Functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil/Grupos funcionais da entomofauna associada as macrofitas aquaticas no rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil.
The Pantanal is located in the central portion of South America, in the Paraguai river Basin, comprising floodable areas of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, and is considered one of the largest floodplains of Latin America. This region is a floodplain influenced by the rivers that drain the upper Paraguai river Basin, where there is great diversity of fauna and flora, determined by the contribution of four biomes: Amazon, "Cerrado", "Chaco" and Atlantic Forest (ALHO; GONCALVES, 2005).
The floodplains are characterized by the presence of habitats ranging from aquatic to terrestrial, depending on their communication level with the main river (THOMAZ et al., 1997). These areas stand out by the complexity of their systems, as well as their functioning dynamism, clearly associated with the hydrological conditions that occur within these areas (ALHO, 2008; SILVA et al., 2009).
The aquatic entomofauna, mainly represented by specimens of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera and Diptera, is one of the most important groups found in lotic aquatic ecosystems, associated with aquatic plants and sediment, actively participates in the nutrient cycling and energy flow and is widely used as indicator of environmental quality (MERRITT; CUMMINS, 1996).
The distribution of aquatic organisms, especially insects, is directly influenced by food availability and chemical and physical conditions of the water (BISPO; OLIVEIRA, 1998; SILVA et al., 2008). An important factor in the distribution and availability of food for aquatic insects is the association between lotic environment and marginal vegetation (VANNOTE et al., 1980).
According to Kikuchi and Uieda (1998), the riparian vegetation contributes significantly to the functioning of the river as a system, by showing high productivity, resources availability and being an essential source of nutrients and organic matter, which is the base of heterotrophic food chain in aquatic environments.
Callisto and Esteves (1998) point out that the study of a natural biological community can be accomplished at different levels: density species-1, species diversity, food webs and energy flow. In this context, Odum (1988) states that the guild concept becomes useful, since it is considered a functional unit in the community analysis, dismissing the necessity of study each species as a separate entity. Accordingly, this approach allows for comparisons of functional organization of different communities, especially when they are not constituted by common species.
According to Simberloff and Dayan (1991), the functional groups of Cummins (1973, 1974) are trophic guilds that classify river macroinvertebrates, from where these groups use common resources in a similar morpho-behavioral manner. Therefore, their recognition may be based mainly on the diet type presented by the taxa and the feeding behavior associated to the substrate on which food is available.
According to Silva et al. (2009), the approach to the trophic guilds concept in ecological studies enables the understanding of the energy distribution within a community, in terms of complexity and diversity. Consequently, the biomass assessment in each trophic guild and the diversity of feeding items used by each taxon, provide information for the study of energy distribution within communities (AGUIARO; CARAMASCHI, 1998).
Regarding the importance of the entomofauna structure in aquatic ecosystems and the lack of available information about their feeding habits, especially in the Pantanal region, the present work aims to study the structure of the functional groups of aquatic entomofauna in a stretch of Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Material and methods
The study was conducted in a stretch of about 3,600 meters of the Correntoso river (located in the Negro river floodplain), which cross the Santa Emilia Farm (19[degrees] 30' 18" S and 55[degrees] 36' 45" W), and where is situated the Instituto de Pesquisa do Pantanal (IPPAN/ UNIDERP), Aquidauana municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Figure 1). Six sites with three distinct phytophysiognomies of riparian formation were chosen for the insect sampling: (a) open riparian physiognomy (ORP), (b) intermediary riparian physiognomy (IRP) and (c) closed riparian physiognomy (CRP) (Appendix 1).
Six sampling sessions were performed in different seasonal periods: ebb, dry and wet, between March 2006 and February 2007, at six collection sites of the river.
The specimens were collected using a D net (300 [micro]m mesh), and sampling effort consisted of five sweeps in the roots of the macrophyte banks, composed of several species of aquatic plants.
The collected material was transferred to plastic bags, labeled and transported to the laboratory. The material was washed using a sieve with the same mesh and then the specimens were separated from the organic material on plastic trays under transilluminated light.
