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From poster presentation to publication: National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

INTRODUCTION

A good amount research is planned and their data are shared with scientific environments in Turkey and around the world (I). One of the most important scientific environments is congresses held at the national level (2). In these congresses, data of recent research are reported in the form of an oral or poster presentation. Subsequently, these presentations are published in scientific journals as the natural result of the research process (2).

The desired end point of scientific research is publication of the study. For a presentation presented at a congress to be accepted as valid, reliable, and useful in clinical practice, it is believed that it must be published as a full-text article in peer-reviewed journals (3). The publication rate of presentations which are presented at a scientific congress and subsequently published in peer- reviewed journals reflects the scientific quality of studies and the congress itself (2,4). However; it is observed that many of the presentations presented at congresses in Turkey and abroad have not achieved the goal of publication, and the publication rates of presentations vary from 13% to 74% (1,2,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13). The rate of publication is generally between 40% and 50% (14). Currently, no publications on this issue in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry have been encountered.

The National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (NCCAP) has been organized regularly since 1991. The congress is one of the important platforms where new methods and practices related to the profession of child and adolescent psychiatry are discussed, professional strategies are determined, and new projects arise, thereby strengthening professional and social associations. Child and adolescent psychiatrists actively participate and present their presentations at NCCAP where an average of 40-70 poster presentations is presented per year.

Based on the poster presentations accepted at NCCAP the aim of this study was to investigate the data of publication rate, time to publication, study design, academic degree of the first author in the published article, journal index, and the relationship of these data with each other

METHODS

The poster presentations of four congresses held in 2005-2008 were separately investigated in booklets of these congresses (15,16,17,18). Although no oral presentations were included at the 2005, 2006, and 2007 congresses and in the congress booklets, a total of nine oral presentations were presented at the 2008 congress and were found in the 2008 booklet (15,16,17,18). Because only one booklet with a small number of oral presentations was available, oral presentations were excluded from the study The poster presentations were searched by taking into account the first and second author and the title in English and Turkish languages via PubMed and Google Academic databases in March 2013. The databases were screened for the name of the first author If a related publication was not found, screening was continued for the name of the second author The order in which the names were entered was as follows: last name and first name and then last name and the initial of the first name. Subsequently considering their titles, the poster presentations were screened once more. During screening, publications were encountered that were similar but not identical with the poster presentations. Even though the author's name was added or removed, the publications which had the same or a similar title, study protocols, or result reviews with those in poster presentations were considered to be compatible. The type of studies (research and case), the length of time between the poster presentation and publication, the index of the journal which published the article, [Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE), national and international peer-reviewed journals], and the academic degree (Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Expert, other degree) of the first author at the time of publication were recorded. The pressing date of the article in the journal was considered to be the publication date, and the first author recorded in the published article was accepted as being the first author In the study cases and series of cases in the form of presentations and publications were classified as "case," while all other presentations and publications were accepted as "research" In the study articles in SCI and SSCI journals were evaluated under the title of "SCI," and articles published in national or international peer-reviewed journals not associated with SCI, SSCI, and SCIE were evaluated under the title of "other" The term "other degree" was used to describe researchers who are research assistants or university graduate researchers without an academic degree, such as professor associate professor assistant professor and expert. Expert researchers who were employed by a university at the time of publication were recorded as "expert lecturers." During the screening, no studies published before the congress began were encountered. Because a major portion of the publications took place within 4-5 years and our study included poster presentations, the last year of our study was planned to be 2008.

Statistical Analysis

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 program (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA) was used to statistically analyze the data. Data were expressed as mean [+ or -] standard deviation and as percentages. Research and case types for poster presentations, SCI/SCI-E and other journal indexes, and teaching and non-teaching staff for first author degree were used in groups of pairs for the statistical analysis. The distribution of the data was monitored by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov method. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare continuous variables. Statistical significance was accepted at the p<0.05 level.

RESULTS

A total of 214 poster presentations which were accepted in NCCAP were evaluated. Of the poster presentations, 65.9% (n=141) were research type and 25.2% (n=54) were published in either national or international peer-reviewed journals. Publication rates were found to be 28.4% for research type presentations and 19.2% for case type presentations. Of the published articles, 74.1% (n=40) were research type and 61.1% (n=33) were published in journals cited by SCI and SCI-E. The greatest number of poster presentations accepted (n=64) and the highest publication rate (29.7%) were determined in the 2006 congress (Table 1). First authors who wrote 23 of the published articles (42.6%) were assistant professors; 16 (69.6%) of those articles were published in journals cited by SCI and SCI-E (Table 2).

