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Future directions.

In this Special Supplement, we have tried to emphasize the points of consensus that the project participants of "The Ethics of Animal Experimentation and Research" in fact reached: that the use of animals in science involving animal suffering or harm is decidedly an ethical issue; that the greater the ethical cost is to the animals, the more compelling is the justification required; and that at some point we perhaps move beyond the limits of ethical justification.

However, we also stressed that "animal ethics" is actually in its early stages and that there is still much work to be done, especially concerning the fundamental issues. With respect to the moral status of animals and ethical theory, we need to examine further the relative ethical significance that we should accord to animal pain, distress, and suffering versus the natural capacities of animal life and activity. This should be conjoined with the elaboration of a philosophically and ethically adequate conception of "animal hierarchy." We also need to face the plurality of ethical theories and decide whether to accept traditional ethical articulations or to press on to more adequate and comprehensive theories. Further, we should decide whether we will accept principled "trumping," or absolutist ethical stances or whether we must look at particular cases and their conflicting values, the so-called "moral ecology," on their own merits.

With respect to animal suffering, we noted the limitations and open-ended character of the method of critical anthropomorphism. A further, though controversial approach to understanding animal suffering is an exercise in philosophical, speculative imagination. This involves an attempt to understand what is required for any being, human or animal, to be able to suffer in the most emphatic, "personal" sense of the term, as distinct from experiencing pain or distress.

Arguably such suffering at least requires a concrete, organic individual or self, with a genuine and conscious sense of the past, present, and future, and with capacities both for images or ideas and for life plans or more immediate goals that can be frustrated. When the individual self s vulnerable, subjectively felt integrity ("oneness") is actually or potentially threatened, the individual being suffers, as opposed to merely feeling pain. (9) The future philosophic task, espoused by Eric Cassell, among others, is to give an adequate speculative account of a suffering being," to identify those animals (if any) capable of such suffering, and finally to decide what relative ethical status to give the suffering individual.