The found specimens were fixed in ethylic ethanol (70%), conditioned in glass jars and then identified using specific literature (BOUCHARD JR., 2004; COSTA et al., 2006; MERRITT; CUMMINS, 1996; PEREZ, 1988).
The absolute abundance and family richness were determined. Furthermore, the collected insects were separated by functional groups: predators, scrapers, filterers, collectors, collectors-filterers, piercers-herbivores, shredders-herbivores, shredders-detritivores, as proposed by Merritt and Cummins (1996).
Results and discussion
In the present study, were registered 60 families belonging to 12 orders of the class Insecta, totaling 19,773 specimens (Appendix 2). These values can be considered relatively high when compared to the work of Oliveira et al. (2006) in the same region of Pantanal.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
For better understanding of the structure, organization and energy distribution within the aquatic insect community, the captured specimens were separated into categories of functional groups, as proposed by Merritt and Cummins (1996). Accordingly, families and specimens were categorized into eight distinct groups for each studied environment: predators grouped 34 families, collectors 17, shredders-herbivores ten, scrapers eight, collectors-filterers three, piercers-herbivores three, filterers two and shredders-detritivores two (Appendix 3). Although all categories were represented in the studied environment, the proportion between them and the families represented in each category has changed according to the marginal vegetation structure and the study period.
During ebb season, were recorded 1,858 individuals from 43 families, corresponding to 9.4% of the sampled insects, the lowest abundance found during the study. Predators group showed the highest number of families in this period, 18 families were sampled in ORP, 20 in IRP and 23 in CRP. Followed by collectors group with eight families collected in ORP, seven in IRP and 13 in CRP, shredders-herbivores with six families in ORP, five in IRP and seven in CRP and scrapers with three families in ORP, four in IRP and six in CRP (Figure 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Considering the specimen participation in each functional group, the predators were predominant with 368 collected individuals in ORP, 422 in IRP and 793 in CRP. Followed by the collectors (294 individuals captured in ORP, 258 in IRP and 695 in CRP) and the filterers (156 individuals in ORP, 118 in IRP and 442 in CRP). In this period, the collectors-filterers group had low participation in IRP and CRP with only two collected specimens in each site and the shredders-detritivores in CRP with only one individual (Figure 3).
According to Callisto and Esteves (1998), the highest or lowest guild number in a given ecosystem may be related to the variety of available and occupied microhabitats in the littoral and limnetic region, in different periods of the regional hydrological cycle.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
During the dry season, 3,573 individuals belonging to 50 families were collected, corresponding to 18.07% of the sampled organisms. The highest number of families were categorized into predators group, 23 captured families in ORP, 21 in IRP and CRP. Followed by collectors with 13 families captured in IRP, 14 in ORP and CRP, shredders-herbivores with eight families sampled in ORP, seven in IRP and six in CRP, scrapers with seven families in ORP and IRP, and six in CRP. Regarding the specimen participation in each functional group, predators were the most representative with 971 individuals captured in ORP, 810 in IRP and 1,090 in CRP, follow by the collectors group with 819 specimens sampled in ORP, 956 in IRP and 993 in CRP and the filterers with 617 individuals captured in ORP, 602 in IRP and 804 in CRP. During this period, only one specimen was categorized into shredders-detritivores group, collected in IRP.
According to Fidelis et al. (2008), in areas where the marginal vegetation has better environmental conditions, plant cover contributes large amount of organic material of allochthonous origin and shading reduces autotrophic production of the aquatic environment. In these areas there is a significant involvement of collectors and shredders group duo to the high availability of organic material deriving from the marginal vegetation. Alternatively, open areas and with higher light intensity favor the establishment of macrophytes and associated periphyton, providing major resources for the scrapers, piercers-herbivores and shredders-herbivores.
