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Gas exchange in different varieties of banana Prata in semi-arid environment/Trocas gasosas em diferentes cultivares de bananeiras tipo Prata em ambiente semiarido.

INTRODUCTION

The cultivation of banana tree is significant in agricultural systems in the agro-ecological zones of the tropics (AZEVEDO et al., 2010) with great economic and social importance. In Brazil, the 'Prata', 'Pacovan' and 'Prata-Ana' cultivars are the most widespread. In the Southwest of Bahia (DONATO et al., 2009) and in the North of Minas Gerais, the most planted cultivar is the 'Prata-Ana' that despite the high commercial value, it is susceptible to the yellow and black sigatoka, and panama disease.

In the search of solutions, the Brazilian program for Banana plant Improvement, coordinated by Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, developed banana 'prata' hybrids with different degrees of commercial acceptance.

The physiological characters evaluation may be important for recommending cultivars because it allows establishing a genotypic variation of physiological responses of banana to the environment (TURNER et al., 2007). The existence of this variation would infer on changes in transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis as physiological indicators of the presence of stress (LUCENA, 2013); in addition it contributes to the identification and the selection of superior individuals. The extrapolation of these results may subsidize specific production systems for various cultivars.

Additionally, physiological characteristics studies are quite common in cultivars of Cavendish type (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), however they are scarce in cultivars of 'prata' type prevalent in Brazil. Given the above, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of six 'Prata' type bananas in two production cycles in semi-arid environment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was established in the area of Instituto Federal Baiano, Campus Guanambi, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The original soil is classified as typical dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol, weak A, medium texture, hypoxerophytic caatinga phase, flat to mildly hilly relief, with annual average of precipitation and temperature, 680 mm and 26[degrees]C respectively.

In planting, on 05/11/2010, we used seedlings that were acclimatized in plastic bags, 30 cm tall, and planted in 3.0 x 2.5 m spacing. The introduction and cultivation followed the recommendations for the crop (RODRIGUES et al., 2008). The plants were irrigated by micro sprinkling with Netafim[R] self-compensating emitters, flow 120 L [h.sup.-1], wet diameter of 7.4 m, with red nozzle of 1.57 mm, spacing of 6 m between side lines and 5 m between emitters.

The irrigations were based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo) determined daily by the penman-Monteith method, and on the data from an automatic weather station vantage pro Integrated Sensor (Davis Instruments, Wayward, CA, EUA) located 100 m from the area. The crop coefficients to determine the ETc were defined according to the phenological stages of the crop.

The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments represented by 'Prata' type banana cultivars: 'Prata-Ana' (AAB) and the hybrids (AAAB), FHIA-01 ('Maravilha'); FHIA-18; BRS FHIA-18; 'BRS Platina' (PA42-44) derivatives from 'Prata-Ana' x M53 (AA); and JV42-135, derivatives from 'Prata de Java' x M53. We used five replications and four plants per plot.

We evaluated the gas exchanges, the leaf temperature and incident radiation on the third or fourth leaf (leaf three or four) counting from the apex to the base, with the help of Lcpro+[R] Portable Photosynthesis System (ADC BioScientific Limited, UK) infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), always with the radiation shield facing the sun, with ambient temperature and irradiance, and airflow of 200 ml [min.sup.-1].

There were 14 monthly evaluations in two reading times, 8h and 14h, covering the period from October 2010 to November 2011, corresponding to the early flowering of the first cycle to the beginning of the harvest of the second production cycle.

We measured the incident radiation in the leaf ([Q.sub.leaf]) expressed in [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]; leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), [degrees]C, internal C[O.sub.2] concentration ([C.sub.i]), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1], stomatal conductance (gs), mol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], transpiration (E), mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], net photosynthesis (A), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], carboxylation efficiency (A/[C.sub.i]), quantum efficiency or photochemistry of photosynthesis (A/Qleaf), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1].

For statistical analysis of the data of the characteristics evaluated, we adopted the following: a) For the vegetative and yield characteristics, we used six treatments, the cultivars arranged in a randomized design. The data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% error probability (p <0.05) in SAEG software (SAEG, 2009). b) For the physiological characteristics, we adopted the arrangement in factorial 6x14x2, six cultivars, 14 evaluation periods (months) and two reading times each period, arranged in a completely randomized design. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and proceeded to the split of interactions according to their significance. The F and Turkey test compared the averages from those variables (p<0.05) for reading time factor and cultivars factor, respectively; and the Skott-Knott criterion grouped them for the evaluation period factor (months). We also realized correlation studies between the different variables and the adjusted linear models for those significant and of greater magnitudes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The differences in physiological characteristics evaluated in several months did not allow a grouping of the averages by the Scott-Knott criterion (p<0.05) according to the periods of the year. The grouping was random; probably because of the assessments made with devices are pointwise values, influenced by weather conditions of the moment (SANTOS et al., 2013). These results contradict the expectation of obtaining physiological differences grouped according to the periods, to the two times of reading, which would make it possible to compare the physiological responses of different cultivars in months with similar climatic characteristics.

