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From space-time to A-Temporal physical space.

Abstract

Time exists only as a stream of change in physical space. Change does not "happen" in time--change itself is time. Time is a material change in A-Temporal physical space. Gravitational force is transmitted directly by physical space and it is A-Temporal, too. In the universe, matter and physical space are in permanent dynamic equilibrium. The universe is a perpetual system that is constantly renewing itself.

Introduction

In the universe, the passing of physical time cannot be clearly perceived as matter and space directly; one can perceive only irreversible physical, chemical and biological changes in material media. On the basis of elementary perception (sight), one can conclude that physical time exists only as a stream of change that runs through material space. The terms "physical time" and "change" describe the same phenomenon. Physical time is irreversible. Change A transforms into change B, B transforms into C, and so on. When B is in existence, A does not exist anymore, when C is in existence, B does not exist anymore.

In Newtonian physics, physical time is an independent quantity (absolute time), running uniformly throughout the entire cosmic space (absolute space). In the Theory of Relativity, time is no more an independent physical quantity--it is linked with space in four-dimensional space-time. Here physical time is understood as a stream of irreversible change that runs through physical space. The important point is: Change does not "happen" in physical time--change itself is physical time. This is a different and more correct perspective than the conventional view in physics, in which space-time is the theater or "stage" on which change happens. (1)

With the introduction of a "time is change" concept, time is totally integrated into space. Space-time has developed into an A-Temporal physical space within which changes run. With clocks we measure the durations of changes, or put markers into on-going changes.

Density of Physical Space

In his article, "Chief Notions and Methods of the Theory of Relativity Presented in its Development," Einstein states that the general theory of relativity cannot be imagined without gravitational ether, which is non-homogeneous, and its state has no autonomous existence, but depends on the field generating matter. Since metric facts can no longer be separated from true physical facts in the new theory, the concept of space and ether merge together. (2)

Merging of physical space and gravitational ether introduces "non-homogeneous density of physical space" that corresponds to the density of matter. The denser the matter, the denser the physical space. The density of physical space can be described in "General Theory of Relativity" with the curvature of space. Gravitational force is attributed to the density of physical space. The "areas" of higher density attract each other. Gravitational force is immediate; it acts directly via physical space. Three other basic forces--electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear force--are indirect, carried by some particle or wave that is moving through physical space. For "indirect forces" to act, they need to travel through physical space (for example, duration of the movement of light wave from the Sun to the Earth is around eight minutes). For gravitational force to be transmitted between Sun and Earth, no travel of particle or wave is needed. Just as physical space is A-Temporal, so is gravitational force.

Autodynamics (AD) come to the same conclusion. In his article, "Graviton Velocity and Gravity Speed," Carezani says: "Even though there exists a profuse literature on Graviton velocity, the question is: Does this Gravitation velocity exist? Newton's gravitation velocity is instantaneous, equivalent to an infinite velocity, and his equation for Gravitation is working perfectly. In Einstein theory, which equates space-time curvature to Gravitation, the propagation velocity has no meaning. Contradicting himself, Einstein accepted that Gravitation propagates at Light velocity, which is postulated as a maximum velocity in the Universe. Autodynamics, a Quantum Relativistic Mechanics accepts the Gravitation--Le Sage's mundane particle-- as Gravitation carrier and accepts the Gravitation's velocity, but proves that Gravity is A-Temporal and exists in the whole space of the Universe without propagation velocity, and this coincides with Newton's apparently infinite velocity". (3)

A-Temporal Physical Space and EPR Experiment

A-Temporal physical space sheds new light on the experiments of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR). This experiment shows that quantum A and quantum B, which have been together and then sent into space in opposite directions, "know" each other at any instant or moment. One could predict that in the EPR experiment, the information medium between two particles is physical space itself. Like the gravitational force between Sun and Earth, information between particle A and particle B is also A-Temporal.

The Dynamic Equilibrium DE) of Space and Matter

Density of the physical space between galaxies is at the minimum; in the center of an active galaxy, density of physical space is at maximum. The density of matter and density of space can be explained with astronomical observations that show the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuously emits fresh gases. Energy cannot be created and not destroyed. The matter can not simply appear in AGN out of nothing and disappear into black holes into nothing. The idea here is that in black holes, energy of matter transforms into energy of physical space. This process keeps high the density of physical space in the center of the galaxy where energy of space structures back into energy of matter. The original idea of transportation of the energy of matter through kind of tunnels that connect black holes and white holes is from Einstein and Rosen. Here AGN functions as a white hole.

