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Friday's Sessions. (Abstracts of Presented Papers and Posters).

Section I: Biological Sciences

250 Herty Hall

Jimmy Wedincamp, Jr., Presiding

12:00 DNA FINGERPRINTING: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE, Jennifer Layton (*) and Joy Waelti (*), Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the fundamental building block for human life. Only recently was it discovered that DNA is unique within each person. This discovery lead to the process of comparing the DNA of individuals known as DNA fingerprinting. Though the process can be used to establish many different types of family relationships, DNA fingerprinting has revolutionized forensic science. It was the use of DNA fingerprints in the criminal justice system that made this concept a household word. There are several ways to create a DNA fingerprint including VNTR, PCR, and STR. Each process has advantages and disadvantages. Although these processes are being advanced everyday, it is essential to understand the statistical aspects of DNA fingerprinting. The validity of DNA fingerprinting lies within the statistics that support it. Due to the fact that a DNA fingerprint is so unique, there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the use of DNA evidence. Thus, it is crucial that universal standards be established to analyze DNA fingerprints. A DNA fingerprint will be conducted and analyzed for this paper. This DNA fingerprint will illustrate the concept of DNA fingerprinting, the need for statistical evidence, and to demonstrate the necessity for a universal procedure to analyze such powerful information.

12:15 EVALUATION OF LURE FORMULATIONS FOR THE YELLOW JACKET (HYMENOPTERA: VESPIDAE). Jody L. Underwood (*) and Jimmy Wedincamp, Jr., East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401. Comparisons of lure formulations were made in order to develop environmentally safe and effective baits for the yellow jacket. We utilized the randomized block design to compare all lure formulations. The trials were 2 to 5 weeks in duration. Individual traps were placed at 10 to 15 ft intervals and 4 to 5 ft above the ground. The research area was located at the East Georgia College Nature Trail in Emanuel County, Georgia. Yellow jackets were removed from the traps and identified to species level. We found statistical differences in the number of yellow jackets trapped when we compared proprietary lure formulations among themselves. However, when we compared the standard baits (apple juice and turkey ham) to the proprietary lures our preliminary data suggests that the standard baits attracted statistically more yellow jackets.

12:30 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MERMITHID NEMATODE SPECIES, Russell During (*), Amanda Howard (*) and J. Mitchell Lockhart, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Mermithid nematodes have been considered pests to plants, animals, and humans due to diseases they cause; however, certain species have been studied as a mechanism for biological pest control.

Classical nematode taxonomy has been based on morphological characteristics, which can be ambiguous among closely related species. In addition, environmental components can obscure morphological characteristics, thus reducing the validity of these taxonomic procedures. Due to their possible importance as biocontrol agents, a more precise method for nematode identification is needed. Six mermithid nematode species collected from Lake Itasca, Minnesota were characterized using molecular techniques. DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction using the Epicentre Fail Safe PCR PreMix Kit with primers designed for Caenorhabditis elegans rDNA. These primers amplify the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS) as well as the 5.8S rDNA region and flanking 18S and 28S rDNA. A 1% agarose gel was used to compare PCR product sizes. PCR products from each nematode species were sent to the Molecular enetics Instrumentation Facility at the University of Georgia for sequence analysis. These results wil l be used to assess this rDNA region and approach for the molecular differentiation of closely-related parasitic nematodes.

12:45 MEASURING AND IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF CARE FOR STROKE VICTIMS, Kemberley L. Beard (*l), Susan C. Fagan (2), J. Derek Stone (1) and Linda S. James (1), (1) Paine College, Augusta, GA 30901; (2) Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 31698. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults and is the third-leading cause of death in the United States. To help facilitate the goals of ultimately preventing stroke and reducing disability in stroke victims, the quality of care provided to stroke patients must continuously be assessed. In the current study, using a retrospective approach, data was collected on the first consecutive 100 patients cared for by the MCG Stroke Service. Only those patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke were included in the study for additional analysis. Of the 85 patients remaining, 50% were white and 46% were black with the mean ages of 58.6 and 64.6 years, respectively. While 14% of the patients arrived within the window of opportunity to receive tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) drug treatment, only 8% were actually administered the drug. Four patients died in the hospital and 81 (98%) of the remaining patients were discharged on antithrombotic medication. The results indicate that patients cared for by the Stroke Service received the optimal level of care available upon presentation to the medical facility and following discharge to their respective locations.

1:00 THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE FIRST INSTAR OF AGABUS DISINTEGRATUS CROTCH (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE: COLYMBETINAE) WITH AN EMPHASIS ON PRIMARY CHAETOTAXY Jaclyn Holt (*) and E. H. Barman, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. First instars of Agabus disintegratus were collected during February and March 2001 from a monoxeric habitat in Baldwin County, Georgia. Chaetotaxy of first instar dytiscids provides a number of characters employed in systematic studies. The chaetotaxy of the head and its appendages, the last abdominal segment, and the cerci were similar to that expected on Colymbetinae. With the exception of the procoxa, patterns of distribution on sensilla on the legs corresponded to the hypothesized ancestral pattern of Colymbetinae. The ancestral pattern has a prominent anteroventral and distal coxal sensillum. The anteroventral surface of the procoxa of these Agabus larvae was glabrous with the apparent homologue of the ancestral sensillum originating proximally on the anterodorsa l surface. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & SU. Aquatic Coleoptera Lababory Contribution No. 40.

1:15 SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF COSTA RICAN SPIROPLASMA BACTERIA, Christina M. Harris (*) and Frank E. French, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Spiroplasma bacteria (Class Mollicutes) have helical morphology, lack cell walls, and inhabit Arthropoda. Field isolates from tabanid fly guts were screened, cloned by multiple liquid dilution cloning and/or sero-cloned, re-screened, and deformation tested to produce serological profiles. The isolates were cultured from 19 species, 7 genera, of tabanid flies collected in the low lands of Costa Rica (elevations from 2 - 100 meters). A total of 58 isolates were made and grouped into 11 clusters based on their serological profiles. All clusters except one were long-cell form (more than six helices). Three clusters were related to temperate North American species (Spiro plasma helicoides, S. lineolae, and S. litorale) Two clusters of isolates were related to two montane Costa Rican spiroplasmas. The remaining five clusters represent putative new species. A ntisera was made to four isolates. Two other isolates have been triply-cloned and scheduled for antisera production. All are candidates for PCR amplification and molecular analysis.

1:30 SURVEY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND USE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE CHATAHOOCHEE RIVER BASIN SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN CARROLL COUNTY, HEARD COUNTY AND PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA. Cody D. Jones (*) and Greg Payne, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30116. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 35 sampling stations located in Carroll County (11 stations), Heard County (17 stations) and Paulding County (7 stations), Georgia. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from multiple habitats at each of these stations following standard qualitative techniques of the draft SOPs for the Georgia Bioassessment Protocols (GBP) (GADNR, 1997). The macroinvertebrate samples were identified to lowest possible taxonomic level and the results were used to compute six community, population and function metrics following the GBP. Assessment scores of 0, 1, 3 or 5 were assigned to each metric based on the degree of deviation from "expected" metric values for relatively undisturbed reference streams. The summed score for each st ation was compared to a fixed criteria score and the percentage of that fixed criterion was determined. Based on that percentage, the biotic integrity of each of the streams was categorized as very poor (<21%), poor (21-53%), good (54-83%) or very good (>83%).

1:45 SURVEY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND USE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ETOWAH AND TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASINS SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN CARROLL COUNTY AND PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA, Elizabeth A. Tinney (*) and Greg Payne, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30116. Macroinvertebrats were sampled at 34 sampling stations located in Carroll County (27 stations) and Paulding County (7 stations), Georgia. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from multiple habitats at each of these stations following standard qualitative techniques of the draft SOPs for the Georgia Bioassessment Protocols (GBP) (GADNR, 1997). The macroinvertebrate samples were identified to lowest possible taxonomic level and the results were used to compute six community, population and function metrics following the GBP. Assessment scores of 0, 1, 3 or 5 were assigned to each metric based on the degree of deviation from "expected" metric values for relatively undisturbed reference streams. The summed score for each station was compared to a fix ed criteria score and the percentage of that fixed criterion was determined. Based on that percentage, the biotic integrity of each of the streams was categorized as very poor (<21%), poor (21-53%), good (54-83%) or very good (>83%).

2:00 Coffee Break

2:30 MEASURING MATERNAL INSTINCTS, Angela M. Swilley (*), Meredith J. Bashaw and Terry L. Maple, Zoo Atlanta & Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30315. Captive animal managers are often faced with the need to take young offspring away from their mothers for a variety of reasons. Lack of early experience with conspecifics may alter behavior patterns and hinder the ability of animals to interact with conspecifics later in life (Mason, Davenport, & Menzel, 1968). It is therefore often desirable to reintroduce a mother to her offspring after some period of separation. Continuous focal data from the mother of a single tiger cub are presented that track a successful reintroduction process of this type. Maternal behaviors in control sessions, with access to the cub's scent, and with visual, olfactory, and auditory access to the cub are compared. Behaviors that occurred more frequently with access to stimuli from the cub than in control sessions included pawing and rubbing on the barrier, olfactory invest igation, and vocalization. These data provide a starting point for establishing criteria to aid managers' decisions about reintroductions of this type.

2:45 A COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE CROPPING SYSTEMS USING ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA) AND WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM), Laura Skelton (*) and Gary W Barrett, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Agroecosystem diversity has been shown to combat pests and provide sufficient nutrients for crops, reducing the need for subsidies. I am comparing three biculture treatments (alfalfa and wheat in alternating 4.5m-wide strips, no-till row intercrops, and conservation-till row intercrops) to monocultures of wheat and alfalfa. The study site is at the Land Institute, Saline County, Kansas. Plots are 2025 [m.sup.2] each and arranged in a randomized block design. Data are being collected on total N and C:N ratios for soils, alfalfa, alfalfa-wheat straw, and wheat grain. Other methods include canopy-level pan traps and pitfall traps to determine pest and predator abundances and litter bags to determine rates of decomposition of surface alfalfa residues. Crop yields will also be ex amined. Studying these components of an agroecosystem is an important step toward the creation of viable agroecosystems that would serve as a model for the cultivation of profitable crops while maintaining soil and groundwater quality.

