Printer Friendly


1. Introduction

The research field of gender studies has grown over time to become a specific subject in some university programs in several countries, such as India (Nagalia, 2018), Spain (Verge & Cabruja, 2017), Sweden (Soderlund & Madison, 2015), and the Netherlands (Pavlidou, 2011), among others. Specifically, in Spain, despite not having a research unit offering institutional support and funding for this specific discipline, as is the case in other countries, i.e. some in Northern Europe (Lombardo, 2016; Soderlund & Madison, 2015), there has been a clear increase in scientific and academic research pertaining to gender over the past few years. At the same time, from a structural perspective, equality plans have been implemented at Spanish universities in order to eliminate the gender gap and promote the participation of women in the scientific field. Notwithstanding this, there is still much work to be done in order to eradicate gender inequalities in the academic sphere (Pastor Gosalbez & Acosta Sarmiento, 2016).

Turning to the research issues that are the primary focus of this paper, in such diverse disciplines as medicine, sociology, psychology, history and education, to name but a few, the so-called "gender and women's studies" (1) have gradually come to the fore in scientific research, contributing new approaches, objects of study and methodologies. Communication as a field of study has followed the same trend, as can be seen in the number of works published in recent decades about cyberspace as a symbolic site of social and feminist debate (Rodriguez-Darias & Aguilera-Avila, 2017; Weber, 2014; Reader, 2012) or focusing on communication as a tool for the eradication of gender violence (Luengo, 2018; Rodriguez-Perez & Gutierrez, 2017; Lindsay-Brisbin, Deprince & Welton-Mitchell, 2014; Wozniak & McCloskey, 2010; Carlyle, Slater & Chakroff, 2008), among many other examples.

At an international level, the first study of the state of the research in the fields of communication and gender studies which we have been able to find dates from 1983, shortly after high-quality journals had started to publish papers on women's studies. At that time, these kinds of works usually covered the following topics: a) Historical treatment of women; b) Sex differences; c) Images of women in the media; d) Education and pedagogy; and e) Surveys and integrated works. Their authors called for the need to perform more discourse analyses, as well as more studies of women's movements; they also speculated about "those women heretofore neglected in [...] journals" (Foss & Foss, 1983: 200). More recently, a number of interesting studies have been conducted in France, where Julliard (2016) argues that communication and gender studies mostly adopt a semiotic approach, analyzing the media construction of gender. However, even though gender studies were not so popular there before the turn of the century, more interdisciplinary research approaches have emerged since then, including those specifically focusing on the role of the media (Biscarrat, 2015). Furthermore, having analyzed the works addressing gender studies within the field of communication in France and Latin America, Hernandez Orellana (2018) argues that despite representing very different sociopolitical contexts and research traditions, research on gender and the Internet is on the increase in both areas. The Latin American case, for its part, stands out because of the interest of researchers in studying the media agenda on feminism.

In Spain, feminist approaches have gradually made inroads in the field of communication--as with others such as sociology (DiFrancesco & Ochoa, 2017) and psychology (Gartzia & Lopez-Zafra, 2014). Therefore, our aim here is to use scientific production to gauge the evolution of gender and women's studies in this field. To this end, and on the basis of previous works using biometric and meta-analytical approaches to communication in a broad sense, we will focus on gender and communication studies in order to analyze academic production in this respect in Spanish communication journals.

It should also be noted that Spain has been a pioneer in equality laws. So, besides offering a general overview of communication and gender research in the Spanish context, the importance of our study lies precisely in the comparison between the political commitment to eradicate gender inequality and how this has been reciprocated in academic production. Another of our aims is to replicate the study in other countries in order to plot a descriptive-comparative global map.

Our study has resulted from the need to evaluate the track record of gender studies in the field of communication in Spain over the past few decades--what is studied, who researches, which techniques and methodologies are employed, etc.--for the purpose of assessing the presence, evolution and characteristics of an increasingly more relevant area of scientific interest in communication research.
The interest in determining the state of the research in any field of
scientific knowledge should be taken as an indicator of its maturity.
Even more so, when that effort is not limited to a mere description of
what is being done, but proposes a critical evaluation to determine in
some way the quality of what is being done. (Martinez Nicolas & Saperas
Lapiedra, 2011)

2. Objectives

The objectives are as follows:

1. To quantify the number of papers dedicated to women's and gender studies in the top Spanish communication journals, specifically those indexed in JCR and SJR, the two most important rankings employed to measure journal quality and impact.

2. To assess the gender biases that may exist in current communication and gender research in the Spanish scientific journals under study.

3. To identify the main methodological aspects of communication and gender research in Spain.

4. To assess the international collaboration and adaptation to foreign languages of communication and gender research in Spain.

3. Hypothesis

In line with the approaches proposed by Reigada Olaizola and Sanchez Leyva (2007), the principal aim of this work, which is based on the assumption that gender studies are still being sidelined in Spanish communication research, is to provide fresh data and observations in this regard.

4. Literature Review

4.1. PhD dissertations

When trying to gauge the importance of a discipline or a field of study, there is clear evidence that doctoral programs and dissertations have definitively contributed to the production of new knowledge in that field (Kitch & Fonow, 2012: 99). In this regard, according to the most exhaustive studies performed to date, 624 PhD theses relating to gender and women's studies were defended in Spain from 1975 to 2005 (2) (De Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2007, 2005). This is solely an estimate owing to the fact that the searches were mostly performed in the automated repertory TESEO which, despite being "the most reliable and comprehensive currently available" (De Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2007: 13), does not contain exhaustive data--some of which are erroneous or, at best, incomplete--on indexed PhD theses. Notwithstanding this, the figure provided by De Torres Ramirez and Torres Salinas can be regarded as representative of the total number of theses on gender studies defended in Spain until 2005, insofar as it is the result of applying a rigorous methodology (3) based on a complex search algorithm, further supplemented by new searches and a thorough examination of the provisional results.

Although the research area called "women's studies" does not have a long tradition in Spain, it can be argued that it constitutes a well-established field of knowledge that is steadily gaining ground, as reflected in the data provided by the aforementioned studies: the average increase in PhD theses on gender and women's studies is 0.914, a "practically exponential growth" (De Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2007: 17), since compared with the 17 defended between 1976 and 1985, there were 73 dissertations only in 2004.

When the same research algorithm, as the one employed by De Torres Ramirez and Torres Salinas, (4) is applied when searching for theses defended between the academic years 2005-2006 and 2017-2018, with the aim of supplementing the data until the present day, Teseo yields a total of 234 results. However, it would be absolutely essential to conduct a comprehensive review, such as those performed in the reference works, in order to discard theses that are invalid for any number of reasons. (5)

As for PhD theses on communication from a general perspective, Jones et al. (2000) published an in-depth study spanning the years 1926-1998. Using a bibliometric approach, the authors provide information on 1550 PhD dissertations focusing on communication in Spain. Some of the elements and perspectives researched in this work have also been applied to later studies: for instance, sex disaggregation of author data or universities where doctoral theses have been defended (Caffarel, Ortega & Gaitan, 2018; Caffarel-Serra, Ortega-Mohedano & Gaitan-Moya, 2017). Besides, other bibliometric studies focusing on more specific areas within the field of communication have been conducted over the past years (Castillo & Xifra, 2006; Repiso, Delgado-Lopez-Cozar & Torres-Salinas, 2011a; Repiso, Delgado-Lopez-Cozar & Torres-Salinas, 2011b), as well as more comprehensive ones analyzing the general situation of PhD theses in Spain (Sanz-Casado, 2018; Blazquez, 2015; Fuentes Pujol & Arguimbau Vivo, 2010). Generally speaking, these works with a broader perspective point to a huge increase in the number of doctoral dissertations defended at Spanish universities--increasing by 180.03% between 2007 and 2016 (Sanz-Casado, 2018: 37)--in which the thematic area of "social and legal sciences" (which includes the field of communication) comes in a meritorious second place, representing 22.5% of the total number of PhD theses defended between 1997 and 2008 (Fuentes-Pujol & Aguimbau-Vivo, 2010: 68).

