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Gender and society: the current dominance of law in the field of human rights.

1. Introduction

Our paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the relationship between the prescribed role of women in Islamic theology and law, women's relative lack of economic power, and the context of neighborhood ethnic density.

2. The Rights of Arab Women

The rights of Arab women are not sufficiently protected in the Arab world. Overgeneralizations about the conditions of women in the Arab world, their rights, and their empowerment are dangerous. Different groups of women need different reforms. Promoting women's rights means promoting democracy. The growth of Islamist movements in many countries is creating new obstacles for women. (1) There are many obstacles that affect Arab women's status in society. The Arab media should portray women as productive members of the work force. Activities to empower women are underway throughout the Arab world. (2) Women in the Middle East are underrepresented in the workforce and in government because of oil. The failure of women to join the nonagricultural labor force leads to higher fertility rates. Export-oriented manufacturing can draw women into the labor force. (3) The Egyptian state has created secular organizations dedicated to the advancement of women. The importance of women's Islamist groups has increased with the retreat of the Egyptian state. Underprivileged women are a common target for vote-buying schemes. (4)

Many women in the Arab world prefer to be repudiated by their husbands than go to court themselves. It is difficult for women to assert their rights (they have limited access to the judicial system). (5) The Taliban's radical fundamentalist form of sharia (Islamic rule) banned women's education and activism. Societies that promote violence against women tend to be violent in other ways as well. Violence against women heightens economic instability (some women participate in or encourage terrorism). Violence may be an acceptable part of a society that undermines a country's stability. (6) To understand the roles and status of women it is necessary to examine economic development and political change. Stability and change in the status of women are shaped by several structural determinants. The prescribed role of women in Islamic theology and law is a major determinant of women's status. The status of women in Muslim societies is neither uniform nor unchanging nor unique. Women's relative lack of economic power is the most important determinant of gender inequalities. Modernizing revolutionary states have enacted changes in family law. Political conflict or war can bring about social change. Middle-class Middle Eastern women demand social and political change, participate in movements, and take sides in ideological battles. (7)

3. Shaping the Everyday Social Experience of Ethnic Minorities

Ethnic accomplishment is a privileged metric for the national ranking of ethnicities. Ethnicity may prove an economically non-viable product in the mainstream. (8) A strong ethnic identity can lead to adverse labor market outcomes. Having a strong identity can be harmful to ethnic minorities. (9) The context of neighborhood ethnic density is pivotal in shaping the everyday social experience of ethnic minorities. Social context can play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. (10) Consociational peace agreements entrench or institutionalize ethnic divisions. The rationale of forms of post-conflict government influenced by consociationalism is to normalize ethnicity. Cultural identity is the regime of the person through which influential forms of governmentality work. (11)

Parades offer occasions where political and cultural differences are emphasized. People caught up in conflicts intuitively understand the empirical linkage between interests and identities. Ritual provides reassurance that future relationships will be less threatening than past ones, redefining ethnic conflict away from incompatible differences and threatened identities. The psychocultural drama is an excellent tool for the analysis of identity in ethnic conflict. Psychocultural dramas identify points of emotional fissure in the relations between groups, producing reactions that are emotionally powerful. (12) The rationality model provides the basic framework for the teaching and practices of consumer behavior across ethnic groups. Ethnic beliefs are an important determinant of ethnic product choices, tastes, and consumptions. (13) A valuable outcome of diversity training is its effect on the interpersonal experiences of ethnic minorities. Individual experiences of discrimination can affect important outcomes. Individuals' experiences are affected by the combination of personal and organizational ethnic discrimination. Discrimination may give rise to opportunities for self-verification and external attributions. Diversity training can have positive implications for organizational experiences in part through its effects on discrimination. (14)