3:00 MECHANISMS OF COEXISTENCE BETWEEN SIMILAR MICE SPECIES: A HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE, Cory C. Christopher (*) and Gary W. Barrett, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Coexistence of the golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli) and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) was examined at Horseshoe Bend Ecological Research Site, a riverine peninsula, in Athens, Georgia. Eight 6x2 trapping grids were established, each with 12 tree stations consisting of 2 traps, one at ground level, and a second 1.5m up into the tree. At four of the stations in each grid, a third trap was placed 4.5m into the canopy, allowing for an analysis of 3-dimensional habitat use among species. During Summer 2001, all P. leucopus captured in four of the grids were removed, and home range estimates on both species were performed using radio telemetry. This allowed for the analysis of population, community, landscape, and ecosystem levels of organization, and how these pertain to the coexistence of the two species. Top- down, bottom-up, and lateral interactions between organisms were investigated via estimating botfly (Cuterebra spp.) infection rates, estimation of Quercus mast crops, and mutualistic and competitive behaviors between O. nuttalli and P. leucopus.

3:15 EARLIEST RECORD OF A NEW WORLD QUAIL FROM THE EAST LAKE LOCAL FAUNA, OTAY FORMATION (LATE OLIGOCENE) OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, Ashley S. Cooper (*), Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. A fossil new world quail (Aves: Galliformes, Odontiphorinidae) is described from the late Oligocene (early Arikareean, NALMA, 28.5-23.8 Ma) Eastlake Local Fauna of the Otay Formation, San Diego County, California. This is the earliest record for a new world quail predating the previous recorded occurrence by nearly five million years. This new quail species is systematically interesting and morphologically distinctive. Long, gracile legs indicated that it was a better runner than flier. Ratios of the legs to wings compare closest to extant birds living in chaparral environments (i.e., low growth evergreen oak). North American early Arikareean faunal assemblages are rare, thus any additional evidence of late Oligocene paleoenvironment is important.

3:30 A DESCRIPTION OF THE MATURE LARVA OF THERMONECTUS BASILLARIS (HARRIS) (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE: DYTISCINAE), Keith Carroll (*) and E. H. Barman, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The Georgia species of record for Thermonectus are T. basilaris and T. ornaticollis. Larvae collected from Georgia ephemeral habitats were cultured into the adult stage and identified as T. basillaris. These larvae have well-developed series of natatory sensilla characteristic of nektonic dytiscids with the distribution of the spiniform sensilla corresponding to patterns of previously described larvae of Dytiscinae. The legs have fewer spinoform sensilla than some other nektonic dytiscids (e.g., Acilius), indicating that T. basillaris larva may have fewer additional primary and/or secondary sensilla. A diagnostic character developed from early descriptions of mature larvae of both species was evaluated and found to be erroneous. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & SU. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 37.

3:45 A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF MANDIBULAR GEOMETRY OF FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD INSTARS OF AGABUS DISINTEGRATUS CROTCH (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), Devon Brannen (*), E. H. Barman and W.P. Wall, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Most information on dytiscid larval predation is from observations of mature larvae feeding under laboratory conditions where small species feed onmicrocrustaceans and medium beetles feed on dipteran larvae. This raises the possibility that first instars of medium species may feed on microcrustaceans, shifting to dipteran larvae as they mature. Shifts in prey selection during development should be reflected in the morphology of the mouthparts, especially the mandibles. No significant changes in curvature and attack and positional angles of the mandibles were observed during larval development of Agabus disintegratus, indicating that shifts in prey selection and preferences are unlikely. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & SU. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 39.

4:00 A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF MANDIBULAR GEOMETRY OF MATURE LARVAE OF ACILIUS MEDIATUS, AGABUS PUNCTATUS, AND HOPERIUS PLANATUS (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), Chris Beals (*), E. H. Barman and W.P. Wall, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Agabus and Hoperius larvae are usually collected from vegetation or detritus of temporary habitats. Acilius larvae also occur in temporary habitats but swim and feed in the open water. Acilius encounters different prey assemblages because its microhabitat differs from that of Agabus and Hoperius. Dytiscid mandibles are modified for prey capture and extra-oral digestion, and the shape of the mandibles should reflect differences in prey utilization. Mandibular dimensions evaluated for each species included curvature and attach and positional angles. Curvature and the positional angle of Acilius differed significantly from that of both Agabus and Hoperius. Angles of attack were equivalent for Agabus and Acilius with both species differing significantly f rom that of Hoperius. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC & SU. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 38.

4:15 SEROLOGY OF TEMPERATE AND TROPICAL AUSTRALIAN GROUP VIII SPIROPLASMA BACTERIA, April C. Murphy (*) and Frank E. French, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA. Characterized by helical morphology and motility, Spiroplasma (Mollicutes: Spiroplasmataceae), are found in insect guts. Tabanid flies (Diptera: Tiabanidae), horseflies and deerflies, are frequent hosts. Serological evaluations [screening, deformation testing (DF), serocloning, and dilution cloning] have been performed on 41 isolates from Australia. Four isolates had short-cell morphology and were matched serologically to Group VIII screening antisera. However, none were serological matches to any of the five species of Spiroplasma known from France, the U.S.A., or Costa Rica. The other Australian isolates were screened to long-celled spiroplasma Groups or were nonhelical Mollicutes. Isolate GSU 5485 was triply-cloned and antisera produced with a homologous DF titer of 1:640. Antisera to GSU 5603 is in the production stage. The other two Grou p VIII isolates may be serological matches for GSU 5485 and/or 5603. Since 16SDNA sequences do not separate the Spiroplasma species of Group VIII, methodology is under development to molecularly distinguish the Group VIII species that are significantly different serologically.

Section II: Chemistry

304 Herty Hall


Marina Koetber, Presiding

1:30 ACADEMIC BACKGROUND OF GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY TEACHERS, Heather Renee Gregory (*) and Michael O. Hurst, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. In a followup to earlier work we have done studying the relationship between student background and performance in chemistry, we have developed a new survey on the academic background of Georgia high school chemistry teachers. The surveys were administered to a large number of high school chemistry teachers across Georgia. The results were correlated to study the strengths and weaknesses of Georgia high school teachers' academic preparation. 37.1% of 62 respondents said that female students do better than males, while 58.1% said that there was no gender difference. 77.4% of surveyed teachers have taught for five or more years, and 56.5% of surveyed teachers have a masters degree. These and other data will be discussed.

1:45 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR SECOND EXTRACELLULAR LOOP (E2) PEPTIDES IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SDS: A NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) STUDY, Anna M. Hutchings (*), Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Travis P. Albright, Dow P Hurst and Patricia H. Reggio, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily includes the cannabinoid receptor sub-types CB1 and CB2, involved in pain signaling and the immune response, respectively. Recent mutagenesis and chimera studies implicated CB1 and CB2 E2 loops in ligand binding. To better understand the E-2 role in CB1 and CB2 interactions with cannabinoids, we initiated NMR studies on E2 peptide analogues. Based on [[alpha].sup.-1]H chemical shifts, CB2-E2 and CB1-Es have random coil conformations in an aqueous environment. The N-terminal half of CB2-E2 in SDS micelles contains an o-helical stretch. Preliminary structure calculations suggest that CB1-E2 in SDS contains a well-defined turn that includes the CSXXFP sequence shared by the cannabi noid receptors and several orphan receptors. CB2-E2 in SDS consists of at least two equally populated stable conformations, each having [[alpha].sup.-1]H chemical shifts consistent with random coil conformations. [Support: NSF DUE-9452027 (VLHB), NIDA DA-03934 (PHR), Kennesaw State University Mentor-Protege Program (VLHB).]

2:00 UV-VISIBLE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW PORPHYRIN DERIVED FROM 1 ,4-BENZODIOXAN-6-CARBOXALDEHYDE, Akia Stone (*), Adegboye O. Adeyemo, Olarongbe Olubajo, George N. Williams and Jeffrey James, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. A new porphyrin has been prepared, purified, isolated and characterized by uv-visible spectrophotometry. This new porphyrin was prepared by condensation reaction between 1 ,4-benzodioxan-6-carboxaldehyde and pyrrole (1:1 mole ratio) in refluxing propionic acid for 5 hours. The crude porphyrin product obtained was washed with water and then methanol. The dried prophyrin was then dissolved in chloroform and passed through alumina column. After complete evaporation of the eluent, the pure porphyrin was obtained, Cholroform solution of this porphyrin shows absorbance at 424, 519, 554, 593 and 651 nm while DMF solution shows absorbance maxima at 424, 518, 554, 594 and 651.5 nm. Acetonitrile solution shows absorbance maxima at 420, 516, 551, 593 and 650 nm. Zinc(II) der ivative of the porphyrin was by adding zinc acetate crystals to each of the three solvents used. Spectral changes were not apparent immediately and so the solutions were left overnight and their uv-visible spectra recorded the following morning. In chloroform absorbance maxima appear at 424.5, 551 and 591 nm. In DMF, absorbance maxima appear at 430, 561.5 and 602 nm while in acetonitrile solution, absorbance maxima appear at 426, 557, and 598 nm. Metal ion incorporation, though very slow in these solvents at room temperature as it has been demonstrated in this study.

2:15 CHAPERONE ACTIVITY OF [alpha]-CRYSTALLIN ON TEMPERATURE-INDUCED STRUCTURAL CHANGES TO [beta]-CRYSTALLIN, Cecilia Clark (*) and Lisa B. Hibbard, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. The human lens contains a solution of structural crystallin proteins. Damage to some of these crystallins leads to aggregation of the proteins such that cataracts are produced. The largest of these ocular lens proteins, [alpha]x-crystallin is believed to have chaperone-like activity in maintaining the solubility of other crystallins in the lens. This study is an investigation into the chaperone activity of [alpha]-crystallin on denatured [beta]-crystallin. A 0.2mg/ml solution of [beta]-crystallin was irradiated at 295nm over a 1 1/2-hour period. During this time fluorescence emission scans from 250-450nm were obtained every 15 minutes. The irradiation was performed under varying temperature conditions at 20[degrees]C, 34[degrees]c and 55[degrees]C. The same irradiation procedure will be performed with an [alpha]-crystallin solu tion as well as a solution containing both crystallins. fluorescence spectra will be obtained as well as circular dichroism spectra in order to monitor the extent of [beta]-crystallin aggregation with and without the presence of [alpha]-crystallin.

2:30 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL FLUORESCENT MOLECULES I: (DIACYANOMETHYLENE) ACENAPHTHENE, Dustin Smith (*), Kevin P Gwaltney and Brian Wesley Williams, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Fluorescent organic molecules are of interest in a variety of applications including dyes, non-linear optical materials and potential emitting layers for computer displays. In order to better understand fluorescence and fluorescent molecules, we synthesize novel compounds, and measure their absorption and emission spectra. We then compare the spectra to those that have been previously measured in this research group as well as data found in the literature. The synthesis of (dicyanomethylene) acenaphthene has been accomplished. This compound has been characterized by absorption spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy as well as NMR and IR.

