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General.

Really excellent value for very little money is offered by the two Penguin [Historical.sup.B*] Atlases,(1) the one of Ancient Greece and the other of Ancient Rome. More than strict history is covered (e.g., `The Classical Myths', `Greek Literature and Thought', `Shades of the Departed' = Roman funeral monuments, and `Roman Technology and Enginering'); the accompanying text is full and to the point; and, above all else, the maps, plans, and other illustrations (e.g., of a bronze equestrian statuette of Alexander, the Fortuna Primigenia sanctuary at Praeneste, and Thedosius on the Madrid missorium) are most effective. There are a few minor blemishes but nothing too serious, e.g., the two structures labelled 'theatre' on the plan of Troy (and why the plural heading `The Trojan Wars'?), the painting of Socrates which is not from a villa at Ephesos, and the misleading statement that `the colonnaded peristyle' at Split led to Diocletian's mausoleum. But I'm being negative when I should be urging everyone to secure a copy of both atlases immediately. A growing recognition of the need to acknowledge classical culture's debt to the Near East and Egypt, if not on the scale envisaged by Bernal, the `introductory book' [Egypt.sup.*], Greece and Rome(2) does what it sets out to do - to provide a full account of three civilizations backed up by academic advisers - most competently, and there is some neat juxtapositioning of illustrations, e.g., of Praxiteles' Aphrodite and `a symbol of Aryan perfection' and of the equestrian Marcus Aurelius and a triumphant Marshall Zhukhov. A lot of information is painlessly conveyed all the way down to the reign of Justinian, and there are some intriguing if also rather quirky scraps: like the author, I'm not surprised that, in 1943, Heinrich Himmler supplied a foreword to an edition of the Germania. The student could do much worse than consult suggestions for further reading' (565-83) or use this book as a preliminary to specialist study. If you want to select a single book to provide the basis for exciting seminar discussion, you should go for [The.sup.B*] The Origins of Western Warfare(3) since this attempt to trace the evolution of warfare and the ethic of war is guaranteed to inspire plenty of thought (and an equal amount of dissension). War begins, it is claimed, with the pursuit of honour and revenge though economic and political motives coincide with the appearance of the `chief (= the Homeric situation). Hoplite warfare is shown to be most peculiar and these peculiarities are explained in terms of `a defensive and protective militarism, the sole purpose of which was to promote communal esprit de corps' (51: see what I mean about the scope for seminar debate?); the vital change comes towards the end of the fifth century and culminates in the Macedonian military machine when the concept of the just war was reinforced by the idea of the Panhellenic crusade against the barbarian. The Romans went in for a highly mobile force made possible by intense drilling and trained officers and for a conscious policy of expansion - like Harris, the author does not believe the empire was acquired in a fit of absence of mind, though Roman imperialism was 'preventive', not defensive'. Passages which could well do with deeper analysis are cited in order to explore moral issues and two further chapters investigate 'the classical legacy' but in warfare and not the usual sense, and these again demand serious thought and collective discussion, for, as the author concludes, `war will not go away. There is need for a new synthesis that can make possible an informed public discourse about these matters in terms that are both realistic and responsible' (191). It is the first of the 27 papers making up [Classical.sup.**] Studies in Honor of David Sohlberg,(4) an assessment with substantial bibliography of Bernal (1-45), which is of the greatest general interest. What remains tends to be either slight or of a highly specialized content, but it is worth noting Schaps on financing and administrating building projects and the late Addi Wasserstein on the number of Jews in Graeco-Roman antiquity, an investigation which proves inconclusive though suggestive of largescale proselytization in the case of Alexandria. It is said to learn of the death of Arthur Adkins but some slight consolation to acknowledge a collection of essays in his honour, [The.sup.**] Greeks and Us.(5) Although the seven papers feature one, on the `speech of Lysias' in the Phaedrus, by Adkins himself, there is nothing on Homer and just one item on the Works and Days and a second, by Bernard Williams, on the Trachiniae. We are all supposed to have one book in us but very few will have one book as influential as Merit and Responsibility. The prize piece here, and by far, is Martha Nussbaum's account (168-218) of her appearance as expert witness in Denver, Colorado, in which she shows conclusively that with the proper caution the comparison [of ancient Greek norms and modem views of sexuality may be extremely fruitful' (204). This paper alone more than justifies this publication and there is also the response by Richard A. Posner, Chief Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Although mainly concerned with Judaean and Christian material, [Voluntary.sup.