Returning to gender and women's studies, noting yet again the difficulties that arise when attempting to gather rigorous and reliable data on PhD theses--and, more generally, on scientific production--relating to this field of knowledge in Spain, (6) we confirm that there is an urgent need to introduce a specific field for this topic in the TESEO classification system. (7) Besides, this is not only a Spanish problem but also needs to be dealt with at an international level: the European repertory "DART"--containing more than 766,000 open access research theses from 613 universities in 28 European countries--and the Latin American website "Portal de Tesis Latino-americanas"--providing access to electronic PhD theses available in full text from several Latin American countries--encounter similar difficulties in providing accurate data on dissertations relating to women's, gender and feminist studies.

This classification problem also affects other reputed scientific databases, like Scopus or Web of Science, because as Soderlund & Madison (2015) have remarked:
[...] there is no established or well-defined way to categorize gender
studies from other disciplines. The Scopus database, for instance,
provides no way of performing a general search for gender or women's
studies. Thomson's Web of Science has a research area called 'Women's
studies,' but it seems not to discriminate gender studies well, since
for example journals dedicated to women's health from a medical
perspective are also included. (1351)

From a more general point of view, for Kitch (2003) the exclusion of women's studies from the world of research is due to several factors: for instance, the disjuncture between women's studies and research on women and gender, as reflected in the weekly listing of new books in the Chronicle of Higher Education:
Although that feature does sometimes contain a category called 'women's
studies,' most often, new scholarship about women or gender is parceled
out to categories such as 'political science,' 'religion,' or
'sociology,' even if the research behind the books is arguably
interdisciplinary. [...] Another sign of women's studies' exclusion
from the world of research is its absence as a category in lists of
prospective grants or fundable projects by most foundations or
agencies. (Kitch, 2003: 435)

As Kwasnik has stated, classifications are always created in a specific sociopolitical context that involves a hierarchy and, for that matter, the organization of concepts defines a concrete worldview that contributes to shape the minds of the people who consult such classifications (Kwasnik, in Munoz, 2004: 48). Above and beyond the influence that classifications may have on the way people think, and given the growing interest in gender studies (Ortiz Gomez, 2004, 1999; Ballarin Domingo, Gallego Mendez & Martinez Benlloch, 1995), this paper stresses the need to standardize specialized repositories in order to facilitate full and direct access to the studies that have been performed in Spain (and beyond) in a wide range of disciplines--multidisciplinarity is one of the most defining characteristics of this field of knowledge (Hawkesworth, 2011)--since the introduction of women's studies in university curricula at the end of the 1970s.

4.2. Research production

The greater attention now paid by researchers to gender studies is reflected not only in the growing number of PhD theses defended in this field, but also in other data as significant for academic production as the following:

1. The gradual appearance in Spain of journals and platforms specializing in these topics: Feminismo/s, published by the University of Alicante since 2003; Cuestiones de Genero: de la igualdady la diferencia, first published in 2005 by the University of Leon; DUODA. Estudios de la Diferencia Sexual, one of the pioneering journals published by the University of Barcelona since 1990; and Asparkia: investigacion feminista, created by the Jaume I University in Castellon in 1998, among many others.

2. The proliferation of monographs in non-specialized journals focusing on gender. At a state level and merely by way of example, the following are worthy of mention: the special number of the Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social on gender violence and communication published in 2016; the monograph of No. 11 of Redes.Com entitled "Genero y/en Comunicacion" [Gender and/in Communication]; and that of the journal Digitos on Women's Internet, "Practicas, estereotipos femeninos y representaciones de genero en la web" [Practices, feminine stereotypes and gender representations on the Web], published in 2018.

3. The consolidation of monographic academic congresses on gender: the presence of a large number of specialists and research in different specific gender studies forums has justified the field of knowledge's continued existence over the years. Examples include the biennial International Conference on Gender and Communication, organized by the University of Seville, whose fourth edition will be held in 2018. This university also hosts the International Conference on Micromachismo in Communication and Education, whose third edition is scheduled for 2018. By the same token, other higher education centers, such as the Onati International Institute for the Sociology of Law (IISL) and the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) have also organized encounters revolving around this theme over the past decade. In 2013, the IISL hosted the International Congress on Gender Violence: Intersectionalities, and in 2010 the International Congress on Woman, Art and Technology in the New Public Sphere was held at the UPV. Other relevant encounters on the 2018 agenda include the 10th International Congress of the University Association for Women's Studies (AUDEM): La universidad de las mujeres. Ocho siglos de luces y sombras [The university of women. Eight chequered centuries].

However, despite the growing popularity of this field of scientific knowledge--which is only briefly addressed here--there is still a dearth of qualitative, quantitative and typological research in this regard. As with communication studies (Martinez Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011), whose exponential growth began in the 1980s, while the first meta-analyses date back to the year 2000, this type of analysis has been practically conspicuous by its absence in gender and communication studies in Spain. In this respect, Caro Gonzalez and Guarinos (2017) state that "there are multiple papers that have used bibliometrics in the field of communication, but none of them have influenced their practice on gender studies in a comparative way" (65). The only ones that stand out are a number of sectionalized studies such as those performed by Miquel-Segarra, Navarro-Beltra and Martin-Llaguno (2016), Arranz Lozano (2015) and Navarro and Martin (2013), who in spite of providing interesting overviews of their specific areas (public relations and corporate communication, gender violence, and films and advertising, respectively), do not offer a general snapshot of gender and women's studies. However, this snapshot is utterly essential to evaluate, as has been done in the field of communication in general, the past and present of a line of research that is gradually gaining ground in Spain.

The observation of scientific research through the prism of academic production in specialized journals is a procedure with a meta-analytical track record (Fernandez-Quijada & Masip, 2013; Navarro & Martin, 2013; Castillo & Carreton, 2010), and the study presented here, based on these advances in the general field of communication, shifts the focus towards the specific production of communication and gender studies.

As for the track record mentioned above, in 2010, Castillo and Carreton published a study of the main communication journals, whose sample was chosen according to IN-RECS, the impact index most used at the time. Their work provided an exhaustive description of the type of research that had been performed hitherto in Spain and already included the sex disaggregation of author data. The results revealed an unequal distribution: 53.7% of the papers were authored by men, versus 46.3% by women (Castillo & Carreton, 2010). Nevertheless, in the academic literature specifically dealing with gender issues there was a majority of authoresses (Navarro & Martin, 2013). Or, in other words, women are more inclined to inquire into this subject, which poses interesting questions for future research--in this regard, it should be noted that Caro Gonzalez and Guarinos (2017) have studied the scientific productivity and collaboration of Spanish authors who have published papers with a gender perspective in Scopus communication journals between 2008 and 2014.

Despite the importance of Castillo and Carreton's work as one of the first and foremost bibliometric studies of communication research in Spain, the sample used by these authors was restricted to papers published in 2008. Nevertheless, a year afterwards Martinez Nicolas and Saperas Lapiedra (2011) published a work based on four journals (8) with a much longer time frame, i.e. from 1998 to 2007. One of their most noteworthy conclusions, in the context of communication studies, was the superiority of those studies focusing on journalism from an empirical approach, as well as the lack of methodological rigor that was regrettably detected in a large proportion of the papers analyzed by them:
[...] generally speaking, what is involved are empirical studies with
serious methodological shortcomings, at least as far as the use of
standardized data collection techniques is concerned. Only in a third
of these works can such techniques be identified, whether they be
quantitative or qualitative, with a clear predominance of those
employed in media message studies (content and discourse analysis) and
scant recourse to procedures for accessing data gathered from live
sources (surveys, in-depth interviews, focus groups, etc.). (Martinez
Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011)

The study most similar to the one conducted here (Martinez-Nicolas, Saperas & Carrasco-Campos, 2017) provides a 25-year overview of academic production relating to journalism published in the top five Spanish communication journals. (9) It is based on the following "coding criteria" (154) which have served as inspiration and guidance for the research described here: knowledge interests (the journalistic field approached and the object of study) and modes of research (the type of research, methodological approach and techniques employed in empirical studies).