2:45 INVESTIGATING THE REGIOSELECTIVITY OF REDUCTIONS EMPLOYING A "GREEN" REDUCING AGENT, Dontarie Stallings (*) and S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. After discovering a simple, purportedly regioselective reduction of benzylidene acetals using poly-methylhydrosiloxane, we employed this reagent as a part of a broader synthetic scheme. Upon achieving regioselectivity opposite to the reported, we began to investigate the source of the regioselectivity. We will present the results of our use of this reagent and discuss our findings on its regioselectivity.

3:00 Break

3:15 REACTIONS OF FERROCENE, Karmen Hennigan (*) and Larry G. McRae, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Ferrocene is an organometallic compound that is electron rich, much like an aromatic organic compound. It can be easily acylated by use of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (phosphoric acid in this study). The catalyst generates the electrophile [[[CH.sub.3]CO].sup.+] from acetic anhydride, which in turn attacks the cyclopentadienyl ring of ferrocene. The result is a mixture of unreacted ferrocene and the mono- and diacetylated ferrocene. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to follow the course of the reaction as well as for the detection of the reaction's products. The purpose of this research was to determine the conditions that would produce the highest yields of 1) monoacetylated ferrocene and 2) diacetylated ferrocene. Variables studied were temperature and time of reaction. Results of several experiments will be discussed.

3:30 ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMAZAQUIN PESTICIDE USING CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY, Scott Englebert (*) and Huggins Z. Msimanga, Kennesaw State University, Georgia 30144. Imazaquin, a new class of pre-emptive herbicides called imidazolinones, was characterized via cyclic voltammetry at a platinum working electrode versus a silver/silver ion reference electrode. Its structure contains -CO-, -NH-, and -N= functional groups, which make this molecule a good candidate for a study via electrochemical techniques. Our goal was to investigate the electrochemical behavior of imazaquin in different buffer media. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained via EG & G Potentiostat, model 270. Peak currents were studied versus scan rates in order to establish what scan rate range provided diffusion-controlled mass-transfer. The effect of pH on the peak currents was also studied. These studies revealed the following characteristics for imazaquin (i) it exhibits quasi-reversibility at the scan rate range of 10-500 mV/s, (ii) its m ajor mass transport in unstirred solutions is diffusion-controlled, (iii) its peak potentials shift to the right as the pH is increased, (iv) its anodic current peak increased above pH5.

3:45 HYDROGEN BONDING OF SUBSTITUTED ACETIC ACID DIMERS, Amy Feldman (*) and John T. Barbas, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Hydrogen bonding in the gaseous state of substituted acetic acid dimers has been studied using molecular modeling. Our investigations include bond lengths, hydrogen bond energies, isotope effects and changes in the vibrational spectra of the hydrogen bonded molecules. Where available these results will be compared with experimental observations.

4:00 THE CHEMISTRY OF ELECTROLYTIC RUST REMOVAL, Richard S. Jones (*), Bob Texas, Lauren E. Boasso and Gary G. Stroebel, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. An extensive chemical investigation of an electrochemical technique for rust removal long employed by hobbyists and historic preservationists has resulted in the following conclusions: the presence of chloride ion in the electrolyte enhances the degradation of the sacrificial electrode (anode), but this effect is minimized under alkaline conditions; a common laundry detergent in water provides sufficiently high ion concentrations and alkalinity to be an effective electrolyte in rust removal; and modification of ordinary automotive battery chargers is not needed for effective current control. In addition, we have better defined the factors influencing rates of iron oxidation at the anode. These latter results are relevant to corrosive processes occurring in soil and in seawater. Finally, we found no evidence for the formation of chlorine in any of the experiments that we conducted.

4:15 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL FLUORESCENT MOLECULES II: 1-(2,2-DICYANOVINYL) NAPHTHALENE, Steve Bissell (*), Kevin P Gwaltney and Brian Wesley Williams, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Fluorescent organic molecules are of interest in a variety of applications including dyes, non-linear optical materials and potential emitting layers for computer displays. In order to better understand fluorescence and fluorescent molecules, we synthesize novel compounds, and measure their absorption and emission spectra. We then compare the spectra to those that have been previously measured in this research group as well as data found in the literature. The synthesis of 1-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) naphthalene has been accomplished. This compound has been characterized by absorption spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy as well as NMR and IR.

4:30 LIPID EXTRACTION OF WILD FRUITS FROM THE WESLEYAN COLLEGE CAMPUS, Ebony L. Roberts (*), Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. The percent lipid by mass of fruit pulp from Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Flowering dogwood (Corn us florida) and Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) was determined through the process of micro-soxhlet extraction. The fruits were processed by removing the seeds from the pulp and then drying for 24 hours at 60[degrees]C. The dried pulp was then ground using a mortar and pestle and placed back in the drying oven for another 24 hours, after which the ground and dried pulp was allowed to cool for 4 hours in a desiccator. Approximately 0.5g of the dried sample and 5OmL of petroleum ether, the extraction solvent, were used for the lipid extraction. After 6 hours of extraction, the petroleum ether was allowed to evaporate and the difference in the mass of the sample before and after extraction was used to determine the percent lipid by mass of the fruit pulp. The average percent lipid by mass of the fruits of Southern Magnolia, Flowering dogwood, and Beautyberry was determined to be 36.6%, 11.1% and 1.2%, respectively.

4:45 PURIFICATION AND INVESTIGATION OF QUERCETINASE, A COPPER (II) DIOXYGENASE, Jarrett Walsh (*), Will Lynch and Delana Nivens, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. We are investigating the properties, structure and function of the extracellular metalloenzyme quercetinase. Quercetinase is an enzyme excreted by the mold, Aspergillus flavus when grown on rutin. The first step in the characterization of the enzyme is the isolation and purification of the enzyme from media in which A. flavus has been grown. We will present new techniques for the improved purification and analysis of the enzyme via HPLC, CE and affinity chromatography. Results from kinetic experiments, including inhibition studies by competitive inhibitors that interact with active site copper, will also be presented.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

104 Herty Hall

Gian S. Ghuman, Presiding

1:15 VARIATION IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COASTAL WATERS, Gian S. Ghuman, Kailash Chandra, Kenneth S. Sajwan and S. Paramasvian, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Two water samples from Savannah and Thunderbolt Cities domestic water supplies and eight surface water samples from Lake Meyer, Savannah River and its distributaries terminating in the Atlantic Coast were analyzed for the chemical composition. Metal concentrations were determined by the ICP-OES method and the dissolved salts were measured by gravimetric analysis. Results were compared with the composition of these waters observed 26 years ago. All samples showed the same pH as in the past. An appreciable increase occurred in the salinity of the ocean and tidal waters, however, the fresh surface and domestic water samples showed a slight decrease in the dissolved salts and metal concentrations. The high water mark of the ocean tide extended backwards into the river, indicating a rise in the ocean level. In this presentation variation in the chemical composition of domestic waters and. coastal fresh waters, and possibly attributing factors for change will be discussed.

1:30 USING HISTORICAL MAPS TO QUANTIFY SHORELINE CHANGE, Anna J. Austin (*), Emily A. Polonus, Susan K. Langley and Clark R. Alexander, Department of Geology and Geography, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Human development may accelerate erosional and depositional processes on barrier islands. Our goal was to quantify long-term (decades to centuries) and recent short-term (year to decade) rates of shoreline change for Georgia barrier islands in order to identify and quantify erosion and accretion sites, and spatial and temporal trends in shoreline change. Historical, non-photographic shoreline data from topographic survey sheets (T-sheets) were georeferenced and digitized for use in the shoreline change analysis. We developed protocols for onscreen registration and digitization of 60 T-sheets of the study region. The database produced from the T-sheets includes a series of maps showing the positions of historical shorelines (e.g. mid 1800s, late 1800s, and early 1900s). Preliminary erosion estimates for three of the developed barrier islands (St. Simon's, Jekyll and Tybee Islands) indicate that the degree of development may influence the magnitude of erosional and depositional processes.

1:45 LIVING WITH KARST: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE KARSTIC FEATURES OF BERRY COLLEGE, Chris Faulkner (*) and Deborah Freile, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149. Berry College is located in the Valley and Ridge province of Northwest Georgia. Folded and faulted Paleozoic sedimentary strata underlie this area. The main campus of Berry rests on top of Cambrian shales with some interbedded limestone beds and the Mississippian Floyd Shale. The Floyd Shale has a basal limestone unit that only outcrops in a few areas. Some of these areas have been actively quarried for years. This calcium-rich limestone is the one that contains the bulk of the karst features visible at Berry College. Old as well as active dolines or sinkholes dot the Berry campus. These sinkholes typically form along joint sets. To date over 27 sinkholes have been measured. They range in size from 50.6 meters to 0.75 m on the long axis and 36.4 m to 0.5 m on the short axis with a mean of 12.1 meters and 8.3 m respectively. Most of the sinkholes are observed to form along the same roughly N-S trend. To date, Berry College has spent millions of dollars on repair work for building foundations. As the need to construct more buildings arises, it would be beneficial for the college to have an accurate geologic map delineating the zones of major limestone outcrops as observed through sinkhole mapping and joint set patterns within the limestone units. These data will hopefully be used to create a hazards map to use in future planning for buildings and other structures.

2:15 Break

Bill Wall, Presiding

2:00 THE INFLUENCE OF WATER, CLAY, TEMPERATURE AND CARBONATE MINERALS ON SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY READINGS TAKEN WITH AN EM-38 IN CENTRAL IOWA, Eric C. Brevik and Thomas E. Fenton, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055 and Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. There has been considerable interest in using soil electrical conductivity (EC) as a soil survey tool in the Midwest. EC is determined by a combination of soluble salts, clay content and mineralogy, soil water content, and soil temperature. We measured EC, water content, and temperature along a Mollisol catena in Boone County, Iowa approximately once every two weeks from May-September 200. Water content was determined gravimetrically to a depth of 0.9 m, temperature with a type T thermocouple to a depth of 0.6 m, and EC with a Geonics[R] EM-38. Clay and carbonate content were determined to a depth of 0.9 m. Data was analyzed using multiple regressions. Soil water content has the greatest influence on EC, followed by clay content, carbo nate content, and temperature. The regression coefficient for soil water content is an order of magnitude greater than the other coefficients, and the carbonate coefficient is negative.