During wet season was registered the greatest insect abundance, 14,342 specimens of 54 families were captured, representing 72.53% of collected organisms. The largest family number was categorized into predators functional group, with 26 families sampled in ORP and IRP, 30 in CRP, followed by the collectors group with 14 families collected in ORP, 15 in IRP and CRP, scrapers with eight families captured in ORP and CRP, seven in IRP and shredders-herbivores with eight families in ORP and IRP, seven in CRP. The specimen participation in each functional group also showed the highest values, 4,077 specimens categorized into predators group were sampled in ORP and 3,408 in IRP, followed by the collectors with 3,422 individuals in ORP and 3,200 in IRP, filterers with 2,797 individuals ORP and 1,615 in IRP. Otherwise, in CRP the greatest specimen number was categorized into collectors group, 5,257 individuals sampled, followed by predators (3,571) and filterers (2,514). During this period was observed low participation of the collectors-filterers group, with six captured individuals in ORP, 50 in IRP and 196 in CRP, and shredders-detritivores group with only one individual collected in IRP and CRP.
Cummins and Klug (1979) state that seasonal and local differences, associated to entry, production and stocks of food resources available to the aquatic entomofauna, assign dynamics to the system, which varies in space and time. Therefore, the greatest abundance and richness of insect families in all study sites were recorded during the wet season, which can be attributed to the greater availability of resources found in this period.
Regarding the number of families, predators group was the most representative throughout the study period, confirming the results obtained by Oliveira et al. (2006) in the same region of the Pantanal. According to Nessimian (1997), the predator category demonstrates weak relationship with the marginal vegetation and strong with the existing macroinvertebrate community in the environment, that is, with the available feeding resources.
The predators group demonstrates relatively constant abundances, since they depend directly on the presence of other groups of organisms and not on the availability of particulate matter and environmental gradients (VANNOTE et al., 1980). Conversely, the group of collectors and scrapers is favored by the decaying organic matter availability, brought by the flood pulse during wet period (OLIVEIRA et al., 2006).
The collectors group was the second most representative. According to Callisto and Esteves (1998), this group feeds on small particles of organic matter (usually less than 1 mm in size), either by water filtering, or direct collection in sediment deposits at the rivers bottom.
Cheshire et al. (2005) emphasize that the participation of different categories of functional groups, in terms of individual and species numbers, varies between different habitat types.
According to Cummins et al. (1989), the shredders are more abundant in areas with high availability of plant resources, and their participation in the fragmentation of plant remains into smaller particles is greater after these resources suffer some kind of structural and/or biochemistry change.
The scrapers functional group showed low abundance of families and individuals, being more representative in dry and wet seasons, which may be related to the greater water velocity during the runoff process in the ebb season, when occurs greater transport of plant resources and nutrients.
Callisto and Esteves (1998) highlight that because of the rapid decomposition of plant remains may not have time for the periphytic community establishment. Hence, leaves and branches that fall in the rivers beds are rapidly fragmented and decomposed in such a manner that does not support a constant periphyton biomass, necessary to sustain the scrapers group.
The filterers and shredders-detritivores groups were less representative, in relation to family richness, throughout the study period. Each group did not exceed 2.53% of the collected families and were represented by only two taxa: filterers of Chironomidae and Culicidae (Diptera) and shredders-herbivores of Tipulidae (Diptera) and Odontoceridae (Trichoptera).
The greatest abundance was recorded during the wet season, when resource availability is higher. The largest family number was categorized into predators functional group, followed by collectors, shredders-herbivores and scrapers. The functional trophic categorization of insects associated with aquatic macrophytes performed in this study, emphasizes the importance of organic matter as food resource for aquatic entomofauna. In this context, the trophic guild concept enabled better understanding of the structure, organization and distribution of energy within the aquatic insect community, as well as the contribution of this community in nutrient cycling.
Received on July 29, 2009.
Accepted on May 26, 2010.
We are indebted to the Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Entomologia (LENT-Uniderp), Environmental and Regional Development Postgraduate Program of Uniderp, and Capes (Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal em Ensino Superior).
AGUIARO, T.; CARAMASCHI, E. P. Trophic guilds in fish assemblages in three coastal lagoons of Rio de Janeiro State (Brasil). Proceedings of the International Association of Theorical and Applied Limnology, v. 26, n. 5, p. 2166-2169, 1998.