Here, the following basic elements have been recouped from the aforementioned studies: the sex disaggregation of author data (Navarro & Martin, 2013; Castillo & Carreton, 2010); the study of research methodologies and techniques (Arranz Lozano, 2015; Martinez Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011); the types of objects of study (Martinez-Nicolas, Saperas & Carrasco-Campos, 2017; Martinez Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011); and the collaboration between different research centers (Fernandez-Quijada & Masip, 2013; Castillo & Carreton, 2010). What is noteworthy is the special attention paid to the following perspective in relation to the different methodological currents:
Our interest in methodological paradigms, known as the quantitative or
qualitative path to knowledge, is to observe their epistemological
position in relation to the gender perspective. While it is true that
it should be borne in mind that both paths are equally relevant and
interesting for gaining insights into social reality, methodologically
and epistemologically speaking there are, however, substantial
differences in the way in which they understand this. (Arranz Lozano,
2015: 174)

If prior studies were taken into account to define the objectives of this work and its analytical design procedure, they were also equally decisive when selecting the sample. Thus, to specify the universe the reliability criterion applied by the majority of authors to date was followed: the impact factor. Accordingly, of the main international quality indicators of scientific research (and given that previously employed indicators, such as IN-RECS, are now outdated), the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) were used as benchmarks in the sample selection process.

It is necessary at this juncture to return to the notion of gender in order to establish the limits of this study. Even though, as noted above, there are important differences between women's, gender and feminist studies, in this work and with the intention of offering the most comprehensive overview of the evolution of the topics addressed by these fields of knowledge in their intersection with communication research, it was decided to include all those papers dealing with gender issues in the sample, while embracing the view that "feminist critique [...] is no longer the study of 'women,' but the analysis of gender relations, and of gender as a structuring principle in all human societies" (Moore, 1988: vii).

In short, partaking of the epistemological, conceptual and methodological differences between women's, gender and feminist studies, an inclusive selection criterion was used to perform the most exhaustive overview possible of the current state of the question. For, as Reigada Olaizola and Sanchez Leyva hold,
The subtlety adopted by the exercise of power in the context of Western
democracies, where we have witnessed a progressive appropriation and
instrumentalization of language and the approaches historically
vindicated by the dominant forces from the perspective of critical
thought, obliges us to stay on our toes and update our concepts and
initial approaches in a continual effort to relocate them and to give
them critical meaning. (2007: 26)

5. Methodology

The longitudinal pretentions of this study are reflected, in the main, in its time frame (1988-2017, i.e. nearly three decades of academic production in the field of communication) and, secondly, in the exhaustive way in which the units of analysis were selected, a task that was performed manually for extra certainty, rather than employing random search techniques or indexing processes. Specifically, all the gender-related papers comprising the sample were manually selected on the basis of a review-reading of each of one of issues (from the first to the last) of the journals under study, followed by a reading of each individual paper in order to verify its suitability. All these papers were readily available for consultation in the journals' digital repositories or were consulted through the authors' research centers.

5.1. Sample

Taking into account that in Spain it is still more common to publish in local journals than in the international ones, in order to select the most relevant journals and to examine the evolution of their research (Gartzia & Lopez-Zafra, 2014), the sample was narrowed down to Spanish journals indexed in one of the two most highly valued quality indicators of scientific production and with the greatest impact on European scientific production assessment bodies: JCR and SJR.

According to the aforementioned indicators, the corpus comprised papers published in nine Spanish communication journals which appeared in their 2016 rankings (units of context). All of the scientific production published in each journal, since their beginnings up until the end of 2017, was taken into consideration when selecting the documents for analysis (units of registration).

In order to obtain the units of analysis (gender-related papers published in the nine communication journals under study), a qualitative-manual research was performed on the papers comprising the sample. This was then fine-tuned by means of a careful reading of the abstracts of all the issues of the journals under study published before the end of 2017, before selecting all those papers that could be regarded as falling into the categories of "women's, gender and/or feminist studies."

Figure 1 shows the number of gender-related papers (N = 178) that were published in each one of the journals analyzed here--from its first issue until its last in 2017--the sampling error being minimal since, as already noted, all the issues were selected manually.
Figure 1 Gender-related papers published in the communication journals
indexed in JCR and SJR

Journal title          Since   Years   Quartile   Quartile   Total no.
                                       SJR        JCR        of papers

Comunicar              1993    25      Q1         Q1         1416
Revista Latina         1998    20      Q1         -          1224
de Comunicacion
Profesional de la      1997    19      Q2         -          2228
Comunicacion y         1988    30      Q2         -           584
Estudios Sobre el      1994    24      Q2         -          1037
Mensaje Periodistico
Historia y             1996    22      Q3         -           768
Comunicacion Social
Signa                  1992    26      Q3         -           357
Scire                  1995    23      Q3         -           419
Ibersid                2007    11      Q4         -           267
                       TOTAL                      -          8300

Journal title           Gender   %

Comunicar                30      2.1%
Revista Latina           27      2.2%
de Comunicacion
Profesional de la         6      0.3%
Comunicacion y           21      3.6%
Estudios Sobre el        43      4.1%
Mensaje Periodistico
Historia y               27      3.5%
Comunicacion Social
Signa                    19      5.3%
Scire                     4      1.0%
Ibersid                   1      0.4%
                        178      2.1%

Own elaboration.

5.2. Methodological strategies

This empirical-analytical study is based on a quantitative content analysis. This technique, widely used in communication studies, has also been predominantly employed in meta-analytic studies, insofar as it is a systematic--the content is selected according to explicit and persistently applied rules, and the assessment and analysis procedures are just as standardized--objective--any analyst who applies the same procedures must obtain even results, although the interpretation factor cannot be completely ruled out--and quantitative analysis--since its purpose is to offer a precise representation of a set of messages as a whole (Wimmer & Dominick, 1996: 170). In this case, study variables previously employed in communication research in general were chosen, to which were added several new and specific ones adapted to the concrete goals of a descriptive and fundamentally exploratory study such as the one developed here.

The following outline includes all the variables analyzed in each one of the papers making up the sample:

A. General information

1. The issue number of the journal

2. Volume of the journal

3. Year of publication

4. Title

5. Keywords

B. Information on authorship

6. Number of authors

7. Sex of the authors

8. Sex of the last author

9. Sex of the first author

C. Proof of international collaboration and the research's adaptation to foreign languages

10. Academic affiliation of the authors

11. Existence of collaboration networks

[Reference to the different participating research centers and/or universities appearing in the author and affiliation section]

12. Type of collaboration networks

[Reference to the type of participating research centers and/or universities appearing in the author and affiliation section: national or international]

D. Type of research and approach

13. Topic

[Reference to the paper's central theme. A deductive categorization was used: identities; violence; representation/treatment/coverage; female production; work; education; politics; equality-inequality; childhood-adolescence; sports; maternity; the Internet and social networks; gender studies; disaggregated analyses; consumption; prostitution; and others]

14. Communication format under study

[Reference to the communication format under study: TV; the Internet and social networks; radio; advertising; the press; mass media; and others]

15. Methodology

[Assessment of the quantitative or qualitative character of the research]

16. Research tool employed

[Reference to the type of research technique employed out of the following: content analysis; bibliographic review; reasoned debate; discourse analysis; survey; interview; focus group; film analysis; participant observation; bibliometric analysis; Delphi; and others]

17. Data universe studied

[Reference to the type of units comprising the universe under study: news stories; scientific papers; ads; TV series; etc.]

