GPS-based geographic addressing, routing, and resource discovery.
GPS cards will soon be included in cars manufactured in the U.S. and Europe and possibly in every other form of mobile computer as well. A user's location will be another piece of information--as common as the date is today--getting input from the GPS when outdoors and from other location-providing devices when indoors. The availability of location information will have a broad effect on both application-level and network-level software. Possible new services and functions include geographic messaging, advertising, and resource discovery.
Geographic messaging is the ability to send a message selectively to specific geographic subareas defined by latitude and longitude--for example, sending an emergency message to everyone in a specific area, such as a building, train station, or highway. The ability to send a message to a distinct geographical area would make it possible to perform geographically targeted advertising through the Internet. For example, a business might want to advertise a given service only to clients within a certain geographic range, say, within two miles of the company's store. Conversely, users could use geographic messaging to locate services or resources within a geographical region, such as in their direct proximity. One can imagine a "Who is around?" service that would locate and identify the people present in a given geographic area. Assuming that terminals are also equipped with cameras, users could point their terminals in a specific direction and get annotation (links) on and to the objects displayed by camera viewers; the whole external world could be viewed as one large Web page, so a building, for example, might include a link explaining its business function. Links could also be attached to mobile objects appearing on the camera viewer.
To support such applications, location has to be a first-class citizen in networking protocols, like the Internet Protocol (IP) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and those in the application layer. Routing protocols for geographic messages should therefore be developed to allow routing to a specific area defined by a polygon of geographic coordinates. Location should also be a parameter in Web access protocols to deliver pages on servers within a given distance from the user. Distance-based Web bookmarks could help define the relevance of Web pages by using distance as an extra criterion when accessing material on the Web.
Our main objective here is to show how new services and new network functions could emerge as a consequence of location being universally available to mobile terminals. But how do the protocols have to be rewritten to support location-aware services, such as geographic messaging, geographic service discovery, and geographic service advertising? Geographic routing is a key requirement, and the exact routing mechanisms to make it happen are critical. We also look into geocasting, or broadcasting to geographical areas defined as arbitrary polygons, as well as the intersection of geocasting and multicasting.
Linking an IP address with a geographic location has been of interest to network researchers for quite some time. The first attempt to design a system that routes packets according to their geographic destination, and the work most like ours, was dubbed "Cartesian routing" by Gregory Finn in 1987 . Xerox's PARC research laboratory also pioneered location-dependent services .
The recently proposed redesign of IP and the advent of the GPS [11,12] has given new impetus for this work. In the proposed redesign of IP , IP address type space was specifically allocated for geographic addresses [3, 9] that would be assigned to sub-nets and hosts based on geographic criteria. However, the sender of a "geographic message" would be unicasting messages only to hosts with geographic IP addresses. Our methods seek to provide the more general ability of sending a message to all recipients within a geographical area, regardless of whether or not the hosts have geographical addresses.
2D geographic positioning offers latitude and longitude information as a 2D vector < latitude, longitude >, where longitude ranges from -- 180 [degrees] (west) to 180 [degrees] (east) and latitude ranges from -- 90 [degrees] (south) to 90 [degrees] (north). Thus, < 40. 48640, -- 74.44513 > are the geographic coordinates for New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A.
Assuming the use of single precision floating-point numbers, 4B of addressing space are needed to store latitude and 4B to store longitude. Thus, a total of only 8B are needed to address the Earth's entire surface with precision down to 0.1 mile. A destination geographic address would be represented by some dosed polygon, such as: point; circle (center point, radius); polygon (point1, point2, ... , pointn-1, [point.sub.n], [point.sub.1]), where each vertex of the polygon is represented by geographic coordinates. This notation would be used to send a message to everyone or to a group of people within a specified geographical area defined by the closed polygon.
Consider sending a message to the city hall of Fresno, Calif. We would specify its geographic limits as a series of connected lines forming a dosed polygon surrounding city hall. Therefore, the address of Fresno city hall could look like: polygon([36.80,-- 119.80], [36.85,--119.76],...)
In this hypothetical Fresno scenario, a user interacts with a zoomable map through a graphical user interface. The address of the message is specified as a polygon on the map. The polygon is then translated into geographic coordinates, and the message is sent to clients located within the bounds of that polygon. Figure 1 shows such a scenario, in which a polygon is drawn around the banks of a river.