ALHO, C. J. R. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation. Brazilian Journal of Biology, v. 68, n. 4, p. 957-966, 2008.
ALHO, C. J. R.; GONCALVES, H. C. Biodiversidade do Pantanal: Ecologia e Conservacao. Campo Grande: Uniderp. 2005.
ANA-Agencia Nacional de Aguas. Programa de acoes estrategicas para o gerenciamento integrado do Pantanal e bacia do alto Paraguai. Brasilia: GEF/Pnuma/OEA/ANA, 2004. (Relatorio final).
BISPO, P. C.; OLIVEIRA, L. G. Distribuicao espacial de insetos aquaticos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera) em corregos de cerrado do Parque Ecologico de Goiania, Estado de Goias. In: NESSIMIAN, J. L; CARVALHO, A. L. E. (Ed.). Ecologia de insetos aquaticos, v. 5. Rio de Janeiro: PPGE-UFRJ, 1998. p. 175-189. (Series Oecologia Brasiliensis, cap. 13).
BOUCHARD JR., R. W. Guide to aquatic invertebrates of the upper Midwest. Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 2004.
CALISTO, M.; ESTEVES, F. A. Categorizacao funcional dos macroinvertebrados bentonicos em quatro ecossistemas loticos sob influencia das atividades de uma mineracao de bauxita na Amazonia Central (Brasil). Oecologia Brasiliensis, v. 5, n. 5, p. 223-234, 1998.
CHESHIRE, K.; BOYERO, L. E.; PEARSON, R. G. Food webs in tropical Australian streams: shredders are not scarce. Freshwater Biology, v. 50, n. 5, p. 748-769, 2005.
COSTA, C.; IDE, S.; SIMONKA, C. E. Insetos Imaturos: Metamorfose e Identificacao. Ribeirao Preto: Holos. 2006.
CUMMINS, K. W. Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annual Review of Entomology, v. 18, n. 1, p. 183-206, 1973.
CUMMINS, K. W. Structure and function of stream ecosystems. Bioscience, v. 24, n. 11, p. 631-641, 1974.
CUMMINS, K. W.; KLUG, M. J. Feeding ecology on stream invertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic, v. 10, n. 1, p. 147-172, 1979.
CUMMINS, K. W.; WILZBACH, M. A.; GATES, D. M.; TALIFERRO, W. B. Shredders and riparian vegetation. Leaf litter that falls into streams influences communities of stream invertebrates. Bioscience, v. 39, n. 1, p 24-30, 1989.
FIDELIS, L.; NESSIMIAN, J. L.; HAMADA, N. Distribuicao espacial de insetos aquaticos em igarapes de pequena ordem na Amazonia Central. Acta Amazonica, v. 38, n. 1, p.127-134, 2008.
KIKUCHI, R. M.; UIEDA, V. S. Composicao da comunidade de insetos aquaticos em um ambiente lotico tropical e sua variacao espacial e temporal. In: NESSIMIAN, J. L.; CARVALHO, A. L. E. (Ed.). Ecologia de insetos aquaticos. Rio de Janeiro: PPGE-UFRJ, 1998. cap. 12, p. 157-173.
MERRITT, R. W.; CUMMINS, K. W. An Introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. 4th ed. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1996.
NESSIMIAN, J. L. Categorizacao funcional de macroinvertebrados de um brejo de dunas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, v. 57, n. 1, p. 135-145, 1997.
ODUM, E. P. Ecologia. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara, 1988.
OLIVEIRA, I. A. D. V.; FAVERO, S.; OLIVEIRA, A. K. M.; SOUZA, C. C. Levantamento preliminar da entomofauna associada ao filme d'agua da Baia do Bacero e Corixo do Pau Seco, Pantanal do Negro. In: BRUM, E.; OLIVEIRA, A. K. M.; FAVERO, S. (Ed.). Meio ambiente e producao interdisciplinar: sociedade, natureza e desenvolvimento. Campo Grande: Uniderp, 2006. v. 1, cap. 4, p. 67-84.