The physiological variables, leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), transpiration rate (E) and instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E) varied with the cultivar regardless of the month and reading time (Table 1).

The 'BRS platina' showed higher Tleaf (37.39[degrees]C) and 'Prata-Ana' showed the lower (35.90[degrees]C), with a small percentage variation of 4.15%. The transpiration rate (E) varies similarly to Tleaf, with the higher value (7.04 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) measured on the 'BRS platina' and the lower 6.19; 6.40 and 6.41 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] on the 'Prata-Ana', 'Maravilha' and 'FHIA-18', respectively. The instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E) in leaf was higher (3.45 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) in the 'Maravilha' and lower (2.96 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/ mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) in the 'BRS Platina'. There is a tendency of direct relation between the [T.sub.leaf] and E and a contrary relation between the [T.sub.leaf] and the A/E, proven by the correlation study (Figure 1).

The higher A/E observed in 'Maravilha' indicates the highest cultivar efficiency regarding the use of water resource, which is the main obstacle in banana production. Productive efficiency and better use of water do not contradict the recommendation for a new cultivar that requires other desirable characteristics, such as market acceptance despite of the observation meets the research needs to understanding the mechanisms of tolerance to drought (VANHOVE et al., 2012; MUTHUSAMY et al., 2014; KISSEL et al., 2015).

The photosynthetically active radiation incident on the leaf surface (Qleaf), leaf temperature (Tleaf), transpiration rate (E), the instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E), and the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis (A/[Q.sub.leaf]) also varied with periods and reading times regardless of the cultivar (Table 2).

The [Q.sub.leaf] varied between times in most of the months (64.28%) and the higher values were recorded in the morning. Significant changes were observed between the months in the two times of evaluation. The higher value (1.650,94 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in February 2011 and the lower (485.65 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in October 2010 coincident with a cloudy day and presence of rain because it is a typical month of high radiation. The higher value recorded is between the radiation recommended, 1.500 and 2.000 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], and the lower value is in the range where photosynthesis is severely reduced, below 1.000 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] (TURNER et al., 2007).

The Tleaf recorded in 'prata' type banana varied between times, in all the evaluated months, regardless of the cultivars, except in January and May 2011 (Table 2).In all cases, the lower Tleaf occurred at 8h and the higher occurred in the afternoon, as observed by Donato et al. (2013). Significant differences were also observed between the months in the two times, regardless of the cultivar. The Tleaf had a percentage variation of 43.23%, the lowest value was 30.60[degrees]C and the highest value was 43.83[degrees]C.

The transpiration rates evaluated in 'prata' type banana differ between times in every evaluation month, regardless of the cultivar (Table 2), with the occurrence of lower values in the morning and of higher values in the afternoon at 78.57% of the cases. Variations were also observed between the months in both times, regardless of the cultivar. In October 2010, at 14h, the lowest transpiration rate was recorded (3.58 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]), coincident with cloudy and rainy day illustrated by the lower radiation (485.65 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) (Table 2). The highest transpiration (11.96 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) occurred in November 2010 at 14h.

The efficiency of water use (A/E) in the leaf of 'Prata' type banana ranged between times in every month except for January 2011 that always presented the higher values in the morning (Table 2) because of the higher photosynthetic rates registered at 8h (Table 4) and the lower transpiration (Table 2). There was also significant variation between the months in both times.

The photochemical efficiency of photosynthesis represented by the relation between photosynthesis and photosynthetically active radiation (A/[Q.sub.leaf]) incident on the third leaf of 'prata' type banana, showed little variation between the months evaluated at 8h (Table 2). In the second time the variation was higher. No significant differences were recorded between times in most months.

In all cases, the highest photochemical efficiency was observed at 8h, except in October 2011. In C3 plants, the quantum photosynthesis productivity is raised close to 30[degrees]C and decreases a lot, particularly in banana trees above 34[degrees]C (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), which explains the lower quantum efficiency at 14:00 attested by higher leaf temperature values that were measured at this time.

The stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic rate (A) and carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) showed significant interaction (p <0.05), considering the three factors studied (cultivars, seasons and times), shown in Tables 3, 4, 5, respectively.

All the cultivars showed significant variation in gs between the months and in the two times evaluated (Table 4). The stomatal conductance differed between times in 47.61% of the cases. These differences were observed for all cultivars in October and November 2010, and in January and May 2011 in most cases, probably because these were the hottest months of the evaluated period (Table 2).

In most of the cases, the highest values of gs occurred in the morning and the lowest in the afternoon, which can be justified by the occurrence of winds in the morning (DONATO et al., 2012) that contributes to the removal of the boundary layer and consequently decreases resistance. The stomatal conductance is the inverse of stomatal resistance to the steam. Its value refers to the potential amount of water that could flow over the leaf surface and it is different from steam flow (or transpiration). The reduction of gs in the afternoon can also be related to the stomatal sensitivity to the air aridity, strongly influenced by temperature. Its values decrease with the increasing of steam pressure deficit and temperature. Factors that influence gs interfere in the acquisition of carbon in plants.