4. Shaping the Perception of Social Situations

Standard explanations provided by evolutionary biology do not sufficiently consider the role of empathy. Empathy is a motive of altruistic behavior, and a source of human altruism that evolved as a by-product of strategic thought, including cognition-based empathy, taking others' perspectives and playing others' roles. (15) We can use empathy as a way to determine what is in another person's mind--a form of inner or mental imitation for the purpose of gaining knowledge of other minds. Reenactive empathy plays a central epistemic role in understanding other agents. (16) The nonverbal behavior plays a major role in shaping the perception of social situations. Automated analyzers of human social signals and social behaviors should be multimodal. Humans appear to be literally wired for social interaction. Roles actually bring order and predictability in turn-taking. People display social signals in terms of aggregates of nonverbal behavioral cues. Using multiple cues is the only way to improve robustness of understanding approaches. (17) The whole family's economic security is a function of the main earners' job security. On average, women experience more labor market transitions than men. Gender does not affect individuals' preferences for job security. (18) Various harms either are or are not empirically real or morally worthy of recognition. When victims are incapacitated physically or suffer economic losses, those who depend on them for support will bear losses as well. (19) Psychoanalysis is a set of concepts and assumptions about how the mind works. Constructs of ethnicity and ethnic identity become mobilized in group conflicts. Traumatizing incidents typically activate a broader collective memory of traumatization. (20)

Management should encourage people to be dissatisfied with the way things are currently done. Process management sits at the heart of a successful change program. Leadership has a key role to play, inspiring change throughout the organization and ensuring that change is implemented. (21) Zhang et al. say that the credibility of a leadership claim may be reciprocated or granted by others in a shared vision context. When team shared vision is low, there is fractionalization within the team. Training systems could involve workshops whereby an entire team works on the development of shared values and vision. Individual managers and organizations can enhance emergent and shared leadership in work teams. Team performance involves bottom-up processes. The simultaneous formation of in-groups and out-groups may limit the extent of leader emergence and disrupt positive aspects of group processes. Effective, hierarchical team leaders help to build relationships among team members, share power, and encourage team members to be involved in vision creation. Emergent leadership is predictive of both individual job performance and team-level performance. Emergent leaders are more motivated to achieve high performance.
   It is incomplete to examine informal team leadership without
   considering effects on the emergence process stemming from formal
   leadership. [...] Through a strong relationship with the
   hierarchical leader, a team member may be privy to resources or
   information about the team, such as the various skills,
   capabilities, and motivation of other team members. [...] Due to
   the consensus upon team's goals, members are more likely to claim
   leadership for themselves, as well as grant such claims to others
   who can help to realize the team's vision. (22)


Explaining organizations where humans are at work often demands the use of statistical probabilities. The diverse theoretical base of organization theory creates more possibilities for effectively designing and managing organizations. Paradigm differences become practical when knowledge is used to create a more desirable reality or better ways of organizing. (23) Recognition, identity, and rules define how the individual makes decisions in organizational settings. The power of individuals, groups, and organizations take into consideration alternatives when making decisions. Corporate is defined by behaviors that emerge from a group of people that take part in organizational activities. (24) Regardless of the pension regime in place, men receive substantially more from private sources than women. The share of private pensions does not seem to be influencing lower pension results among women. Most OECD countries have a long way to go before reaching equality in their pension distribution schemes. (25) Pension reform may involve both governance of markets and direct administration of public schemes. The current crisis has put great pressure on the finances of pension systems, making reform even more of a priority. Current pensioners are rarely affected by pension reforms. Pension reform in many countries has advanced by changing one segment of the pension system at a time. (26)

5. Conclusions

The findings of this study have implications for Arab women's status in society, stability and change in the status of women, (27) and the everyday social experience of ethnic minorities. (28) The current study set out to identify the relationship between the perception of social situations, (29) constructs of ethnicity and ethnic identity, and decisions in organizational settings.

Bogdan David, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Law at Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Bucharest. He has published several papers in Addleton journals.

REFERENCES

(1.) Ottaway, M. (2004), "Women's Rights and Democracy in the Arab World," Carnegie Papers (Middle East Series): Democracy and Rule of Law Project, No. 42, February.

(2.) Allam, R. (2008), "Countering the Negative Image of Arab Women in the Arab Media: Toward a 'Pan Arab Eye' Media Watch Project," Policy Brief, The Middle East Institute, No. 15, June.

(3.) Ross, M. (2008), "Oil, Islam, and Women," American Political Science Review 102(1): 107-123.

(4.) Blaydes, L. and El Tarouty, S. (2009), "Women's Electoral Participation in Egypt: The Implications of Gender for Voter Recruitment and Mobilization," Middle East Journal 63(3): 364-380.

(5.) Wiirth, A. (2004), "Women's Rights in the Arab World: Overview of the Status of Women in Family Law with Special Reference to the Influence of Islamic Factors," Division 42 (Governance and Democracy), Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).