PEREZ, G. R. Guia para el estudio de los macroinvertebrados acuaticos del Departamento de Antioquia. Bogota: Fen Colombia y Colciencias, 1988.
SILVA, F. H.; FAVERO, S.; SABINO, J.; GARNES, S. J. A. Estrutura da comunidade de insetos associados a macrofitas aquaticas, em um trecho do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. In: OLIVEIRA, A. K. M.; GARNES, S. J. A.; FIGUEIREDO, R. S. (Ed). Meio ambiente e producao interdisciplinar: sociedade, natureza e desenvolvimento. Campo Grande: Uniderp, 2008, v. 2, cap. 6, p. 99-117.
SILVA, F. H.; FAVERO, S.; SABINO, J.; GARNES, S. J. A. Distribuicao da entomofauna associada as macrofitas aquaticas na vazante do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, v. 31, n. 2, p. 127-134, 2009.
SILVA, F. L.; PAULETO, G. M.; TALAMONI, J. L. B.; RUIZ, S. S. Categorizacao funcional trofica das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatorios na regiao Centro-Oeste do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, v. 31, n. 1, p. 73-78, 2009.
SIMBERLOFF, D.; DAYAN, T. The guild concept and the structure of ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, v. 99, n. 1, p. 15-36, 1991.
THOMAZ, S. M.; ROBERTO, M. C.; BINI, L. M. Caracterizacao limnologica dos ambientes aquaticos e influencia dos niveis fluviometricos. In: VAZZOLER, A. E. A. M.; AGOSTINHO, A. A.; HAHN, N. S. (Ed.). A planicie de inundacao do alto rio Parana: aspectos fisicos, biologicos e socioeconomicos. Maringa: Eduem, 1997. p. 73-102.
VANNOTE, R. L.; MINSHALL, G. W.; CUMMINS, K. L. SEDELL, J. R.; CUSHING, C. E. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 37, n. 1, p. 130-137, 1980.
Fabio Henrique da Silva *, Silvio Favero and Jose Sabino
Programa de Pos-graduacao em Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Regional, Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal, Rua Alexandre Herculano, 1400, 79037-280, Jardim Veraneio, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. *Author for correnpondence. E-mail: email@example.com
Appendix 1 Description and location of the study areas, Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Site Coordinates Riparian physiognomy 1 19[degrees]30'41"S Open 55[degrees]37'54"W (ORP) 2 19[degrees]30T9"S Intermediary 55[degrees]37,4T'W (IRP) 3 19[degrees]30T0"S Closed 55[degrees]37'40"W (CRP) 4 19[degrees]30'04"S Open 55[degrees]37'30"W (ORP) 5 19[degrees]29'48"S Intermediary 55[degrees]37'23"W (IRP) 6 19[degrees]29'21"S Closed 55[degrees]37T3"W (CRP) Site General features 1 Riparian vegetation is scarce or absent. Connected to floodable fields during wet period. Emergent trees up to 6 meters. Arboreal species: "Cambara" (Vochysia divergens), "lixeira" (Curatella americana), "embauba" (Cecropia pachystachya) and "acuri" (Scheelea phalerata). Aquatic species: "Erva-de-bicho" (Poligonum acuminatum), "aguape" (Eichhornia azurea)," alface d'agua" (Pistia stratiotes) and "orelha de onca" (Salvinia auriculata). Riparian vegetation is present and/or in low density. 