2:30 FOSSIL NEVIUSIA (ROSACEAE) FROM THE MIDDLE EOCENE OF PRINCETON, BC, CANADA, S. M. Moore (1), M. L. DeVore (1), K. B. Pigg (2), and W C. Wehr (3), Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (1), Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1601 (2) and Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, Seattle, WA 981 953 (3). The genus Neviusia (Snow wreath) is represented by two species, one in southeastern North America and the other endemic to the Mount Shasta, CA. This genus belongs to a distinctive clade within the Rosaceae, along with Kerria and Rhodotypos, both endemic to Asia. Fossil leaves of Nevuisia are known from the One Mile Creek locality near Princeton, British Columbia, and represent the first fossils of the genus. As part of the Okanogan Highlands, this temperate flora documents a major diversification of the Rosaceae during the middle Eocene, including over 50 species representing all four subfamilies. The fossil is most similar to Neviusia cliftonii from Mount Shasta based on o vate to cordiform leaves with coarsely-toothed margins. Neviusia is of particular interest because of its unusual extant distribution.

2:45 AN OVERVIEW OF THE LATE EOCENE HARDIE MINE LOCAL FAUNA OF CENTRAL GEORGIA, Dennis Parmley, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The vertebrate fauna, geologic age, and environmental context of the Hardie Mine local fauna of Wilkinson Co., Georgia is reviewed. Included in the vertebrate fauna are at least 15 sharks, six rays, one crocodilian, three snakes, one bird, and five mammals. Of importance are the recent discoveries of an emydid--like turtle, a terrestrial colubrid snake, and partial teeth of at least three different land mammals. New information derived mainly from the invertebrate fauna clearly places the fossiliferous Clinchfield sediments of the Hardie Mine in the Late Eocene. Vertebrate evidence suggests a shallow water nearshore marine environment for the Late Eocene Hardie Mine.

3:00 WHY DRILL THE ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE? WHAT WILL THEY FIND? Eddie B. Robertson, School of Math and Sciences, Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. The presentation summarizes the palynostratigraphic zonation of five wells each from the Naval Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and Prudhoe Bay. Distinctive terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spore as well as marine dinoflagellate assemblages are documented. The palynostratigraphic zones encountered range from the Triassic (Shublik Formation) underlying the NPRA to terrestrial Plio-Miocene sediments encountered near the surface at Prudhoe Bay. The probably existence of multiple time transgressive source rock units is explored. A comparison to the palynostratigraphic zonation of the Canadian Mackenzie Delta, 400 miles to the east is used to predict what could be found within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

3:15 THE VALIDITY OF PALEOBATHYMETRIC INTERPRETATIONS BASED ON RHODOLITH MORPHOLOGY, Deborah Freile (1) and Kelly Fuks (2), (1)Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149 and (2)RMT, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48108. Rhodoliths are nodules composed of red algae. Their shape, texture, morphology, and growth patterns have been previously been used as environmental indicators. Fossil rhodoliths occur in abundance in the Oligocene Bridgeboro Limestone of SW Georgia. A section of the Bridgeboro Limestone was logged at the Grady Aggregate Company (GAC) quarry north of Cairo, GA. Rhodoliths of the basal unit at GAC are similar in density (327/[m.sup.2]) and size (~5cm) to the lower Bridgeboro type section. The rhodoliths of GAC are found associated with a typical bank-edge patch reef environment and faunal assemblage. These associations would indicate a paleoenvironinent that is much shallower than the previously suggested depth at Bridgeboro of ~100m. Based on our studies, the GAC paleoenvironment appears to be directly analogous to the present shallow patch reef conditions in Panama. Rhodoliths from the San Blas archipelago of Panama are observed in windward bank edge high-energy patch reef environments in 6 to 8 m water depths. These predominantly elliptical rhodoliths have a mean diameter of 4.99 [+ or -] 1.64 cm. The rhodoliths occur both in high energy rippled inter-reef channels, as well as more moderate energy grass beds. Results from the present study strongly suggest that rhodolith morphology, growth form and texture cannot be used as paleoenvironmental indicators of relative wave energy and bathymetry.

3:30 FOSSIL FRUITS RESEMBLING CREPE MYRTLE (LAGERSTROEMIA) FROM THE MIDDLE MIOCENE YAKIMA CANYON OF WASHINGTON, M. L. DeVore (1), S. M. Moore (1) and K. B. Pigg (2), (1)Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 and (2)Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1601. Petrified fruits with 5, 6 or 7 camels each with up to 5 tightly packed, winged seeds, a persistent calyx, and loculidical dehiscence are described from the middle Miocene of Washington. Both entire fruits and fruit fragments showing the mode of dehiscence are known. Fruits are smooth, 10 mm long and 11.5-12.4 mm in diameter. Seeds are 4.6 mm high and 1.9 mm wide, pendulously attached and have curved embryo cavities, many containing well preserved embryos. The new taxon is most is most similar to several basal genera within the Lythraceae and closely related families, particularly Lagerstroemia (modern crepe myrtle) and Sonneratia, a mangrove plant of India. They are of evolutionary significance because they exhibit a unique combi nation of characters absent among extant members of the family.

3:45 PERMINERALIZED ACORNS FROM THE MIOCENE OF WASHINGTON: INSECT AND FUNGAL ASSOCIATIONS, A. M. Westbrook (1), M. L. DeVore (1), E. H. Barman (1) and K. B. Pigg (2), (1) Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 and (2) Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 852871601. The middle Miocene Yakima Canyon Flora of central Washington is rich in anatomically preserved plant remains. Among them are well preserved acorns of the white oak Quercus hiholensis that show unusual damage patterns. One set of damage patterns consists of burrows ranging in length from 1.23-3.25 mm and 0.60-2.17 mm in width. Currently, we are unable to document whether two organisms are responsible for these patterns. Also present are well preserved galls potentially assignable to Hymenoptera. Galls range in size from 1.23-3.20 mm in diameter. Associated with these galls are fungal hyphae located at the interface between the gall wall and surrounding plant tissue. Although galls have been documented from the La Brea tar pits, t he permineralized acorns examined in this study may document the first host-gall-fungal association in the fossil record.

4:00 NEW PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE LOCALITY FROM BRUNSWICK, GEORGIA, Alfred J. Mead and Benny L. Spell, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Recent excavations near Brunswick, Georgia have resulted in the recovery of an array of terrestrial and aquatic Pleistocene vertebrates. The locality, "Clark Quarry," lies along the Altamaha Barge Canal and was discovered by Josh and Kelly Clark of Brunswick. Large mammals recovered thus far include adult and juvenile Mammuthus columbi, multiple individuals of Bison sp., a single Equus sp., and a camelid (Paleolama). The herpetofauna includes Alligator mississippiensis, a natricine snake, and unidentified turtle shell fragments. Remains of bony fish are the most abundant microfossils and include identifiable teeth and scales of Lepisosteus sp. and teeth of a drum fish (Pogonias sp.?). Chondrichthyans are represented by ray teeth and spines. In addition to the vertebrate material, remains of arthropods, gastropods, and bivalves are also present. The e nclosing sediments consist of fine sands and abraded shell fragments. This lithology, along with the mixed assemblage, suggests deposition in an estuarine environment.

4:15 Tour of Paleontology Collections and Facilities


ELEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS AND OYSTERS NEAR FORT PULASKI NATIONAL MONUMENT, Dori Lynn-Coburn (*), Chrissy Sellers, James Smith, S. Paramasivam, J. P Richardson and Kenneth S. Sajwan, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Availability of information on elemental distributions along with other environmental parameters is key to fully assess the health of an ecosystem. Our study was designed to study the distribution of various elements in sediments and oysters from various locations around Fort Pulaski National Monument in Savannah, GA. The elemental concentrations in sediments were determined through Neutron Activation and ICP-OES. The elemental concentrations in oyster samples determined through ICP-OES and Hydride Vapor Technique. The results of this study indicated that the pH of the sediments was near neutral or slightly alkaline (7.1-8.3). Concentration of water extractable elements were in the range of 0.22 to 100 mg [kg.sup.-1] for Fe and Al, 0.7 to 48 mg [kg.sup.-1] for Mn, and 0.1 to 4.5 mg [kg.sup.-1] for Zn, 0.4 to 1 mg [kg.sup.-1] for Pb, 0.0 to 1.4 mg [kg.sup.-1] Cd and Cr. Concentrations of Cu and Ni were below the detection limits. The concentrations of heavy metals in oysters indicated a possible concern to human health through food chain.

ELEMENTAL LEACHABILITY FROM AN INCINERATED SEWAGE SLUDGE AMENDED SOIL, Jeffery Delise (*), S. Paramasivam, Kenneth S. Sajwan and Joseph P Richardson, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Sewage Sludge (SS) is a major solid waste around the world. Some water treatment plants in the U.S. have started incinerating the dewatered activated SS and then storing incinerated sewage sludge (ISS) in settling ponds. Elements leached from settling ponds or by applying ISS to the agricultural as an amendment may pose serious threat to the groundwater. Laboratory leaching column studies were conducted through 30 cm soil columns to evaluate leachability of various elements in a loamy sand soil of Georgia. Soil was amended with 0, 11, 22, 44, and 66g per column, equivalent to 0, 25, 50, 100, and 150 Mg ISS per ha. Distilled water applied at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL per minute using a peristaltic pump at the top of the soil column and leachate was collected in a half pore volume (220 mL) fraction for a total of 12 fractions equivalent to 60 cm rainfall. Concentrations of various elements and the leachate pH were measured. Results of this study will be discussed in terms of leachability of using this material as soil amendment.

THE PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE CAMELS BUTTE MEMBER OF THE GOLDEN VALLEY FORMATION AT CAMELS BUTTE, DUNN COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA, Eddie B. Robertson, School of Math and Sciences, Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. The study summarizes the palynostratigraphic zonation of the type section of the Camels Butte Member of the Golden Valley Formation. The section contains a clean exposure of shales above and below the Alamo Bluff Lignite, the bottom of which marks the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary in the Williston Basin. The lowermost of the Bear Den Member of the Golden Valley Formation exposed has a Late Paleocene pollen and spore flora within the Maceopolipollenites Zone. At and above the Alamo Bluff Lignite, the palynological record shows distinctive changes. The uppermost Bear Den Member and the Camels Butte Member (Golden Valley Formation) has an Early Eocene palynoflora within the Tiliaepollenites Zone which is characterized by an increase in the abundance of Junglandaceae, Ulmaceae, and Betulaceae. The sediments i mmediately above the Alamo Bluff Lignite include floods of Pediastrum suggesting the existence of extensive fresh water swamps at the beginning of the Early Eocene.

