Gas exchange in different varieties of banana Prata in semi-arid environment/Trocas gasosas em diferentes cultivares de bananeiras tipo Prata em ambiente semiarido.
The cultivation of banana tree is significant in agricultural systems in the agro-ecological zones of the tropics (AZEVEDO et al., 2010) with great economic and social importance. In Brazil, the 'Prata', 'Pacovan' and 'Prata-Ana' cultivars are the most widespread. In the Southwest of Bahia (DONATO et al., 2009) and in the North of Minas Gerais, the most planted cultivar is the 'Prata-Ana' that despite the high commercial value, it is susceptible to the yellow and black sigatoka, and panama disease.
In the search of solutions, the Brazilian program for Banana plant Improvement, coordinated by Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, developed banana 'prata' hybrids with different degrees of commercial acceptance.
The physiological characters evaluation may be important for recommending cultivars because it allows establishing a genotypic variation of physiological responses of banana to the environment (TURNER et al., 2007). The existence of this variation would infer on changes in transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis as physiological indicators of the presence of stress (LUCENA, 2013); in addition it contributes to the identification and the selection of superior individuals. The extrapolation of these results may subsidize specific production systems for various cultivars.
Additionally, physiological characteristics studies are quite common in cultivars of Cavendish type (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), however they are scarce in cultivars of 'prata' type prevalent in Brazil. Given the above, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of six 'Prata' type bananas in two production cycles in semi-arid environment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment was established in the area of Instituto Federal Baiano, Campus Guanambi, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The original soil is classified as typical dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol, weak A, medium texture, hypoxerophytic caatinga phase, flat to mildly hilly relief, with annual average of precipitation and temperature, 680 mm and 26[degrees]C respectively.
In planting, on 05/11/2010, we used seedlings that were acclimatized in plastic bags, 30 cm tall, and planted in 3.0 x 2.5 m spacing. The introduction and cultivation followed the recommendations for the crop (RODRIGUES et al., 2008). The plants were irrigated by micro sprinkling with Netafim[R] self-compensating emitters, flow 120 L [h.sup.-1], wet diameter of 7.4 m, with red nozzle of 1.57 mm, spacing of 6 m between side lines and 5 m between emitters.
The irrigations were based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo) determined daily by the penman-Monteith method, and on the data from an automatic weather station vantage pro Integrated Sensor (Davis Instruments, Wayward, CA, EUA) located 100 m from the area. The crop coefficients to determine the ETc were defined according to the phenological stages of the crop.
The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments represented by 'Prata' type banana cultivars: 'Prata-Ana' (AAB) and the hybrids (AAAB), FHIA-01 ('Maravilha'); FHIA-18; BRS FHIA-18; 'BRS Platina' (PA42-44) derivatives from 'Prata-Ana' x M53 (AA); and JV42-135, derivatives from 'Prata de Java' x M53. We used five replications and four plants per plot.
We evaluated the gas exchanges, the leaf temperature and incident radiation on the third or fourth leaf (leaf three or four) counting from the apex to the base, with the help of Lcpro+[R] Portable Photosynthesis System (ADC BioScientific Limited, UK) infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), always with the radiation shield facing the sun, with ambient temperature and irradiance, and airflow of 200 ml [min.sup.-1].
There were 14 monthly evaluations in two reading times, 8h and 14h, covering the period from October 2010 to November 2011, corresponding to the early flowering of the first cycle to the beginning of the harvest of the second production cycle.
We measured the incident radiation in the leaf ([Q.sub.leaf]) expressed in [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]; leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), [degrees]C, internal C[O.sub.2] concentration ([C.sub.i]), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1], stomatal conductance (gs), mol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], transpiration (E), mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], net photosynthesis (A), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], carboxylation efficiency (A/[C.sub.i]), quantum efficiency or photochemistry of photosynthesis (A/Qleaf), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1].
For statistical analysis of the data of the characteristics evaluated, we adopted the following: a) For the vegetative and yield characteristics, we used six treatments, the cultivars arranged in a randomized design. The data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% error probability (p <0.05) in SAEG software (SAEG, 2009). b) For the physiological characteristics, we adopted the arrangement in factorial 6x14x2, six cultivars, 14 evaluation periods (months) and two reading times each period, arranged in a completely randomized design. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and proceeded to the split of interactions according to their significance. The F and Turkey test compared the averages from those variables (p<0.05) for reading time factor and cultivars factor, respectively; and the Skott-Knott criterion grouped them for the evaluation period factor (months). We also realized correlation studies between the different variables and the adjusted linear models for those significant and of greater magnitudes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The differences in physiological characteristics evaluated in several months did not allow a grouping of the averages by the Scott-Knott criterion (p<0.05) according to the periods of the year. The grouping was random; probably because of the assessments made with devices are pointwise values, influenced by weather conditions of the moment (SANTOS et al., 2013). These results contradict the expectation of obtaining physiological differences grouped according to the periods, to the two times of reading, which would make it possible to compare the physiological responses of different cultivars in months with similar climatic characteristics.