The cultivars did not express differences in gs values in both times every month evaluated, with the exception of November 2010, September and November 2011, at 8h, and November 2011, at 14h (Table 5).

Ekanayake et al. (1994) argue the cultivars that restrict the stomatal conductance in drought conditions are considered "water economic." Thus obtaining cultivars with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses passes the identification of characteristics that grants drought tolerance (RAVI et al., 2013) as transpiration efficiency (KISSEL et al., 2015).

It is unlikely that the soil water content may change significantly between measurements, but the leaf steam pressure difference to the air will increase as the temperature increases. Therefore, the variation in stomatal conductance between cultivars is a strategy for the detection of stomatal sensitivity to the steam pressure deficit, which may or may not be related to drought tolerance. Turner et al. (2007), in their review, state that the gas exchange of the leaf is a more sensitive method for determining the response of banana tree to water deficit compared to traditional volumetric or thermodynamic measurements of leaf water status, such as the relative water content.

The change in gas exchange in banana leaves due to the stomatal response to water deficit, steam pressure deficit, leaf temperature and the intensity and quality of solar radiation have been reported in several studies. Different studies show that the stomatal of banana trees can respond to low relative humidity, as well as the reduction of soil moisture, and there is a genetic variation among cultivars, in relation to this feature (EKANAYAKE et al., 1994; THOMAS et al., 1998; KISSEL et al., 2015).

Recorded changes in stomatal conductance (gs) (Table 3), photosynthesis rate (A) (Table 4), carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) (Table 5), transpiration rate (E) and efficient use of water (A/E), due to the change of the radiation ([Q.sub.Leaf]) and leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]) (Table 2) were also reported by Donato et al. (2013).

The photosynthetic rate of all cultivars was different between the months in both reading times (Table 4). The values were higher at 8:00 and lower at 14h in most months (66%), except for the 'Prata-Ana' in November 2011 (Table 5).

The cultivars showed the same rate of photosynthesis in each reading time in all evaluation periods, except in October 2010 and in November 2011, at 8h, and in June and in November 2011 at 14h (Table 5).

The photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (gs) and the efficiency of water use (A / E), in November 2010, July, August, September and November 2011 were lower at 14:00 than at 8h, despite subjected to the same radiation ([Q.sub.leaf]). Even with the difficulty of separating the effect of the radiation changing ([Q.sub.leaf]) and leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]) in gas exchange in field experiments (LUCENA, 2013), the present study data allow us to state that the decrease in rates, observed at 14h, is the reflection of increasing temperature, as observed by Donato et al. (2013). The leaf temperature varied a percentage of 43.23%, the highest value, 43.83[degrees]C recorded in November 2010 at 14h, to the lowest, 30.60[degrees]C, in September 2011 at 8h (Table 2).

The rise in temperature increases evapotranspiration demand and directly influences all metabolic and physiological processes of the plant. probably, the rise in temperature affects the functioning of the enzyme system at a higher intensity than the stomatal closure because the transpiration rate (E) increased at 14h for all cultivars in most of the months (Table 2). However, the ecophysiological behavior results from the balance of the various environmental factors (DONATO et al., 2013). This is also proven by the decrease of A/E and the increase of the transpiration on linear basis with the increase of temperature (Figure 1). If transpiration increased, logically there would not be stomatal restriction.

The ratio A/Ci is a measure of the rubisco carboxylation efficiency and its decrease expresses a shift toward oxygenized activity. This characteristic varies between months, in both times for all cultivars (Table 5). The relation A/Ci of the cultivars was similar between reading times, in most of the evaluation months (60.72%). in 39.28% of the cases, the values were always higher at 8:00 and lower at 14h, except for the 'BRS platina' in December 2010. proof of the Rubisco carboxylase activity change to oxygenize, with the temperature increase observed from 8:00 to 14:00, is in the reduction of ration between photosynthesis and internal C[O.sub.2] concentration (A/Ci) observed in 39.28 % of the cases. Considering the percentage difference, regardless of differences detected by the Tukey test (p <0.05), they increase this variation to 67.85% for all cultivars and months.

The cultivars evaluated showed similar A/ Ci relation. The averages did not differ between the evaluated times and month, except in October 2010 and June 2011 (Table 5). The highest value (0.13 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1]) was recorded in 'BRS Platinum' in January 2011 at 8h and the lowest (0.04 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2][m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1]) in JV42-135 evaluated in February and May 2011 at 14h. This relation may clarify the factors that limit the photosynthesis, analyzing the adjusted curve of A/Ci.

The great temperature for carboxylation of the prevailing C[O.sub.2] in plants with [C.sub.3] photosynthetic mechanism, such as the banana, is around 22 [degrees]C, while the great temperature for growth and development is approximately 27[degrees]C (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012). The balance between carboxylase and oxygenize activities of Rubisco is ruled by its kinetics, temperature and concentration of C[O.sub.2] and [O.sub.2] substrates. Under environmental C[O.sub.2] concentration, the increase in temperature modifies the kinetic constants of rubisco, and increases oxygenation rate preferably to carboxylation, consequently increases photorespiration and decreases net photosynthesis.