**] Associations in the Graeco-Roman World(6) does not ignore the narrowly classical: thus Cotter writes on legal restrictions imposed by the Roman authorities on collegia (74-89), the most notorious case being provided by Trajan's reply to Pliny; Seland investigates Philo's remarks on clubs at Alexandria (110-27); Remus looks at Pergamum's Asclepieion and Aelius Aristides (146-75); Beck provides a useful account of the Mithraic cult (176-85); and McLean shows how the island of Delos with its more than fifteen temples and numerous voluntary associations `manifests in a microcosm the social pluralism' of classical antiquity (186-225). Jewish women - in Egypt, the community of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the seating arrangements of the synagogue - are the focus of attention in the concluding three studies. Food in European Literature 7 will further enhance Exeter's reputation (see G&R 43 [1996], 253-4) as the centre for the study of that commodity in antiquity. Slight but not devoid of interest, it has the poet Alistair Elliot offering versions of passages on food from Lucretius, Ennius (all that survives of the Hedyphagetica), Juvenal's fourth Satire, Ovid, Seneca, Catullus, and a couple of Pompeian inscriptions; John Wilkins on themes related to food in Aristophanes' Peace (contra Platnauer's assessment of this comedy); and, finally but best of the three, James Davidson's astute comments on the absence of fish from the diet of Homer's heroes (and from sacrifice). The New Horizons series has got better and better as it has concentrated on specific topics such as Evans and Crete now splendidly presented in [Knossos.sup.B*]: Unearthing a Legend.(8) The illustrations are many and varied, the `old' photos and the combination of Minoan and recent, e.g., the Palaikastro dancers and Cretan performers at the turn of the century (75), being especially attractive; the text is generous in assessing the work of Evans but certainly not idolatrous (e.g., `Knossos as restored by Evans was influenced by Art Nouveau', 95 and `the result is part reconstruction, part fanciful reinvention', 110); and the `Documents' include discussion of fresco interpretation and cannibalism and the Palaikastro `Zeus'. A genuine treat for the eyes. The fifth volume of Studia Troica(9) reports on the excavations of 1994 when the Troy VI defensive ditch was uncovered over a length of more than 300m. and fresh evidence for the archaic, classical, and Hellenistic settlements and Roman and Late Byzantine activity identified. Particular discoveries include an Aeolic capital, an ivory spindle from Troy VII, and two unusual `volute-kraters' apparently of late 2nd century B.C. date from the Sanctuary area. Otherwise Frank Calvert receives a well-deserved tribute as the true discover of Troy out-manoeuvred by an astute Schliemann; Calvert is shown to have been `a versatile and dedicated scholar' and the alliance between him and Schliemann `complex and lopsided', while the Lower Town's ditch is explained in terms of the Iliad and war-chariots (but I see no reference to van Wees). Although Harrison provides a useful corrective to recent attempts to impose new interpretations on the Parthenon frieze (198-214), I find the remaining nine papers published as Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon 10 more than a little dull and flat. Some, e.g., Erika Simon on Thesus and the Bronze Age background or even Mary Lefkowitz on women's role in festivals, are rather hackneyed, others, such as Robertson on cult places on the Acropolis, fail to convince while a third group seems to run out of steam, ending abruptly or lamely and here I would mention Shapiro's piece on the Panathenaia as `the most visible symbol' (216) of the ideological duality (= democracy and imperialism) of Periclean Athens. What did it mean to the Athenians when, in 415 B.C., the Herms were mutilated and the Eleusinian Mysteries profaned? Who was responsible and what was the role of Andocides? These are the questions examined in [Andokides.sup.B**] and the Herms,(11) `a study of crisis in fifth-century Athenian religion'. According to Furley, `the two crimes were the underlying purpose and the persons involved'(44), the perpetrators being, on the one hand, those against the Sicilian Expedition and, on the other, those opposed to a peace ideal embodied by Eleusis. Andocides' politics were oligarchic and the orator himself not to be trusted, being prepared to sacrifice family, the democracy, and even his fellow conspirators. Also considered are the general issues of religion and politics and the manipulation of divine signs (and quite a lot else in passing, e.g., Hermes as medium of communication with heaven). Evidence is not all that plentiful and Furley is forced to make a lot of a very little not always with convincing results. More than forty years' work by Reinhold Merkelbach is represented by the twenty-six papers comprising [sup.