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Gender Perspectives of Transformational Leadership Style and Leadership Effectiveness: A Case Study of Pakistan and Turkey.

Byline: Nasiha Begum, Safia Begum, Aneela Rustam and Sabeena Rustam

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine transformational leadership, gender role orientation and leadership effectiveness of male and female leaders within the context of education and health departments in Pakistan and Turkey. The study explored the relationship between or differences among these three primary variables. This research examined in detail the three leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and Laissez Faire) with respect to gender (male and female), region (Pakistan and Turkey) and department (Education and Health). Surveys were sent to four hundred (n=400) male and female leaders in education and health departments. The survey instrument (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5x short Form) consisted of 12 factors.

Among 12 factors, nine factors were employed to evaluate components of leadership style, while the remaining three factors were labeled as outcome measures. Out of nine leadership measures, there were five transformational leadership factors, (i.e. Idealized Influence Attributed, Idealized Influence Behavior, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration); three transactional leadership factors, (i.e. Contingent Reward, Management by Exception Active, Management by Exception Passive); and one laissez faire leadership factor. The 45 statements of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire were consisted of 36 items concerning leadership style and behaviour, out of which four items evaluate each of the nine leadership styles. Data analyses involved descriptive strategies, correlational analysis, logistic regression analysis, Chi-Square test analysis etc.

Key Words: Transformational leadership, Gender role orientation, transactional leadership, Laissez-faire, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

Introduction

Leadership has long been an area of interest for scholars and researchers for thousands of years. According to Burns, J.M. 1978, "Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth".1 "Leadership has been conceived as the focus of group processes, as a matter of personality, as a matter of inducing compliance, as the exercise of influence, as particular behaviours, as a form of persuasion, as a power relation, as an instrument to achieve goals, as an effect of interaction, as a differentiated role, as an initiation of structure, and as many combinations of this definition".2

Bass has discussed leadership in terms of various approaches and styles. According to Bass (1990) there are three well-known leadership approaches and styles that is, laissez faire, transactional and transformational leadership. During the last two decades, the leadership styles in organizations have been changing rapidly. On the one hand, the rapid pace of technological developments exerts a crucial influence on the organizational development and leadership styles. On the other hand, the participation of women in business is challenging a male-dominated society in the form of organizational culture, gender and leadership styles etc. Therefore, a simple and single approach, based on traits, behaviours, etc, is insufficient for understanding all the attributes leaders must possess and all the strategies they must adopt in order to thrive.

Two modern approaches i.e. transactional leadership style and transformational leadership style are emerged to offer a better understanding of new leadership in the 21st century.

J.M. Burns (1978)3 first discovered the term transforming leadership describing "a relationship in which leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality". Bass (1998)4 elaborates that "transformational leaders motivate followers to put in more efforts than their previous intentions and planning by presenting followers with a compelling and appealing vision; and encouraging them to surpass their own wishes and interests for those of the group or organization.

According to Northouse (2004), "transformational leadership is defined as a process that changes and transforms individuals. It is concerned with values, ethics, standards and strategic goals and objectives. Transformational leadership is characterized with assessing followers' motives, fulfilling their needs and requirements, and treating them as full human beings."5

Components of Transformational Leadership

The following five factors/components are included in transformational leadership:

Idealized Influence Attributed (II A)

It describes followers' perception of the leader's power, confidence, and inspirational ideals and is also referred to as attributed charisma.6

Idealized Influence Behavior (II B)

This factor incorporates leader behaviors that highlight the leader's values and beliefs, vision, ethical and moral values, and also referred to as behavioral charisma.7

Inspirational Motivation (IM)

This encourages and supervises followers to show excellence. Followers are pushed towards the attainment of goals and objectives being considered beyond reach.8

Intellectual Stimulation (IS)

This type encourages followers to challenge the status quo by questioning assumptions and inviting creative solutions to abstract problems.