The physiological variables, leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), transpiration rate (E) and instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E) varied with the cultivar regardless of the month and reading time (Table 1).
The 'BRS platina' showed higher Tleaf (37.39[degrees]C) and 'Prata-Ana' showed the lower (35.90[degrees]C), with a small percentage variation of 4.15%. The transpiration rate (E) varies similarly to Tleaf, with the higher value (7.04 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) measured on the 'BRS platina' and the lower 6.19; 6.40 and 6.41 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] on the 'Prata-Ana', 'Maravilha' and 'FHIA-18', respectively. The instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E) in leaf was higher (3.45 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) in the 'Maravilha' and lower (2.96 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/ mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) in the 'BRS Platina'. There is a tendency of direct relation between the [T.sub.leaf] and E and a contrary relation between the [T.sub.leaf] and the A/E, proven by the correlation study (Figure 1).
The higher A/E observed in 'Maravilha' indicates the highest cultivar efficiency regarding the use of water resource, which is the main obstacle in banana production. Productive efficiency and better use of water do not contradict the recommendation for a new cultivar that requires other desirable characteristics, such as market acceptance despite of the observation meets the research needs to understanding the mechanisms of tolerance to drought (VANHOVE et al., 2012; MUTHUSAMY et al., 2014; KISSEL et al., 2015).
The photosynthetically active radiation incident on the leaf surface (Qleaf), leaf temperature (Tleaf), transpiration rate (E), the instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E), and the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis (A/[Q.sub.leaf]) also varied with periods and reading times regardless of the cultivar (Table 2).
The [Q.sub.leaf] varied between times in most of the months (64.28%) and the higher values were recorded in the morning. Significant changes were observed between the months in the two times of evaluation. The higher value (1.650,94 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in February 2011 and the lower (485.65 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in October 2010 coincident with a cloudy day and presence of rain because it is a typical month of high radiation. The higher value recorded is between the radiation recommended, 1.500 and 2.000 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], and the lower value is in the range where photosynthesis is severely reduced, below 1.000 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] (TURNER et al., 2007).
The Tleaf recorded in 'prata' type banana varied between times, in all the evaluated months, regardless of the cultivars, except in January and May 2011 (Table 2).In all cases, the lower Tleaf occurred at 8h and the higher occurred in the afternoon, as observed by Donato et al. (2013). Significant differences were also observed between the months in the two times, regardless of the cultivar. The Tleaf had a percentage variation of 43.23%, the lowest value was 30.60[degrees]C and the highest value was 43.83[degrees]C.
The transpiration rates evaluated in 'prata' type banana differ between times in every evaluation month, regardless of the cultivar (Table 2), with the occurrence of lower values in the morning and of higher values in the afternoon at 78.57% of the cases. Variations were also observed between the months in both times, regardless of the cultivar. In October 2010, at 14h, the lowest transpiration rate was recorded (3.58 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]), coincident with cloudy and rainy day illustrated by the lower radiation (485.65 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) (Table 2). The highest transpiration (11.96 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) occurred in November 2010 at 14h.
The efficiency of water use (A/E) in the leaf of 'Prata' type banana ranged between times in every month except for January 2011 that always presented the higher values in the morning (Table 2) because of the higher photosynthetic rates registered at 8h (Table 4) and the lower transpiration (Table 2). There was also significant variation between the months in both times.
The photochemical efficiency of photosynthesis represented by the relation between photosynthesis and photosynthetically active radiation (A/[Q.sub.leaf]) incident on the third leaf of 'prata' type banana, showed little variation between the months evaluated at 8h (Table 2). In the second time the variation was higher. No significant differences were recorded between times in most months.
In all cases, the highest photochemical efficiency was observed at 8h, except in October 2011. In C3 plants, the quantum photosynthesis productivity is raised close to 30[degrees]C and decreases a lot, particularly in banana trees above 34[degrees]C (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), which explains the lower quantum efficiency at 14:00 attested by higher leaf temperature values that were measured at this time.
The stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic rate (A) and carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) showed significant interaction (p <0.05), considering the three factors studied (cultivars, seasons and times), shown in Tables 3, 4, 5, respectively.
All the cultivars showed significant variation in gs between the months and in the two times evaluated (Table 4). The stomatal conductance differed between times in 47.61% of the cases. These differences were observed for all cultivars in October and November 2010, and in January and May 2011 in most cases, probably because these were the hottest months of the evaluated period (Table 2).