**Hestia] und Erigone.(12) The knowledge displayed is truly encyclopedic and the interests revealed far more than strictly philological though this is not lacking: see the concluding half dozen pieces. More, I suspect, to the taste of many will be studies of Hesiod's geography, Sappho, the competitive songs of rustics, the Alexandrian poets, drama's origin, and the Alexander romance and when it comes to religion, studies of magical texts, exorcism, and Mani, this last item making me understand the teachings (and importance) of the Manichees (at long last?). (Totally?) unexpected is a longish (260-87) account of the city of Nicaea at the time of the Empire. I don't know quite what to make [of.sup.B*] The Landmark Thucydides,(13) a revision of Crawley's translation of 1874 with a variety of attachments including a brief introduction (ix-xxiii) by Hanson, a series of appendices which expand on particular points (e.g., the political set-up and warfare), and glossary. Most helpful are the many maps and for these students will be grateful. A useful addition, I suspect, to the class library but not particularly cheap. Sex and sexual desire, according to [sup.b.Eros]: the Myth of Ancient Creek Sexuality,(14) are a natural force and, as the imagery of fire, disease, war, insanity, and death reveals, this is destructive nature. Aphrodite, distrust and fear of women, and homosexuality further illustrate 'the volatile, chaotic power of sex', but 'technologies' were invented by the Greeks to control such energy and these include ritual, philosophy, social order, and pederasty. There is a great mass of material here, and not only the ancient evidence: on one page, chosen at random, those cited are Apollonius and Buddy Holly, Shakespeare, and Cole Porter(31). There is a tendency to overwhelm and a tighter control and a greater regard for chronology would help: another page, similarly selected at random, cites Herodas, Democritus, Prodicus, Aristotle, Plato, and Aristophanes and in that order (73). An index of passages is a sad omission from a book which has much to offer if only it can be found. The twelve papers making up Rape in Antiquity(15) cover some familiar, even some very familiar, ground: Ogden on the protection of bloodlines, for instance, owns up to offering a modified version of a chapter from his Greek Bastardy, while James Arieti notes that some of the ideas advanced in his piece on Livy appeared in an article published in 1980. But there is some new material, most notably in Robson writing on bestiality and bestial rape in Greek myth' (e.g., Zeus as satyr, eagle, bull, swan, and snake or serpent), and used summaries of the evidence as in Arafat on sexual violence and politics as portrayed by vase-painting. [sup.b.The] Poetics of Old Age in Greek Epic, Lyric, and Tragedy(16) looks especially at Nestor and Priam in the Iliad, Laertes in the Odyssey, Hesiod's Myth of the Ages, old(er) women in epic, Archilochus, and Sappho, the Hymn to Aphrodite, Mimnermus, and Anacreon, Solon's ten ages, the Children of Heracles and Phoenician Women, and Oedipus at Colonus. It is always possible to quibble about details and, in my opinion, for instance, the Laertes episode from the Odyssey is no counterpart to the Telemachia but to the Odysseus-Athene meeting in Book 13. But the case that after Homer the picture of old age `ranges ... from bleak to horrid' is firmly established though I have my doubts about `the iconoclastic force' of the O.C. (262). [sup.b.*] The World of Rome(17) is designed to complement Reading Latin and covers `Ideology, history and administration', `Society and economy', and `The Roman mind', the last named also considering literature and art and architecture. The illustrations are often murky and details impossible to distinguish (e.g., the `Rites of Isis' picture on page 172 or the Oplontis decoration on page 299), but the text is both comprehensive and highly informative. Teachers will welcome Appendix 3, `Cross-references' with Reading Latin. Don't bother too much with the accompanying text - just gape at the fantastic pictures and reconstructions lavishly displayed in [sup.b.Splendours] of the Roman World.(18) Occasionally too bright or too red, the illustrations can have a colossal impact though, somewhat irreverently, I found myself comparing old and new: I never appreciated before how closely Marius (see 41 below) resembled Jimmy Carter or, less unexpectedly perhaps, Nero Julian Clary (see 46 below). I am bothered by the cubicula in the reconstruction of a typical Pompeiian (sic) domus; and is it generally thought that the Nabateans carved their monuments from the surrounding rock because of `the limited space' (198) or that el Deir, the Monastery, is actually a temple? I also have the gravest doubts about the dates advanced (mid-1st to late 3rd century A.D.) for the architectural facades at Petra and the `forum' blithely referred to. But, as I said above, who's going to bother with the text? Often enough it is what is