No statistical differences were determined with respect to publication rates and journal indexes (p=0.193 and p=0.501, respectively) between research and case type studies published. Research type articles within published poster presentations were published significantly more by teaching staff than by expert and other researchers (p=0.019) (Table 3). No significant difference for articles published in journals cited by SCI and SCI-E was determined between teaching staff and expert and other researchers (p=0.438) (Table 4).

The average time between poster presentation and publishing date was found 30.72 [+ or -] 18.89 (range 4-74) months (Table 5). Of the poster presentations, 48% were published within 2 years, 63% within 3 years, 77.7% within 4 years, and 94.4% within 5 years. No statistical differences for time to publication were determined between research and case type poster presentations, between teaching staff and experts and other researchers, and between articles published in journals cited by SCI or SCI-E and those published in other journals (p=0.828, p=0.368, and p=0.811, respectively) (Table 6).

DISCUSSION

Our study was the first research which examined the publication rate and time of poster presentations of a congress in the field of mental health and investigated study design, journal index, and academic degree of first authors that could be related to these results. Compared with data from national or international congresses, the publication rate of poster presentations at our congress was similar; however the time to publication was longer With respect to the time to publication, no significant difference was observed irrespective of whether the study design was a research or case type, whether the first author was a teaching staff or not, and whether the journal was cited by indexes or not.

The publication rate of the poster presentations presented at NCCAP held in the years from 2005 to 2008 was found to be 25.2% on PubMed and Google Academic databases. In the field of child and adolescent psychiatry because there has been no study conducted on this issue, our results could not be compared with the results of other congresses. When the publication rates of poster presentations at congresses in other fields of expertise were examined, the rate for international congresses were between 14% and 39% (7,9,10,11,12,19,20) and the rate for those in our country was reported to be between 1.4% and 11.9% (2,21). While the publication rate in our study was similar with the rate of international congresses, this was higher than those of congresses held in our country This situation may be explained by the distribution of the number of case and research type studies in our study being similar to those at international congresses and the fewer number of case studies at national congresses.

Although the publication rate of research poster presentations (28.4%) was higher than case poster presentations (19.2%), no differences between the two groups were found. In the literature, it is stated that the publication rates of research and case type presentations at an international congress are 52% and 5% and for national congresses are 20.6% and 9.7%, 24% and 14.6%, respectively (2,22,23). In studies evaluating the publication rates of both oral and poster presentations at international congresses, the publication rates of case presentations were determined to be 6.7% and 18%, respectively (24,25). Unlike our study publication rates of research type studies were reported to be significantly better than those of case type studies (2,26,27). While Harris et al. (28) reported, similar to our study that the study design did not affect the publication rate, Nader et al. (10) showed that observational case series studies were more likely to be published in international journals. A significant indifference in our study for the publication rates between two types of study design suggests that research and case type poster presentations have similar importance during the publication process.

Of the poster presentations that were published, 61.1% (33/54) and 65% of research type (26/40) were published in SCI and/or SCI-E journals, respectively In our country in a study of Kalyoncu et al. (23) in the field of rheumatology it was reported that except for case poster presentations, 94% of all published poster presentations appeared in indexed journals. The low rate of publication found in our study for SCI and/or SCI-E journals may be due to the smaller number of indexed journals in the field of psychiatry Our study also did not find any differences associated with whether articles published in SCI and/or SCI-E journals were research or case studies or whether the first author was a teaching staff This suggests that presentations in our study are weaker from the aspect of their scope and methodology which makes them difficult to be published in an indexed journal. In addition, it may be thought that authors may have presented their studies and were given special consideration at an international congress.

A significant number of first authors of the articles published were assistant professors and experts, and the rates of being the first author were similar between the two groups (43% and 41%, respectively). Compared to experts and other researchers, teaching staff published more research type poster presentations when they were the first authors of the studies. It may also be thought that both groups show the same motivation and desire for the study planning, writing, and publishing in indexed journals; however, the desire and enthusiasm of teaching staff to publish research type studies was more powerful. The greater number of published case studies authored by experts, research assistants, or university graduate researchers may be explained by the conditions of our country, where they play an active role in outpatient services and are more motivated to evaluate interesting cases that they encounter rather than research planning.

The average length of time between the dates of a poster presentation and its publication was found to be 30.7 months. The length of this period was not affected by whether the study was a research type or not, whether the first author was a teaching staff or not, or whether the publishing journal was indexed or not. The publication times for poster presentations in other studies were reported to be I 8.6 months, 24 months, and 36.01 months (9,12,26). They were found to be 22 months, 22.5 months, 15.4 months, and 1.3 years in other studies, including oral presentations (2,6,8,9). This publication time is generally recognized to be 17-20 months (14). The length of time for publication of poster presentations in our study was longer than those from other congresses. This difference may be attributed to a number of reasons, including rapid preparation of the poster presentation before the congress and subsequent problems that may be encountered during the publication process, heavy workloads, insufficient time for practical research, and small number of journals dedicated to child and adolescent psychiatry. Long length of time for publication is reported to be specifically associated with a lack of sufficient time and the researchers' lack of interest (7). Furthermore, submission of studies in order from high-impact factor journals to low-impact factor journals; time loss in journals to which studies are submitted; and author's insufficient level of English, which is generally the official language of journals, are additional important factors that contribute to extend the period of publication (7,10,29,30,31).