Yet of all the unfinished business, none is more pressing than the need to "take together" and to consider systematically our ethical responsibilities to human beings, animals and animate life, and the environment. Parochial, adversarial interests and the lack of a wide coordination in our ethical thinking sooner or later will lead to disasterous practical consequences for both human communities and individuals and the wider animate realm. It is our ethical responsibility to avoid such moral failure. Bibliography (1) Ad Hoc Committee on Animal Research, Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1988). (2) Arnold B. Arluke, "Sacrificial Symbolism in Animal Experimentation: Object or Pet?," Anthrozoos 2:2 (1989), 97-116. (3) Patrick Bateson, "When to Experiment on Animals," New Scientist, 20 February 1986, 30-32. (4) Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (London: 1780). (5) Gordon M. Burghardt, "Animal Awareness: Current Perceptions and Historical Perspective," American Psychologist 40:9 (1985), 905-919. (6) Gordon M. Burghardt, "Anecdotes and Critical Anthropomorphism," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1988), 248-49. (7) Gordon M. Burghardt and Harold A. Herzog, Jr., "Beyond Conspecifics: Is Brer Rabbit Our Brother?," BioScience 30:11 (1980), 763-68. (8) Canadian Council on Animal Care, Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Vols. 1 & 2 (Ottawa: CCAC, 1984). (9) Eric Cassell, "Individuality and Animal Suffering," paper presented at a meeting of The Hastings Center Project on "The Ethics of Animal Experimentation and Research," November 17,1988. (10) The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (Geneva: CIOMS, 1985). (11) Julius H. Comroe, Jr. and Robert D. Dripps, "Scientific Basis for the Support of Biomedical Science," Science 192 (1976), 105-111. (12) Marian Stamp Dawkins, Animal Suffering (London: Chapman & Hall, 1980). (13) Marian Stamp Dawkins, "From an Animal's Point of View: Consumer Demand Theory and Animal Welfare," fare," Behavior and Brain Sciences 13:1 (1990), in press. (14) Strachan Donnelley, "Speculative Philosophy, the Troubled Middle, and the Ethics of Animal Experimentation," Hastings Center Report 19:2 (1989),15-21. (15) Strachan Donnelley and Willard Gaylin, "The Heart of the Matter," Hastings Center Report 19:1 (1989), 2628. (16) Rebecca Dresser, "Developing Standards in Animal Research Review," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194:9 (1989),1184-91. (17) Rebecca Dresser, "Measuring Merit in Animal Research," Theoretical Medicine 10:1 (1989), 21-34. (18) R.G. Frey, "Rights, Interests, Desires, and Beliefs," American Philosophical Quarterly 16:3 (1979), 233-39. (19) Robert W Leader and Dennis Stark, "The Importance of Animals in Biomedical Research," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30:4 (1987), 470-85. (20) Randall Lockwood, "Anthropomorphism is Not a Four-letter Word," in Advances in Animal Welfare Sciences 1985, Michael W Fox and L.D. Mickley, eds. (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986),185-99. (21) Mary Midgely, Animals and Why They Matter (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1983). (22) John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (London: 1863). (23) L. Morgan, An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (London: Walter Scott, 1894). (24) David Morton, "Epilogue," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 191 (1987), 1292-96. (25) David Morton and Paul Griffiths, "Guidelines on the Recognition of Pain, Distress and Discomfort in Experimental Animals and an Hypothesis for Assessment," The Veterinary Record 116 (1985), 431-36. (26) Melinda A. Novak and Stephen J. Suomi, "Psychological Well-Being of Primates in Captivity," American Psychologist 43:10 (1988), 765-73. (27) Karl Johan Obrink, "Swedish Law on Laboratory Animals," in Scientific Perspectives on Animal Welfare, W Jean Dodds and E Barbara Orlans, eds. (New York: Academic Press, 1982), 5558. (28) U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986). (29) F. Barbara Orlans, "Animal Welfare," Bioscience 30:3 (1980), 144-45. (30) F. Barbara Orlans, "Research Protocol for Animal Welfare," Investigative Radiology 22:3 (1987), 253-58. (31) Barbara Orlans, "Should Students Harm or Destroy Animal Life?" The American Biology Teacher 50:1 (1988),6,8,10,12. (32) "Panel Report on the Colloquium on the Recognition and Alleviation of Animal Pain and Distress," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 191 (1987), 1186-91. (33) Denise Radner and Michael Radner, Animal Consciousness (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1989). (34) John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971). (35) Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983). (36) W.D. Ross, The Right and the Good (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930). (37) Andrew Rowan, Of Mice, Models, and Men (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984). (38) W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch, The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques (London: Methuen, 1959). (39) Lilly-Marlene Russow, "Regan on Inherent Value," Between the Species 4 (1988), 45-54. (40) Peter Singer, Animal Liberation (New York: Avon Books, 1975). (41) Peter Singer, "Animals and the Value of Life," in Matters of Life and Death, Tom Regan, ed. (New York. Random House, 2nd ed., 1986), 338-80. (42) D.H. Smyth, Alternatives to Animal Experiments (London: Scholar Press, 1978), 144-45. (43) Elliot Sober, "Darwin on Natural Selection: A Philosophical Perspective," in The Darwinian Heritage, David Kohn, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), 867-99. (44) Jerrold Tannenbaum and Andrew Rowan, "Rethinking the Morality of Animal Research," Hastings Center Report 15:5 (1985), 32-43. (45) James A. Thomas et al., "Animal Research at Stanford University," The New England Journal of Medicine, 16 June 1988, 1630-32. (46) Lewis Thomas, "Hubris in Science?" Science 200 (1978), 1459-62. (47) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH Publication No. 85-23, 1985),81-83. (48) Martin Wells, Octopus (London: Chapman & Hall, 1978). THE HASTINGS CENTER 255 Elm Road Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510 The Hastings Center, founded in 1969, is a nonprofit and nonpartisan research and educational organization devoted to ethical problems in biology, medicine, and social and behavioral sciences, and the professions. The Center carries out an active research program on timely and crucial subjects. Working in a variety of fields-law, medicine, science, philosophy, religion, among others-its research work strives to provide non-partisan information, analysis, and recommendations. A resident staff, elected Fellows, and invited consultants form the nucleus of each research group. The Center is presently engaged in ethical problems of aging, AIDS, care of the dying and termination of treatment, genetic screening, ethics committees, cost containment, artificial reproduction, and the study of professional ethics. The Hastings Center Report is sent bimonthly to Associate Members of the Hastings Center. Membership is open to professionals and interested laypersons; annual dues are $46 for individuals, $37 for full-time students (applicable for two years only), and $60 for institutions and libraries. Additional copies of this Special Supplement are available from the Publications Department, The Hastings Center, 255 Elm Road Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510. Prices are $4.00 each for 1-9 copies; $3.00 each for 10-29 copies; and $2.50 each for 30-100 copies. For prices on orders over 100 copies, contact the Publications Department.
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Title Annotation:Animals, Science, and Ethics; includes bibliography
Author:Donnelley, Strachan; Nolan, Kathleen
Publication:The Hastings Center Report
Date:May 1, 1990
Words:1582
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