The plant can respond differently to environmental conditions, proved by the maintenance of the photosynthesis rate (A) (Table 4) and stomatal conductance (gs) (Table 3), in the evening, most of the cultivars, in December 2010, March, April and June 2011. Despite the increase in leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), the transpiration rate (E) and the reduction in water use efficiency (A/E) (Table 2), we did not observe decrease in carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) at 14h for most cultivars, which shows the greatest effect on the intensity of the radiation (Qleaf) in gas exchange.

Seneviratne et al. (2008) also found a reduction in photosynthesis rate when the radiation level decreased while studying the different levels of shading and photoinhibition under conditions of high intensity of light. probably the same happened in this study, in February 2011, when all cultivars were subjected to a higher radiation Qleaf (1650.94 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) at 8h they had minor photosynthetic rates for the period, except the 'Prata-Ana' (Table 4).

The photosynthesis rate is increased by the presence of growth organs in the plant and reduced with the increase of shadowing or senescence (age) of the leaf. The lowest value of A (8.28 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in May 2011 at 14h in JV42-135 and the highest (27.10 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) recorded in January 2011 at 8h in 'Maravilha'. The photosynthesis showed a variation of 227.29%, proving that the photosynthetic rates of banana trees can reach values of 25 to 30 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] (TURNER et al., 2007; ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012).

The studied cultivars expressed the same photosynthetic rate at 8h and 14h on all evaluated months, with the exception of October 2010 at 8h, June 2011 at 14h and November 2011 at 8h and 14h (Table 4).

Several authors established associations between gas exchange of plants and the weather. Field studies reveal the integrated effects of environmental conditions on the physiology of banana trees, so correlations between these answers and climatic factors indicate trends, since there is influence of unmeasured factors. Higher precision in the associations between gas exchange and climatic factors is obtained in environments with controlled conditions (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012). Nevertheless, Vanhove et al. (2012) state that experiments conducted in vitro and in greenhouse increase the experimental control, but it has lower physiological relevance compared to field studies.

The banana trees type 'prata' presented, in November 2010, higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and transpiration compared to other months, regardless of the cultivar. The higher transpiration values (E), 10.11 and 11.96 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], in the two times, 8h and 14h, respectively, were due probably to the higher volume of rainfall recorded in the month (276.50 mm) that consequently increased soil moisture. The maximum Tleaf, 39.23[degrees]C and 43.83[degrees]C, observed at 8h and 14h, respectively, are a result of the ambient temperature above 34[degrees]C, stressful for the banana tree (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), as well as the second highest radiation level ([Q.sub.leaf]) 1298.11 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] and 1212.36 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] recorded in the morning and afternoon respectively. The high transpiration rates illustrate the plant cooling mechanism to relieve the heat stress caused by higher soil moisture.

The correlation study between the variables showed direct association, significant and of high magnitude, only between the rate of transpiration and leaf temperature of banana trees type 'prata' cultivated in semi-arid environment (Figure 1). The adjusted linear models estimate an increase of 0.70; 0.47; 0.48; 0.42; 0.50 and 0.44 units in transpiration for each additional unit on the leaf temperature of cultivars 'Maravilha', BRS FHIA-18, FHIA-18, BRS Platina, 'Prata-Ana' and JV42-135 respectively.

The correlation study also established an inverse association, significant and high magnitude, only between the relation A/E and the Tleaf (Figure 1). The adjusted linear regression models predict a decrease of 0.26; 0.26; 0.37; 0.32; 0.29 and 0.28 units in the relation (A/E) for each increase of one unit in Tleaf in the cultivars 'Maravilha ',' BRS FHIA-18 ',' FHIA-18 ',' BRS Platinum ',' PrataAna' and JV42-135 respectively.

The increase in leaf temperature, due to the air temperature rise, increases transpiration and reduces water use efficiency for all crops, as reported by Donato et al. (2013). Changes in transpiration rates show stomatal opening as a cooling mechanism and showed that the reduction in photosynthetic rates in warmer times was more influenced by enzymatic involvement caused by temperature increase than by stomatal closure.

Lucena (2013) found a high, positive and significant correlation (p <0.05) between transpiration and the air temperature to 'BRS Platina' and 'Prata-Ana'. The author also found a high correlation, inverse and significant (p <0.05) between the A/E and the air temperature. In his study, without water limitation, 'BRS Platinum' and 'Prata-Ana' had the same productivity (14,375 kg.ha-1) in the first cycle and maximum values for the next 20.6 and 22.2 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], respectively. In this study under the same conditions (local, level, population, spacing and original soil class), but with higher soil fertility and better management of plants, the maximum values of A for 'BRS Platinum' and 'Prata-Ana 'were higher, 26.44 and 25.52 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.suv.-2][s.sub.-1] respectively. The yield in the first cycle was higher, 25.4 and 21.3 t.[ha.sup.-1], respectively.