2 No connection with floodable fields during wet period. Arboreal species: "Pimenteira" (Lioama parvifolia), "lixeira" (C. americana), "acuri" (S. phalerata), "cambara" (V. divergens) and "lianas" (Cissus erosa and Cissus spinosa). Aquatic species: "Aguape" (E. azurea), and "erva-de-bicho" (P. acuminatum). Riparian vegetation with high stature and density. 3 No connection with floodable fields during wet period. Arboreal species: "Lixeira" (C. americana), "pimenteira" (L. parvifolia), "acuri" (S. phalerata), "tucum" (Bactrisglaucescens) and "cambara" (V. divergens). Closed canopy, forming gallery forest. Aquatic species: "Erva capitao" (Hydrocotyle leucocephala), "erva-de-bicho" (P. acuminatum) and "aguape" (E. azurea). Riparian vegetation is scarce or absent. 4 Connected to floodable fields during wet period. Emergent trees up to 6 meters. Arboreal species: "Cambara" (V. divergens), "pimenteira" (L. parvifolia), "lixeira" (C. americana), "acuri" (S. phalerata), "embauba" (Cecropia pachystachya) and "lianas" (C. erosa and C. spinosa). Aquatic species: "Erva-de-bicho" (P. acuminatum), "aguape" (E. azurea) and "orelha de onca" (S. auriculata). Riparian vegetation is present and/or in low density. 5 No connection with floodable fields during wet period. Arboreal species: "Pimenteira" (L. parvifolia), "acuri" (S. phalerata) and "lianas" (C. erosa and C. spinosa). Aquatic species: "Dormideira" (Neptunia plena), "erva-de-bicho" (P. acuminatum) and "aguape" (E. azurea). Riparian vegetation with high stature and density. 6 No connection with floodable fields during wet period. Arboreal species: "Tucum" (Bactrisglaucescens), "acuri" (S. phalerata), "lixeira" (C. americana), "pimenteira" (L. parvifolia), "inga" (Inga uruguensis) and "cambara" (V. divergens). Closed canopy, forming gallery forest. Aquatic species: "Ninfea" (Nynphaea jamesoniana), "erva-de-bicho" (P. acuminatum), "orelha-de-onca" (S. auriculata), "dormideira" (N. plena) and "aguape" (E. azurea). Appendix 2 Found taxa in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Ebb Taxa/sample Functional group ORP IRP Hexapoda Blattodea Blattellidae Coleoptera Carabidae Pred Chrysomelidae Shre-her Curculionidae Shre-her 31 6 Dytiscidae Pred 24 45 Elmidae Scra; Coll 2 5 Gyrinidae Pred 2 Hydrochidae Shre-her Hydrophilidae Pred; Coll 72 73 Noteridae Pred; Coll 25 45 Psephenidae Scra Scarabeidae Scirtidae Scra; Coll; Pier-her; Shre-her 13 5 Staphylinidae Pred 2 5 Diptera Ceratopogonidae Pred 24 4 Cecidomyiidae Chironomidae Pred; Fil; Coll 155 108 Culicidae Fil; Coll 1 10 Dolichopodidae Pred 1 Empididae Pred; Coll Muscidae Pred Psychodidae Coll 19 Sciomyzidae Pred Stratiomyiidae Coll Tabanidae Pred 1 3 Tipulidae Coll; Shre-her Ephemeroptera Baetidae Scra; Coll Caenidae Scra; Coll 7 10 Leptophlebiidae Scra; Coll Hemiptera Belostomatidae Pred 1 1 Corixidae Pred; Pier-her 7 75 Gerridae Pred Hebridae Pred Hydrometridae Pred Macroveliidae Pred 1 1 Mesoveliidae Pred 3 Naucoridae Pred 12 13 Nepidae Pred Notonectidae Pred 1 Pleidae Pred 1 6 Veliidae Pred 8 4 Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae Lepidoptera Coleophoridae Shre-her 1 Noctuidae Shre-her 1 2 Pyralidae Shre-her 1 1 Megaloptera Corydalidae Pred Odonata Coenagrionidae Pred 13 5 Cordulegastridae Pred 1 15 Libellulidae