In most of the cases, the highest values of gs occurred in the morning and the lowest in the afternoon, which can be justified by the occurrence of winds in the morning (DONATO et al., 2012) that contributes to the removal of the boundary layer and consequently decreases resistance. The stomatal conductance is the inverse of stomatal resistance to the steam. Its value refers to the potential amount of water that could flow over the leaf surface and it is different from steam flow (or transpiration). The reduction of gs in the afternoon can also be related to the stomatal sensitivity to the air aridity, strongly influenced by temperature. Its values decrease with the increasing of steam pressure deficit and temperature. Factors that influence gs interfere in the acquisition of carbon in plants.
The cultivars did not express differences in gs values in both times every month evaluated, with the exception of November 2010, September and November 2011, at 8h, and November 2011, at 14h (Table 5).
Ekanayake et al. (1994) argue the cultivars that restrict the stomatal conductance in drought conditions are considered "water economic." Thus obtaining cultivars with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses passes the identification of characteristics that grants drought tolerance (RAVI et al., 2013) as transpiration efficiency (KISSEL et al., 2015).
It is unlikely that the soil water content may change significantly between measurements, but the leaf steam pressure difference to the air will increase as the temperature increases. Therefore, the variation in stomatal conductance between cultivars is a strategy for the detection of stomatal sensitivity to the steam pressure deficit, which may or may not be related to drought tolerance. Turner et al. (2007), in their review, state that the gas exchange of the leaf is a more sensitive method for determining the response of banana tree to water deficit compared to traditional volumetric or thermodynamic measurements of leaf water status, such as the relative water content.
The change in gas exchange in banana leaves due to the stomatal response to water deficit, steam pressure deficit, leaf temperature and the intensity and quality of solar radiation have been reported in several studies. Different studies show that the stomatal of banana trees can respond to low relative humidity, as well as the reduction of soil moisture, and there is a genetic variation among cultivars, in relation to this feature (EKANAYAKE et al., 1994; THOMAS et al., 1998; KISSEL et al., 2015).
Recorded changes in stomatal conductance (gs) (Table 3), photosynthesis rate (A) (Table 4), carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) (Table 5), transpiration rate (E) and efficient use of water (A/E), due to the change of the radiation ([Q.sub.Leaf]) and leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]) (Table 2) were also reported by Donato et al. (2013).
The photosynthetic rate of all cultivars was different between the months in both reading times (Table 4). The values were higher at 8:00 and lower at 14h in most months (66%), except for the 'Prata-Ana' in November 2011 (Table 5).
The cultivars showed the same rate of photosynthesis in each reading time in all evaluation periods, except in October 2010 and in November 2011, at 8h, and in June and in November 2011 at 14h (Table 5).
The photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (gs) and the efficiency of water use (A / E), in November 2010, July, August, September and November 2011 were lower at 14:00 than at 8h, despite subjected to the same radiation ([Q.sub.leaf]). Even with the difficulty of separating the effect of the radiation changing ([Q.sub.leaf]) and leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]) in gas exchange in field experiments (LUCENA, 2013), the present study data allow us to state that the decrease in rates, observed at 14h, is the reflection of increasing temperature, as observed by Donato et al. (2013). The leaf temperature varied a percentage of 43.23%, the highest value, 43.83[degrees]C recorded in November 2010 at 14h, to the lowest, 30.60[degrees]C, in September 2011 at 8h (Table 2).
The rise in temperature increases evapotranspiration demand and directly influences all metabolic and physiological processes of the plant. probably, the rise in temperature affects the functioning of the enzyme system at a higher intensity than the stomatal closure because the transpiration rate (E) increased at 14h for all cultivars in most of the months (Table 2). However, the ecophysiological behavior results from the balance of the various environmental factors (DONATO et al., 2013). This is also proven by the decrease of A/E and the increase of the transpiration on linear basis with the increase of temperature (Figure 1). If transpiration increased, logically there would not be stomatal restriction.
The ratio A/Ci is a measure of the rubisco carboxylation efficiency and its decrease expresses a shift toward oxygenized activity. This characteristic varies between months, in both times for all cultivars (Table 5). The relation A/Ci of the cultivars was similar between reading times, in most of the evaluation months (60.72%). in 39.28% of the cases, the values were always higher at 8:00 and lower at 14h, except for the 'BRS platina' in December 2010. proof of the Rubisco carboxylase activity change to oxygenize, with the temperature increase observed from 8:00 to 14:00, is in the reduction of ration between photosynthesis and internal C[O.sub.2] concentration (A/Ci) observed in 39.28 % of the cases. Considering the percentage difference, regardless of differences detected by the Tukey test (p <0.05), they increase this variation to 67.85% for all cultivars and months.
The cultivars evaluated showed similar A/ Ci relation. The averages did not differ between the evaluated times and month, except in October 2010 and June 2011 (Table 5). The highest value (0.13 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1]) was recorded in 'BRS Platinum' in January 2011 at 8h and the lowest (0.04 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2][m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1]) in JV42-135 evaluated in February and May 2011 at 14h. This relation may clarify the factors that limit the photosynthesis, analyzing the adjusted curve of A/Ci.