For DaMatta (2007), the reduction of production is associated with a decline in photosynthetic rates induced by low water availability in the soil, either by a direct effect of dehydration in the photosynthetic apparatus or by an indirect effect through stomatal closure, which restricts the absorption of C[O.sub.2]. Santos et al. (2013) evaluated 'Tommy Atkins' mangos under different irrigation regimes in the same region of this study and concluded that the gas exchange influenced the growth, development and production and they were related to water conditions of the plant, depending on the soil water status and weather conditions.

The showed data highlight the significant influence of temperature on gas exchange, either in a direct way with protein denaturation or indirectly by the sensitivity of stomatal to the effect of steam pressure deficit. However, correlations between these characteristics are not always found.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452016600

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ALESSANDRO DE MAGALHAES ARANTES (2), SERGIO LUIZ RODRIGUES DONATO (2), DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA (3), EUGENIO FERREIRA COELHO (4) TANIA SANTOS SILVA (2)

(1) (Trabalho 076-15). Recebido em: 09-03-2015. Aceito para publicacao em: 17-08-2015.

(2) Instituto Federal Baiano--Campus Guanambi, Distrito de Ceraima, Caixa Postal 009, 46430-000, Guanambi--BA, E-mail: alessandro. arantes@guanambi.ifbaiano.edu.br; sergio.donato@guanambi.ifbaiano.edu.br; tania_ifbaiano@hotmail.com

(3) Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Avenida P H. Rolfs, 36570-900, Vicosa--MG, E-mail: siqueira@ufv.br

(4) Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Rua Embrapa s/n, Caixa Postal 007, CEP 44380-000, Cruz das Almas--BA, E-mail: eugenio.coelho@embrapa.br
TABLE 1--Leaf temperature (Tleaf), [degrees]C; transpiration rate
(E), mmol H20 [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]; instantaneous efficiency of
water use (A/E), [micro]mol C02 [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[(mmol
[H.sub.2[0 [m.sup.-2[s.sup.-1]).sup.-1]; evaluated in the third
leaf of Prata type, in the first and second production cycle in
Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012.

Banana trees    [T.sub.leaf]   E        A/E
cultivars

Maravilha       36.19 BC       6.40B    3.45 A
BRS FHIA-18     36.57 B        6.57AB   3.26 AB
FHIA-18         36.28 BC       6.41B    3.32 AB
BRS Platina     37.39 A        7.04A    2.96 C
'Prata-Ana'     35.90 C        6.19B    3.35 AB
JV42-135        36.65 B        6.52AB   3.16 BC

CV (%)          5.30           26.12    22.10

* Averages followed by the same letter in columns do not
differ from each other by Tukey test, 5% probability
of error.

TABLE 2--Radiation incident on the leaf surface (Qleaf),
leaf temperature (Tleaf), transpiration rate (E), water
use efficiency (A/E), and photochemical efficiency of
photosynthesis (A/Qleaf), evaluated on the third leaf
of banana trees type 'Prata' in the first and second
production cycle, at 8h and 14h in Guanambi,
BA, 2010-2012.

                 [Q.sub.leaf]         [T.sub.leaf]
             ([micro]mol photons      ([degrees]C)
            [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1])

Months        08:00       14:00      08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    927.93Ca    485.65Db    32.45Eb   34.96Fa
Nov 2010    1298.11Ha   1212.36Ba   39.23Ab   43.83Aa
Dec 2010    543.72Db    1381.90Aa   31.021b   40.94Ba
Jan 2011    1496.91Aa   1184.55Bb   37.53Ba   36.98Ea
Feb 2011    1650.94Aa   1286.52Bb   36.08Cb   41.12Ba
Mar 2011    1012.32Cb   1579.54Aa   35.27Cb   39.22Da
Apr 2011    605.24Db    1088.84Ba   31.85Eb   38.45Da
May 2011    975.25Ca    663.90Db    35.85Ca   35.73Fa
Jun 2011    1229.08Bb   1460.66Aa   30.66Fb   38.86Da
Jul-2011    1425.66Aa   1428.27Aa   30.46Fb   37.25Ea
Aug 2011    1492.15Aa   1421.62Aa   33.50Db   41.29Ba
Sep 2011    1334.12Ba   1196.86Ba   30.60Fb   40.04Ca
Oct 2011    1271.75Ba   849.87Cb    31.20Fb   38.96Da
Nov 2011    1037.72Ca   1081.65Ba   37.40Bb   41.22Ba

CV (%)              33.28                  5.30

            E (mmol [H.sub.2]O   A/E (([micro]mol
               [m.sup.-2]           C[O.sub.2]
               [s.sup.-1])          [m.sup.-2]
                                    [s.sup.-1])
                                 [(mmol [H.sub.2]O
                                    [m.sup.-2]
                                    [s.sup.-1])
                                     .sup.-1])