It is reported that the majority of congress presentations are generally published within 2 years, and more than 90% appear in publications within 4 years (7,14,26,32). A meta-analysis of studies showed that a vast number of studies were published within 5 years after presentation at congresses (5). In our study it was found that 48.1% of the articles were published within 2 years, 63% within 3 years, 77.7% within 4 years, and 94.4% within 5 years. No examples of a study that showed publication rate over the years of poster presentation being published were encountered. In studies which evaluated both oral and poster presentations combined, it was revealed that of published articles, 69%-82% were published within the first 2 years, 82%-9 1% within the first 3 years, 93%-97% within the first 4 years, and 91% within the first 5 years (2,11,19,25). In our study the rates for articles published each year were low according to data from these studies and seemed to reach rates of the previous studies after nearly a year This delayed time of publication may be related to the lack of oral presentations at congresses between 2005 and 2007 when it is considered that length of time to publication is shorter for oral presentations than for poster presentations according to these studies. The submission of oral presentations at our congress may contribute to increase the rate of publication as well as to shorten the time to publication (8,13,33).

Despite its many findings, our study did include some limitations. Firstly only PubMed and Google Academic databases were screened for the data. International databases such as EMBASE and Cochrane and national databases such as TUBITAK's National Medical Database and Psychiatry Index Database of The Psychiatric Association of Turkey were not utilized in this study An International database was screened for presentations presented at a national congress. Because of not using a national database available in our country we could have failed to determine some congress poster presentations which were published in our country Secondly the publication status of articles from which the first and second authors had been removed could not have been determined because of screening the study only for these authors. Obtaining the publication data of presentations by contacting the authors could have increased the validity of the study

NCCAP has accepted oral presentations and this has been performed since 2008. In the future, studies including data of conversion to publication for oral and poster presentations presented in NCCAP are required. In addition, this data should be created by examining more comprehensive databases. To interpret contributions of NCCAP to literature in a healthier way, studies including data of publication for presentations submitted to international congresses in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry should be performed.

In conclusion, compared to the studies in literature, the similar rate of publication and the longer time to publication indicate that child and adolescent psychiatrists are experiencing difficulty in navigating the stages necessary in having their presentations published. To shorten the length of time for publishing articles in this field, arrangements such as creating time for research and setting auxiliary units that can provide support throughout all the stages of research (planning, data collection, analysis, writing, and publishing) can be performed. Prizes could be awarded for studies that are presented at a congress and published in an indexed journal. To boost the quality of studies and published articles, an infrastructure for multi-center studies can be established besides integration of case study presentations or studies with joint themes. It is important to create necessary conditions and encourage the researchers to publish poster presentations presented in NCCAP

DOI: 10.5152/npa.2015.7410

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.

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Caner MUTLU [1], Ebru KAYA MUTLU [2], Ali Guven KILICOGLU [1], Ozgur YORBIK [3]

[1] Clinic of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Prof. Dr Mazhar Osman Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

[2] Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Istanbul University, Faculty of Health Sciences, istanbul, Turkey

[3] Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Maltepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address: Dr Caner Mutlu, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Prof. Dr Mazhar Osman Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Phone: +90 505 834 37 97 E-mail: canerrmutluu@yahoo.com

Received: 06.09.2013 Accepted: 03.10.2013
Table 1. Distribution of published poster presentations
according to study design, years, and journal index

                       SCI   SCI-E   Other *       Number of
                                               published poster
                                               presentations (%)

2005        Research    3      2        5          10 (27.0)
            Case        2     --        1          3 (21.4)
            Total       5      2        6          13 (25.5)
2006        Research    5      4        5          14 (32.5)
            Case       --      2        3          5 (23.8)
            Total       5      6        8          19 (29.7)
2007        Research    3      4        1          8 (21.0)
            Case        1      2        1          4 (19.0)
            Total       4      6        2          12 (20.3)
2008        Research    4      1        3          8 (34.8)
            Case       --     --        2          2 (1 1.8)
            Total       4      1        5          10 (25.0)
2005-2008   Research   15     11       14          40 (28.4)
            Case        3      4        7          14 (19.2)
            Total      18     15       21          54 (25.2)

                       Total number
                         of poster
                       presentations

2005        Research        37
            Case            14
            Total           51
2006        Research        43
            Case            21
            Total           64
2007        Research        38
            Case            21
            Total           59
2008        Research        23
            Case            17
            Total           40
2005-2008   Research        141
            Case            73
            Total           214

SCI: Science Citation Index; SCI-E: Science Citation
Index-Expanded. * National or international peer-reviewed
journals not associated with SCI and SCI-E

Table 2. Distribution of academic degrees of first author in
published articles according to study design and journal
index (n = 54)

              Study design      Journal index           Total (%)

              Research   Case   SCI   SCI-E   Other *

Professor        1        --    --     --        1       1 (1.8)
Associate        4        --     2      1        1       4 (7.4)
  Professor
Assistant        20       3      7      9        7      23 (42.6)
  Professor
Expert           3        2      2     --        3       5 (9.2)
  lecturers
Expert           10       7      6      5        6      17 (3 1.5)
Other            2        2      1     --        3       4 (7.4)
  degree **

SCI: Science Citation Index; SCI-E: Science Citation
Index-Expanded. * National or international peer-reviewed
journals not associated with SCI and SCI-E. ** Research
assistants or university graduate researchers

Table 3. Comparison of study design with publication
rate, journal index, and academic degree of first author

                                   Research     Case

                                    n     %      n     %

Publication     Published          40    28.4   14    19.2
  rate            presentation
                Unpublished        101   71.6   59    80.8
                  presentation
                Total              141   100    73    100
Journal Index   SCI/SCI-E          26    65.0    7     50
                Other *            14    35.0    7     50
                Total              40    100    14    100
First author    Teaching staff     25    62.5    3    27.3
  degree        Expert and other   15    37.5   1 1   72.7
                  degree **
                Total              40    100    14    100

                 [chi       P
                square]

Publication      1.694    0.193
  rate

Journal Index    0.452    0.501

First author     5.458    0.019
  degree
[chi square]: Chi-square test SCI: Science Citation
Index; SCI-E: Science Citation Index-Expanded. * National
or international peer-reviewed journals not associated
with SCI and SCI-E. ** Research assistants or university
graduate researchers

Table 4. Comparison of academic degrees of first
author with journal index

                                  SCI/SCI-E   Other *       P

                                  n     %     n     %

First author   Teaching staff     19   57.6   9    42.8   0.438
  degree       Expert and other   14   42.4   12   57.2
                 degree **
               Total              33   100    21   100

SCI/SCI-E: Science Citation Index/Science Citation
Index-Expanded. * National or international peer-reviewed
journals not associated with SCI and SCI-E.
** Research assistants or university graduate researchers

Table 5. Mean length of time to publication of research and case
poster presentations per year

              Research (Mean           Case (Mean
             [+ or -] D months;     [+ or -] D months;
                4-74 months)           7-61 months)

2005        38.80 [+ or -] 23.27   23.67 [+ or -] 18.72
2006        23.50 [+ or -] 16.44   27.00 [+ or -] 16.78
2007        34.38 [+ or -] 15.62   34.38 [+ or -] 15.62
2008        30.25 [+ or -] 18.53   30.25 [+ or -] 18.53
2005-2008   30.85 [+ or -] 18.94   30.36 [+ or -] 19.44

             All presentations
              (Mean [+ or -]
                 D months)

2005        35.31 [+ or -] 22.55
2006        24.42 [+ or -] 16.14
2007        33.83 [+ or -] 18.90
2008        33.00 [+ or -] 18.24
2005-2008   30.72 [+ or -] 18.89

SD: standard deviation

Table 6. Comparison of time to publication of poster presentations
with study design, academic degree of first author, and journal
index (n=54)

                                    Number of    Time to publication
                                    published     (Mean [+ or -] SD
                                   studies (n)         months)

Study design    Research               40        30.85 [+ or -] 18.94
                Case                   14        30.36 [+ or -] 19.44
First author    Teaching staff         28        32.79 [+ or -] 18.91
  degree        Expert and other       26        28.50 [+ or -] 18.98
                  degree **
Journal index   SCI/SCI-E              33        29.79 [+ or -] 17.98
                Other **               21        32.19 [+ or -] 20.60

                                     Z        P

Study design    Research           -0.217   0.828
                Case
First author    Teaching staff     -0.901   0.368
  degree        Expert and other
                  degree **
Journal index   SCI/SCI-E          -0.240   0.81 1
                Other **

Z: Mann-Whitney U-test, SCI/SCI-E: Science Citation Index/Science
Citation Index-Expanded. * Research assistants or university graduate
researchers. ** National or international peer-reviewed journals not
associated with SCI and SCI-E
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Mutlu, Caner; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Yorbik, Ozgur
Publication:Archives of Neuropsychiatry
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2015
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