Section V: Biomedical Sciences Herty Hall 249 Bob McDonough, Presiding

1.30 ORAL TUMOR PROGRESSION: A PROPOSED MODEL, Baldev Singh, Gretchen Caughman and Francis Chandler Jr., Medical College of Georgia, August, GA 30912. The pathogenesis of oral cancer can be divided into initiation, premalignant progression, malignant conversion, and metastatic potential. Over the years, we have systematically analyzed various oncogenes (totalling 13) for the purpose of developing an oral tumor progression model. Results of our immunohistochemical studies demonstrate altered expression of dominant oncogenes, including ras, myc and growth factor receptors (erb-[B.sub.1] through [B.sub.4]) in the initiation of one subset and expression of mutated suppressor gene p53 in another subset of tumors. A high percentage of tumors also expressed p53 during malignant conversion. The proto-oncogenes controlling programmed cell death (PCD), such as bcl-2 (anti-PCD) and its congeners, as well as bax and bak (pro-PCD), were overexpressed during initiation, premalignant and malignant progression proportional t o the degree of cell differentiation. The homo- and heterodimerization of PCD-related oncogenes confer a survival advantage to evolving neoplastic cells, allowing alterations in additional oncogenes for cancer development. Therefore, it appears that sequential or concomitant alteration in expression of the stated oncogenes is central to the development of oral cancer.

1:45 BCL-2 ONCOPROTEIN IN ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA: AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL APPRAISAL, Baldev Singh, Gretchen Caughman, George Schuster and John Barrett, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. We have previously reported the status of a number of oncogenes controlling programmed cell death (PCD) in oral neoplastic lesions. The objective of this investigation was to examine the status of bcl-2 (anti-PCD) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). This tumor has a tendency for neural involvement causing paresthesia, and a propensity for metastasis growth in lungs and bones, 10-15 years following treatment of the primary tumor. For this purpose, 5 micron thick sections of formalin-fixed, archival paraffin blocks, were examined using monoclonal antibodies to bcL-2. Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was observed in 7 ACC tumors (n=10). Tumor cells were also immunoactive to smooth muscle actin (myoepithelial cells) and LMW cytokeratins, denoting ductal cells. These findings indicate that over-expression of bcl-2 confers survival to tumor cells, thereby allowing the actions of available growth factors leading to latent metastasis.

2.00 INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS BY T. BRUCEI IN THE CEREBELLUM DURING TRYPANOSOMIASIS, Jonathan K. Stiles, Deborah Lyn, Zhara Zakeri, Winston Thompson and Joseph Whittaker, Department of Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and City University of New York, New York, NY 11367. Infection with T. brucei results in meningo-encephalitis, neuronal demyelination, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction, peri-vascular infiltration, astrocytosis and neuronal apoptosis. These effects may impact brain development even after successfully treating the disease. To prevent such neuronal assault a better understanding of the host's responses to infection at the molecular level is required. Northern analysis, cDNA micro-arrays, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunohistology of brains of infected mice were conducted. Expression of neuroleukin (NLK), a predominant neurotrophin, during neuronal assault in the brain was also assessed. Pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, growth factors, neurotransmitters, apoptosis factors, were significa ntly altered (P<0.05). TUNEL analysis revealed extensive apoptosis at peak parasitaemia, mainly in the cerebellum. RT-PCR analysis of two regulators of apoptosis, Bcl-x(L) and Bax, revealed equivalent increases in levels of expression. NLK expression was up-regulated in punctuated fashion in brain and localized to abnormal (stellate) catecholamine neurons (CN) in the locus coeruleus (LC) of infected brainstem. Expression of NLK receptor (NLKR) was inversely correlated with that of NLK. At peak parasitaemia, trypanosome infection apparently induces cerebellar apoptosis and a corresponding increase in NLK expression. NLK may be modulating inflammation and is probably involved in protecting CN and the cerebellum against apoptosis.

2.15 CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS INFLUENCE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING GENITAL CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION, G.A. Ananaba (1), F.O. Eko (3), T. Moore (3), L. McMillan (3), M. Jones (3), K. Ramey (3), D. Lyn (3) and J.U. Igietseme (2,3), (1) CCRD, Clark Atlanta University; (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (3) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. If untreated in women the complications may include pelvic inflammatory disease, fallopian tube scarring, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. The activation, recruitment and retention of immune cells in the genital mucosa involve obligatory and intimate interactions between the pathogen and accessory molecules such as addressins, chemokine receptors, integrins, adhesion molecules on the host cells. Lower levels of Th1 immune response, measured by the level of IFN-[gamma] has been demonstrated in ICAM-1 knockout mice. Cultures containing anti-LFA-1, a nti-ICAM-1 and anti-MHC class II antibodies have been shown by ELISA to have reduced IFN-[gamma] secretion. In addition, higher levels of chemokines and their receptors that favor recruitment of Th1 cells were detected by RT-PCR in the genital tract of chlamydia infected mice, and no significant difference was observed in Th2 response between the infected and uninfected mice. The results suggest that these molecules are important in the overall host response against Chlamydia. (Supported by PHS grants: GM 08247, A141231, RR 03062).

2.30 PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE GHOST CANDIDATE VACCINE, F.O. Eko (1), T. Schukovskaya (2), J.U. Igietseme (3) and W. Lubitz (4), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; (2) Russian Research Institute, Saratov, Russia, (3) CDC, Atlanta, GA and (4) University of Vienna, Austria. An effective Vibrio cholerae vaccine would reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Current live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are not ideal. Immunity to the pre-existing O1 strains offers no protection against infection by the new O139 serogroup. Toxin-corregulated pili (TCP) induce protection against O1 and O139 serogroups in infant mice and inclusion in vaccine formulations may enhance protective efficacy in man by promoting mucosal immunity. V. cholerae ghosts (VCG) produced by expression of cloned lysis gene E, possess adjuvant properties and are immunogenic. TCP +ve or -ve VCGs were prepared from V. cholerae O1 or O139 and evaluated as vaccines in the RITARD model. Regardless of the TC P status of the VCGs used for immunization, all animals produced serum vibriocidal titer rises against indicated strains. Protection was dose dependent and was associated with marked inhibition of colonization. Thus, VCG expressing TCP may represent a novel approach to cholera vaccine development.

2.45 LONG TERM EXPRESSION OF FOREIGN GENES IN NORMAL MOUSE TESTICULAR CELLS AFTER TRANSFECTION WITH LIQUID-DNA COMPLEXES, Y.O. Ogunkoya and K. Thomas, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Lactate dehydrogenase, (LDH) plays an important role in providing energy for cell metabolism. LDH/C, an isoenzyme of LDH is specific or the activity of the germinal epithelium. The focus of this study is to investigate long term expression of LDH genes during mammalian spermatogenesis. LDH/GFP (Green fluorescence protein) gene promoter/reporter constructs were designed for in vitro transfection using polycationic liposomes (Lipofectin, Lipofectamine, DMRIE & Cellfectin) and the non-liposomal liquid, Effectene. The complexes of DNA and polycations were evaluated with respect to their effectiveness, toxicity and cell type dependence in a variety of cell lines. While Effectene mediated-transfection was not affected by the presence of serum in the growth medium, polycationic liposomes were toxic. The efficiency of E ffectene mediated transfection was higher than that of polycationic liposomes. The transfectants were still expressing the marker gene, more than 30 days post transfection, when the study was terminated. This study demonstrates the potential of Effectene as a good transfection reagent with relatively low cytotoxicity for difficult, hard to transfect cells.

3:00 PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY AGAINST CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INVOLVES COMPLEMENTARY B CELL REGULATION FOR TH1 RESPONSE, Terri Moore (*l), Quin He (3), LuCinda McMillan (1), Godwin Ananaba (2), Deborah Lyn (1), Francis Eko (1) and Joseph Igietseme (1), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, (2) Center for Cancer Research, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA and (3) BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Smyrna, GA. With four million reported annual cases, genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. The current recommended chlamydial control strategy involves frequent screening programs for early detection and treatment. A potentially protective vaccine should induce local genital mucosal immune effectors relevant to the control of the pathogen. We have shown that B cell functions complement T cell-mediated immune factors to drive the rapid and efficient resolution of re-infections. B cell functions are mediated in part by Fc receptor-associated antibo dy effector mechanisms. We hypothesized than an important immunologic basis for B cell involvement in protective anti-chlamydial immunity is the fostering of specific Th1 responses. To test the hypothesis, local and systemic Th1 responses were analyzed in both FcR-deficient and control mice following a secondary infection. Limiting dilution and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the frequency of chlamydia-specific Th1 cells induced was at least six-fold lower in Fc receptor-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that B cell-mediated processes involved in the efficient clearance of chlamydial re-infections are channeled through Th1 mechanisms.

3:15 ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNOMODULATOR GENE EXPRESSION DURING MURINE CEREBRAL MALARIA, Bismark Y. Sarfo (*1), Andrew Adjei (2), Richard Gyasi (2), James W Lillard (1) and Jonathan K. Stiles (1), (1) More house School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (2) University of Ghana Medical School, Ghana. Malaria accounts for 200-300 million clinical cases worldwide and over 12 million deaths each year. Several immunomodulator genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe or cerebral malaria, a disease that often results in coma or alteration of mental status. In order to identify key molecules induced during human cerebral malaria, we analyzed malaria-induced gene alterations in a murine cerebral malaria model (P. yoelii/SW mice) using cDNA array and immunohistological analysis. Mice were infected with P. yoelii parasitized blood and total RNA extracted from pooled brain samples of control and experimental mice (day 2 and day 8 post-infection). Labeled RNA was used to screen an 1.0 Atlas cDNA array membrane consisting of 588 reported gene sequences. The results confirmed genes such as ICAM-1, VCAM, CD31, ZO1, IL-1[beta], CXC and C-C receptors, MIP1-[alpha], MIP1-[beta] and TNF, which are known to be altered during cerebral malaria infection. In addition, other immunomodulator genes including IL-7, IL-11, VEGF, CD7 and CD14 were significantly altered. Some of these gene transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis. This is the first report of a P. yoelii-induced global gene alteration profile (fingerprint) in a murine cerebral malaria model. It provides important information on the role of these molecules in the neuropathology of cerebral malaria.


ENDOTHELIAL CELL OXIDATION OF LDL IS MODULATED BY CULTURE IN A MICROGRAVITY-LIKE ENVIRONMENT, Larry H. Russell (*), Debra Ellerson, Sandra Harris-Hooker and Gary L. Sanford, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310-1485. Numerous vascular changes have been noted for space-flown individuals and animals. The mechanisms for these changes are not known but changes in endothelial function have been suggested. In these studies, we assessed LDL oxidation by endothelial cells (EC) grown in the microgravity-based horizontally rotating bioreactor (HRB). Briefly, human umbilical vein (HUVEC) and bovine aorta (BAEC) endothelial cells were grown to confluency in monolayer culture (MC), HRB, and Spinner Bioreactor (SB), then incubated for 1-4 hr with LDL. The degree of LDL oxidation was measured using the thiobarbituric acid method. EC grown in MC on uncoated plates exhibited a greater oxidation of LDL than those grown on collagen-coated plates. Also, BAEC were able to oxidize LDL to a greater degree than HUVEC cell s, under these conditions. We found that HRB grown cells produced a higher level of LDL oxidation than control SB cells. These studies suggest that LDL oxidation is affected by matrix components and increased by possible microgravity-induced alterations in endothelial cell function. This may enhance atherogenesis during long-term spaceflight. (Support by grants NASA NCC9-53, NIH/RCMIGI2RR033062 and MBRS GM-58268.)