The great temperature for carboxylation of the prevailing C[O.sub.2] in plants with [C.sub.3] photosynthetic mechanism, such as the banana, is around 22 [degrees]C, while the great temperature for growth and development is approximately 27[degrees]C (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012). The balance between carboxylase and oxygenize activities of Rubisco is ruled by its kinetics, temperature and concentration of C[O.sub.2] and [O.sub.2] substrates. Under environmental C[O.sub.2] concentration, the increase in temperature modifies the kinetic constants of rubisco, and increases oxygenation rate preferably to carboxylation, consequently increases photorespiration and decreases net photosynthesis.
The plant can respond differently to environmental conditions, proved by the maintenance of the photosynthesis rate (A) (Table 4) and stomatal conductance (gs) (Table 3), in the evening, most of the cultivars, in December 2010, March, April and June 2011. Despite the increase in leaf temperature ([T.sub.leaf]), the transpiration rate (E) and the reduction in water use efficiency (A/E) (Table 2), we did not observe decrease in carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) at 14h for most cultivars, which shows the greatest effect on the intensity of the radiation (Qleaf) in gas exchange.
Seneviratne et al. (2008) also found a reduction in photosynthesis rate when the radiation level decreased while studying the different levels of shading and photoinhibition under conditions of high intensity of light. probably the same happened in this study, in February 2011, when all cultivars were subjected to a higher radiation Qleaf (1650.94 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) at 8h they had minor photosynthetic rates for the period, except the 'Prata-Ana' (Table 4).
The photosynthesis rate is increased by the presence of growth organs in the plant and reduced with the increase of shadowing or senescence (age) of the leaf. The lowest value of A (8.28 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) was recorded in May 2011 at 14h in JV42-135 and the highest (27.10 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) recorded in January 2011 at 8h in 'Maravilha'. The photosynthesis showed a variation of 227.29%, proving that the photosynthetic rates of banana trees can reach values of 25 to 30 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] (TURNER et al., 2007; ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012).
The studied cultivars expressed the same photosynthetic rate at 8h and 14h on all evaluated months, with the exception of October 2010 at 8h, June 2011 at 14h and November 2011 at 8h and 14h (Table 4).
Several authors established associations between gas exchange of plants and the weather. Field studies reveal the integrated effects of environmental conditions on the physiology of banana trees, so correlations between these answers and climatic factors indicate trends, since there is influence of unmeasured factors. Higher precision in the associations between gas exchange and climatic factors is obtained in environments with controlled conditions (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012). Nevertheless, Vanhove et al. (2012) state that experiments conducted in vitro and in greenhouse increase the experimental control, but it has lower physiological relevance compared to field studies.
The banana trees type 'prata' presented, in November 2010, higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and transpiration compared to other months, regardless of the cultivar. The higher transpiration values (E), 10.11 and 11.96 mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], in the two times, 8h and 14h, respectively, were due probably to the higher volume of rainfall recorded in the month (276.50 mm) that consequently increased soil moisture. The maximum Tleaf, 39.23[degrees]C and 43.83[degrees]C, observed at 8h and 14h, respectively, are a result of the ambient temperature above 34[degrees]C, stressful for the banana tree (ROBINSON; GALAN SAUCO, 2012), as well as the second highest radiation level ([Q.sub.leaf]) 1298.11 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] and 1212.36 [micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] recorded in the morning and afternoon respectively. The high transpiration rates illustrate the plant cooling mechanism to relieve the heat stress caused by higher soil moisture.
The correlation study between the variables showed direct association, significant and of high magnitude, only between the rate of transpiration and leaf temperature of banana trees type 'prata' cultivated in semi-arid environment (Figure 1). The adjusted linear models estimate an increase of 0.70; 0.47; 0.48; 0.42; 0.50 and 0.44 units in transpiration for each additional unit on the leaf temperature of cultivars 'Maravilha', BRS FHIA-18, FHIA-18, BRS Platina, 'Prata-Ana' and JV42-135 respectively.
The correlation study also established an inverse association, significant and high magnitude, only between the relation A/E and the Tleaf (Figure 1). The adjusted linear regression models predict a decrease of 0.26; 0.26; 0.37; 0.32; 0.29 and 0.28 units in the relation (A/E) for each increase of one unit in Tleaf in the cultivars 'Maravilha ',' BRS FHIA-18 ',' FHIA-18 ',' BRS Platinum ',' PrataAna' and JV42-135 respectively.
The increase in leaf temperature, due to the air temperature rise, increases transpiration and reduces water use efficiency for all crops, as reported by Donato et al. (2013). Changes in transpiration rates show stomatal opening as a cooling mechanism and showed that the reduction in photosynthetic rates in warmer times was more influenced by enzymatic involvement caused by temperature increase than by stomatal closure.