Pred 18 9 Aeshnidae Pred 2 2 Orthoptera Acrididae Shre-her 10 20 Gryllidae Pred; Coll; Shre-her Thysanoptera Phloeothripidae Trichoptera Glossosomatidae Scra Hydropsychidae Pred; Coll-fil Hydroptilidae Scra; Coll; Pier-her 2 Leptoceridae Pred; Coll; Shre-her Odontoceridae Coll; Shre-det Philopotamidae Coll-fil Polycentropodidae Pred; Coll-fil 2 Total specimens 454 483 Total families 28 30 Ebb Dry Taxa/sample CRP ORP IRP CRP Hexapoda Blattodea Blattellidae Coleoptera Carabidae 1 1 1 Chrysomelidae 2 1 Curculionidae 20 21 2 17 Dytiscidae 55 46 11 24 Elmidae 20 2 3 4 Gyrinidae 2 3 Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae 112 39 18 68 Noteridae 64 2 8 26 Psephenidae 1 4 Scarabeidae Scirtidae 12 47 34 35 Staphylinidae 1 29 1 Diptera Ceratopogonidae 41 142 12 28 Cecidomyiidae 1 Chironomidae 438 595 600 783 Culicidae 4 22 2 21 Dolichopodidae 1 Empididae 3 2 Muscidae 1 Psychodidae 5 11 14 Sciomyzidae 1 Stratiomyiidae 1 Tabanidae 4 2 3 5 Tipulidae 1 3 1 Ephemeroptera Baetidae 16 57 223 20 Caenidae 13 28 16 14 Leptophlebiidae 1 25 2 Hemiptera Belostomatidae 5 5 5 2 Corixidae 3 7 3 Gerridae 3 1 1 Hebridae 1 Hydrometridae Macroveliidae 1 2 Mesoveliidae 6 1 Naucoridae 18 3 8 12 Nepidae 1 1 Notonectidae Pleidae 1 2 3 Veliidae 3 13 4 3 Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae 1 Lepidoptera Coleophoridae Noctuidae 6 3 3 Pyralidae 17 2 4 3 Megaloptera Corydalidae 3 1 Odonata Coenagrionidae 16 15 28 Cordulegastridae 4 12 8 18 Libellulidae 12 31 1 69 Aeshnidae Orthoptera Acrididae 6 5 4 Gryllidae 5 6 1 Thysanoptera Phloeothripidae 1 Trichoptera Glossosomatidae 12 Hydropsychidae 7 112 10 Hydroptilidae 4 6 20 2 Leptoceridae 2 Odontoceridae 1 1 Philopotamidae 3 Polycentropodidae 2 6 4 Total specimens 921 1185 1155 1233 Total families 38 39 33 37 Wet Taxa/sample ORP IRP CRP Hexapoda Blattodea Blattellidae 2 1 Coleoptera Carabidae 1 Chrysomelidae Curculionidae 49 8 25 Dytiscidae 86 177 139 Elmidae 12 13 12 Gyrinidae 42 2 Hydrochidae 3 Hydrophilidae 266 149 212 Noteridae 64 87 49 Psephenidae 4 2 Scarabeidae 1 1 Scirtidae 60 32 40 Staphylinidae 24 2 1 Diptera Ceratopogonidae 469 47 82 Cecidomyiidae Chironomidae 2772 1609 2508 Culicidae 25 6 6 Dolichopodidae 1 1 2 Empididae 1 Muscidae Psychodidae 31 18 9 Sciomyzidae Stratiomyiidae Tabanidae 4 5 2 Tipulidae 3 1 Ephemeroptera Baetidae 56 113 65 Caenidae 71 26 102 Leptophlebiidae 1 1 2 Hemiptera Belostomatidae 9 4 3 Corixidae 58 38 95 Gerridae 6 20 10 Hebridae 1 4 Hydrometridae 3 Macroveliidae 2 Mesoveliidae 9 8 7 Naucoridae 15 14 11 Nepidae 3 Notonectidae 4 1 Pleidae 83 51 109 Veliidae 2 17 5 Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae 3 Lepidoptera Coleophoridae Noctuidae 6 1 6 Pyralidae 3 7 Megaloptera Corydalidae 3 1 Odonata Coenagrionidae 31 28 24 Cordulegastridae 3 8 5 Libellulidae 108 44 90 Aeshnidae 6 2 1 Orthoptera Acrididae 16 7 3 Gryllidae 3 2 7 Thysanoptera Phloeothripidae 4 2 1 Trichoptera Glossosomatidae 1 1 21 Hydropsychidae 2 1 2 Hydroptilidae 55 1132 2242 Leptoceridae 3 10 1 Odontoceridae 1 1 Philopotamidae 44 Polycentropodidae 4 5 194 Total specimens 4480 3746 6116 Total families 45 44 47 * Categories of