VACCINE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT VIBRIO CHOLERAE GHOSTS WITH OMP1 INSERT, Melissa J. Jones (*l), Kiantra Ramey (2), Terri T. Moore (3), Francis Eko (3), Godwin Anonaba (1) and Joseph U. Igietseme (3), (1) Morris Brown College, Atlanta, GA, (2) Spelman College, Atlanta, GA and (3) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. C. trachomatis genital infection poses a major threat to human reproduction through the association of severe complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, fallopian tube scarring, and ectopic pregnancy. The most effective means of controlling the spread of the disease is the development of a vaccine. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia is a major candidate for a chlamydial subcomponent vaccine. We hypothesized that mice immunized with MOMP expressed by Vibrio cholerae ghosts will have a decreased shedding of chlamydiae in the genital tract as compared to nonimmunized mice. To test our hypothesis, mice were immunized with recombinant Vibrio cholera ghosts carryi ng MOMP (rVCG-MOMP). Post-immunization T cells were isolated from mice and adoptively transferred into naive mice, followed by intravaginal challenge with Serovar D, the human isolate of Chlamydia. The course of infection was monitored by cervico-vaginal swabbing. Chlamydiae were isolated in HeLa cells and enumerated by immunofluorescence. The mice immunized with rVCG-MOMP primed-T cells showed a decrease in the shedding of chlamydiae in the genital tract day 6 post-primary infections compared to naive T cell-recipient mice. The results indicated that the rVCG-MOMP may be an effective vaccination agent in controlling genital chlamydial infections.

DIFFERENCES IN LIPID COMPOSITION OF SENESCENT AND YOUNG FIBROBLASTS, S. Abdullah (*), A. Williams, A. Stackhouse, K. Hubbard and M. Maloney, Spelman College and City College of New York. TLC analysis revealed differences in glycolipid, neutral lipid, and phospholipid composition between the young and the senescent cells. Glycolipid differences included a band comigrating with the globotetraosyl ceramide (Gb4) standard and the lower band migrating in the area of the lactosyl ceramide (LC) standard, both of which were absent from the senescent cells. Sialic acid-containing bands of the young and senescent cells differed slightly in their speed of migration and thus may be distinct glycolipids in the two cell preparations. These glycolipids are tentatively identified as gangliosides due to their staining with resorcinol and migration near the origin. Senescent cells also possessed a lower level of lipids comigrating with cholesterol esters and higher levels of a band migrating in the area of free fatty acids. On e band migrating in the area of the diglyceride standard was not observed in senescent cells. The results of phospholipid analysis indicate differences between nonsenescent and senescent cells in the expression of at least two as yet unidentified phospholipids.

EXPRESSION OF EPITHELIAL MEMBRANE ANTIGEN IN NORMAL HUMAN SKIN AND EPIDERMALLY-DERIVED HYPERPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS, Brittany Wilson (*), Nicki Neufeld, Jennica Schenck and Wanda T. Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Epithelial membrane antigen, or episialin, is a 265-400 kD protein expressed in many types of normal epithelia as well as breast tumors. Currently, the expression of this protein has not been determined in epidermis, epidermally-derived carcinomas, or in other benign epidermal hyperproliferative disorders. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIF) with a monoclonal antibody, NCL-EMA, specific for the episialin protein, was performed on frozen sections of normal human skin, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinomas, skin tags and keloids. These results determined the expression pattern of the recently discovered protein in normal and abnormal epidermally-derived tissues.

ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL SYNAPTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE RAT OLFACTORY BULB BY RECURRENCE TIME HISTORY MAPPING (RTHM), Nisha R. Patel (*) and Barry K. Rhoades, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. In the vertebrate olfactory bulb periglomerular interneurons form a superficial network, which modulates input from the sensory receptors of the olfactory epithelium. Mitral cells are the principal projection neurons, which convey bulbar output to deeper brain structures. Field potential recordings, ensemble analysis, and models of bulbar dynamics strongly suggest that each of these classes of cells has mutually excitatory interconnections. However, these interconnections have not been verified at the cellular level. Recurrence Time History Matching (RTHM) is an analytical technique for uncovering the functional properties of excitatory interconnections between spiking neurons based on the relative timing of their action potential outputs. RTHM derives from the application of Hausdorf-type similarity functions to the stan dard point-process cross-correlational methods of spike-train analysis. To date, this techniques has been applied exclusively to the tightly-coupled activity of small, isolated networks of embryonically-cultured spinal cord neurons. In these networks it has provided a unique measure of the activity-dependence of excitatory synaptic strengths and latencies underlying coordinated, epileptiform network bursting. In this study we apply this technique to spike trains recorded in vivo from periglomerular and mitral cells of the rat olfactory bulb.

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF ALL-TRANS AND 9-CIS RETINOIC ACID ON MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) DEVELOPMENT, Namita Mohanty (*) Theresa E. Tholkes (*) and Holly Boettger-Tong, Wesleyan college, Macon, GA 31210. Normal vertebrate development requires appropriate amounts of Vitamin A; however, when exogenously supplied, Vitamin A metabolites have teratogenic effects. All-trans retinoic acid receptors (RAR) family and 9-cis retinoic acid to the retinoid X receptor (RXR) class. Much is known about the effects of these isomers on zebrafish development, but little is known about their effect on the development of the Japanese killifish (Oryzias latipes). Our pilot studies indicated that micromolar and nanomolar concentrations of all-trns retinoic acid have deleterious effects on fin and eye development. In addition, dose-dependent decreases in body weight and hatching rate were observed. Further studies will compare the effects of both all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid on early neurula killifish embryos.

CULTURE OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN THE MICROGRAVITY-BASED ROTATING BIOREACTOR RESULTS IN A REDUCED ANGIOGENIC RESPONSE, Dorian Smith (*), Latarsha Reid, Debra Ellerson, Sandra Harris-Hooker and Gary Sanford, Space Medicine & Life Sciences Research Center, More house School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. The horizontally rotating bioreactor (HRB), developed by NASA, stimulates numerous aspects of a microgravity environment. This system allows cells to grow into relatively large tissue-like masses. In this experiment, we assessed how the HRB the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like outgrowths (angiogenic response) in collagen gels with or without an added nitric oxide generator (e.g., SNAP). Briefly human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were grown for 7 d in the HRB and spinner bioreactor, aliquots removed, and placed in collagen gels prepared with or without SNAP. Gels were observed for capillary-like structures from 1-4 d after initiation of the gels. HUVEC from spinner cultures displaye d strong angiogenic response that was increased by SNAP. However HUVEC from HRB cultures showed little or no capillary growth, which was not affected by SNAP. These results suggest that the microgravity-based HRB alters HUVEC response an environment that promotes angiogenesis. These studies were supported by grants: NASA NAG8-1636 & NCC9-53, MBRS GM-58268, & RCMI RR033062.

NITRIC OXIDE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HTB-126 BREAST CANCER CELLS, Ten L. Larkins (*), Debra Ellerson and Gary L. Sanford, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Nitric Oxide biosynthesis associated with the calcium dependent (cNOS) and independent (iNOS) NO synthase expression is increased in invasive human breast tumors. NO produces antagonistic responses in malignant tumors - mediating angiogenesis and promoting tumor progression at low levels. At high levels, NO induces apoptosis and promotes cell death via necrosis. We evaluated whether an apoptotic response would be induced in mammary epithelial cancer cells (HTB-1 26) by treatment with a NO donor. Briefly, cancer cells were grown to confluency and treated with 1 [mu]M S-nitroso-Nacetylpenicillamine (SNAP) for 24 hr. Control cells received vehicle only. NO-induced apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay using an apoTACS [TM] kit. A 2-fold increase in NO levels was observed in the HTB-126 cells treated with SNAP over 24 hr. Tunel labeling was ini tially detected in seen after 3 hr and widespread labeling was observed in cells treated after 12 hr. These studies show that there is a correlation between increased levels of NO and induction apoptosis in human breast tumors. A NO donor may be useful for treating breast cancer. (Supported by grants NASA NCC9-53, RCMI RR033062 and MERS GM-58268.)

THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PLURONIC F68 ON WOUND HEALING IN AN ALCOHOLIC CONDITION, Augustine H. Chuang, James C. McPherson, Ill, James C. McPherson, Jr., Georgina Michel and Claudia L. Henemyre, Clinical Investigation, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Acute wound healing depends on the migration of macrophages and fibroblasts into the wound. We had previously shown that alcohol delays wound healing in human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) and that Pluronic F68 significantly enhances early wound healing in laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of F68 on wound healing in an in vitro model containing alcohol. A 3mm wound was created in a synchronized, confluent layer of hGF. Cells were fed with DMEM media with 5% FBS containing 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% ethanol, and/or 0%, 0.0025%, 0.05%, or 0.1% Pluronic F68. On days 2, 5, and 7, cells were stained with crystal violet to evaluate wound healing. At days 5 and 7, hGF treated with 0.0025% and 0.05% of F68 showed increased m igration into the wound area and non-wound areas of hGF were noticeably protected. The data suggest that F68 may protect hGF from the harmful effects of alcohol during wound healing.