Lucena (2013) found a high, positive and significant correlation (p <0.05) between transpiration and the air temperature to 'BRS Platina' and 'Prata-Ana'. The author also found a high correlation, inverse and significant (p <0.05) between the A/E and the air temperature. In his study, without water limitation, 'BRS Platinum' and 'Prata-Ana' had the same productivity (14,375 kg.ha-1) in the first cycle and maximum values for the next 20.6 and 22.2 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], respectively. In this study under the same conditions (local, level, population, spacing and original soil class), but with higher soil fertility and better management of plants, the maximum values of A for 'BRS Platinum' and 'Prata-Ana 'were higher, 26.44 and 25.52 [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.suv.-2][s.sub.-1] respectively. The yield in the first cycle was higher, 25.4 and 21.3 t.[ha.sup.-1], respectively.
For DaMatta (2007), the reduction of production is associated with a decline in photosynthetic rates induced by low water availability in the soil, either by a direct effect of dehydration in the photosynthetic apparatus or by an indirect effect through stomatal closure, which restricts the absorption of C[O.sub.2]. Santos et al. (2013) evaluated 'Tommy Atkins' mangos under different irrigation regimes in the same region of this study and concluded that the gas exchange influenced the growth, development and production and they were related to water conditions of the plant, depending on the soil water status and weather conditions.
The showed data highlight the significant influence of temperature on gas exchange, either in a direct way with protein denaturation or indirectly by the sensitivity of stomatal to the effect of steam pressure deficit. However, correlations between these characteristics are not always found.
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ALESSANDRO DE MAGALHAES ARANTES (2), SERGIO LUIZ RODRIGUES DONATO (2), DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA (3), EUGENIO FERREIRA COELHO (4) TANIA SANTOS SILVA (2)
(1) (Trabalho 076-15). Recebido em: 09-03-2015. Aceito para publicacao em: 17-08-2015.
(2) Instituto Federal Baiano--Campus Guanambi, Distrito de Ceraima, Caixa Postal 009, 46430-000, Guanambi--BA, E-mail: alessandro. email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
(3) Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Avenida P H. Rolfs, 36570-900, Vicosa--MG, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(4) Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Rua Embrapa s/n, Caixa Postal 007, CEP 44380-000, Cruz das Almas--BA, E-mail: email@example.com
TABLE 1--Leaf temperature (Tleaf), [degrees]C; transpiration rate (E), mmol H20 [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]; instantaneous efficiency of water use (A/E), [micro]mol C02 [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]/[(mmol [H.sub.2[0 [m.sup.-2[s.sup.-1]).sup.