5.3. Coding procedure

Concerning the analysis of the sample, firstly a coding protocol was agreed upon and created. Then, a pre-test was performed with the aim of learning how to code each case and to achieve high intercoder reliability. Moreover, throughout the analytical process, the problematic elements were debated and agreed upon in order to ensure analytical coherence. It should also be noted that due to the pioneering and exploratory nature of this study, it was decided not to make a formal distinction a priori between theoretical and empirical studies that both require independent analyses. To evaluate the presence of these studies, the item "techniques" was employed as a reflection of the approach to the problem under study.

6. Results. Evolution and Characteristics of Communication and Gender Studies in Spain

6.1. Sample description: the scant presence of gender studies in communication

Since first appearing, Spain's top communication journals have published a total of 8300 papers of which only 178 (2.1%) cover issues pertaining to gender, women's and/or feminist studies.

The journals that have published the largest number of gender-related papers are as follows: Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico, Comunicar, Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social and Historia y Comunicacion Social. Figure 2 shows the total number of gender-related papers published by each journal, in relation to the total number of papers (touching on any topic) published before the end of 2017. Thus, it can be seen that, although there are journals that have published a large number of gender-related papers (such as the aforementioned), these do not always coincide with those that have proportionally gone to greater efforts to highlight this topic.
Figure 2 Distribution of the total number of gender-related papers by

No. gender-related papers                Total no. papers

Communication & Society                  21 (3.6%)
Comunicar                                30 (2.1%)
El Profesional de la Informacion          6 (0.3%)
Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico   43 (4.1%)
Historia y Comunicacion Social           27 (3.5%)
Ibersid                                   1 (0.4%)
Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social    27 (2.2%)
Scire                                     4 (1.0%)
Siena                                    19 (5.3%)

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

The first papers were published in 1994, one in the journal Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico ("Comunicando violencia contra las mujeres [Communicating violence against women]," by Concha Fagoaga) and another in Signa ("La novela y la poetica femenina [The novel and female poetics]," by M.a del Carmen Bobes Naves). However, in the 1990s, as shown in the figure, only eight gender-related papers saw the light of day, versus the 40 published during the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is in the period between 2010 and 2017 that an exponential growth in this type of research can be detected, since 130 papers were published. The most prolific years were 2013, with 23 papers, 2016, with 24, and 2017, with 23. In this period of growth in academic production with regard to gender and communication, it should be noted that 2014 and 2015 were exceptions to the rule, insofar as only 17 and 14 papers were published, respectively.
Figure 3 Evolution of the number of gender-related papers published
over time (1988-2017)

1988    0
1989    0
1990    0
1991    0
1992    0
1993    0
1994    2
1995    0
1996    0
1997    1
1998    1
1999    4
2000    2
2001    0
2002    0
2003    4
2004    3
2005    6
2006    4
2007    6
2008   10
2009    5
2010    5
2011    7
2012   15
2013   23
2014   17
2015   14
2016   25
2017   24

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from line graph.

In general, although only 2.1% (N = 178) of the papers published in specialized Spanish communication journals over the past 30 years have dealt with gender issues, it can be argued that, as shown in Figure 3, there has been a clearly upward trend: zero papers in the 1980s; (10) eight in the 1990s; 40 in the first decade of the present century; and 130 in the last eight years. This coincides with the data presented in the introduction to this paper with respect to the number of PhD theses pertaining to women's and gender studies defended in Spain, which revealed a "practically exponential" average growth rate (Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2007: 17). (11) A similar phenomenon has been observed in gender-related research in the field of psychology (Gartzia & Lopez-Zafra, 2014).

6.2. Gender research in Spanish communication journals: A very feminized and barely internationalized field

The majority of scientific gender-related papers published in Spanish communication journals have been written by women, whether individually or collectively, corresponding to 73% of the total (Figure 4).
Figure 4 Distribution of authorship by sex

                        n = 178

Woman                38.8%  (n=69)
Several women        33.7%  (n=60)
Several equitative   10.7%  (n=19)
Several men           7.9%  (n=14)
Man                   9.0%  (n=16)

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

As regards collective efforts, irrespective of the group's composition, women were not only the first authors (in 76.3% of the cases), but also overwhelming the last ones (67.7%), which seems to tie in with the fact that the majority of research groups were entirely made up of women. Thus, of the total number of co-authored papers published, in 33.7% of the cases the coauthors were all women, while in 7.9% they were all men. This contrasts with scientific collaboration in general, in which men are more likely to collaborate with other men, while women tend to work with both other women and men (Araujo et al., 2017).

On a separate issue, this study, following a number of precedents, also inquired into the internationalization of gender and communication research in Spain. To assess this reality, two indicators were resorted to: the presence of groups comprising authors of both sexes affiliated with non-Spanish universities, that is, international collaboration and the translation of papers into other languages.

With respect to the type of collaboration networks established at the universities of the authors, it can be observed that only 8.4% of the papers had some sort of foreign involvement. Moreover, as shown in Figure 5, 74.2% were written by male and/or female researchers belonging to a sole university, to wit, if there had indeed been some kind of collaboration, this was restricted to the habitual scope of academic production with work colleagues of both sexes. As of 2014, there has been a progressive involvement of non-Spanish researchers and scholars in the papers published, as shown in Figure 5. Despite being relatively low in number, a trend towards the consolidation of a more cooperative and less individualistic form of work, also with a greater level of international collaboration, can apparently be observed.
Figure 5 Evolution of collaboration networks over time

                     1988  1989  1990  1991  1992  1993   1994   1995

Without information
No collaboration                                          2

                     1996  1997  1998  1999  2000   2001   2002   2003

Without information
No collaboration           1     1     4     2                    4

                     2004  2005  2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011

Without information
No collaboration     2     5     3      5      9      4      2      6
National             1     1     1      1      1             3      1
International                                         1

                     2012   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017

Without information          1
No collaboration     11     18     13     9      15     16
National             2       4      3     1       6      5
International        2              1     4       4

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

The university that stands out most for its international collaboration is the Complutense University of Madrid, while at a national level the combinations that appear are not normally repeated. Noteworthy examples of universities with which researchers of both sexes, pursuing their work in international collaboration networks, are affiliated include the Complutense, Seville, Santiago de Compostela and the King Juan Carlos (Madrid). This international collaboration has to date involved the following research centers, among others: The Free University of Berlin (Germany); the University of Alaska Anchorage (USA); the Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Mexico); and Hallym University (South Korea).

However, very few papers in several languages were detected: 85.4% were published only in Spanish, 10.7% in Spanish and English and a mere 3.9% exclusively in English.

6.3. On methodologies and formats: Gender issues are researched from a qualitative approach and in a large number of communication formats

One of the objectives here is to identify the most studied communication formats and the way in which researchers have approached them. Firstly, the results indicate that the qualitative approach was the most popular (50.6%), versus quantitative (29.8%) and mixed (18.7%) ones, which despite their strong presence were less frequently employed.

This trend towards qualitative methodologies is also borne out by the type of tools/techniques used to approach the objects of study, the most frequent being content analysis (12) (43.3%), bibliographic review (16.9%) and reasoned debate (15.2%). (13) The last two serve as an example of the importance that the interpretation of secondary data and theoretical production have in qualitative gender and communication research, as shown in Figure 6. (14)
Figure 6 Frequency of tools employed

Delphi                     2
Bibliometric analysis      2
Participant observation    3
Film analysis              5
Focus group                6
Questionnaire              8
Interviews                12
Survey                    12
Speech analysis           15
Reasoned debate           27
Bibliographic review      30
Other                     33
Content analysis          77

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

In relation to the most studied communication formats, and taking into consideration the deductive and artificial division that had to be performed to define the realities and objects of study, it is possible to perceive a marked trend towards studying the press (26.4%), versus radio (1.7%) and the Internet and social networks (4.5%). With respect to these last two formats, it should be noted that their popularity as objects of study has nonetheless increased over the past decade and what has recently been witnessed is most certainly a greater interest in these media on the part of the research community.