familiar that we fail to understand or appreciate, and I must admit failing to recognize fully the character and importance of the Roman imagines or wax masks representing `past family members who had held at least the office of aedile' (59) until I read [sup.b.Ancestor] Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture,(19) a study of these objects 'as "status symbols" which embodied honour and evoked shame in a traditional aristocratic setting' (15). The author does not restrict herself but ranges widely in considering ancestors at the elections and the funeral, the laudationes and inscriptions, and the imagines in the atrium, which were more than 'advertising tools' but stressed a level of behaviour and achievement and so served as an inspiration (or as a daunting standard to have up to). No imago survives but Flower collects more than a hundred passages in her Appendix A Literary Testimonia but a mere seventeen as Appendix B Inscriptions and Laws), thus ensuring that everything needed, both evidence and evaluation, is close at hand. Despite its opening paper, on the iconography of the pantomime, or the third essay on links (e.g., the display of exotic animals) between the Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus and the Roman amphitheatre, the operative word in the title **Roman Theater and Society(20) is society' since this collection of seven papers is mainly devoted to the social functioning of ancient entertainment - with the making of money by playwright and by actor, gladiatorial spectacle and the shaping, defining, and even redefining of the social order such as by underlining the centrality of the military ethic or by seating arrangements, the use of the theatre, by means of processions or statues, to integrate imperial and civic concerns, organized public acclamation and popular justice, and Christian attitudes and their effect (hostile because thought spiritually damaging). [sup.b.Crime] and Punishment in Ancient Rome(21) is well timed in considering the opinions of the likes of Cicero and Seneca or particular issues both actual, e.g., Cicero's position in 63 B.C., the Pedanius case, and Domitian and moral reform, and theoretical, e.g., the attention to be given to humanitas and to the public good. The factual such as trial by magistrate and people or by jury or under the emperors is enlivened by discussion of attitudes to punishment, and it will be no surprise to learn that 'the bottom line is that there were very few bleeding hearts in Ancient Rome' (163). As usual it paid to be strongly placed: the standard punishment of exile was not always a burden for the honestiores, whereas `the poenae metus weighed mainly on humiliores.... The demands of the games made a constant supply of victims imperative' (159)! Try dipping into this occasionally strangely worded compilation (e.g., `Macrinus was something of a coathanger [sic] for unusual penalties', 68) rather than attempting to read it through from cover to cover. A growing interest in rhetorical technique and politics is exemplified by **Controlling Laughter: Political Humor in the Late Roman Republic.(22) Such content is both extensive and pretty savage - hence chapters on physical peculiarities, names and cognomina (e.g., Verres = `an uncastrated boar'), mouths (with a neat comparison of Pierre Bourdieu on the bourgeois bouche and the working-class class gueule: `The French mouth, like the Roman, draws attention to itself both verbally and visually, until it dominates the head and allows conclusions to be drawn about social position and internal character', 125-6), and effeminacy. As might be guessed, abuse is effective when it exploits `specific biases circulating through all levels of Roman society' (174). More general (and more ponderous), [sup.b.**] Contra Arma Verbis(23) looks at the orator in performance before the people at the time of the Late Republic. Cicero, need it be said, looms large. Three of the four sections of **In Vino Veritas,(24) a collection of 21 papers presented at an international conference on wine and society held in Rome in 1991, cover classical antiquity (see also Grottanelli in the first part). It must have been an exciting, a convivial, occasion, though I do rather feel that two earlier colloquia on virtually the same theme had possibly exhausted the potential for original discussion and so we are presented with the likes of Wine in Old Comedy', `Un Rituel du Vin: la Libation', `Vino e Ideologia nella Roma Arcaica', `The Decoration of Roman Triclinia', `Il Vino di Orazio', and `Wine in Virgil and Others'. Perhaps unfairly I hoped for something a little more central and incisive. I did enjoy the concluding `Heavy Drinking and Drunkenness in the Roman World' by John H. D'Arms, though even this contribution appeared to be running out of steam well before its end. Greek women have done so much better than their Roman counterparts especially when it comes to glossy catalogues accompanying exhibitions (see, e.g., G&R 43 [1996], 248-9), but now the balance is somewhat adjusted by [sup.b*I] Claudia: Women in Ancient Rome,(25)