COMPARISON OF TH1 AND TH2 RESPONSES IN FCR-KNOCKOUT MICE, LuCinda McMillan (1), Melissa Jones (1), Kiantra Ramey (1), Terri Moore (1), Godwin Ananaba (1), Deborah Lyn (1), Francis Eko (1) and Joseph Igietseme (1), (1) Moreho use School of Medicine and (2) Center for Cancer Research, Clark Atlanta, University, Atlanta, GA 30310. Both humoral and cell-mediated (CMI) responses are elicited during a chlamydial infection. Previous studies have indicated that the recruitment of T helper type 1 cells (Th 1 cells) into the genital mucosae reduces the severity of a genital chlamydial infection, arrest ascending disease, and is necessary for clearance of an infection. Although a distinct role for CMI has been defined, the role of B cells and antibodies in anti-chlamydial immunity is still unknown. More recently we have demonstrated that the course of a primary infection was comparable in Fc receptor-deficient (FcR-KO) and wild type mice (WT). However, in a secondary infection, the FcR-KO suffered both a longer durati on and more intense infection than the WT mice. We hypothesized that in the presence of a specific anti-chlamydial immune serum, there will be an increased activation of T cells for a Th1 response as compared to a Th2 response. To test the hypothesis, Th1 and Th2 responses were analyzed in both FcR-KO and WT mice following a secondary infection. The levels of Th1 (i.e. IFN-[gamma]) and Th2 (i.e. IL-4) cytokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that there was a decreased Th2 response in both FcR-KO and WT mice. Alternatively, the Th1 response was significantly higher in the WT mice as compared to the FcR-KO mice. These findings suggest that the Fc receptor is a factor in immune regulation toward a Th1 response for clearance of a secondary genital chlamydial infection.

ANALYSIS OF [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPASE EXPRESSION IN TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI DURING INFECTION, Jonathan K. Stiles, Winston Thompson, Bismark Sarfo, Zuzana Kucerova and John C. Meade, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and University of Mississippi Medical Center, MS 39216. African sleeping sickness (HAT) is a fatal re-emerging disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei ssp. (T. brucei) infection. 60 million people are at risk of infection with HAT, and 300,000 new cases are reported annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Therapies for HAT are severely depleted and highly toxic. Ideal anti-trypanosomal agents should target vital processes or parasite-derived molecules without adversely affecting the human host. Studies show [Ca.sup.2+] pumps ([Ca.sup.2+]ATPases) are involved in [Ca.sup.2+] translocation, signal transduction, proliferation, and cation homeostasis and are potential targets for pump inhibitor therapy in pathogenic eukaryotes. We hypothesized that up-regulation of TBCA1&2 in the blood stage promote transformat ion from the insect vector (Glossina sp) to mammalian blood stages. Therefore, inhibition of the pumps will prevent T. brucei growth. We identified and characterized two such [Ca.sup.2+] pumps (TBCA1&2) that are upregulated in blood stages of T. brucei but not in insect stage. Interestingly, commercially available [Ca.sup.2+] pump inhibitors prevented T. brucei growth in vitro. Utilizing bioinformatics, we designed and synthesized peptides that were used to generate monoclonal antibodies to immuno-localize TBCA1 in T. brucei. TBCA1 transcript was upregulated and localized in the outer membrane and flagella of bloodstages but not in culture procyclics. The potential use of TBCA1 as potential drug or vaccine target is discussed.

CONTINUOUS LOW-DOSE ALCOHOL EXPOSURE INHIBITS WOUND HEALING, Claudia L. Henemyre (1), Georgina Michel (1), Augustine H. Chuang (1) and Steven D. Hokett (1,2), (1) Clinical Investigation, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, (2) U.S. Army Peridontal Program, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Clinical evidence suggests that continuous exposure of oral tissues to alcohol may reduce wound healing. This project was conducted in order to determine the effects of low doses of alcohol on wound healing in human givgival fibroblasts (hGF). A 3mm wound was created in a synchronized, confluent layer of hGF grown in 12 well plates. The cells were then treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% solutions of ethanol in DMEM media with 10% FBS. Over 9 days in culture, the wells were stained with cytoplasmic stain crystal violet and wound healing was evaluated microscopically. After 5 days in culture, hGF treated with 0.2 or 0.4% ethanol showed reduced migration of cells into the wound area as compared to the 0 and 0.1% ethanol treated hGF. Morphologically, hGF treated with 0.2 or 0.4% ethanol also appeared distorted in shape and had less cell area after 5 days in culture. In conclusion, alcohol may reduce wound healing in oral tissues in a dose dependent manner.

EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON WOUND HEALING OF HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS, Georgina Michel, Augustine H. Chuang and Claudia L. Henemyre, Clinical Investigation, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, GA 30905. Soldiers consume vast amounts of caffeine-containing products to survive rigorous training and combat. Such environments also increase the chances of one being wounded. The focus of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on a wound-healing model of gingival fibroblasts (GF). A 3mm wide wound was created in a synchronized, confluent layer of GF grown in 12-well plates. The cells were then treated over 18 days with one of the following doses of caffeine, representing specific amounts of coffee, in DMEM media with 5% FBS: 0mM (control), 0.105mM (1 cup), 0.21mM (2 cups), or 0.42mM (4 cups). Some cells were stained every three days with crystal violet, a cytoplasmic stain, and wound healing was evaluated microscopically. Initially there was no effect (0-3 days); but, after a longer period of exposur e (6-18 days), the rate of wound healing was reduced with 0.42mM caffeine. These results suggest that individuals who consume high doses of caffeine long-term may experience slower wound healing.

Section VII: Science Education

Room 370, Arts & Sci

Cathy MacGowan, Presiding

2:00 NATURAL HISTORY FOR TRAVELERS, Joan B. Murray, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA 30021. A course on World Natural History was offered at Western College, Oxford, Ohio, which had a international emphasis on the undergraduate level. Local observations and field trips introduced principles which could be applied during summer study trips. Some of the topics were: taxonomy, animal behavior, growth patterns, land forms, water regimes, soils, succession, food webs, seasons, sounds, parasites and epiphytes, cultural and political issues. A similar approach could be used for various types of presentations, including Elderhostels. Observations at a conference center and in an urban college setting will be compared with observations in Nigeria, Australia and China. Health and safety precautions and serendipitous events will be mentioned.

2:15 THE YOUNG SCHOLARS INSTITUTE, Bob Powell, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. During the summers of 1999, 2000, and 2001, the Advanced Academy of Georgia at the State University of West Georgia sponsored a program for rising eighth and ninth grade students with high academic abilities and interested in Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Geology, Mathematics, or Physics. Twenty-four students were accepted for each summer program. In July 2001, the program lasted eight days (Sunday through Sunday). The participants were housed in a campus residence hall and were closely supervised during non-class time by the resident life staff. The participants did many hands-on activities in each of the six disciplines and had an all-day field trip on Saturday. Enrichment activities (such as an astronomy observation) and recreation were offered in the evening. Based on the success during the first three summers, the Young Scholars Institute will be continued in 2002.

2:30 GIRL SCOUTING AND SCIENCE: A COMMUNITY OUTREACH PROJECT, Catherine E. MacGowan, Donna Mullenax and Delana Nivens, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. This project was initiated and designed to introduce scientific concepts and experimentation to young girls. Working with local Girl Scouts in the region, this community outreach programs allows Brownies, Juniors, Cadets and Senior Girl Scouts to spend a Saturday morning observing scientific demonstrations in Physics and Chemistry followed by the Scouts performing a laboratory experiment. The sessions are geared to the age of the visiting scouting troop. Experiments are varied, such as the making of hand cream and aspirin to making slime and Christmas ornaments. Along with the Chemistry and Physics faculty, Armstrong Atlantic State students work as team leaders/facilitators during the sessions. This presentation will discuss and critique the project.

2:45 PRESERVICE TEACHERS' UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, Karynne L.M. Kleine, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Preservice teachers were team-taught a general science course based on the theme of "change." While the course was designed to improve the preservice teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical skills it also focused on the aspects of becoming a reflective practitioner that parallel scientific inquiry skills. This was done to improve their understanding of the nature of science. A version of McComas' Nature of Science (1966) quiz was administered at the beginning and ending of the semester with three different groups. General trends showed preservice teachers to make the greatest gains in their understanding of "hypothesis," the tentativeness of science (and thus the need to provide evidence for statements), the bias inherent in any human enterprise (and thus the need for taking multiple perspectives as in reflection), and science as a pursuit of knowledge.

3:00 MINERAL CHEMISTRY: AN EISENHOWER GRANT TEACHER'S INSERVICE PROJECT, Catherine E. MacGowan (*) and Christopher J. Schuberth (*), Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Minerals are nature's compound from which are derived an infinite number of useful consumer products. Twenty plus inservice science teachers have assembled each summer for the past seven years to study the geologic origin and chemistry of ilmenite and rutile, titanium oxides that occur in the Precambrian Georgia Piedmont. Participants of the program visit relevant geological sites in the Piedmont and along the coast, perform laboratory experiments which introduce them to the chemical concepts and techniques used in taking rutile and ilmenite to obtaining titanium oxide. A five-day unit is written by each teacher integrating their field and laboratory activities into new teaching strategies to take back to their classrooms. Teachers also put together a classroom mineral and rock collection. The following Spring, participants of the project reconvene to discuss their successes and difficulties they incurred with integrating this learned material into their lessons.

3:15 Break

3:30 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IN A WORK SETTING AS AN AID TO UNDERSTANDING THE INSTRUMENTATION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Robyn L. Johnson (*)(1), Daniel V. Reinhardt, Jr. (2) and Daniel J. Jackson, Jr. (1), (1) Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204 and (2) U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Ft. Gillem, GA 30297-5122. In a two-year college, Organic Chemistry students are taught the theory, but often lack the opportunity in the laboratory of applying the theory with hands-on use of the instrumentation. By forming a corporate or government alliance with a laboratory that routinely uses scientific instrumentation, the student can gain experience in using various instruments and the corporate or government partner receives a motivated employee to carry out some routine and time consuming basic tests. Experience was gained in preparing and extracting various controlled and uncontrolled drugs, determining their Gas-phase Infrared Spectra on a GC-FTIR, creating a computerized spectra database, and calculating the approp riate Kovat' indices. In addition to the education and experience received, the student also has an opportunity to experience chemistry being applied in a real world setting.

3:45 PROFILE OF A STUDENT, PART I: FACTORS THAT MAY PREDICT SUCCESS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY -- DATA COLLECTION, Patricia S. Russel (*)(1), Sonya M. Keesler (2) Lucille B. Garmon (1) and Daniel J. Jackson, Jr. (2), (1) State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118 and (2) Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Determining those factors that may predict student success in their first college level chemistry course may be of value to instructors in their course preparation and student advisement. In a joint research effort involving faculty and students from Gordon College and the State University of West Georgia, a methodology was developed to determine those factors. To create a useful student profile, a 73-question survey was developed and administered to a group of 103 Gordon College and 21 State University of West Georgia students at the end of their first college level general chemistry course. Information collected included demographics, study habits and laboratory techniques. The collected data long wit h the students' GALT (Group Assessment of Logical Thinking) and SAT scores, chemistry course and laboratory grades and overall first semester GPA's were then formatted into a spreadsheet program for analysis.