When analyzed longitudinally, a growing interest in audiovisual formats, above all television, but also social networks, has been detected. Furthermore, as can be seen in Figure 7, this has been accompanied by a progressive loss of interest in advertising formats. By the same token, from a comparative perspective what also stands out is the diversity of formats studied, 2008 marking a before and after in gender research: a before characterized by a predominance of the press, advertising and media as a whole; and an after when there has been a clear trend towards multiple formats. (15)

6.4. Research focusing on identities

The main theme addressed in gender and communication studies to date, according to the results of the analysis performed here, has been what could generally be called "identities" (Figure 8). More specifically, out of the different options included in the previously established categorization (i.e. identities; violence; representation/treatment/coverage; female production; work; education; politics; equality-inequality; childhood-adolescence; sports; maternity; the Internet and social networks; gender studies; disaggregated analyses; consumption; prostitution; and others), (16) the most frequent topics are as follows: identities (27%), violence (11.8%) and representation/treatment/coverage (10.7%).
Figure 7 Evolution of the communication formats studied

                  1988 1989  1990  1991  1992  1993  1994  1997  1998

Cinema                                                           1
Mass media                                                 1
Others                                               1
Press                                                1
Internet &
Social networks

                  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007

Cinema            1
Mass media                                1     1     1
Others            2     1                 1     1     1     1     3
Press                                     1           1
Publicity         1     1                 1     1           1     1
Internet &                                            1
Social networks
Television                                            2     1     2

                  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  2015  2016

Cinema            1                 1                 1     2     2
Mass media        1     1           1     1     1     3     2     2
Others            1     1     1     1     6     9     4     4     3
Press             1     1     2     3     4     6     7     1     7
Publicity         5     1           1     1     2           4
Radio                         1                 1                 1
Internet &                    1                 1     1           2
Social networks
Television        1     1                 2     3     1     1     8


Cinema             4
Mass media         1
Others             4
Radio             10
Internet &         3
Social networks
Television         2

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 8 Distribution of academic production by topic

Prostitution                             3
Consumption                              3
Disaggregated analyses                   3
Gender studies                           3
Internet and Social Networks             4
Maternity                                4
Sport                                    4
Childhood-adolescence                    5
Equality-inequality                      5
Polities                                 6
Education                                8
Job                                     11
Female production                       17
Representation / treatment / coverage   19
Violence                                21
Identities                              48
Others                                  14

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

From an historical perspective, what again stands out is the fact that the progessive incorporation of these studies in the field of communication has been characterized by a broader range of themes. In contrast with the classic studies of the differential representation of women and men and violence treatment and discourses, topics such as maternity (1988-2010: one paper; 2011-2017: three), work (1988-2010: zero papers; 2011-2017: 11) and sports (1988-2010: zero papers; 2011 -2017: four) have started to carve out a niche for themselves in the communication and gender research agenda (Figure 8 and 9).

Besides the main theme, the most recurrent secondary themes were also assessed. The latter provide a clear picture of the specific issues that have caught the attention of communication and gender research over the past few decades. For example, stereotypes are a secondary theme in 34 papers, identities in 28, work--which, as already noted, is fast becoming a main theme--in 25, tensions and analysis of equality-inequality in 13 and the concept of feminism in 11.

On the other hand, and bearing in mind the relevance of keywords, essential for indexing and disseminating scientific research, the NVivo programme (18)--specializing in qualitative or mixed unstructured data processing--was used to conduct a keyword frequency analysis focusing on the total number of gender- and communication-related papers comprising the sample. As can been observed in Figure 10, the keywords genero [gender], mujer [woman], comunicacion [communication] and estereotipos [stereotypes] are the most frequent.
Figure 9 Evolution of the main topic of papers over time17

                                      1988   1989   1990   1991   1992

Female production
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage

                                      1993   1994  1995  1996   1997

Female production                            1
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage
Violence                                     1

                                      1998   1999   2000   2001   2002

Female production
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage
Identities                                   4      2

                                      2003  2004   2005   2006   2007

Female production
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage
Violence                                           1
Identities                            3                   1

                                      2008   2009   2010   2011  2012

Work                                                       1     4
Female production                      1                         3
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage         1             1     1
Violence                                                   1     1
Identities                                   1      3            3

                                      2013   2014   2015   2016   2017

Work                                         1      2       2      1
Female production                     4      2      1       4      1
Represenlnnon / treatment / coverage  5      6      1       1      1
Violence                              1      1      1      10      3
Identities                            3      1      4       4      8

Own elaboration.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

The keywords employed on more than 20 occasions are as follows: genero [gender] (84), mujer [woman] (64), comunicacion [communication] (31), estereotipos [stereotypes] (27), medios [media] (23), television [television] (22), social [social] (21), violencia [violence] (21) and prensa [press] (20). In addition to the most evident terms in communication and gender studies (i.e. genero, mujer and comunicacion), the rest of the keywords repeated most often broadly speaking reflect the predominant trend of the papers analyzed, i.e. approaches to gender representation, the stereotypes lingering in society today and structural problems (like violence against women) using media content analysis.

7. Discussion

An analysis of the results underscores that although communication and gender research is still a marginal field with proportionally very little influence on the discipline, it is nevertheless gradually gaining ground. What is involved is a field of research that has steadily diversified as regards the communication formats and themes with which it deals, for it is based on its historical links to journalism studies (Castillo & Carreton, 2010; Martinez Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011) and has focused overwhelmingly on the analysis of identities, violence and gender representations in the media, before gradually including new formats and topics. In this respect, maternity, work and sports are now more frequent objects of study. As to formats, besides becoming clearly more diverse, some that in previous stages aroused the greatest interest, such as those relating to advertising, have now been abandoned to a certain extent. This could be explained by the growing number of specialized journals and platforms available. In other words, it might not be due to the academic community's disaffection with certain formats, but to the fact that there are now more opportunities to publish these works in emerging specialized journals (in the field of advertising, for instance), which still have not been included in the ranking of journals with an impact factor.

Moving on to other issues, as has been seen in the results section, 2008 marked a turning point as regards both the proliferation of gender-related papers in communication journals and their diversification (topics, formats studied, etc.). In this connection, as highlighted on another occasion (Zurbano-Berenguer, 2015), emphasis should be placed on the far-reaching legislative changes and social progress in Spain since the turn of the century, not only concerning gender and equality (Spanish Organic Law 1/2004, 28 December, on Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender Violence; Spanish Organic Law 3/2007, 22 March, for the effective equality of women and men, etc.), but also precisely in relation to the role of the media in this respect. For example, the aforementioned laws, as well as regional legislation seeking the same goals (Comprehensive Law 7/2012, 23 November, of the Valencian Government, on Violence against Women in the Valencian Community; Law 13/2007, 26 November, on Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender-based Violence in Andalusia; Law 17/2015, 21 July, for the effective equality of women and men in Catalonia, etc.), highlight the social responsibility that the media has in the fight against gender-based violence and, more generally, in the achievement of equality between the sexes. What is more, on the basis of the above-mentioned laws, many regulatory bodies and media companies themselves have developed ethical codes in order to include the gender perspective in information practices and to inform about gender-based violence adequately. In this connection, over the past 15 years communication scholars have analyzed the impact that legislative changes and ethical codes have had on information about violence against women and, more generally, on society's perception of this social problem. In most cases the results point to a positive relationship between the promotion of legislative and feminist initiatives, like those referred to above, and the proliferation of ethical codes and improvements in the news treatment of gender-based violence (Zurbano-Berenguer & Garcia-Gordillo, 2017; Htun & Weldon, 2013; Martinez, 2012).