25 the accompaniment to a Yale University Art Gallery show. The material on display was organized on a threefold basis - the Public, Domestic (note the informative essays by Wallace-Hadrill, Susan Treggiari, and Gordon Williams), and Funerary Realm. A good beginning is furnished by this almost if not quite first presentation of the evidence offered by Roman art, but though all 170 items in the exhibition are described at length, I would prefer more colour plates, more larger illustrations, longer essays, and a greater selection of pieces and pieces more obviously related to women and their lives. When it comes to aesthetic appeal, the Greeks win hands down: think of all those insipid portraits, the hideous Getty life-sized seated figure of a Roman matron posing as Cybele (important though it may be to the student of religion), or the likes of the funerary relief of Sextus Maelius Stabilio, his wife, and son. Of the seven essays which make up [sup.B**] Aspects of Hellenistic Kingship(26) three deal with the general topic and especially its symbolism (Oswin [sic in the Contents list] Murray, naturally enough, on royal symposia, Fleischer on the iconography on coins ['coin portraits ... are messages from the king and his court to the people at all levels', 39], and Gruen on `puzzles, problems, and possibilities' or rather on what has been said in the other contributions) and four with the particular (the Seleucids, Arsacid Iran, the Bithynian and Hasmonean kings, all of which display considerable variation and certainly do not conform to a single model). If anybody is to be associated with the study of the imperial cult in the western provinces, that person is Duncan Fishwick, and it is entirely appropriate that a conflation of seventeen papers on the topic, from Alexander's `deification' to Alexander in Islam 'Arab Islam developed a conception of the ruler that was heavily interlaced with the numinous.... The charmed character of Alexander aided in that development', 253) should mark his sixty-fifth anniversary.(27) Highly technical perhaps, particular papers consider Caligula's cult, imperial cult building (=Sanctuary of the Public Lares) and shrine at the east end of the supposed Macellum at Pompeii, emperor worship in Spain (a total of three contributions including one by Fishwick himself on the temples at Tarraco) and at Athens and Corinth, and the emperors and the cults of Isis and Serapis. Alfoldy sums it all up when in a conclusion he claims worship of the emperor `in a certain sense the most important cult of the Roman Empire before the triumph of Christianity.... Before the victory of the Church, there was no other cult in the Roman Empire which enjoyed such success' (255-6). It is the combination of evidence, literary, archaeological, epigraphic, numismatic, which impresses and impresses deeply. [sup.b.Clopatra], from History to Legend(28) was certain to join the New Horizon series before too long, and equally predictable are the opening illustrations of the asp in action - the combination of snake and breast would have been irresistible. The pictures throughout are fascinating and none more so than the products of nineteenth-century Orientalism or the film stills where I enjoyed the innocence of Vivien Leigh more than the glamour of Elizabeth Taylor while regretting that Claudette Colbert is represented only by a poster. Perhaps the diva Leontyne Price, being black, is an even better latter-day queen of Egypt? The BM exhibition and accompanying catalogue [sup.b.Ancient] Faces(29) were both wildly popular and deservedly so: these mummy portraits from Roman Egypt between roughly A.D. 50 to 250 seem so personal and so modem. Superbly illustrated and presented, favourites are likely to include Hermione the schoolmistress (?) or no. 11, the young man with possibly a facial tic (no. 21), the painted stucco mummy of Artemidorus (no. 32), the elderly woman who looks an absolute misery (no. 79), `Isidora' (no. 108), and the simpering woman (no. 143) who may remind you forcibly of the wife of a contemporary politician. The use of comparative evidence drawn from Mediterranean society today and an emphasis on honour and shame encourage a close look at Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion,(30) but confidence in the author's scholarship (and in Cambridge copy-editing?) is rather shattered by reference to `Jean G. Peristany' (27; cf. 33 where a different date of publication is given while Campbell is also incorrectly dated both here and in the bibliography); and laboured discussion of Pliny, Fronto, Apuleius (if indeed the baker's wife is Christian and not Jewish), Lucian, Galen, and Celsus builds a very elaborate structure on minimal foundations. The picture painted, especially by the last named, is of a group by which norms are subverted and magical lore freely practised, an opinion to which the Church responded from Paul onwards by a strong movement towards social respectability. If only there were more evidence on the pagan side. The fruits of a conference (except for a couple of papers) held in Dublin in 1994, the thirteen contributions which make up **Plutarch and his Intellectual World(13) look at Plutarch's contemporaries and philosophical position, his views on education and on women in politics, his literary technique, and Plutarch the historian as revealed by the Lives. There is so much in both the Moralia and the Lives that the inclusion of the Index of Passages is absolutely essential. It is about time we rescued Plutarch from a neglect which became commonplace only in the last century, and this collection win facilitate the process of rehabilitation. Its title [sup.B**Dreams] and Suicide[32] and its sub-title `The Greek Novel from Antiquity to the Byzantine Empire' reveal that MacAllister's book treats the novels over a considerable period of time 'as sociological and cultural documents'(3) with rather more attention being paid to death than to communication from supernatural powers. It is reassuring to find Durkheim cited so often, and I am happier with the discussion of suicide than with the consideration of dreams. That the novels of the Byzantine revival freely plundered their predecessors while directing `their own statements towards responses deriving from the specific expectations of their twelfth-century audience'(118) is amply demonstrated. Ever enterprising, Old Vicarage Publications has added to the Past and Present series the new large-format [sup.