Individualized Consideration (IC)

It encourages followers to struggle and put in efforts for higher levels of excellence by pursuing challenges. This refers to leaders who pay extraordinary attention to individual needs for their growth and development.9

Transactional Leaders

The transactional leader provides the promise of a reward to the follower in exchange for completion of a task.10 In other words the transactional leader gives followers praise, money or some other positive or negative reinforcement in exchange for the followers' efforts and accomplishments.11

Laissez-Faire Leaders

According to Bass (1998), "laissez faire leader shows an absence of behaviors where decisions are not made, actions are delayed and authority is not utilized."12

Since the 1970s research studies have been carried out to determine whether leadership style differs by gender and mixed results have been found. Many research studies carried out by Druskat (1994)13; Bass, Avolio, and Atwater (1996)14; Maher (1997)15; Bass (1998)16 and Giovanonni (2001)17 have described that males more likely follow transactional leadership style, while females have been labeled as more transformational in approach and behaviour.18

According to Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (2003), "gender refers to the distinctive culturally created qualities of men and women apart from their biological differences." In the 1990s, discussions about leadership styles with respect to gender gained momentum.19 Most studies focus on examining if women and men leaders differ in the extent they apply transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Several studies conducted by Rosener (1990)20; Druskat (1994)21 and Bass, B.M., Avolio, B.J., and Atwater, L. (1996)22 focusing on transformational leadership highlight that females perceive themselves, and are perceived, as adopting transformational leadership styles more than males. 23

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

* To examine the role of females in leadership in general and in transformational leadership in particular.

* To find out gender differences in leadership styles.

* To investigate facts as to whether males or females are transformational leaders.

* To find out why are females considered more transformational leaders as compared to their male counterparts.

Hypotheses

Following are the hypotheses of the study:

1. There are differences in the leadership styles of Males and Females.

2. Females are considered more transformational leaders as compared to their Male counterparts.

Gender Role Orientation and Leadership

Gender role orientation is defined as the classification of an individual as feminine, masculine or androgynous or undifferentiated.24 The movement of women into leadership positions in community service and women's organizations, social groups, education, religion, the sciences and the business world over the last several years provides an excellent opportunity to observe and analyze the evolution of women's leadership styles.25

Literature Review

In 1990, the theory that women have a particular leadership style began to gain prominence. Eagly and Johnson (1990)26 found that women tended to be more participative or democratic in their leadership than men, who tended toward a more autocratic and directive style.27

Of the limited research conducted by sergeant (1981)28; Powel (1982)29; Schein (1989)30; Korabik (1990)31; Nurczyk (1993)32; and Moss and kent (1996)33 thus far in the area of female leaders, the majority of studies have focused on gender role orientation as a factor in the difference between how men and women lead and the effectiveness of female leaders in comparison to male leaders has been discussed by several social and organizational psychologists e.g. Riger and Galligan (1980)34; Hollander and Yoder (1980)35; Morrison and Von Glinow (1990)36; Hollander (1992)37; Powel (1993)38; Denmark (1993)39; Eagly, Karau and Makhijani (1995)40. Few studies carried out by Komives (1991)41 and Druskat (1994)42 have focused on the transformational leadership style of women, and researchers like Hackman, et al., (1992)43 and Ernst (1998)44 highlighted the relationship between gender role orientation and transformational leadership style for leaders.45

Research Methods

Research Population

The population for this study is comprised male and female executive position holders in Education and Health departments in Pakistan and Turkey. Two divisions are selected in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan i.e. Peshawar and Abbottabad for the study. Ankara and Istanbul in Turkey are selected for the research study. There are approximately 132 colleges (90 Male and 42 Female) and 203 hospitals in KPK (Pakistan) as per record available in the session 2007-2008 and almost 600 colleges and 800 hospitals in Ankara and Istanbul in Turkey.

Research Sample

Four hundred (n=400) questionnaires were distributed, three hundred and fifty (n=350) were returned and three hundred and four (n=304) found valid. Female respondents are 174 and males are 130, which constitute 57.2% and 42.8% respectively. One hundred and eighty-four (n=184) sample data are collected from Pakistan out of which 151 collected from Peshawar and 33 from Abbottabad which constitute 49.7% and 10.9% respectively. One hundred and twenty (n=120) sample respondents contributed from Turkey, which constitute 39.5% of the total data. The contribution of Education and Health departments in the research data is 164 (53.9%) and 140 (46.1%) respectively.

Collection of Data

The data are collected through Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X Short46 from both public and private organizations in Peshawar and Abbottabad divisions (Pakistan) and those in Ankara and Istanbul (Turkey). Interview technique has also slightly been used in the research process. Four hundred (n=400) questionnaires have been administered to the target respondents in Pakistan and Turkey through simple random sampling.