On the other hand, another important change occurring in Spanish academia in 2008 should also be taken into account, i.e. ACADEMIA, an accreditation program for university teaching and research focusing on scientific productivity, launched by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation of Spain). ACADEMIA, following international trends in accreditation systems, gives top priority to research. Within the specific field of communication, this decision is supposed to have led to both an increase in papers published in Spanish communication journals and the exponential growth of the presence of Spanish authors in international communication journals as from 2008 (Martinez-Nicolas, Saperas & Carrasco-Campos, 2017; Martinez-Nicolas & Saperas, 2016; Fernandez-Quijada & Masip, 2013).

Returning to the results of this paper, with reference to the data on study typologies (national or international, depending on the academic affiliation of the authors), these coincide with those of the field of communication in general: there is an increasingly greater tendency towards teamwork and the participation of multinational groups (Fernandez-Quijada & Masip, 2013). In this respect, it should be added that some journals have started to request that papers be translated into English. Therefore, an increase in the number of studies published in this language is to be expected in the near future. This will call for research into the influence (or not) that this greater international access to Spanish academic production--thanks to a wider use of English in scientific communication--may have on the international make-up of research groups at Spanish universities.

In the same vein, the specific methodology-related data on communication and gender research presented here coincide with existing information on the discipline of communication in general, for papers often do not include a credible methodological strategy and even frequently lack a clear description of the tools and methods employed. By the same token, in recent research (Madison & Soderlund, 2018; Soderlund & Madison, 2017) the aforementioned weaknesses have also been detected in scientific production in the area of gender studies. Beyond that, when the methodological conception and design are clearly set out, content analysis has been to date the most frequently used technique in the field of communication (Castillo & Carreton, 2010; Martinez Nicolas & Saperas Lapiedra, 2011).

8. Conclusions

As regards the objectives established at the beginning of this work, the following can be claimed:

1. With respect to the number of papers dealing with gender, women's and feminist studies appearing in Spanish communication journals in comparison with those dedicated to other topics, it can be held that, proportionally speaking, the number of gender-related papers is still negligible, although a gradual and patchy increase has been observed, depending on the journal.

2. On the subject of gender biases, there is a clear feminization of this field of study.

3. The predominant methodological techniques are qualitative and the most frequently used tool is content analysis.

4. Lastly, it can be claimed that gender research in Spanish communication journals is mostly a solitary endeavor. That is, regarding the authorship of the papers comprising the study corpus, it seems that there are not many specialists working in gender and communication. Furthermore, in relation to the typology (national or international) of the studies analyzed here, the authors do not tend to participate in collaboration networks, not to mention international ones.

To conclude, it should be stressed that some of the characteristics of gender and communication research in Spain outlined throughout this study are conditioned by constants and circumstances on a much greater scale outside its control. For example, the widespread feminization of scientific production in this field of knowledge can be explained to a great extent by the very tradition of gender, women's and feminist studies which have been developed, both in Spain and abroad, practically always by female professors and/or researchers.

Moreover, the scant collaboration and internationalization of academic production in this regard has to do above all with the lack of funding for science--above all the social and human sciences--in Spain. (19) To which must be added the limiting factor of language, particularly in an international scientific context in which English is fast consolidating its position as the sole lingua franca in scientific research.

In view of the results presented here and the confirmation of the initial hypothesis suggesting a still very negligible presence of gender research in Spanish communication journals, it is urgent to evaluate this situation. Given the growing political and scientific interest in gender issues, these results distort the current state of affairs from the perspective of what would be socially desirable.

Thus, it is held here that one of the future challenges will be to inquire into whether the scant presence of gender research in Spanish communication journals is due to a real absence of these studies, the preference of researchers for feminist and/or specialized platforms or a certain degree of reluctance on the part of these journals to accept papers dealing with this subject matter. Along these lines, in future research it would be interesting to analyze what kind of communication studies are published in specialized gender journals, with a view to comparing the results with those presented here and to providing further information on current trends in communication and gender studies.


(1.) Purists could criticize this study by claiming that gender, feminist or women's studies are not the same, and this is true. Assuming, as with Narotzky (1995), that "a scientific conceptual progression has existed over the past decades" (13), research into women in a socio-historical context analyzing their existence in the scientific continuum through their participation in life and societies could fall into the category of women's studies. In contrast, new gender approaches are currently addressing the reality of women from the articulation rationales of an unevenly distributed power that defines normative identities and inter-gender relationships by means of symbolic-identity (i.e. cultural) constructions based on biological sexual identity. However, given that this study intends to ascertain the presence that gender equality research, the sexes, gender and representations and identities relating to all these issues have had in scientific production as regards communication in Spain, both fields of study, which share many aspects, have been deemed equally useful for meeting the objectives established here.

(2.) These authors have warned that, in the last search preformed in Teseo in May 2006, not one PhD thesis defended that year was retrieved, and only 35 for 2005, for which reason the results of their study correspond to the period 1976-2005 (with the aforementioned limitations as regards this last year).

(3.) For a detailed description of the methodology employed, see De Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2007: 14-16; De Torres Ramirez & Torres Salinas, 2005: 480-482.

(4.) "feminista$ OR (feminism$) OR (mujer$ AND violen$) OR (androcentris$) OR (division AND sexu$ AND trabaj$) OR (identid$ AND femenin$) OR (movimient$ AND femisnis$) OR (mujeres AND hombres) OR (patriarcad$) OR (perspectiva$ de genero) OR (rol$ AND sexu$) OR (sexism$) OR (liberacion AND mujer$) OR (mujer$ AND genero)."

(5.) For instance, those PhD theses that at some juncture refer collaterally to women, but whose objective and/or methodology does not dovetail with the gender approach; those that in the field of health sciences address matters pertaining to gynecology or medical research using groups of women as a sample, without ever alluding to the gender difference or approaching the object of study from a feminist perspective; etc.

(6.) By way of example, the Spanish search term genero [gender] yields 1,722 results in Teseo. But in many cases, it refers to "genre" (the Spanish term encompasses both meanings). And the same occurs with other polysemous lexemes such as mujer [woman] and igualdad [equality].

(7.) A system based on the UNESCO nomenclature for fields of science and technology.

(8.) Analisi (Autonomous University of Barcelona, published since 1980), Comunicacion y Sociedad (University of Navarre, since 1988), Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico (Complutense University of Madrid, since 1994) and Zer--Revista de Estudios de Comunicacion (University of the Basque Country, since 1996).

(9.) Analisi, Comunicacion y Sociedad, Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico, Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social (University of La Laguna, published since 1998) and Zer--Revista de Estudios de Comunicacion.

(10.) In the past two decades, to be more precise, since none of the specialized communication journals comprising the study sample existed before then.

(11.) By way of illustration, five PhD theses on gender and women's studies were defended between 1976 and 1979; 44 between 1980 and 1989; 249 in the 1990s; and 309 only between the year 2000 and 2004.

(12.) Content analysis, which is usually defined as a quantitative method, can also be qualitative. As explained by Bardin (1986), until the mid-twentieth century rigor and quantification were the specific characteristics of content analysis, but afterwards it was understood that what was inherent to it "is inference (variables inferred from variables of inference at a message level), irrespective of whether or not the modalities of inference are based on quantitative indicators" (88). Normally, the quantitative approach is based on the frequency with which the elements measured appear, while the qualitative approach focuses on non-frequency indicators, such as the presence or absence of the variables analyzed (Lopez-Aranguren, 2015). Moreover, the qualitative modality is regarded as "evolutionary," versus the rigidness of the quantitative one, namely, the hypotheses that are initially formulated evolve as the process advances and the analyst alternates the (re-)reading of the material with interpretations, "functioning by means of successive approaches" and also by being flexible in the use of indexes (Bardin, 1986: 88). The majority of the papers studied here used qualitative content analysis.

(13.) This expression refers to that theoretical discourse unrestrained by specific or explicitly delimited research techniques.