4:00 PROFILE OF A STUDENT, PART II: FACTORS THAT MAY PREDICT SUCCESS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY - DATA ANALYSIS, Sonya M. Keesler (*)(2), Patricia S. Russell (1), Lucille B. Garmon (1) and Daniel J. Jackson, Jr. (2), (1) State University of West Georgia, Carroliton, GA 30118 and (2) Gordon College, Barnesuille, GA 30204. Information collected from a group of 103 Gordon College and 21 State University of West Georgia students at the end of their first semester general chemistry course was analyzed to determine what factors if any were conducive to their success in the course. The information was gathered as a result of a joint research effort involving faculty and students from both schools. The information gathered and analyzed consisted of student demographics, study habits, laboratory techniques, SAT and GALT (Group Assessment of Logical Thinking) scores, chemistry course and laboratory grades and overall first semester GPA's. Initial analysis of the data involved a comparison of SAT and GALT scores with Chemistry cou rse and laboratory grades for various demographic groups within the study population. Definite correlations emerged for select comparisons, resulting in several interesting trends.

4:15 INTEGRATING THE USE OF WORLD WIDE WEB INTO WIDE RANGE COURSES AT THE EXTERNAL PROGRAMS OF BREWTON PARKER COLLEGE, William A. Said and Michael D. Phillips, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30443. The World Wide Web is fast becoming an omnipresent force in education. Students are joining external and off-campus programs with the expectation that they will engage in Internet-related course work. BrewtonParker College, like other institutions of higher education is experiencing this change in students' expectations. This paper addresses BPC effort in the use of the World Wide Web in an interactive way to enhance classroom-based instructions in a broad spectrum of courses. Since Spring Semester 2000, Web technologies were effectively integrated with other pedagogies in many classes that include introductory biology, human anatomy and physiology, microbiology and environmental sciences. A significant correlation was found between number of hits and the week of the semester. No significant correlation was co nfirmed between number of hits and students' grades.


THE DO-IT-YOURSELF-NEURON: HARDWARE MODELS AND EXERCISES FOR EXPLORING ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NEURONS AND NEURONAL RECORDING, Barry Kent Rhoades, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Current Laws, and the "equivalent circuit" model are standard tools for explaining the physiological properties of neurons and neuronal membranes in terms of simple electronic components and circuits. However, for introductory neuroscience students who have had no prior exposure to electronics, formulas and circuit are of little practical in understanding and predicting neuronal behavior. We describe here a series of inexpensive, electronic hardware boards and accompanying exercises which are physical realizations of equivalent circuit models. Hardware simulations combine concrete, "hands-on" experience with simple recording preparation and completely reproducible results. As such, they can effectively complement parametric computer simulations and standard "wet" laboratory exercises involving in vivo or in vitro recording. For introductory neurobiology and animal physiology classes we have implemented basic RC circuits and filters, and single-compartment membrane equivalent circuit, cable properties in a resistor ladder and coupled RC compartments, mechanically-gated action potentials, and electrical synapses with rectification. Additional hardware simulations under development include glass pipette microelectrodes, dendritic field architecture effects on PSP summation, "spiking" dendritic spines, and lateral inhibitory networks.

IMPLEMENTING AN "EARLY-ALERT SYSTEM" TO IMPROVE THE RETENTION RATE OF "AT-RISK" FRESHMAN OF UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGES, William A. Said, Catherine Hendricks, Pat Weaver; Vicky Conner, Jim Beau and Jenny Lord, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30445. Brewton-Parker College's "Keeper Action Team" is a group of staff, students, and faculty who were appointed by the College's President to help BPC in diverse areas. Formed during the academic year (2000-2001), this group worked on projects dealing with academic advising, academically challenged students, residential life, and many other aspects of college's activities. With the help of the guidelines provided by our retention consultant, the "Early Alert System" subcommittee immediately implemented "system" to help improve retention ration of the "at-risk" freshmen. This paper presents the results of the efforts of the "Early-Alert System" team during three consecutive semesters.

SMALL-SCALE NEUROSCIENCE: IMPLEMENTING AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM IN CELLULAR, SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE AT A WOMEN'S LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGE, Helen Marie Hollis, Nisha R. Patel, Christina L. Miner, Theresa E. Tholkes, April N. Patterson and Barry K. Rhoades, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Neuroscience at Wesleyan is a two-year old interdisciplinary effort between the biology and psychology departments. Initial constraints included the small student body (~450), small number of participating faculty (2), full-time departmental teaching loads (24 contact hours), and lack of dedicated laboratory space and equipment. The new neuroscience minor is introduced to students via existing introductory content courses and intermediate research methodology sequences in biology and psychology. The core is two complementary courses: Neurobiology applies a laboratory-centered approach to invertebrate neurophysiology at cellular-to-systems levels and Physiological Psychology takes a traditional class-centered ap proach to functional vertebrate neuroanatomy and neurochemistry at systems-to-organismal levels. Three upper-level biology and psychology electives stress physiological, developmental, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives. All five courses contain novel laboratory exercises, some of which have been incorporated into two new laboratory manuals. Newly procured equipment and practical training in laboratory courses are providing the basis for expanding faculty-guided student research in neuroscience.

Section IX: Genetics Society Of Georgia 252 Herty Hall Brian Schwartz, presiding

2:00 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVERAL NEW B2 ELEMENTS IN THE HUMAN GENOME, Andra D. Sullivan (*1), A. Qyathelemi (1), V.I. Mayorov (2), S. Dhir (1) and L.R. Adkison (2), (1) Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA and (2) Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA. B2 elements are retrotransposons, without LTRs, and are highly repetitive sequences in non-human mammalian genomes. Recently, B2 elements were identified for the first time in the human genome. They represent a small family of approximately 50 copies. Studies are underway to isolate and characterize all members of this family. Here, the analysis of 8 new sequences is presented. Using human B2-specific primers and genomic DNA isolated from blood, fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and visualized by gel electrophoresis. Fragments of interest were isolated, cloned into pGEM, and transfected into E. coli for selection. Eighteen clones were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Eight new B2 elements were identified; one cont ained a 150 bp deletion. All new B2 elements were compared to the mouse B2 element consensus sequence and were greater than 90 percent homologous.

2:15 ANALYSIS OF TNF-[alpha] EXPRESSION IN THE PULMONARY ARTERY OF DIABETIC RATS, Austin Oyathelemi (*l), Vladimir I. Mayorov (2), Sarwan Dhir (1), Roy Russ (2) and Linda R. Adkison (2), (1) Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA and (2) Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA. The expression of TNF-alpha, a cytokine secreted by monocytes and macrophages, was analyzed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the consequence of pulmonary edema resulting from TNF-alpha hypertrophy. Lungs were isolated from diabetic rats and the TNF-alpha expression was analyzed under a closed perfused system. Molecular based experiments demonstrated TNF-alpha mRNA was overly expressed in the pulmonary artery of the diabetic rat. The relevancy of the molecular assay was to demonstrate that TNF-alpha was expressed in the pulmonary artery from cells of the endothelial lining. Relating the molecular data to the physiological date, we conclude the TNF-alpha not only is overly expressed in diabetic rat but also cou ld be the prominent cause of pulmonary edema.

2:30 USE OF RECOMBINANT CONGENIC MOUSE STRAINS FOR ANALYSIS OF DIABESITY, Edward H. Leiter, Peter Reifsnyder, Huei-Ju Pan and Victoria A. Barron (*), The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609. NON c NZO recombinant congenic mouse strains were utilized to study obesity-driven non-insulin dependent diabetes. The differences in a quantitative trait locus on Chromosome 15 were assessed in two strains, RCS01 and RCS-2, using microsatellite markers. Possible candidate genes were identified in that region, and using muscle and liver tissues, Real-time PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression. Additionally a genome scan was performed on all RCS lines to elucidate other areas of NZO genome and other possible diabesity loci. It was determined in RCS-1 that the section of NZO-derived genome, on Chromosome 15, was approximately 10 cM longer than in RCS-2. Also preliminary results indicate that several possible candidate genes on Chromosome 15 are expressed to a higher degree in RCS-2 muscle tissue, whil e liver tissue shows inconsistent results. In the genome scan performed on all RCS lines, additional diabesity loci were not identified.

2:45 SCREENING FOR DIAGNOSTIC PROTEINS OF TAENIA SOLIUM, Fatima Williams (1) and Kathy Hancock (2), (1) Kennesaw State University and (2) CDC, Atlanta, GA. Taenia solium cysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stages of T. solium, occurs in both humans and pigs and causes significant public health and economic hardship in many developing countries. The objective of this internship involves analyzing a number of cloned antigens from a Taenia solium cyst library searching for additional members of the 8-kDa diagnostic antigen family. Identification and characterization of the 8-kDa antigens are essential steps in the development of a dipstick-type diagnostic assay for cysticercosis. New members of this 8-kDa family can be identified based on a 32P labeled, random-primed probe made using Ts14, Ts18, and Ts21 clones (Hancock, 2001). If the cDNA library contains a sequence that hybridizes with the probe, then this potentially new family member can be completely sequenced and the encoded protein evaluate d for antibody reactivity.

3:00 MONOSOMY 4q: FAMILIAL DELETION (4)(q34), Debra F Saxe (1), Terry Sanders (1), Sara C. Cooper (1) and Olga Digby (*)(1), (1) Emory Genetic Laboratory, Decatur GA 30030 and (2) Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Prenatal diagnosis of deletion of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 4 from band q34 on a 19 weeks old fetus was made. In six previously reported cases of chromosome 4 deletion similar to this one, heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and mental retardation were reported. That implies that genes involved in facial, cardiac, and brain development may be located in the region 4q34[right arrow]qter. Ultrasound revealed that the fetus has a diaphragmatic hernia. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromosome analysis of the mother with normal phenotype revealed the same unbalanced deletion.

3:15 GENERATION AND USE OF CASE STUDIES FOR THE TEACHING OF MEDICAL GENETICS, K.A. Fleiszar, R.C. Martin and PL. Johnson (*), Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Over 500 genetic consultations completed and recorded by KAF provide an excellent source of case studies for teaching. With support from KSU's Student Assistants program, RCM was hired to create a database using the Progeny 2000 pedigree program. Once selected cases were entered, "blank" pedigrees were generated by modification of the originals. Thirty of these modified pedigrees were used in the spring 2001 Medical Genetics class. Students play the role of a genetic consultant and submit a paper addressing the recommendations that a medical geneticist would make relative to the family's specific RFR (reason for referral). In addition to the summary paper, a poster presentation must also be prepared. PCJ is recording and modifying additional cases for use in other courses such as Biology of Cancer. Medical Genetics is an upper level electi ve, but is required for students following KSU's cytogenetic technology track.

3:30 Break

4:00 Symposium


((*.) Denotes Student Presentation)
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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2002
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