Edited by Paul Cartledge, Peter Garnsey, and Erich Gruen. University of California Press, 1997. Pp. vii + 319, with 2 line illustrations. 40.00 [pounds sterling].
(12.) The Brothers of Romulus. Fraternal Pietas in Roman Law, Literature, and Society. By Cynthia J. Bannon. Princeton U.P., 1997. Pp. xi + 234. 25.00 [pounds sterling].
(13.) Rethinking Sexuality. Foucault and Classical Antiquity. Edited by David H. J. Larmour, Paul Allen Miller, and Charles Platter. Princeton U.P., 1998. Pp. ix + 258. Cloth 37.50 [pounds sterling], paper 13.95 [pounds sterling].
(14.) Roman Sexualities. Edited by Judith P. Hallett and Marilyn B. Skinner. Princeton U.P., 1997. Pp. x + 343, with frontispiece. Cloth 37.50 [pounds sterling], paper 13.95 [pounds sterling].
(15.) Changing Bodies, Changing Meanings. Studies on the Human Body in Antiquity. Edited by Dominic Montserrat. Routledge, London and New York, 1998. Pp. xvi + 234, with frontispiece, 7 plates, and 4 figures. 45.00 [pounds sterling].
(16.) Prayer in Greek Religion. Oxford Classical Monograph. By Simon Pulleyn. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xv + 245. 40.00 [pounds sterling].
(17.) From Good Goddess to Vestal Virgins. Sex and Category in Roman Religion. By Ariadne Staples. Routledge, London and New York, 1998. Pp. x + 207. 37.50 [pounds sterling].
(18.) Magic in the Ancient World. Revealing Antiquity 10. By Fritz Graf. Harvard U.P., 1997. Pp. vi + 313. 23.50 [pounds sterling].
(19.) Handbook of Classical Rhetoric in the Hellenistic Period 330 B.C.-A.D. 400. Edited by Stanley E. Porter. Brill, Leiden, New York, Cologne, 1997. Pp. xv + 901. Gld.430.
(20.) The Historians of Ancient Rome. Edited by Ronald Mellor. Routledge, London and New York, 1998. Pp. ix + 534. Paper 16.99 [pounds sterling].
(21.) Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt. II.34.3. Sprache und Literatur. Edited by Wolfgang Haase. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York, 1997. Pp. xi + 1943-2772. DM.628.
(22.) Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt. II.34.4. Sprache und Literatur. Edited by Wolfgang Haase. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York, 1998 Pp. xi + 2773-3540. DM.590.
(23.) Portraits. Biographical Representation in the Greek and Latin Literature of the Roman Empire. Edited by M. J. Edwards and Simon Swain. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xi + 267. 40.00 [pounds sterling].
(24.) The Myth and Ritual Theory. An Anthology. Edited by Robert A. Segal. Blackwell, Oxford, 1998. Pp. ix + 473. Hardback 50.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 15.99 [pounds sterling].
(25.) The Three Worlds of Paul of Tarsus. By Richard Wallace and Wynne Williams. Routledge, London and New York, 1998. Pp. xiii + 239, with 7 figures and 1 map. Hardback 40.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 12.99 [pounds sterling].
(26.) Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt. II.26.3. Religion. Edited by Wolfgang Haase. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York, 1996. Pp. xiv + 1935-2735. DM.590.
(27.) Perpetua's Passion. The Death and Memory of a Young Roman Woman. By Joyce E. Salisbury. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. 228, with illustrations. Hardback 45.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 14.99 [pounds sterling].
(28.) Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries. By Ramsay Macmullen. Yale U.P., 1997. Pp. vi + 282, with 3 figures. 21.00 [pounds sterling].
(29.) God and Gold in Late Antiquity. By Dominic Janes. Cambridge U.P., 1998. Pp. xii + 211, with colour frontispiece and 13 figures. 37.50 [pounds sterling].
(30.) Wax Tablets of the Mind. Cognitive Studies of Memory and Literacy in Classical Antiquity. By Jocelyn Penny Small. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xviii + 377. 50.00 [pounds sterling].
(31.) Panis Militaris. Die Ernahrung des romischen Soldaten oder der Grundstoff der Macht. Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt Band 75. By Marcus Junkelmann. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1997. Pp. 254, with 18 plates and 94 figures. DM.68.
(32.) Romische Strassen in ihrer Landschaft. Das Nachleben antiker Strassen um Rom. Zaberns Bildbande zur Archaologie. By Arnold Esch. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1997. Pp. vi + 161, with 199 colour and 47 black-and-white illustrations. DM.68.
(33.) Greek and Roman Technology, a Sourcebook. Annotated Translations of Greek and Latin Texts and Documents. By John W. Humphrey, John P. Oleson and Andrew N. Sherwood. Routledge, London and New York, 1998. Pp. xxiv + 623, with 19 figures. Hardback 60.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 25.00 [pounds sterling].
(34.) Aesop, the Complete Fables. Penguin Classics. Translated by Olivia and Robert Temple. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1998. Pp. xxv + 262. Paper 5.99 [pounds sterling].
(35.) Xenophon, Hiero the Tyrant and Other Treatises. Penguin Classics. Translated by Robin Waterfield. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1997. Pp. xxxi + 248, with 3 maps. Paper 7.99 [pounds sterling].
(36.) Hilary of Poitiers. Conflicts of Conscience and Law in the Fourth-Century Church. Against Valens and Ursacius: the extant fragments, together with his Letter to the Emperor Constantius. TTH Volume 25. Translated into English with Introduction and Notes by Lionel R. Wickham. Pp. xxvi + 128; Lives of the Visigothic Fathers. TTH Volume 26. Translated and edited by A. T. Fear. Pp. xxxix + 166, with 1 map; Optatus, Against the Donatists. TTH Volume 27. Translated and edited by Mark Edwards. Pp. xxxi + 220, with 2 maps. Liverpool U.P., 1997. Paper 9.95 [pounds sterling], 9.95 [pounds sterling], 12.50 [pounds sterling].
(37.) Splendours of Ancient Greece. By Furio Durando. Thames & Hudson, London, 1997. Pp. 292, with 430 illustrations, 390 in colour. 29.95 [pounds sterling].
(38.) Greece from the Air. Photographs by Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Text by Janine Trotereau. Thames & Hudson, London, 1997. Pp. 157, with photographs. 30.00 [pounds sterling].
(39.) A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Volume III. A The Peloponnese, Western Greece, Sicily and Magna Graecia. Edited by P. M. Fraser and E. Matthews. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xxxii + 519. 80.00 [pounds sterling].
(40.) Selected Classical Papers. By D. R. Shackleton Bailey. University of Michigan Press, 1997. Pp. xii + 462. $52.50.
(41.) Classical Culture and the Idea of Rome in Eighteenth-Century England. By Philip Ayres. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xix + 245, with 30 plates. 35.00 [pounds sterling].
((*) denotes that a book is specially recommended for school libraries; (**) that it is suitable for advanced students only; (B)that a bibliography is included.)