[Figure 1 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
In trying to deliver a message to any geographical destination, three basic types of solutions seem to work best--the geographic routing method, the geographic-multicast routing method, and the domain name service (DNS) method. We chose these solutions so the necessary geographic routing infrastructure in the Internet would vary from very little to significant. So far, we have implemented geographically aware software routers employing the geographic routing method. Evaluations of these geographic routers were published in  and demonstrated to the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and members of the DARPA research community during the DARPA/ITO Global Mobility (GloMo) meetings in 1997 and 1998.
All three of these solutions assume users can determine their own locations. While outdoors, they can use the GPS to determine their locations. When indoors, they have to use a different method; one possible solution is for each room in any building to include a radio beacon embedded in its ceiling. Each beacon would have its own geographic address, which it would broadcast periodically. The geographic address of the mobile hosts would be the same as that of the beacon. Therefore, mobile users would have an associated geographic address, even though they are indoors and their GPS modules are useless.
Geographic routing method. For routing, the GEO (short for geographic) routing method uses the geographic destination area information directly, in a form represented by a closed polygon, and includes it in the header information of a geographic message. Ideally, geographic routing would be implemented as part of the Network Layer (Layer 3) of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocol stack. However, to facilitate research and testing, we implemented the routing and forwarding logic in GEO as an application-layer software router. The software routers are designed to create a virtual internetwork overlaid onto the current IP network by using multicasting to discover neighbor routers and IP tunnels to transport data packets through areas that do not support geographic routing.
The GEO system includes three main components: GeoRouters, GeoHosts, and GeoNodes (see Figure 2). GeoRouters, or geographic routers, are in charge of moving a geographic message from a sender to a set of receivers. They are essentially IP routers that are geographically aware. Each is charged with performing geographic routing functions for the networks to which it is attached directly. Each GeoRouter keeps track of the geographic area it services (called its service area) by calculating the union of the geographic areas covered by the networks attached to it. A GeoRouter's service area is represented as a single simple dosed polygon whose vertices are denoted by geographic coordinates.
[Figure 2 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
Before a geographic router can determine where to forward an incoming packet, it must first have a routing table containing information about the network topology and geography. Several protocols are available today for discovering the network topology and automatically configuring a routing table; they can be adapted to distribute a router's geographic location information, in addition to the other information already being passed along. For the purposes of geographic messaging, we extended the popular Routing Information Protocol (RIP) to include geographic location information. Using this protocol, which we call GeoRIP, a router has a routing table entry for each destination in the network. Each entry contains information on a destination's geographic location, its IP address, the shortest number of intermediate routers between the current router and the destination, and the preferred neighbor router to use as the next step on the path to the destination.
When forwarding an incoming packet, a router uses the routing table information to determine where the final destinations for the message reside and which neighbor routers have to be sent a copy of the packet. First, the geographic router uses the information in the routing table to search for and discover where to send the packet. The router then creates a list of the neighbor routers on the shortest paths to the destinations, and a copy of the message is sent to each neighbor router on the list. When a geographic message has been forwarded all the way from the sender to all the receivers, the routers will have created a shortest-path routing tree with the root at the sender and the leaves at all the receivers.
In order to reduce forwarding costs, the router keeps a cache of the next-hop destinations of the most recent geographic message packets. When a router receives a geographic message packet, it uses the incoming packet's sender IP address and destination polygon together as a key into the cache. If this is not the first packet to arrive for this destination and if the timer on the cache entry has not yet expired, the cache returns a list of all of the neighbor routers to which copies of the packet must be sent.
GeoHost software, which has to be installed on all computer hosts, consists of an application programming interface (API) and a location-monitoring process. The API can be used to create programs for sending and receiving geographic messages. The location-monitoring process continually updates the host computer's knowledge of its location by interfacing with GPS devices (if available) and by determining the address of the local geographic router.
A GeoNode is a buffer for messages whose lifetimes are due to expire. The GeoNode's main function is storing incoming geographic messages with lifetimes greater than zero for the duration of their lifetimes and periodically multicasting them on all the subnets or wireless cells to which they are attached. Each subnet and each wireless cell would have at most one GeoNode; it could also lack a GeoNode, but the geographic messages would lack lifetime expirations. The sender of the message would specify the lifetime of a geographic message; specifying message lifetimes might be necessary, because mobile receivers of geographic messages might arrive at the message destination some time after the geographic message first arrives.