-1]; evaluated in the third leaf of Prata type, in the first and second production cycle in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012. Banana trees [T.sub.leaf] E A/E cultivars Maravilha 36.19 BC 6.40B 3.45 A BRS FHIA-18 36.57 B 6.57AB 3.26 AB FHIA-18 36.28 BC 6.41B 3.32 AB BRS Platina 37.39 A 7.04A 2.96 C 'Prata-Ana' 35.90 C 6.19B 3.35 AB JV42-135 36.65 B 6.52AB 3.16 BC CV (%) 5.30 26.12 22.10 * Averages followed by the same letter in columns do not differ from each other by Tukey test, 5% probability of error. TABLE 2--Radiation incident on the leaf surface (Qleaf), leaf temperature (Tleaf), transpiration rate (E), water use efficiency (A/E), and photochemical efficiency of photosynthesis (A/Qleaf), evaluated on the third leaf of banana trees type 'Prata' in the first and second production cycle, at 8h and 14h in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012. [Q.sub.leaf] [T.sub.leaf] ([micro]mol photons ([degrees]C) [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1]) Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 927.93Ca 485.65Db 32.45Eb 34.96Fa Nov 2010 1298.11Ha 1212.36Ba 39.23Ab 43.83Aa Dec 2010 543.72Db 1381.90Aa 31.021b 40.94Ba Jan 2011 1496.91Aa 1184.55Bb 37.53Ba 36.98Ea Feb 2011 1650.94Aa 1286.52Bb 36.08Cb 41.12Ba Mar 2011 1012.32Cb 1579.54Aa 35.27Cb 39.22Da Apr 2011 605.24Db 1088.84Ba 31.85Eb 38.45Da May 2011 975.25Ca 663.90Db 35.85Ca 35.73Fa Jun 2011 1229.08Bb 1460.66Aa 30.66Fb 38.86Da Jul-2011 1425.66Aa 1428.27Aa 30.46Fb 37.25Ea Aug 2011 1492.15Aa 1421.62Aa 33.50Db 41.29Ba Sep 2011 1334.12Ba 1196.86Ba 30.60Fb 40.04Ca Oct 2011 1271.75Ba 849.87Cb 31.20Fb 38.96Da Nov 2011 1037.72Ca 1081.65Ba 37.40Bb 41.22Ba CV (%) 33.28 5.30 E (mmol [H.sub.2]O A/E (([micro]mol [m.sup.-2] C[O.sub.2] [s.sup.-1]) [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) [(mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) .sup.-1]) Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 5.01Ca 3.58Gb 4.42Ca 3.52Ab Nov 2010 10.11Ab 11.96Aa 2.61Fa 1.52Db Dec 2010 3.91Db 9.20Ca 4.83Ba 2.30Cb Jan 2011 6.95Ba 5.43Fb 3.54Da 3.36Aa Feb 2011 5.64Cb 7.22Da 3.08Ea 1.80Db Mar 2011 4.09Db 6.91Ea 4.22Ca 2.72Bb Apr 2011 3.35Db 6.23Ea 5.30Aa 2.44Cb May 2011 6.80Ba 4.68Fb 3.10Ea 2.74Bb Jun 2011 4.7lCb 8.08Da 4.82Ba 2.26Cb Jul-2011 4.80Cb 7.55Da 4.92Ba 2.50Cb Aug 2011 6.09Bb 10.70Ba 4.10Ca 1.74Db Sep 2011 5.1lCb 9.40Ca 4.4ICa 1.80Db Oct 2011 4.24Db 6.77Ea 5.35Aa 2.33Cb Nov 2011 6.49Bb 7.55Da 3.23Ea 2.06Cb CV (%) 26.12 22.10 A/[Q.sub.leaf] ((([micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) ([micro]mol photons [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1])) Months 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.028Aa 0.028Ca Nov 2010 0.022Ba 0.017Da Dec 2010 0.037Aa 0.015Db Jan 2011 0.016Ba 0.016Da Feb 2011 0.0l0Ba 0.012Da Mar 2011 0.021Ba 0.013Da Apr 2011 0.030Aa 0.015Db May 2011 0.021Ba 0.022Ca Jun 2011 0.020Ba 0.01lDb Jul-2011 0.017Ba 0.017Da Aug 2011 0.016Ba 0.013Da Sep 2011 0.028Aa 0.034Ba Oct 2011 0.020Bb 0.056BAa Nov 2011 0.024Aa 0.017Da CV (%) 77.72 * Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case in line for hours did not differ significantl; by F test at 5% probability of error. TABLE 3--Stomatal conductance (gs), mol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1] evaluated on the third leaf of banana tree type Trata' in the first and second production cycle, at 8h and 14h in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012. Maravilha BRS FHIA-18 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.58Aa 0.15Bb 0.69Ba 0.16Bb Nov 2010 0.71Aa 0.38Ab l.0lAa 0.40Bb Dec 2010 0.43Ba 0.43Aa 0.35Ca 0.54Aa Jan 2011 0.65Aa 0.45Ab 0.58Ba 0.3lBb Feb 2011 0.32Ba 0.27Ba 0.31Ca 0.26Ba Mar 2011 0.34Bb 