The majority of cosmologists still consider the "red shift" as proof of the expansion of the universe; but they accept that part of the "red shift" is a result of light escaping out of the strong gravitational field of the galaxies from which it comes to reach Earth. The Van Flandern view is that the red shift is not proof of an expanding universe; moreover, recent discoveries confirm this opposite view. (4)

It seems that the cosmological model of self-renewing galaxies has more experimental evidence than the cosmological model of cyclic "Big Bangs." However, in both of the models, the Dynamic Equilibrium (DE) is a basic universal law. Transformation of energy of physical space into matter and vice versa that is recreating the universe is in dynamic equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium between gravitational and tangential forces makes it possible for planets to orbit around the sun, for the sun to orbit around the center of the galaxy; the water circulation ("ocean-evaporation-clouds-rain-rivers-ocean") is in dynamic equilibrium, life chains of fauna and flora are in dynamic equilibrium.

The Entropy of the Universe and the Evolution of Life

The universe is a "perpetual" system with a permanent flow of energy, as seen on the scheme above. It does not need energy to move. It cannot be compared to the machines created by man where "for some work to be done, some energy is needed." The second law of thermodynamics cannot be applied to describe universal dynamics. It is valid only for machines. The total energy of the universe and of a single galaxy sums to zero. An increase in the entropy of gas being produced in Big Bang or in AGN does not influence its total entropy.

Also for the movement of a stellar object, no energy is needed. For example, the force of attraction between physical spaces of the Earth and Moon is equal to the centripetal force, which pulls the Moon from the Earth [F attraction (Fa) = F centripetal (Fc)]. For the movement of the Moon around the Earth, no energy is needed [Fa - Fc = 0]. By moving the stars and planets, the universe does not get "tired." Movement is its intrinsic property.

The whole universal space is in a phase of chemical evolution. Several experiments show that functioning of living organisms is directly related to the gravitational force of physical space. One can predict that on planets similar to ours, chemical evolution has developed into biological evolution. (5)

In the self-renewing galaxy, the evolution of life is a consistent part of the evolution of the galaxy. It can be understood as a process that is continuously developing towards a total entropy of the galaxy that sums to zero. The relationship between life as a continuous negentropic process and the zero entropy of the galaxy can be described with the following diagram:

(The diagram is also valid for the Big Bang theory; fresh gas comes from Big Bang and renewing process happen into "Big Crunch").

Conclusions

Time exists only as an irreversible material change in A-Temporal physical space. The Dynamic Equilibrium between matter and A-Temporal physical space is a self-renewing force of the universe. The second law of thermodynamics is not valid for the universe; its energetic resources are constant. The total entropy of the universe and of a single active galaxy sums to zero. Evolution of life is a consistent part of cosmic dynamics.

Acknowledgements

We wish to acknowledge the late Roger Gouin for his insightful contributions to previous discussions on the AGN.

References:

(1.) Sorli, A. (2004). "Physical Time and Psychological Time." Frontier Perspectives, 13(1), 6-7.

(2.) Sorli, A. (2003). "Gravitational Ether as the Origin of the Universe and Life." In Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory. Proceedings of International Scientific Meeting. Moscow: PIRT, 282-286.

(3.) Carezani, R. L. (2003). "Graviton Velocity and Gravity Speed." In Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory. Proceedings of International Scientific Meeting. Moscow: PIRT. 295-287.

(4.) Van Flandern, T. (2004). Did the Universe Have a Beginning? http://www.metaresearch.org/cosmology/DidTheUniverseHaveABeginning.asp.

(5.) Sorli, A., Sorli, K. (2005). "Evolution as A Universal Process." Frontier Perspectives, 13 (2), 43-45.

Amrit Sorli and Ilaria K. Sorli, SpaceLife Institute

Via Roncaglia 35, 61047

S. Lorenzo in Campo (PU) Italy

E-mail: spacelife@libero.it
COPYRIGHT 2005 Temple University - of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education, through its Center for Frontier Sciences
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:News & Views
Author:Sorli, Amrit; Sorli, Ilaria K.
Publication:Frontier Perspectives
Geographic Code:4EUIT
Date:Jun 22, 2005
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