*Pompeii.(33) The twice as large size does make a difference to illustrations brought so vividly to life by superimposed transparent colour restorations (see G&R 42 [1995], 113). A strangely deserted forum, temples of Apollo and Fortuna Augusta, basilica, baths, streets and gates, any number of the grander houses, bakery, and theatre, they're all there to excite the imagination and, hopefully, to encourage a visit. Now, with just a couple of exceptions, rendered for a first time into English, the declamations presented by Donald Russell as [sup.b.Libanius], Imaginary Speeches(34) are rhetorical exercises of a lesser interest today perhaps than their author's dangerous world' so neatly sketched in a general introduction. Russell also played a part in the transition from a dissertation to the book [sup.**Greek] Forms of Address.(35) neither its title nor its basis - a corpus of 11,891 vocatives - is likely to switch many on but that would be a great pity as the headings of sections and subsections suggest, e.g., `Kinship and Age Terms', 'the meaning of friendship terms in Plato', `Terms of Pity', `Insults', and `Social Distinctions'. This is no arid, sterile, strictly academic investigation but attempts to show how the Greek address system may tell us something about Greek culture: for example, 'it thus seems that respectable women may not have been addressed by name in the classical period, but that such addresses were perfectly acceptable later' (244). A surprisingly humane study? [sup.b*The] Transformation of the Roman World AD400-900(36) represents 'a European endeavour' and its eight essays (on, e.g., the great estates, barbarian successor states, cult and worship, and transmission of ideas) are followed by accounts and catalogues of exhibitions held at Thessaloniki, Cologne, Leiden, Stockholm, and the BM ('Heirs of Rome'). The objects displayed are limited but choice, and beautifully illustrated. Cambridge's inexpensive (cheap is not the right word to use) Canto series added [sup.b*The] Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits(37) to its list in 1996. Which of these, from Helen Doukaina in the thirteenth to Helena Cantacuzene Kommene in the fifteenth century, lived the most varied life? Personally I would opt for Mara Brankovic of Serbia: married off to the Sultan Murad II, she refused to marry the widowed emperor Constantine XI after her husband's death; it all turned out well in the end as Mara lived comfortably under the protection of the conqueror of Constantinople, Mehmed II. But others run her close and all enjoyed (though that again is probably not the right word) eventful careers which are fully deserving of our attention today. An introduction supplies a general assessment of the position of the aristocratic female in the last two centuries of the Empire.[sup.**Edward] Gibbon and Empire(38) celebrates the bicentenary of the historian's death. Many of its thirteen papers consider Gibbon's use of sources, while new perspectives are said to result from a concentration on volumes IV-VI with their portraits of nations external to Byzantium as wen as Byzantium itself. Of an impressive erudition, [sup.B**]Down from Olympus(39) looks at the German obsession with things Greek, concentrating on the social functions and institutional attachments of the Greek ideal' and focusing on the cultural history of classical archaeology' (xix). Of an especial interest is the less familiar, prehistory with its dangerous evocation of racial pride, orientalism fostered by friendship between Kaiser and Sultan but threatened by suspicion of neo-colonialism (=anc `inondation scientifique allemande', 205), a suspicion clearly confirmed, for example, by the virtual theft of Nuetus' market gate, and the 'Museum War' of the 20s (and of the 50s and 60s?). Who, by the way, is Pananios, the sculptor of a winged Nike recovered at Olympia (see 85, 87, and 90 illustration 10)? Peter Jones needs no introduction - is he ever out of the news? - nor, I suspect, does his Learn Latin.(40) It is refreshing, and reassuring, to be informed that 'reader demand' has led to this revised and expanded version of The Daily Telegraph series. The target reading - some Catullus and Carmina Burana and prose selections from the Bayeux tapestry and St. Jerome - is a somewhat limited reward, and less than you might expect, for so much effort but the breezy style of presentation should sustain enthusiasm, though I'm not sure I really approve of the comment on scansion of dactyl and spondee: `Basically, think belly-dancer. Think tum-titi and tum-tum' (143). A separate Blue Guide, and another one compiled by Robin Barber, Rhodes and the Dodecanese(41) allows detailed coverage of all fourteen of the islands though, naturally, the main emphasis is on Rhodes, Cos, and Patmos. Sometimes the story to be told can be infinitely sad as it undoubtedly is with Kastellorizo so close to Turkey and now reduced to a population of under 300 (142). Everything is right up-to-date to the extent that the Greek-turidsh fracas over Imia in early 1996 warrants a mention (42).