0.56Aa 0.31Ca 0.39Ba Apr 2011 0.32Ba 0.23Ba 0.37Ca 0.40Ba May 2011 0.51Aa 0.26Bb 0.55Ba 0.22Bb Jun 2011 0.50Aa 0.32Ba 0.57Ba 0.29Bb Jul 2011 0.46Ba 0.34Ba 0.55Ba 0.36Bb Aug 2011 0.60Aa 0.54Aa 0.61Ba 0.62Aa Sep 2011 0.38Ba 0.41Aa 0.54Ba 0.35Ba Oct 2011 0.53Aa 0.38Aa 0.53Ba 0.3lBb Nov 2011 0.58Aa 0.26Bb 0.40Ca 0.35Ba CV (%) 36.08 FHIA-18 BRS Platina Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.61Aa 0.14Bb 0.45Ba 0.14Bb Nov 2010 0.75Aa 0.34Bb 0.72Aa 0.43Ab Dec 2010 0.38Ba 0.56Ab 0.44Ba 0.47Aa Jan 2011 0.46Ba 0.32Ba 0.52Ba 0.25Bb Feb 2011 0.31Ba 0.28Ba 0.42Ba 0.25Ba Mar 2011 0.44Ba 0.47Aa 0.34Bb 0.55Aa Apr 2011 0.57Aa 0.42Aa 0.41Ba 0.43Aa May 2011 0.53Ba 0.22Ba 0.56Ba 0.27Bb Jun 2011 0.48Ba 0.50Ab 0.49Ba 0.30Ba Jul 2011 0.70Aa 0.4lAa 0.43Ba 0.39Aa Aug 2011 0.60Aa 0.5lAb 0.55Ba 0.35Bb Sep 2011 0.45Ba 0.26Ba 0.65Aa 0.29Bb Oct 2011 0.42Ba 0.35Ba 0.41Ba 0.35Ba Nov 2011 0.48Ba 0.23Ba 0.81Aa 0.28Bb CV (%) 36.08 'Prata-Ana' JV42-135 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.49Ca 0.18Bb 0.43Ba 0.17Bb Nov 2010 0.86Aa 0.42Ab 0.73Aa 0.32Ab Dec 2010 0.49Ca 0.48Aa 0.39Ba 0.38Aa Jan 2011 0.63Ba 0.40Ab 0.62Aa 0.35Ab Feb 2011 0.37Ca 0.24Ba 0.39Ba 0.19Bb Mar 2011 0.33Ca 0.42Aa 0.30Bb 0.50Aa Apr 2011 0.34Ca 0.28Ba 0.33Ba 0.30Ba May 2011 0.44Ca 0.24Bb 0.47Ba 0.12Bb Jun 2011 0.43Ca 0.45Aa 0.60Aa 0.45Aa Jul 2011 0.46Ca 0.32Bb 0.55Aa 0.39Aa Aug 2011 0.52Ca 0.52Aa 0.75Aa 0.50Ab Sep 2011 0.33Ca 0.39Aa 0.42Ba 0.47Aa Oct 2011 0.47Ca 0.28Ba 0.56Aa 0.26Bb Nov 2011 0.29Cb 0.55Aa 0.45Ba 0.34Aa CV (%) 36.08 * Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case in line for hours did not differ significantly by F test at 5% probability of error. TABLE 4--Photosynthesis rate (A), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2][s.sup.-1], evaluated on the third leaf of 'Prata' type banana in the first and second production cycle, at 8h and 14h in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012. Maravilha BRS FHIA-18 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 26.21Aa 13.02Bb 26.67Aa 11.91Bb Nov 2010 24.47Aa 17.45Ab 26.21Aa 18.30Ab Dec 2010 18.79Ba 19.88Aa 19.50Ba 20.56Aa Jan 2011 27.10Aa 20.95Ab 24.68Aa 17.15Ab Feb 2011 14.77Ba 14.11Bb 15.65Ba 12.88Ba Mar 2011 19.20Ba 21.72Aa 16.15Ba 15.75Ba Apr 2011 16.25Ba 11.66Ba 16.87Ba 15.74Ba Mai 2011 20.16Ba 14.14Bb 21.29Aa 12.76Bb Jun 2011 20.69Ba 16.96Aa 23.83Aa 12.94Bb Jul 2011 21.82Ba 18.54Aa 25.16Aa 18.03Ab Aug 2011 24.22Aa 14.74Bb 24.34Aa 20.82Aa Sep 2011 20.70Ba 19.44Aa 25.11Aa 14.71Bb Oct 2011 25.52Aa 1872Ab 25.44Aa 15.67Bb Nov 2011 21.44Ba 12.56Bb 18.00Ba 16.74Aa CV (%) 22.26 FHIA-18 BRS Platina Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 23.16Aa 11.07Bb 18.02Ba 12.44Bb Nov 2010 24.23Aa 17.92Ab 22.93Aa 18.77Aa Dec 2010 18.26Ba 21.76Aa 14.92Ba 19.30Aa Jan 2011 21.81Aa 18.09Aa 25.51Aa 15.70Bb Feb 2011 15.60Ba 14.75Ba 20.54Ba 12.19Bb Mar 2011 19.41Ba 17.90Aa 18.77Ba 21.19Aa Apr 2011 16.73Ba 17.21Aa 19.44Ba 18.84Aa Mai 2011 21.04Aa 12.02Bb 21.17Ba 14.64Bb Jun 2011 22.14Aa 21.00Aa 21.85Aa 14.15Bb Jul 2011 25.74Aa 19.46Ab 21.00Ba 19.47Aa Aug 2011 24.14Aa 19.07Aa 23.09Aa 17.06Ab Sep 2011 22.91Aa 13.43Bb 26.44Aa 15.50Bb Oct 2011 20.32Ba 14.24Bb 19.92Ba 15.19Ba Nov 2011 19.82Ba 11.65Bb 23.13Aa 13.20Bb CV (%) 22.26 'Prata-Ana' JV42-135 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 20.25Aa 13.38Bb 17.05Ba 13.66Ba Nov 2010 25.52Aa 