(14.) The "Others" category comprises those tools that have not been used very often, including the following: contextualized historical narrative; documentary analysis; narrative analysis; character analysis; hermeneutic analysis; sociological analysis; semiotic analysis; framing analysis; etc.

(15.) With regard to the "Others" category, it has an important presence because it groups a highly diverse number of minority communication study formats--when compared with the classic media and new technologies--i.e. music, infographics,, different literary genres, scientific literature, etc.

(16.) The "Others" category includes topics that are not proportionally important enough to constitute independent categories, such as the following: feminine press; sexuality; discrimination; bodies; law; music; academic production; feminisms; and feminist libraries and science.

(17.) Since the large number of topics covered in the papers under study makes their graphic representation extremely difficult, this figure only shows the evolution of five thematic categories mentioned in more than 10 papers.

(18.) This tally involves keywords defined as such by the authors of the papers under study. Out of the 178 papers comprising the corpus, not all of them explicitly employ these keywords, for which reason in the tally only the 166 papers that do indeed employ them were taken into account. Specifically, out of all the keywords included in these papers, those repeated on more than three occasion were selected using the NVivo 11 software that counts them automatically, while discarding "empty words"--also called "'functional connectors': articles, prepositions, pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, etc." (Bardin, 1986: 62). In other words, the results shown in Figure 10 only take into consideration "full words" that, furthermore, were then grouped manually under a sole term (for instance: femenina, femenino, femeninas and femeninos--the masculine, feminine, singular and plural forms of the word "feminine" in Spanish--appear in Figure 10 under the term femeninas, which is the most repeated form in the papers under study). Likewise, words with just one meaning but in another language were also grouped as before under one term (mujeres, mujer and "women" and "woman" appear in Figure 10 under the term mujer, as before the most repeated keyword). On the other hand, both the figures and full words irrelevant to the objectives of this study were not taken into account when they appeared in an isolated fashion (for example, primera [first], "issues", etc.).

(19.) Updated information in this respect can be consulted in a critical article recently published in the newspaper El Pais (Dominguez, 2017).


Araujo, E. B., Araujo, N. A., Moreira, A. A., Herrmann, H. J., & Andrade Jr, J. S. (2017). "Gender Differences in Scientific Collaborations: Women Are More Egalitarian than Men," PLOS One 12(5): e0176791.

Arranz Lozano, F. (2015). "Meta-analisis de las investigaciones sobre la violencia de genero: el Estado produciendo conocimiento," Athenea digital 15(1): 171-203.

Ballarin Domingo, P., Gallego Mendez, M. T., & Martinez Benlloch, M. I. (1995). Los Estudios de las Mujeres en las Universidades espanolas 1975-91. Libro Blanco. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer.

Bardin, L. (1986). Andlisis de contenido. Torrejon de Ardoz: Akal.

Biscarrat, L. (2015). "Genero, disciplinariedad y estudios mediaticos: una aproximacion al caso frances," Revista Internacional de Comunicacion y Desarrollo (RICD) 1(2): 139-147.

Blazquez, M. (2015), "Tesis doctorales en las universidades espanolas durante el periodo 1977-2014," en Documentacion. (accessed: July 12, 2018)

Caffarel-Serra, C., Ortega-Mohedano, F., & Gaitan-Moya, J. A. (2017). "Communication Studies Research within Spanish Universities Spanning the Years 2007 to 2014," Elprofesional de la informacion 26(2): 218-227.

Caffarel, C., Ortega, F., & Gaitan, J. A. (2018). "Communication Research in Spain: Weaknesses, Threats, Strengths and Opportunities," Comunicar XXVI(56): 61-70.

Caro Gonzalez, F. J., & Guarinos, V. (2017). "Male Presence in Gender Research Networks in the Communication Field in Spain," Masculities & Social Change (6)1: 62-90.

Carlyle, K. E., Slater, M. D., & ChakroffJ, L. (2008). "Newspaper Coverage of Intimate Partner Violence: Skewing Representations of Risk," Journal of Communication 58(1): 168-186.

Castillo, A., & Carreton, M. C. (2010). "Investigacion en comunicacion: Estudio bibliometrico de las revistas de comunicacion en Espana," Comunicacion y Sociedad XXIII(2): 289-327.

Castillo, A., & Xifra, J. (2006). "Investigacion bibliometrica de las tesis doctorales espanolas sobre relaciones publicas (1965-2005)," Analisi 34: 141-161.

De Torres Ramirez, I., & Torres Salinas, D. (2005). "Tesis doctorales sobre Estudios de las Mujeres en Espana (1976-2002). A proposito de un indicador definitivo en investigacion," Revista Espanola de Documentacion Cientifica 28(4): 480-500.

De Torres Ramirez, I., & Torres Salinas, D. (2007). Tesis Doctorales sobre Estudios de las Mujeres en las Universidades de Espana (1976-2005). Andlisis Bibliometrico y Repertorio Bibliogrdfico. Sevilla: Instituto Andaluz de la Mujer.

DiFrancesco, M. C., & Ochoa, D. J. (2017). Gender in Spanish Urban Spaces. Literary and Visual Narratives of the New Millennium. Chicago, IL: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dominguez, N. (2017). "El colapso de la ciencia en Espana," El Pais. (accessed: Feb. 21, 2018)

Fernandez-Quijada, D., & Masip, P. (2013). "Three Decades of Spanish Communication Research: Towards Legal Age," Comunicar XXI(41): 15-24.

Foss, K. A., & Foss, S. K. (1983). "The Status of Research on Women and Communication," Communication Quarterly 31(3): 195-204.

Fuentes-Pujol, E., & Arguimbau Vivo, L. (2010). "Las tesis doctorales en Espana (1997-2008): analisis, estadisticas y repositories cooperativos," Revista Espanola de Documentacion Cientifica 33(1): 63-89. doi:10.3989/redc.2010.1.711

Gartzia, L., & Lopez-Zafra, E. (2014). "Gender Research in Spanish Psychology: An Overview for International Readers," Sex Roles 70(11/12): 445-456.

Hawkesworth, M. (2011). "Signs 2005-2015: Reflections on the Nature and Global Reach of Interdisciplinary Knowledge Production," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 36(3): 511-519.

Hernandez Orellana, M. (2018). "Le genre comme categorie d'analyse dans les SIC: un dialogue entre l'Amerique latine et la France est-il possible?," Revue frangaise des sciences de l 'information et de la communication 13. doi: 10.4000/rfsic.3580

Htun, M., & Weldon, S. L. (2013). "The Civic Origins on Progressive Policy Change: Combating Violence against Women in Global Perspective, 1975-2005," American Political Science Review 106(3): 548-569.

Jones, D. E., Baro, J., Landa, C., & Ontalba-Ruiperez, J. A. (2000). Investigacion sobre comunicacion en Espana: Aproximacion bibliometrica a las tesis doctorales (1926-1998). Barcelona: ComCat.

Julliard, V. (2014). "Un mode d'appropriation des gender studies par les sciences de l'information et de la communication: la semiotique du genre," Questions de communication 25: 223-243.

Kitch, S. L. (2003). "Programs and the Research Mission of Women's Studies: The Case for Interdisciplinarity," Feminist Studies 29(2): 435-447.

Kitch, S. L., & Fonow, M. M. (2012). "Analyzing Women's Studies Dissertations: Methodologies, Epistemologies, and Field Formation," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 38(1): 99-126.

Lindsay-Brisbin, J., Deprince, A. P., & Welton-Mitchell, C. (2014). "Missed Opportunities: Newspaper Reports of Domestic Violence," Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 23(4): 383-399.

Lombardo, E. (2017). "The Spanish Gender Regime in the EU Context: Changes and Struggles in Times of Austerity," Gender, Work & Organization 24(1): 20-33.

Lopez-Aranguren, E. (2015). "El analisis de contenido tradicional," in Garcia Ferrando, M., Alvira, F., Alonso, L. E., & Escobar, M. (eds.), Andlisis de la realidad social. Metodosy tecnicas de investigacion. Madrid: Alianza, 594-616.