(6.) Caiazza, A. (2001), "Why Gender Matters in Understanding September 11: Women, Militarism, and Violence," IWPR Publication No. I908, November.

(7.) Moghadam, V. M. (2003), Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East, 2nd edn. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

(8.) Anagnostou, Y. (2003), "Model Americans, Quintessential Greeks: Ethnic Success and Assimilation in Diaspora," Diaspora 12(3): 279-327.

(9.) Bisin, A. et al. (2011), "Ethnic Identity and Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," Economic Policy 26(65): 57-92.

(10.) Veling, W. et al. (2008), "Ethnic Density of Neighborhoods and Incidence of Psychotic Disorders among Immigrants," American of Journal of Psychiatry 165: 66-73.

(11.) Finlay, A. (2011), Governing Ethnic Conflict: Consociation, Identity, and the Price of Peace. London-New York: Routledge.

(12.) Ross, M. H. (2001), "Psychocultural Interpretations and Dramas: Identity Dynamics in Ethnic Conflict," Political Psychology 22(1): 157-178.

(13.) Elimimian, J. U. (2007), "Psychoanalysis of Ethnic Consumers and Similarities of Consumption," Innovative Marketing 3(3): 40-46.

(14.) King, Eden B., Jeremy F. Dawson, David A. Kravitz, and Lisa M. V. Gulick (2012), "A Multilevel Study of the Relationships between Diversity Training, Ethnic Discrimination and Satisfaction in Organizations," Journal of Organizational Behavior 33: 8-9, 16.

(15.) Gierer, A. (2001), "Ibn Khaldun on Solidarity ("Asabiyah")--Modern Science on Cooperativeness and Empathy: A Comparison," Philosophia Naturalis 38: 91104.

(16.) Stueber, K. R. (2006), Rediscovering Empathy: Agency, Folk Psychology, and the Human Sciences. Cambridge, MA-London: MIT Press, 8-60.

(17.) Vinciarelli, A. et al. (2009), "Social Signal Processing: Survey of an Emerging Domain," Image and Vision Computing Journal 27(12): 1743-1759. See also Vinciarelli, A. (2009), "Capturing Order in Social Interactions," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 26(12): 133-137.

(18.) Emmenegger, Patrick (2009), "Gendering Insiders and Outsiders: Labor Market Status and Preferences for Job Security," Economics, Management, and FinancialMarkets 5(3): 94-103.

(19.) Bilz, A. and Darley, A. (2004), "What's Wrong with Harmless Theories of Punishment," Chicago-Kent Law Review 79: 1217-1247.

(20.) Ainslie, R.C. and Brabeck, K. (2003), "Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper," Texas Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society 8(1): 42-50.

(21.) Oakland, J.S. and Tanner, S.J. (2006), "Quality Management in the 21st Century--Implementing Successful Change," International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management 1(1-2): 69-87.

(22.) Zhang, Zhen, David A. Waldman, and Zhen Wang (2012), "A Multilevel Investigation of Leader-Member Exchange, Informal Leader Emergence, and Individual and Team Performance," Personnel Psychology 65: 51, 52, 54.

(23.) Hatch, M.J. (2006), Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-24.

(24.) Secchi, D. (2010), Extendable Rationality: Understanding Decision Making in Organizations. New York-Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London: Springer, 5-142.

(25.) Marier, P. and Skinner, S. (2008), "Orienting the Public-Private Mix of Pensions," in Beland, D. and Gran, B. (eds.), Public and Private Social Policy Health and Pension Policies in a New Era. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 45-69.

(26.) Tompson, W. (2010), "Reform beyond the Crisis," Making Reform Happen: Lessons from OECD Countries. Paris: OECD, 11-38.

(27.) Ionescu, Luminita (2012), "Bureaucracy and Equal Gender Representation," Economics, Management, and Financial Markets 7(1): 108-113.

(28.) Tomescu, Madalina, and Liliana Trofin (2012), "Moral Conflict, Religion, and Society," Geopolitics, History, and International Relations 4(2): 168-173.

(29.) Lazaroiu, George (2012), "Epistemic Ecologies of Knowledge," Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice 4(2): 348-354.

BOGDAN DAVID

bogdan.david@dccu.ro

Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University
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Author:David, Bogdan
Publication:Journal of Research in Gender Studies
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:70MID
Date:Jul 1, 2012
Words:2258
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