Frequency distribution with respect to gender is presented below:

Table 1: Frequency Distribution: Gender

###Frequency###Percent###Cumulative

###Percent

Male###130###42.8###42.8

Female###174###57.2###100.0

Total###304###100.0

Table 2: Summary Statistics for Transformational Leadership-Gender wise (Average Scores per factor of the MLQ Form 5x)

TFL###II (A)###II (B)###IM###IS###IC###Total

Gender

###2138###2136###2151###2186###2130###10741

Male###4.11###4.10###4.13###4.20###4.09###4.13

Female###2902###2922###2869###2852###2946###14491

###4.17###4.19###4.12###4.09###4.23###4.16

The above tables show that females score high on Idealized influence Attributed (II A), Idealized Influence Behavior (II B) and individualized Consideration (IC).Inspirational Motivation (IM) in both the genders found to be almost the same. Males score high on Intellectual stimulation (IS) as compared to their female counterparts. Among the five variables, Individualized Consideration (IC) is the significant predictor of transformational leadership. Females score much high on Individualized Consideration (IC) as compared to their male counterparts.

Logistic Regression Analysis of Gender and Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership consists of Idealised Influence (Attributed and Behaviour), Inspirational Motivation (IM), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Individualised Consideration (IC). Logistic regression analysis of the components of transformational leadership in terms of gender (male and female) is presented in the following tables.

Table 3: Logistic Regression Analysis of Idealized Influence Attributed (IIA)

###B###S.E.###Wald###Df###Sig.###Odds

###Ratio

###Pride###-.038###.157###.058###1###.810###.963

###Group###.295###.173###2.914###1###.088###1.343

###Respect###-.095###.178###.281###1###.596###.910

###Power###.135###.144###.880###1###.348###1.145

###Constant###-.982###1.127###.759###1###.384###.375

Table 4: Logistic Regression Analysis of Idealized Influence Behaviour (II B)

###B###S.E.###Wald###Df###Sig.###Odds

###Ratio

###Values###.354###.161###4.855###1###.028###1.425

###Purpose###-.064###.163###.151###1###.697###.938

###Consequences###.176###.167###1.106###1###.293###1.193

###Mission###.092###.170###.292###1###.589###1.096

###Constant###-1.923###1.187###2.625###1###.105###.146

Table 5: Logistic Regression Analysis of Inspirational Motivation (IM)

###B###S.E.###Wald###Df###Sig.###Odds

###Ratio

Optimist###-.380###.158###5.778###1###.016###.684

Needs###.025###.163###.023###1###.881###1.025

Vision###.301###.142###4.480###1###.034###1.351

Confidence###-.145###.195###.555###1###.456###.865

Constant###1.193###1.120###1.136###1###.287###3.298

Table 6: Logistic Regression Analysis of Intellectual Stimulation (IS)

###B###S.E.###Wald###Df###Sig.###Odds

###Ratio

Critical###-.249###.161###2.405###1###.121###.779

Perspective###.090###.176###.261###1###.609###1.094

Angles###.027###.175###.023###1###.879###1.027

Assignment###-.364###.177###4.234###1###.040###.695

Constant###2.373###1.073###4.888###1###.027###10.727

Table 7: Logistic Regression Analysis of Individualized Consideration (IC)

###B###S.E.###Wald###Df###Sig.###Odds

###Ratio

Values###.408###.169###5.856###1###.016###1.504

Optimist###-.490###.168###8.493###1###.004###.613

Assignment###-.459###.174###6.974###1###.008###.632

Individual###.665###.172###14.867###1###.000###1.944

Constant###.034###1.156###.001###1###.976###1.035

The above tables show coefficients (B), their standard errors, the Wald Chi square statistic, associated p-values and odds ratios Exp (B). Idealized Influence Behaviour (II B), Inspirational Motivation (IM), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Individualized Consideration (IC) are statistically significant while Idealized Influence Attributed (II A) is not. For a one unit increase in Idealized Influence Behaviour (II B), the odds of being females adopt Transformational leadership is increased by a factor 1.504. For a one unit increase in Inspirational Motivation (IM) and Intellectual Stimulation (IS), the odds of being females adopt Transformational leadership is decreased by a factor 0.613 and 0.632 respectively. For a one unit increase in Individualized Consideration (IC), the odds of Transformational Leadership being adopted by females is increased by a factor 1.944.

Idealized Influence Attributed (II B), Inspirational Motivation (IM), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Individualized Consideration (IC) were the significant predictors of Transformational Leadership. Among the five variables, Individualized Consideration (IC) is the strongest predictor of Transformational leadership followed by Inspirational Motivation (IM), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Idealized Influence Behavior (II B).

A Comparative Overview of Gender and Leadership Styles

A comparative overview of leadership styles (i.e. transformational, transactional and laissez faire) in terms of gender (male and female) is presented below:

Table 8: A Comparative overview of Gender and Leadership styles

###Transformational###Transactional###Laissez Faire

Leadership###Leadership###Leadership

Gender

Males###10741###4960###648

###(4.13)###(3.18)###(1.24)

Females###14491###6695###930

###(4.16)###(3.20)###(1.34)

It is clear from the above table and graphs that with respect to gender there is a relatively higher trend towards Transformational leadership style as compared to Transactional leadership style and Laissez Faire leadership. So overall females scored higher on transformational leadership style as compared to their male counterparts. The second hypothesis is proved in the light of the results of this study that is females are more transformational leaders as compared to males. Part of the first hypothesis is also proved that there are differences in the leadership styles (i.e. transformational leadership style) of males and females.

The first and second hypotheses were also supported through Logistic Regression analysis. There were differences in the leadership styles (transformational leadership) of males and females. Logistic regression analysis showed that females are more transformational leaders as compared to their male counterparts.

With regard to Contingent Reward (CR) females scored slightly higher with a mean value of 4.15 as compared to males who scored with a mean value of 4.09. Management by Exception Active (MBE A) portrayed almost the same results. Females scored with a mean value of 4.115 on MBE A while males remained with a mean value of 4.07. With regard to Management by Exception Passive (MBE P), males and females showed lesser differences with mean scores of 1.37 and 1.345 respectively. On the whole females scored slightly higher on transactional leadership with a mean value of 3.20 while mean score of males remained 3.18.

By examining transformational leadership, gender role orientation and leadership effectiveness, this study found certain gender differences and that transformational leadership is the most effective type of leadership style as compared to other leadership styles.

Recommendations

Following recommendations are being put forward;

i. Additional research needs to be conducted with leaders at all levels within the organization. Further research needs to be conducted with a large population, such as including teachers, lecturers in education department and medical officers, assistant medical officers, doctors etc in health department. Study should be widened to carry out research in non-teaching area e.g. clerical staff etc.

ii. Further contribution could be made to understanding the impact of transformational leadership practices by using methods other than survey research, thus circumventing the limitations associated with this approach.

iii. This study was conducted in Pakistan and Turkey. In order to widen the scope and significance of the study regarding transformational leadership, gender role orientation and leadership effectiveness, this study should be replicated in other regions or countries including developed and under-developed countries.

iv. It is recommended that a comparative survey be conducted in public and private sector organizations with special reference to transformational leadership.

v. As this study comprised data from colleges in the education department, research needs to be conducted at higher education level (e.g. university level) and elementary school level as well. The prevailing leadership styles in these organizations, their performance and effectiveness are suggested to be examined with special reference to transformational leadership style.

Notes and References

1 J. M. Burns, Leadership, (New York: Harper and Row, 1978): 2.

2 B.A. Hayward, Relationship between Employee performance, Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in a South African Parastatal organization. (Doctoral Dissertation, Rhodes University, 2005): 4.

3 J. M. Burns, Leadership, (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), opcit.

4 Bass, B. M. Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact, (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Asssociates, Inc., 1998), opcit.

5 T. J. Sergiovanni, "Adding Value to Leadership Gets Extraordinary Results" Educational Leadership, 47, (8), 1990. EJ 410 204.,23-27.

6 T.G. Hughes, "Identification of Leadership Style of Enrollment Management Professionals in Post Secondary Institutions in the Southern United States", (2005): 45.

7 Ibid.

8 T.G. Hughes, "Identification of Leadership Style of Enrollment Management Professionals in Post Secondary Institutions in the Southern United States", (2005): 45

9 Ibid.

10 Op.Cit., J. M. Burns, Leadership, (New York: Harper and Row, 1978)

11 Thomas R. K. "Women in leadership: An examination of transformational leadership, gender role orientation, and leadership effectiveness", (Doctoral Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2000): 14

12 Melody D' Ambrosio, "Leadership in Today's World", Retrieved January 15, 2005, from the World Wide Web: The website http://www.top-education.com/management/Leadershipgender.asp

13 V. U. Druskat, "Gender and leadership style: Transformational and transactional leadership in the Roman Catholic Church", Leadership Quarterly, 5, 1994, pp.99-119.

14 B.M. Bass, Avolio, B.J., and Atwater, L. "The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women", Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45, (1996): 5-34.