Luengo, M. (2018). "Gender Violence: The Media, Civil Society, and the Struggle for Human Rights in Argentina," Media, Culture and Society 40(3): 397-414.

Madison, G., & Soderlund, T. (2018). "Comparisons of Content and Scientific Quality Indicators across Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles with More or Less Gender Perspective: Gender Studies Can Do Better," Scientometrics. doi:10.1007/s11192-018-2729-3.

Martinez, B. (2012). "Periodismo y responsabilidad social: el paradigma del tratamiento informativo de la violencia contra la mujer," Revista de Comunicacion Vivat Academia 19: 58-70.

Martinez Nicolas, M., & Saperas Lapiedra, E. (2011). "La investigacion sob re Comunicacion en Espana (1998-2007). Analisis de los articulos publicados en revistas cientificas," Revista latina de comunicacion social 66: 101-129.

Martinez-Nicolas, M., & Saperas, E. (2016). "Objetos de estudio y orientacion metodologica de la reciente investigacion sobre comunicacion en Espana (2008-2014)," Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social 71: 1365-1384.

Martinez-Nicolas, M., Saperas, E. & Carrasco-Campos, A. (2017). "Journalism Research in Spain. Analysis of Research Articles Published in Spanish Journals over the Past 25 Years (1990-2014)," Communication & Society 30(4): 149-166.

Miquel-Segarra, S., Navarro-Beltra, M., & Martin-Llaguno, M. (2016). "Estudio bibliometrico del sector profesional de las relaciones publicas y la comunicacion corporativa con perspectiva de genero en las revistas indexadas en Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus y Proquest Central (1992-2014)," Feminismo/s 27: 263-286.

Moore, H. L. (1988). Feminism and Anthropology. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Munoz Munoz, A. (2004). "Representacion de los Estudios de Genero en los indices tematicos," El profesional de la informacion 13(1): 47-60.

Nagalia, S. (2018). "Conceptualising Gender Studies: Curriculum and Pedagogy," Indian Journal of Gender Studies 25(1): 79-107.

Narotzky, S. (1995). Mujer, mujeres, genero. Una aproximacion critica al estudio de las mujeres en las Ciencias Sociales. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.

Navarro, M., & Martin, M. (2013). "Analisis bibliometrico de la investigacion sobre mujer y publicidad: diferencias en medios impresos y audiovisuales," Comunicar XXI(41): 105-114.

Ortiz Gomez, T. (1999). Universidad y Feminismo en Espana (II). Situacion de los Estudios de las Mujeres en los anos 90. Granada: Universidad de Granada.

Ortiz Gomez, T. (2004). "Consolidacion y visibilidad de los Estudios de las Mujeres en Espana: logros y retos," in Ruiz-Tagle, A. M. (ed.), Los Estudios de las Mujeres en las Universidades andaluzas. Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla, 109-148.

Pastor Gosalbez, I., & Acosta Sarmiento, A. (2016). "La institutionalization de las politicas de igualdad de genero en la Universidad espanola. Avances y retos," Investigaciones Feministas 7(2): 247-271.

Pavlidou, T. (2011). "Open Forum: The Challenge of Interdisciplinarity: From Theoretical Claims to Interdisciplinary Practices in Gender Studies," European Journal of Women's Studies 18(3): 310-317.

Reader, B. (2012). "Free Press vs. Free Speech? The Rhetoric of 'Civility' in Regard to Anonymous Online Comments," Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 89(3): 495-513.

Reigada Olaizola, A., & Sanchez Leyva, M. J. (eds.) (2007). Critica feminista y comunicacion. Salamanca: Comunicacion Social.

Repiso, R., Delgado-Lopez-Cozar, E., & Torres-Salinas, D. (2011a). "Analisis bibliometrico de la produccion espanola de tesis doctorales sobre Cine. 1978- 2007," in Bort-Gual, I., Garcia-Catalan, S., & Martin-Nunez, M. (eds.), IV Congreso Internacional sobre Andlisis Filmico. Nuevas tendencias e hibridaciones de los discursos audiovisuals en la cultura digital contempordnea. Madrid: Ediciones de la Ciencias Sociales de Madrid, 976-987.

Repiso, R., Delgado-Lopez-Cozar, E., & Torres-Salinas, D. (2011b). "Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis Applied to Television Dissertations Presented in Spain (1976-2007)," Comunicar XIX(37): 151-159. doi:10.3916/C37-2011-03-07

Rodriguez-Darias, J., & Aguilera-Avila, L. (2017). "Gender-based Harassment in Cyberspace. The Case of Pikara Magazine," Women's Studies International Forum 66: 63-69.

Rodriguez-Perez, M., & Gutierrez, M. (2017). "Femvertising: Female Empowering Strategies in Recent Spanish Commercials," Revista de Investigaciones Feministas 8(2): 337-351.

Sanz-Casado, E. (ed.) (2018). Informe IUNE 2018: Actividad investigadora de las universidades espanolas. Madrid: Research Institute for Higher Education and Science (INAECU).

Soderlund, T., & Madison, G. (2015). "Characteristics of Gender Studies Publications: A Bibliometric Analysis Based on a Swedish Population D atabase," Scientometrics 105(3): 1347-1387.

Soderlund, T., & Madison, G. (2017). "Objectivity and Realms of Explanation in Academic Journal Articles Concerning Sex/Gender: A Comparison of Gender Studies and the Other Social Sciences," Scientometrics 112(2): 1093-1109.

Verge, T., & Cabruja, T. (2016). "La perspectiva de genere en docencia i recerca a les universitats de la Xarxa Vives," (accessed: June 27, 2018)

Vidal-Beneyto, J. (1986). "Presentation," Encrages--Les industries de la langue. industries de la langue.

Enjeux pour l 'Europe. Actes du colloque de Tours 16: 5-7.

Weber, P. (2014). "Discussions in the Comments Section: Factors Influencing Participation and Interactivity in Online Newspapers' Reader Comments," New Media and Society16(6): 941-957.

Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1996). La investigacion cientifica de los medios de comunicacion: una introduccion a sus metodos. Barcelona: Bosch.

Wozniak, J. A., & McCloskey, K. A. (2010). "Fact or Fiction? Gender Issues Related to Newspaper Reports of Intimate Partner Homicide," Violence Against Women 16(8): 934-952.

Zurbano-Berenguer, B. (2015). Discurso periodistico y violencias contra las mujeres. Aproximaciones a la construccion y valoracion de los mensajes informativos en la prensa de referenda en Espana (2000-2012). Doctoral dissertation, University of Seville. Retrieved from

Zurbano-Berenguer, B., & Garcia-Gordillo, M. (2017). "Propuesta metodologica para la evaluacion de la calidad deontologica de las noticias sobre violencias contra las mujeres," Communication and Society 30(1): 73-85.


Faculty of Communication,

The University of Seville

(corresponding author)


Department of Language Theory and Communication Sciences,

The University of Valencia


Faculty of Communication, The University of Seville

How to cite: Zurbano-Berenguer, Belen, Lorena Cano-Oron, and Irene Liberia Vaya (2018). "Gender Studies in Communication Research: A Longitudinal Analysis of Scientific Papers Published in Spanish Journals Indexed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) (1988-2017)," Journal of Research in Gender Studies 8(2): 166-197.

Received 2 May 2018 * Received in revised form 24 July 2018

Accepted 2 August 2018 * Available online 25 August 2018

COPYRIGHT 2018 Addleton Academic Publishers
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Zurbano-Berenguer, Helen; Cano-Oron, Lorena; Vaya, Irene Liberia
Publication:Journal of Research in Gender Studies
Date:Jul 1, 2018
Next Article:Androcentrism and the Great Man Narrative in Psychology Textbooks: The Case of Ivan Pavlov.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters