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From Georgia Tragedy to Oklahoma Frontier: A Biography of Scots Creek Indian Chief Chilly McIntosh.

From Georgia Tragedy to Oklahoma Frontier: A Biography of Scots Creek Indian Chief Chilly McIntosh by Billie Jane McIntosh. 2008, paperback, 184pp. American History Imprints, ISBN 978-0-9753667-8-3

Billie Jean McIntosh is a retired college guidance counselor and a linear descendant of the half Highlander and half Creek tribal Headman William McIntosh, Jr. Her book is a general family and Creek tribal history about the dominant McIntosh family among the Lower Creek towns of Colonial Georgia including the history of the Upper Creeks of central Alabama and a few pages referencing the Creek Red Stick War of 1812-1814.

From Georgia Tragedy to Oklahoma Frontier largely references Billie Jane's direct ancestor on her paternal side, Chilly McIntosh.

Chief William McIntosh had multiple half-siblings including half-brother Roley, son of the same white father and another Creek woman. Their father, a Scots trader in the Lower Creek towns had a third marriage to another white woman in Savannah with whom he had fathered two white sons.

Until the late colonial era Creek tribal population was pushing 40,000 tribal members equally divided between the Upper towns of central Alabama; 20,000 and 20,000 Lower Creeks in western Georgia. Ms. McIntosh also assesses that by the American Revolution 10% of the Creek population had mixed Scottish and Creek ancestry. The author notes that the lead Red Stick War Chief was William Weatherford also known as Red Eagle, a Wind Clan member and less than half Creek by blood. The Red Stick war came out of the War of 1812. Red Stick Creek, largely from Creek Upper towns, fought Lower Creek allies of the United States. The ending of the Creek military resistance is captured in her discussion of the massacre at Fort Mimms in southern Alabama and the climactic battle of Horseshoe Bend, Alabama..

The remainder of the author's work focuses largely on the execution of Chief William McIntosh by Upper Creek, lead by his old nemesis Menewa, for signing the treaty of Indian Springs in February 1825 ceding the Creek tribe's remaining few million acres in Georgia to the state of Georgia. In the wake of William McIntosh's death, the exodus of several thousand Lower Creek McIntosh Creek partisans to Oklahoma began in 1828, including this reviewer's Berryhill half-blood Creek ancestors.

From Georgia Tragedy to Oklahoma Frontier is readable and relevant to anyone interested in the history of the Creek tribe.

Reviewed by Ken Dunn

Spring Valley, CA.

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Author:Dunn, Ken
Publication:Whispering Wind
Article Type:Book review
Date:Nov 1, 2016
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