15 K. J. Maher, "Gender-related stereotypes of transformational and transactional leadership", Sex Roles, 37(3-4), (1997), 209-225.

16 B.M. Bass, Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact, (Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1998)

17 L. Giovanonni, A feminine style of leadership;(2001). Retrieved May 25, 2006, from the world wide web: The website http://www.lorigiovannoni.com/articles.htm

18 Greiman, Bradley C,"Personal Characteristics of Agricultural Education Teachers and the Association with Preferred Leadership Style", (Proceedings of the 2007 AAAE Research Conference), Volume 34.

19 Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli, "The Leadership Quarterly" 14, (2003): 815.

20 J. B. Rosener, "Ways women lead", Harvard Business Review, 68(6), (November/December, 1990): 119-125.

21 V.U. Druskat, "Gender and leadership style: Transformational and transactional leadership in the Roman Catholic Church", Leadership Quarterly, 5, (1994): 99-119.

22 B.M. Bass, Avolio, B.J., and Atwater, L. "The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women", Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45, (1996): 1, 5-34.

23 Alice H. Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., and van Engen, M. "Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men", Psychological Bulletin, 95, 2003, pp.569-591. In Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli, "The Leadership Quarterly 14, (2003): 817-818.

24 Thomas R. K. "Women in leadership: An examination of transformational leadership, gender role orientation, and leadership effectiveness", (Doctoral Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2000)

25 Ibid.

26 Alice H. Eagly, and Johnson, B. "Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 108, (1990): 233-256.

27 Thomas R. K. "Women in leadership: An examination of transformational leadership, gender role orientation, and leadership effectiveness", (Doctoral Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2000): 55.

28 A.G. Sargent, The Androgynous Manager, (American Management Association, New York, NY: 1981)

29 G.N. Powel, "Sex-role Identity and Sex: An important Distinction for Research on Women in Management", Basic and Applied psychology, 3(1), (1982): 67-79.

30 V. Schein, (1989), p.154, as cited by Genovese, M.A. editor, Women as National Leaders, (1993): 10.

31 K. Korabik, "Androgyny and Leadership Style", Journal of Business Ethics. 9, (1990): 283-292

32 K. Nurczyk, "The Relationship between Sex and Sex Role Orientation to Power Bases used by Chief Housing Officers", (A Dissertation submitted to the Temple University Graduate Board, 1993)

33 S. Moss, and Kent, R. "Gender and Gender-role Categorization of Emergent Leaders: A Critical Review and Comprehensive Analysis", Sex Roles, 35, Nos. A1/2, (1996).

34 S. Riger, and Galligan, P. "Women in Managament: An Exploration of Competing Paradigms", American Psychologist, 35, (1980): 902.

35 E. Hollander, and Yoder, J. Some Issues in Comparing Women and Men as Leaders, (1980). In Rosenbach, W.E., and Taylor's, R.L. Contemporaray Issues in Leadership, (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc.), (1980): 234-248.

36 A. Morrison, and Von Glinow, M. "Women and Minorities in Management", American Psychologist, 45, (1990): 200-208.

37 Hollander,E. "The Essential Interdependence of Leadership and Fellowship", Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, (1992): 71-75.

38 G.N. Powel, Women and Men in Management, (2nd Ed.), (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1993)

39 F. Denmark, "Women, Leadership and Empowerment", Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, September,1993, pp.343-356.

40 Alice H. Eagly, Karau, S.J. and Makhijani, M.G. "Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 117 (1), 1995, pp.125-145.

41 S.R. Komives, "Gender differences in the Relationship of Hall Directors' Transformational and transactional Leadership and Achieving Styles", Journal of College students Development, March, 32, 1991, pp.155-165.

42 V.U. Druskat, "Gender and leadership style: Transformational and transactional leadership in the Roman Catholic church", Leadership Quarterly, 5(2), (1994), pp.99-119.

43 M.Z. Hackman, and Furniss, A.,Hills, M. Paterson, T. "Perceptions of Gender Role Characteristics and Transformational and Transactional Leadership Behaviours", Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 1992, pp. 311-319.

44 L. C. Ernst, "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Visionary Leadership and Psyhological Androgyny", (A Dissertation presented to the faculty of George Washington University, 1998)

45 Thomas R. K. "Women in leadership: An examination of transformational leadership, gender role orientation, and leadership effectiveness", (Doctoral Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2000), p.60.

46 B.M. Bass Leadership and performance beyond expectations, (NY: The Free Press, 1985)
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