functional groups of aquatic insect (Pred = Predators, Scra = Scrapers; Fil = Filterers; Coll = Collectors; Coll-fil = Collectors-filterers; Pier-her = Piercers-herbivores; Shre-her = Shredders-herbivores; Shre-det = Shredders-detritivores). Appendix 3 Functional group of found taxa in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Taxa Pred Scra Fil Coll Coll-fil Hexapoda Blattodea Blattellidae Coleoptera Carabidae X Chrysomelidae Curculionidae Dytiscidae X Elmidae X X Gyrinidae X Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae X X Noteridae X X Psephenidae X Scarabeidae Scirtidae X X Staphylinidae X Diptera Ceratopogonidae X Cecidomyiidae Chironomidae X X X Culicidae X X Dolichopodidae X Empididae X X Muscidae X Psychodidae X Sciomyzidae X Stratiomyiidae X Tabanidae X Tipulidae X Ephemeroptera Baetidae X X Caenidae X X Leptophlebiidae X X Hemiptera Belostomatidae X Corixidae X Gerridae X Hebridae X Hydrometridae X Macroveliidae X Mesoveliidae X Naucoridae X Nepidae X Notonectidae X Pleidae X Vellidae X Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae Lepidoptera Coleophoridae Noctuidae Pyralidae Megaloptera Corydalidae X Odonata Coenagrionidae X Cordulegastridae X Libellulidae X Aeshnidae X Orthoptera Acrididae Gryllidae X X Thysanoptera Phloeothripidae Trichoptera Glossosomatidae X Hydropsychidae X X Hydroptilidae X X Leptoceridae X X Odontoceridae X Philopotamidae X Polycentropodidae X X Taxa number 34 8 2 17 3 Taxa Pier-her Shre-her Shre-det Hexapoda Blattodea Blattellidae Coleoptera Carabidae Chrysomelidae X Curculionidae X Dytiscidae Elmidae Gyrinidae Hydrochidae X Hydrophilidae Noteridae Psephenidae Scarabeidae Scirtidae X X Staphylinidae Diptera Ceratopogonidae Cecidomyiidae Chironomidae Culicidae Dolichopodidae Empididae Muscidae Psychodidae Sciomyzidae Stratiomyiidae Tabanidae Tipulidae X Ephemeroptera Baetidae Caenidae Leptophlebiidae Hemiptera Belostomatidae Corixidae X Gerridae Hebridae Hydrometridae Macroveliidae Mesoveliidae Naucoridae Nepidae Notonectidae Pleidae Vellidae Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae Lepidoptera Coleophoridae X Noctuidae X Pyralidae X Megaloptera Corydalidae Odonata Coenagrionidae Cordulegastridae Libellulidae Aeshnidae Orthoptera Acrididae X Gryllidae X Thysanoptera Phloeothripidae Trichoptera Glossosomatidae Hydropsychidae Hydroptilidae X Leptoceridae X Odontoceridae X Philopotamidae Polycentropodidae Taxa number 3 10 2 * Categories of functional groups of aquatic insect (Pred = Predators, Scra = Scrapers; Fil = Filterers; Coll = Collectors; Coll-fil = Collect ors-filterers; Pier-her = Piercers-herbivores; Shre-her = Shredders-herbivores; Shre-det = Shredders-detritivores).
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||da Silva, Fabio Henrique; Favero, Silvio; Sabino, Jose|
|Publication:||Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2012|
|Previous Article:||The study of fractals among ecologists/O estudo dos fractais entre os ecologos.|
|Next Article:||First record of the choicy ruff, Seriolella porosa Guichenot, 1848 (Perciformes: Centrolophidae) in Brazilian waters/Primeiro registro do savorin,...|