Moreover, because several geographic messages would probably reside in a GeoNode at one time, the multicasting of the various messages would have to be scheduled. The scheduling algorithm would have to take into account the size of the message, its priority, and the speed of the subnet's transport medium. The GeoNode stores the message locally and assigns a multicast group to it. It periodically multicasts the message schedule to a well-known group address and multicasts each message to its assigned group. The GeoHosts receive the message schedule and determine whether the host computer is located inside the message's destination area. Software clients that want to receive a geographic message would then-tune in to the appropriate multicast group to receive it.
In Figure 3, a user on Rutgers University's Busch Campus wants to send a message to the destination polygon around the Rutgers College Ave. Campus. The message is first passed to the Busch Campus router. Using the information in its routing table, the router determines that it does not service the target area, but it also realizes that the College Ave. router services the destination area. So it forwards the message to the county router, because the county router is the next router on the shortest path to the destination. Using the same algorithm, the county router decides to forward the message to the College Ave. router. The College Ave. router then transmits the message to all the wireless cells intersecting the destination area.
[Figure 3 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
Geographic-multicast routing method. The geographic-multicast routing method leverages the power of multicasting to transport geographic messages to their destinations. We use two terms--"atoms" and "partitions"--to describe its operation. Atoms are the smallest geographical areas with geographic-multicast addresses. Partitions are larger geographical areas that also have geographic addresses. A state, county, or town might constitute a partition. Partitions and atoms are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Each partition contains either a whole number of atoms or a whole number of smaller partitions. The sizes and shapes of the atoms and partitions are determined by the density of subnets and wireless cells in a particular geographic area.
Each partition and atom would have a geographic-multicast address for use by routers. By "geographic-multicast address," we mean each partition and atom would be mapped to a multicast address. The multicast group address would be chosen so it could be calculated using the geographic position of the atom or partition. With the large address space available through IPv. 6, the multicast address itself could be encoded using longitude and latitude, simplifying the calculation of the appropriate group address for an atom or partition. Every GeoNode has to join the multicast groups for the atoms and partitions intersecting its geographic range. Thus, a GeoNode has to know not only its own range but also information about the partitions intersecting its range. The key idea here is to approximate the destination polygon with the smallest partition or atom that contains it and use the multicast address corresponding to that partition or atom as the address of that message. Since the partition or atom being used is only an approximation of the destination polygon, some GeoNodes outside the destination polygon erroneously receive the geographic messages.
In order to counter the erroneous receipt of messages, the original destination polygon is inserted into the multicast packet body. The GeoNodes then use the destination polygon to determine whether they should have actually received the message; if not, the message is ignored.
Multicast group information has to be propagated carefully. Because of the large number of atoms and partitions and the resulting large number of multicast groups, we will modify the Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) , which is slated by the Internet Engineering Task Force to be the future standard multicast protocol. PIM-SM is meant to be used in wide-area networks, networks in which bandwidth is poor, and multicast groups with few or widely scattered members. PIM-SM assumes that not everyone wants to receive the multicast packets and relies on explicit join messages from group members. As a result, PIM-SM has the advantage of having to send multicast packets only to where they have been requested and not having to broadcast the initial packets, as the current multicast protocol does. PIM-SM is similar to core-based multicast trees  in that it uses a rendezvous point (RP) to arrange meetings between senders and receivers of a multicast group. This RP also becomes the root of a sparsely populated multicast tree, with the multicast group members being the leaves of the tree. All senders ship their packets to the RP for distribution.
The current PIM proposal calls for the RP to be selected by the first member of the group set to receive the message. Alternative RPs are also selected in case the primary RP fails. The PIM-SM specifications call for the multicast group address and its list of primary and alternative RPs to be broadcast to all PIM routers. However, we have extended the PIM specification by implementing the following intuitive guideline: The smaller the size of the partition or atom, the more locally the information about that partition or atom is propagated. Thus, only multicast group membership for very large partitions or atoms would be propagated across the country or around the world.
Domain name server solution. This solution relies on having the DNS add geographic information to DNS servers. These servers will provide the full directory information down to the level of the IP address of each GeoNode and its area of coverage.