20.07Ab 22.89Aa 15.23Bb Dec 2010 20.92Aa 19.65Aa 19.72Ba 16.80Aa Jan 2011 22.25Aa 19.81Aa 24.62Aa 18.29Ab Feb 2011 19.01Aa 12.60Bb 18.64Ba 10.20Cb Mar 2011 13.53Ba 15.89Ba 16.78Ba 17.30Aa Apr 2011 15.81Ba 13.34Ba 16.51Ba 14.76Ba Mai 2011 19.41Aa 13.26Bb 20.55Ba 8.28Cb Jun 2011 21.07Aa 19.84Aa 23.21Aa 19.65Aa Jul 2011 22.34Aa 17.32Ab 24.19Aa 18.88Ab Aug 2011 23.27Aa 20.56Aa 26.53Aa 18.38Ab Sep 2011 19.23Aa 17.20Aa 19.84Ba 19.99Aa Oct 2011 22.80Aa 12.99Bb 22.21An 13.87Bb Nov 2011 14.38Ab 19.60Aa 19.87Ba 14.95Bb CV (%) 22.26 * Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case in line for hours did not differ significantly by F test at 5% probability of error. TABLE 5--Efficiency of carboxylation (A/Ci), [micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [m.sup.-2.[s.sup.-1]/[micro]mol C[O.sub.2] [mol.sup.-1], evaluated on the third leaf of 'Prata' type banana in the first and second production cycle, at 8h and 14h, in Guanambi, BA, 2010-2012. Maravilha BRS FHIA-18 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.12Aa 0.06Bb 0.11Aa 0.05Bb Nov 2010 0.10Aa 0.08Aa 0.11Aa 0.08Aa Dec 2010 0.08Ba 0.09Aa 0.09Ba 0.09Aa Jan 2011 0.13Aa 0.10Ab 0.12Aa 0.08Ab Feb 2011 0.06Ba 0.06Ba 0.07Ba 0.06Ba Mar 2011 0.08Ba 0.10Aa 0.07Ba 0.07Ba Apr 2011 0.07Ba 0.05Ba 0.07Ba 0.06Ba May 2011 0.09Ba 0.06Ba 0.09Aa 0.06Bb Jun 2011 0.08Ba 0.07Aa 0.10Aa 0.05Bb Jul 2011 0.09Ba 0.08Aa 0.11Aa 0.08Ab Aug 2011 0.10Aa 0.06Bb 0.11Aa 0.09Aa Sep 2011 0.09Ba 0.09Aa 0.11Aa 0.06Bb Oct 2011 0.11Aa 0.08Ab 0.12Aa 0.07Bb Nov 2011 0.09Ba 0.05Bb 0.07Ba 0.07Aa CV (%) 25.20 FHIA-18 BRS Platina Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.09Aa 0.05Bb 0.07Ca 0.06Ba Nov 2010 0.10Aa 0.08Aa 0.10Aa 0.09Aa Dec 2010 0.07Ba 0.10Aa 0.05Cb 0.09Aa Jan 2011 0.11Aa 0.09Aa 0.13Ba 0.08Ab Feb 2011 0.07Ba 0.07Ba 0.09Ba 0.05Bb Mar 2011 0.08Ba 0.08Aa 0.09Ba 0.10Aa Apr 2011 0.07Ba 0.07Aa 0.09Ba 0.08Aa May 2011 0.09Aa 0.05Bb 0.10Ba 0.07Bb Jun 2011 0.10Aa 0.09Aa 0.10Ba 0.06Bb Jul 2011 0.11Aa 0.08Aa 0.09Ba 0.09Aa Aug 2011 0.10Aa 0.08Aa 0.10Ba 0.08Aa Sep 2011 0.10Aa 0.06Bb 0.12Aa 0.07Bb Oct 2011 0.08Ba 0.06Bb 0.09Ba 0.06Ba Nov 2011 0.08Ba 0.05Bb 0.09Ba 0.05Bb CV (%) 25.20 'Prata-Ana' JV42-135 Months 08:00 14:00 08:00 14:00 Oct 2010 0.08Aa 0.06Ba 0,07Ba 0.07Aa Nov 2010 0.11Aa 0.09Aa 0.09Aa 0.06Ab Dec 2010 0.09Aa 0.09Aa 0.08Ba 0.07Aa Jan 2011 0.10Aa 0.10Aa 0.10Aa 0.09Ab Feb 2011 0.09Aa 0.06Bb 0.07Ba 0.04Bb Mar 2011 0.05Ba 0.07Ba 0.08Ba 0.07Aa Apr 2011 0.06Ba 0.06Ba 0.07Ba 0.07Aa May 2011 0.09Aa 0.06Bb 0.07Aa 0.04Bb Jun 2011 0.09Aa 0.09Aa 0.08Aa 0.08Aa Jul 2011 0.09Aa 0.08Aa 0.09Aa 0.08Aa Aug 2011 0.10Aa 0.09Aa 0.09Aa 0.08Ab Sep 2011 0.09Aa 0.07Aa 0.08Ba 0.09Aa Oct 2011 0.10Aa 0.05Bb 0.08Ba 0.06Ab Nov 2011 0.06Ba 0.08Ab 0.07Ba 0.06Aa CV (%) 25.20 * Averages followed by capital letters equal in the column for months, they belong to the same group by the criterion of Skott-Knott at 5% probability of error and lower case in line for hours did not differ significantly by F test at 5% probability of error.
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|Title Annotation:||texto en ingles|
|Author:||Arantes, Alessandro De Magalhaes; Donato, Sergio Luiz Rodrigues; De Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes; Coelho, E|
|Publication:||Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2016|
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