Months       08:00      14:00     08:00      14:00

Oct 2010    5.01Ca     3.58Gb    4.42Ca     3.52Ab
Nov 2010    10.11Ab    11.96Aa   2.61Fa     1.52Db
Dec 2010    3.91Db     9.20Ca    4.83Ba     2.30Cb
Jan 2011    6.95Ba     5.43Fb    3.54Da     3.36Aa
Feb 2011    5.64Cb     7.22Da    3.08Ea     1.80Db
Mar 2011    4.09Db     6.91Ea    4.22Ca     2.72Bb
Apr 2011    3.35Db     6.23Ea    5.30Aa     2.44Cb
May 2011    6.80Ba     4.68Fb    3.10Ea     2.74Bb
Jun 2011    4.7lCb     8.08Da    4.82Ba     2.26Cb
Jul-2011    4.80Cb     7.55Da    4.92Ba     2.50Cb
Aug 2011    6.09Bb     10.70Ba   4.10Ca     1.74Db
Sep 2011    5.1lCb     9.40Ca    4.4ICa     1.80Db
Oct 2011    4.24Db     6.77Ea    5.35Aa     2.33Cb
Nov 2011    6.49Bb     7.55Da    3.23Ea     2.06Cb

CV (%)            26.12                22.10

                A/[Q.sub.leaf]
                ((([micro]mol
                  C[O.sub.2]
                  [m.sup.-2]
                  [s.sup.-1])
             ([micro]mol photons
            [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]))

Months        08:00         14:00

Oct 2010     0.028Aa       0.028Ca
Nov 2010     0.022Ba       0.017Da
Dec 2010     0.037Aa       0.015Db
Jan 2011     0.016Ba       0.016Da
Feb 2011     0.0l0Ba       0.012Da
Mar 2011     0.021Ba       0.013Da
Apr 2011     0.030Aa       0.015Db
May 2011     0.021Ba       0.022Ca
Jun 2011     0.020Ba       0.01lDb
Jul-2011     0.017Ba       0.017Da
Aug 2011     0.016Ba       0.013Da
Sep 2011     0.028Aa       0.034Ba
Oct 2011     0.020Bb       0.056BAa
Nov 2011     0.024Aa       0.017Da

CV (%)               77.72

* Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column
for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion
of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case
in line for hours did not differ significantl;
by F test at 5% probability of error.

TABLE 3--Stomatal conductance (gs), mol [H.sub.2]O
[m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] evaluated on the third leaf of
banana tree type Trata' in the first and second
production cycle, at 8h and 14h in Guanambi,
BA, 2010-2012.

               Maravilha          BRS FHIA-18

Months      08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.58Aa    0.15Bb    0.69Ba    0.16Bb
Nov 2010    0.71Aa    0.38Ab    l.0lAa    0.40Bb
Dec 2010    0.43Ba    0.43Aa    0.35Ca    0.54Aa
Jan 2011    0.65Aa    0.45Ab    0.58Ba    0.3lBb
Feb 2011    0.32Ba    0.27Ba    0.31Ca    0.26Ba
Mar 2011    0.34Bb    0.56Aa    0.31Ca    0.39Ba
Apr 2011    0.32Ba    0.23Ba    0.37Ca    0.40Ba
May 2011    0.51Aa    0.26Bb    0.55Ba    0.22Bb
Jun 2011    0.50Aa    0.32Ba    0.57Ba    0.29Bb
Jul 2011    0.46Ba    0.34Ba    0.55Ba    0.36Bb
Aug 2011    0.60Aa    0.54Aa    0.61Ba    0.62Aa
Sep 2011    0.38Ba    0.41Aa    0.54Ba    0.35Ba
Oct 2011    0.53Aa    0.38Aa    0.53Ba    0.3lBb
Nov 2011    0.58Aa    0.26Bb    0.40Ca    0.35Ba

CV (%)                     36.08

                 FHIA-18          BRS Platina

Months      08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.61Aa    0.14Bb    0.45Ba    0.14Bb
Nov 2010    0.75Aa    0.34Bb    0.72Aa    0.43Ab
Dec 2010    0.38Ba    0.56Ab    0.44Ba    0.47Aa
Jan 2011    0.46Ba    0.32Ba    0.52Ba    0.25Bb
Feb 2011    0.31Ba    0.28Ba    0.42Ba    0.25Ba
Mar 2011    0.44Ba    0.47Aa    0.34Bb    0.55Aa
Apr 2011    0.57Aa    0.42Aa    0.41Ba    0.43Aa
May 2011    0.53Ba    0.22Ba    0.56Ba    0.27Bb
Jun 2011    0.48Ba    0.50Ab    0.49Ba    0.30Ba
Jul 2011    0.70Aa    0.4lAa    0.43Ba    0.39Aa
Aug 2011    0.60Aa    0.5lAb    0.55Ba    0.35Bb
Sep 2011    0.45Ba    0.26Ba    0.65Aa    0.29Bb
Oct 2011    0.42Ba    0.35Ba    0.41Ba    0.35Ba
Nov 2011    0.48Ba    0.23Ba    0.81Aa    0.28Bb