NOTES

(1.) The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. By Robert Morkot. Pp. 144, with over 60 full colour maps and over 70 illustrations in colour and black-and-white; The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. By Chris Scarre. Pp. 144, with over 60 full colour maps and over 80 illustrations in colour and black-and-white. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1996 and 1995. Paper 9.99[pounds sterling] each.

(2.) Egypt, Greece and Rome. Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. By Charles Freeman. Oxford U.P., 1996. Pp. xvi + 638, with colour and back-and-white plates, figures, and maps. 25.00[pounds sterling].

(3.) The Origins of Western Warfare. Militarism and Morality in the Ancient World. History and Warfare. By Doyne Dawson. Westview Press, Boulder and Oxford, 1996. Pp. viii + 203. 18.50[pounds sterling].

(4.) Classical Studies in Honor of David Sohlberg. Edited by Ranon Katzoff. Bar-Ilan U.P., 1996. Pp. ix + 510, with figures. Price not stated.

(5.) The Greeks and Us. Essays in Honor of Arthur W. H. Adkins, Edited by Robert B. Louden and Paul Schollmeier. University of Chicago Press, 1996. Pp. x + 264. Cloth 38.50,[pounds sterling] paper 15.25[pounds sterling].

(6.) Voluntary Association in the Graeco-Roman World. Edited by John S. Kloppenborg and Stephen G. Wilson. Routledge, London and New York, 1996. Pp. xvii + 333, with 23 figures. 50.00[pounds sterling].

(7.) Food in European Literature. Europa Vol. 2 No. 4. European Studies Series. Edited by John Wilkins. Intellect-books, Exeter, 1996. Pp. 64, with illustrations. Paper 9.95[pounds sterling].

(8.) Knossos; Unearthing a Legend. By Alexandre Farnoux. Thames & Hudson, London, 1996. Pp. 160, with colour and black-and-white illustrations. Paper 6.95[pounds sterling].

(9.) Studia Troica. Band 5' 1995. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1996. Pp. x + 408, with 296 figures. DM.198.

(10.) Worshipping Athena. Panathenaia and Parthenon. Wisconsin Studies in Classics. Edited by Jenifer Neils. University of Wisconsin Press, 1996. Pp. xii + 249, with illustrations. Paper. Price not stated.

(11.) Andokides and the Herms. BICS Supplement 65. By William D. Furley. Inst. Of Class. Studies, London, 1996. Pp. vii + 162. Paper 25.00[pounds sterling].

(12.) Reinhold Merkelbach: Hestia und Erigone. Vortrage und Aufsatze. Edited by Wolfgang Blumel, Barbel Kramer, Johannes Kramer, Cornelia Eva Romer. Teubner, Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1996. Pp. ix + 501, with 16 plates and figures. Price not stated.

(13.) The Landmark Thucydides. A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. Edited by Robert B. Strassler. The Free Press, New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Singapore, 1996. Pp. xxxiii + 711, with illustrations and maps. $45.00.

(14.) Eros. The Myth of Ancient Greek Sexuality. By Bruce S. Thornton. Westview Press, Boulder and Oxford, 1997. Pp. xvii + 282. $28.00.

(15.) Rape in Antiquity. Sexual Violence in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Edited by Susan Deacy and Karen F. Pierce. Duckworth, London, 1997. Pp. ix + 274, with 11 figures. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(16.) The Poetics of Old Age in Greek Epic, Lyric, and Tragedy. Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture 19. By Thomas M. Falkner. University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. Pp. xxi + 342. Paper 13.50[pounds sterling].

(17.) The World of Rome. An Introduction to Roman Culture. Edited by Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xvii + 399, with illustrations and maps. Hardback 45.00[pounds sterling], paperback 15.95[pounds sterling].

(18.) Splendours of the Roman World. By Anna Maria Liberati and Fabio Bourbon. Thames & Hudson, London, 1996. Pp. 292, with 433 illustrations, 389 in colour. 29.95[pounds sterling].

(19.) Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture. By Harriet I. Flower. Oxford U.P., 1996. Pp. xvii + 411, with 8 plates and 19 figures. 50.00[pounds sterling].