A new first-level domain--we call ".geo"--is added to the set of first-level domains. Second-level domain names represent states, third-level names counties, and, finally, fourth-level names polygons of geographic coordinates. We can also allow polygons to occur as elements of second- or third-level domains to enable the sending of messages to larger areas. Thus, a typical geographic address can look like cityhall-Palo-Alto. San-Mateo-County. California.geo or Polygon. San-Mateo-County. California.geo, where Polygon is a sequence of coordinates.
This geographic address is resolved into a set of IP addresses of the GeoNodes covering a particular geographic area. Depending on the size of the message, the geographic destination may be transported to the GeoNodes in one of two ways. A small message is sent as a set of unicast messages to all of the GeoNodes corresponding to the addresses returned by the DNS. For a large message, it is more efficient to first ask all of these GeoNodes to join a temporary multicast group for the geographic area specified in the message; the message content is then sent to that multicast group.
Geographic email. The geographic email (GeoMail) application demonstrates the use of geographic routing, allowing users to send text messages to any geographic destination (see Figure 4). GeoMail also displays the geographical valid area for the message and displays the user's current position. When the user's position intersects the destination polygon of a geographic message, the GeoMail program receives the message and displays its contents.
[Figure 4 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
Geo-multicasting. While geocasting is an important service, it is more likely we will multicast, rather than broadcast, into geographic areas. For example, we would probably be more interested in reaching all motorists or all police cars on a specific stretch of highway than in trying to reach everybody who happens to be online at that moment. This reaching of target recipients will be accomplished through geographically directed multicasting. Both geocasting methods described earlier can be modified to accommodate geo-multicasting. GeoRouters can also be used to maintain information about multicast group memberships. Our geographic-multicasting solution can also be extended to handle arbitrary multicasting groups in conjunction with partitions and atoms. Other solutions are also possible, based on a concept of area codes analogous to those used in telephony today.
Geographic-based service querying and advertising. Future mobile users will need information pertinent to their locations. Such information includes maps of the local area, traffic conditions, and tourist destinations, as well as a list of local restaurants or other commercial establishments. With the rapid growth of the volume and diversity of data, future users will find it increasingly difficult to discover or know in advance the correct servers to go to in order to obtain the location-dependent information they want. As businesses become directly connected to the Internet, the sought-after information sources will be collocated with the businesses providing them. In such a future, a geographic routing-enabled Internet would allow services based on geography or distance.
Geographic-based services would entail distributing or finding information within a geographical area. Note that since we assume the information servers will be collocated with the individual or business providing the information, we also assume that the information in those geographically close servers will contain information of greater relevance to the user's current location. Therefore, geographic-based services optimize the relevance of the information being gathered rather than the network resources used to obtain the information; the geographic proximity of the information does not, however, imply the information servers are nearby in terms of network topology. Such geographic-based services might include advertising to a specific geographical region, such as only within a certain distance from the server. A restaurant or store could advertise its menu or merchandise to travelers on nearby streets and highways. Software clients (and human users) could also request services in a specific geographic region, such as only within a certain distance from their current locations. For example, a user could request local tourist information, such as maps or directions to monuments and buildings.
Universal deployment of GPS will significantly influence various levels of Internet protocols, starting at the network layer (IP) and going all the way to the application layer. We are currently implementing several approaches to geographic routing through DARPA's GloMo program.
When it comes to service discovery based on location and distance, we assume that the location service will someday be as universal as the date service is today. Maps with users' current locations will be as routine as clocks on computer screens today. And location functions will be bound not only to the GPS but to other location-providing devices, including radio beacons and location servers. The result could be that location is provided in areas where GPS works today, so the inside of buildings would be part of the future API, just as the date is today. Programmers would be able to write applications triggered by changes of location or using location and distance as Web search criteria. We have developed such APIs to make it possible for programmers to create location-dependent information services for our GloMo-sponsored DataMan project and to effectively introduce location in message addressing, as well as in service discovery.
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TOMASZ IMIELINSKI (email@example.com) is a professor in and chair of the Computer Science Department at Rutgers University in Piscataway, N.J.
JULIO C. NAVAS (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a research assistant in the Computer Science Department at Rutgers University in Piscataway, N.J.
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|Title Annotation:||Internet/Web/Online Service Information; Global Positioning System|
|Publication:||Communications of the ACM|
|Date:||Apr 1, 1999|
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