CV (%)                     36.08

              'Prata-Ana'           JV42-135

Months      08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.49Ca    0.18Bb    0.43Ba    0.17Bb
Nov 2010    0.86Aa    0.42Ab    0.73Aa    0.32Ab
Dec 2010    0.49Ca    0.48Aa    0.39Ba    0.38Aa
Jan 2011    0.63Ba    0.40Ab    0.62Aa    0.35Ab
Feb 2011    0.37Ca    0.24Ba    0.39Ba    0.19Bb
Mar 2011    0.33Ca    0.42Aa    0.30Bb    0.50Aa
Apr 2011    0.34Ca    0.28Ba    0.33Ba    0.30Ba
May 2011    0.44Ca    0.24Bb    0.47Ba    0.12Bb
Jun 2011    0.43Ca    0.45Aa    0.60Aa    0.45Aa
Jul 2011    0.46Ca    0.32Bb    0.55Aa    0.39Aa
Aug 2011    0.52Ca    0.52Aa    0.75Aa    0.50Ab
Sep 2011    0.33Ca    0.39Aa    0.42Ba    0.47Aa
Oct 2011    0.47Ca    0.28Ba    0.56Aa    0.26Bb
Nov 2011    0.29Cb    0.55Aa    0.45Ba    0.34Aa

CV (%)                     36.08

* Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column
for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion
of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case
in line for hours did not differ significantly by F test
at 5% probability of error.

TABLE 4--Photosynthesis rate (A), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2]
[m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], evaluated on the third leaf of 'Prata'
type banana in the first and second production cycle, at 8h
and 14h in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012.

                 Maravilha           BRS FHIA-18

Months      08:00      14:00      08:00      14:00

Oct 2010    26.21Aa    13.02Bb    26.67Aa    11.91Bb
Nov 2010    24.47Aa    17.45Ab    26.21Aa    18.30Ab
Dec 2010    18.79Ba    19.88Aa    19.50Ba    20.56Aa
Jan 2011    27.10Aa    20.95Ab    24.68Aa    17.15Ab
Feb 2011    14.77Ba    14.11Bb    15.65Ba    12.88Ba
Mar 2011    19.20Ba    21.72Aa    16.15Ba    15.75Ba
Apr 2011    16.25Ba    11.66Ba    16.87Ba    15.74Ba
Mai 2011    20.16Ba    14.14Bb    21.29Aa    12.76Bb
Jun 2011    20.69Ba    16.96Aa    23.83Aa    12.94Bb
Jul 2011    21.82Ba    18.54Aa    25.16Aa    18.03Ab
Aug 2011    24.22Aa    14.74Bb    24.34Aa    20.82Aa
Sep 2011    20.70Ba    19.44Aa    25.11Aa    14.71Bb
Oct 2011    25.52Aa    1872Ab     25.44Aa    15.67Bb
Nov 2011    21.44Ba    12.56Bb    18.00Ba    16.74Aa

CV (%)                       22.26

                  FHIA-18            BRS Platina

Months      08:00      14:00      08:00      14:00

Oct 2010    23.16Aa    11.07Bb    18.02Ba    12.44Bb
Nov 2010    24.23Aa    17.92Ab    22.93Aa    18.77Aa
Dec 2010    18.26Ba    21.76Aa    14.92Ba    19.30Aa
Jan 2011    21.81Aa    18.09Aa    25.51Aa    15.70Bb
Feb 2011    15.60Ba    14.75Ba    20.54Ba    12.19Bb
Mar 2011    19.41Ba    17.90Aa    18.77Ba    21.19Aa
Apr 2011    16.73Ba    17.21Aa    19.44Ba    18.84Aa
Mai 2011    21.04Aa    12.02Bb    21.17Ba    14.64Bb
Jun 2011    22.14Aa    21.00Aa    21.85Aa    14.15Bb
Jul 2011    25.74Aa    19.46Ab    21.00Ba    19.47Aa
Aug 2011    24.14Aa    19.07Aa    23.09Aa    17.06Ab
Sep 2011    22.91Aa    13.43Bb    26.44Aa    15.50Bb
Oct 2011    20.32Ba    14.24Bb    19.92Ba    15.19Ba
Nov 2011    19.82Ba    11.65Bb    23.13Aa    13.20Bb

CV (%)                       22.26

               'Prata-Ana'             JV42-135

Months      08:00      14:00      08:00      14:00

Oct 2010    20.25Aa    13.38Bb    17.05Ba    13.66Ba
Nov 2010    25.52Aa    20.07Ab    22.89Aa    15.23Bb
Dec 2010    20.92Aa    19.65Aa    19.72Ba    16.80Aa
Jan 2011    22.25Aa    19.81Aa    24.62Aa    18.29Ab
Feb 2011    19.01Aa    12.60Bb    18.64Ba    10.20Cb
Mar 2011    13.53Ba    15.89Ba    16.78Ba    17.30Aa
Apr 2011    15.81Ba    13.34Ba    16.51Ba    14.76Ba
Mai 2011    19.41Aa    13.26Bb    20.55Ba    8.28Cb
Jun 2011    21.07Aa    19.84Aa    23.21Aa    19.65Aa
Jul 2011    22.34Aa    17.32Ab    24.19Aa    18.88Ab
Aug 2011    23.27Aa    20.56Aa    26.53Aa    18.38Ab
Sep 2011    19.23Aa    17.20Aa    19.84Ba    19.99Aa
Oct 2011    22.80Aa    12.99Bb    22.21An    13.87Bb
Nov 2011    14.38Ab    19.60Aa    19.87Ba    14.95Bb

CV (%)                        22.26

* Averages followed by capital letters equal
in the column for months, they belong to the
same group by the criterion of Skott-Knott at 5%
probability of error and lower case in line for
hours did not differ significantly by F test at
5% probability of error.