(20.) Roman Theater and Society. E. Togo Salmon Papers I. Edited by William J. Slater. University of Michigan Press, 1996. Pp. xiii + 186, with frontispiece and 24 figures. $42.50.

(21.) Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome. By Richard A. Bauman. Routledge, London and New York, 1996. Pp. xii + 228. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(22.) Controlling Laughter. Political Humor in the Late Roman Republic. By Anthony Corbeill. Princeton U.P., 1996. Pp. xi + 251. 27.95[pounds sterling].

(23.) Contra Arma Verbis. Der Redner vor dem Volk in der spaten romischen Republik. Heidelberger althistorische Beitrage und epigraphische Studien Band 22. By Francisco Pina Polo. Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1996. Pp. 216. Limp DM.66.

(24.) In Vino Veritas. Edited by Oswyn Murray and Manuela Tecussan. British School at Rome, London, 1995. Pp. xviii + 317, with 76 figures. 39.99[pounds sterling].

(25.) I, Claudia. Women in Ancient Rome. Edited by Diana E. E. Kleiner and Susan B. Matheson. University of Texas Press, 1996. Pp. 227, with 11 colour and 250 black-and-white photos. Paper $26.95.

(26.) Aspects of Hellenistic Kingship. Studies in Hellenistic Civilization VII. Edited by Per Bilde, Troels Engberg-Pedersen, Lise Hannestad, and Jan Zahle. Aarhus U.P., 1996. Pp. 147, with figures. 24.95[pounds sterling].

(27.) Subject and Ruler. the Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. Series 17. Edited by Alastair Small. Ann Arbor, 1996. Pp. 264, with 51 halftones and 30 figures. $89.50.

(28.) Cleopatra. From History to Legend. By Edith Flamarion. Thames & Hudson, London, 1997. Pp. 159, with colour and black-and-white illustrations. Paper 6.95[pounds sterling].

(29.) Ancient Faces. Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt. By Susan Walker and Morris Bierbrier. British Museum Press, London, 1997. Pp. 224, with 135 colour and 79 black-and-white illustrations and 1 map. Hardback 40.00[pounds sterling], paperback 18.99[pounds sterling].

(30.) Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion. The Power of the Hysterical Woman. By Margaret Y. MacDonald. Cambridge U.P., 1996. Pp. xiv + 276. Hardback 37.50[pounds sterling], paperback 13.95[pounds sterling].

(31.) Plutarch and his Intellectual World. Essays on Plutarch. Edited by Judith Mossman. Duckworth, London, 1997. Pp. xii + 249. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(32.) Dreams and Suicide. By Suzanne MacAlister. Routledge, London and New York, 1996. Pp. ix + 235. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(33.) Pompeii. By A. de Franciscis. Vision, Rome, 1995. Pp. 56, with colour illustrations. 14.99[pounds sterling].

(34.) Libanius, Imaginary Speeches. A Selection of Declamations translated with Notes by D. A. Russed. Duckworth, London, 1996. Pp. viii + 232. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(35.) Greek Forms of Address. From Herodotus to Lucian. Oxford Classical Monograph. By Eleanor Dickey. Oxford U.P., 1996. Pp. xxi + 336, with 22 tables. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(36.) The Transformation of the Roman World AD 400-900. Edited by Leslie Webster and Michelle Brown. British Museum Press, London, 1997. Pp. 258, with 69 colour plates and 105 figures. Paper 18.99[pounds sterling].

(37.) The Byzantine Lady. Ten Portraits, 1250-1500. By Donald M. Nicol. Cambridge U.P., 1996. Pp. x + 143, with 8 plates. Paper 5.95[pounds sterling].

(38.) Edward Gibbon and Empire. Edited by Rosamond McKitterick and Roland Quinault. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xvi + 351. 40.00[pounds sterling].

(39.) Down from Olympus. Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970. By Suzanne L. Marchand. Princeton U.P., 1996. Pp. xxiv + 400, with 35 illustrations. 28.00[pounds sterling].

(40.) Learn Latin. The Book of The Daily Telegraph QED Series. By Peter Jones. Duckworth, London, 1997. Pp. 176, with illustrations. Paper 7.95[pounds sterling].

(41.) Rhodes and the Dodecanese. By Robin Barber. A&C Black, London and WW Norton, New York, 1997. Pp. 249, with drawings and maps. Paper 10.99[pounds sterling].
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Title Annotation:Subject Reviews; classical studies
Author:Walcot, P.
Publication:Greece & Rome
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Oct 1, 1997
Words:6439
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