TABLE 5--Efficiency of carboxylation (A/Ci), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2]
[m.sup.-2.[s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1], evaluated
on the third leaf of 'Prata' type banana in the first and second
production cycle, at 8h and 14h, in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012.

                Maravilha         BRS FHIA-18

Months       08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.12Aa    0.06Bb    0.11Aa    0.05Bb
Nov 2010    0.10Aa    0.08Aa    0.11Aa    0.08Aa
Dec 2010    0.08Ba    0.09Aa    0.09Ba    0.09Aa
Jan 2011    0.13Aa    0.10Ab    0.12Aa    0.08Ab
Feb 2011    0.06Ba    0.06Ba    0.07Ba    0.06Ba
Mar 2011    0.08Ba    0.10Aa    0.07Ba    0.07Ba
Apr 2011    0.07Ba    0.05Ba    0.07Ba    0.06Ba
May 2011    0.09Ba    0.06Ba    0.09Aa    0.06Bb
Jun 2011    0.08Ba    0.07Aa    0.10Aa    0.05Bb
Jul 2011    0.09Ba    0.08Aa    0.11Aa    0.08Ab
Aug 2011    0.10Aa    0.06Bb    0.11Aa    0.09Aa
Sep 2011    0.09Ba    0.09Aa    0.11Aa    0.06Bb
Oct 2011    0.11Aa    0.08Ab    0.12Aa    0.07Bb
Nov 2011    0.09Ba    0.05Bb    0.07Ba    0.07Aa

CV (%)                     25.20

                 FHIA-18           BRS Platina

Months       08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.09Aa    0.05Bb    0.07Ca    0.06Ba
Nov 2010    0.10Aa    0.08Aa    0.10Aa    0.09Aa
Dec 2010    0.07Ba    0.10Aa    0.05Cb    0.09Aa
Jan 2011    0.11Aa    0.09Aa    0.13Ba    0.08Ab
Feb 2011    0.07Ba    0.07Ba    0.09Ba    0.05Bb
Mar 2011    0.08Ba    0.08Aa    0.09Ba    0.10Aa
Apr 2011    0.07Ba    0.07Aa    0.09Ba    0.08Aa
May 2011    0.09Aa    0.05Bb    0.10Ba    0.07Bb
Jun 2011    0.10Aa    0.09Aa    0.10Ba    0.06Bb
Jul 2011    0.11Aa    0.08Aa    0.09Ba    0.09Aa
Aug 2011    0.10Aa    0.08Aa    0.10Ba    0.08Aa
Sep 2011    0.10Aa    0.06Bb    0.12Aa    0.07Bb
Oct 2011    0.08Ba    0.06Bb    0.09Ba    0.06Ba
Nov 2011    0.08Ba    0.05Bb    0.09Ba    0.05Bb

CV (%)                     25.20

              'Prata-Ana'           JV42-135

Months       08:00     14:00     08:00     14:00

Oct 2010    0.08Aa    0.06Ba    0,07Ba    0.07Aa
Nov 2010    0.11Aa    0.09Aa    0.09Aa    0.06Ab
Dec 2010    0.09Aa    0.09Aa    0.08Ba    0.07Aa
Jan 2011    0.10Aa    0.10Aa    0.10Aa    0.09Ab
Feb 2011    0.09Aa    0.06Bb    0.07Ba    0.04Bb
Mar 2011    0.05Ba    0.07Ba    0.08Ba    0.07Aa
Apr 2011    0.06Ba    0.06Ba    0.07Ba    0.07Aa
May 2011    0.09Aa    0.06Bb    0.07Aa    0.04Bb
Jun 2011    0.09Aa    0.09Aa    0.08Aa    0.08Aa
Jul 2011    0.09Aa    0.08Aa    0.09Aa    0.08Aa
Aug 2011    0.10Aa    0.09Aa    0.09Aa    0.08Ab
Sep 2011    0.09Aa    0.07Aa    0.08Ba    0.09Aa
Oct 2011    0.10Aa    0.05Bb    0.08Ba    0.06Ab
Nov 2011    0.06Ba    0.08Ab    0.07Ba    0.06Aa

CV (%)       25.20

* Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column
for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion
of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case
in line for hours did not differ significantly
by F test at 5% probability of error.
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Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:Arantes, Alessandro De Magalhaes; Donato, Sergio Luiz Rodrigues; De Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes; Coelho, E
Publication:Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura
Date:Mar 1, 2016
Words:7398
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