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Four fragments in the Folger Shakespeare library.

Acknowledgments

A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the Eleventh Biennial Conference of the Early Book Society, Exeter, England, on July 12, 2009. For their assistance with the present revision, I am grateful to I. A. Doyle (Durham), Martha W. Driver (Pace University), Scott Gwara (University of South Carolina, Columbia), Stephen Tabor (Huntington Library), and Tony Trowles (Westminster Abbey Library).

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NOTES

(1.) E. Gordon Duff, The Printers, Stationers and Bookbinders of Westminster and London from 1476 to 1535, Sandars Lectures in Bibliography 1899 and 1904 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1906; repr. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1971), 124-125. Although Duff refers specifically to books, he seems to include broadsides in his count. See also E. Gordon Duff, Early Printed Books (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co., 1893; repr. New York: Haskell House, 1968), 194-199, where he claims that "of books printed in England before 1530 more than ten per cent, are only known [from fragments rescued from bindings]"; Dulf, Early Printed Books, 196. Throughout this article, I cite books by their entry number in A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640, first compiled by A. W. Pollard and G. R. Redgrave, 2nd ed. begun by W. A. Jackson and F. S. Ferguson, completed by Katharine F. Pantzer, 3 vols. (London: Bibliographical Society, 1976-1991), hereafter abbreviated as STC.

(2.) Lotte Hellinga, ed., Printing in England in the Fifteenth Century: E. Gordon Duff's Bibliography with Supplementary Descriptions, Chronologies and a Census of Copies (London: Bibliographical Society; British Library, 2009), 6 (no. 22 = STC 315), 8 (no. 28 = STC 695), 15 (no. 54 = STC 3304), 17 (no. 60 = STC 15794; no. 62 = STC 15801.5), 18 (no. 66 = STC 15800), 30 (no. 104 = STC 5312), 33 (no. 116 = STC 13922), 36 (nos. 128-130 = STC 7014.5, 7013, 7014), 37 (no. 135 = STC 7541), 41 (nos. 148-149 = STC 15848, 15849), 46 (nos. 169-171 = STC 12477, 12540, 12541), 47 (no. 175 = STC 15868), 48-49 (nos. 177-181 = STC 15870, 15871, 15872, 15873, 15874), 49 (no. 184 = STC 15877), 49-50 (no. 185 = STC 15878), 50 (nos. 188-190 = STC 15882, 15883, 15884), 52 (nos. 197-201 = STC 15891, 15892, 15893, 15894, 15895), 54 (no. 206 = STC 14077c. 109), 55 (no. 207 = STC 14077c.1 10), 55-56 (no. 209 = 14077c. 112), 56 (no. 210 = STC 14077c. 113), 61 (no. 221 = STC 14077c.148), 63-64 (no. 229 = STC 14098, 14098.5), 67 (no. 239-240 = STC 23163.13, 23163.8), 81 (no. 289 = STC 17325), 94 (no. 336 = STC 16228), 97 (nos. 349-350 = STC 385.7, 385.3), 100 (no. 362 = STC 13688), 102-03 (no. 370 = STC 21297), 107 (no. 387 = STC 9332). In estimating the total number of surviving editions, I include Duff nos. 123a (STC 6827), 266a (STC 17024), and 403a (STC 24766.3) but exclude nos. 44 (STC 1987, printed by Hugh Goes), 64 (like no. 63, a fragment of STC 15797), 158 (no known copy), 356 (printed ca. 1502), 361 (STC 13689.3, also printed by Goes), and 413 (printed ca. 1502). It should be noted that many single Duff entries have two STC numbers and that, conversely, one STC number often refers to two Duff entries. Sixteen Duffitems are not considered STC books: nos. 25, 39, 108, 118 (2 editions), 119-122, 153-155, 159, 243-244, and 311.

(3.) Hellinga, Printing in England, 120-145. I ignore nos. 10, 25, 30, and 34, which replace Duff's original entries, and 36 (STC 21070), which was actually printed around 1502. My count includes supplement nos. 2 (STC 14077c.100), 3 (STC 317.5), 4 (STC 1987.5), 5-6 (STC 4814), 8-9 (STC 15872, note), 12 (STC 15873.5), 16 (14077c.83G), 20 (indulgence, not in STC), 23 (STC 14077c. 140A), 28 (STC 17037.5), 29 (STC 17840.7), 33 (STC 16172.5), 38 (STC 23154.5), 39 (STC 23163.16), 43 (STC 23885, note), and 44 (STC 23939.5). Some of these items are offsets or faint impressions of lost books.

(4.) I base this total on the STC index, which lists 741 books and broadsides printed by (or for) de Worde between 1501 and 1535. From this number, I have subtracted five items: 1) STC 14077c.81 (printed by Hugh Goes); 2) STC 13075 (printed by Richard Pynson); 3) STC 14077c.17 (no copy traced); 4) STC 20439.5 (printed by de Worde in 1497-1498); and 5) STC 6897.5 (a copy of STC 6897 sophisticated with sheets from STC 6895). At the same time, I have added the following nineteen items: 1) STC 20878 (printed ca. 1502); 2) STC 24224 (printed ca. 1502); 3) ESTC S504194 (a fragment of an unrecorded edition of Donatus, Ars minor, ca. 1505); 4) fragments of an unrecorded 1506 edition of the Thre Kynges of Coleyne, discovered by Martha W. Driver, "Ideas of Order: Wynkyn de Worde and the Title Page," in Texts and Their Contexts: Papers from the Early Book Society, ed. John Scattergood and Julia Boffey (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1997), 87-149, 112-113, 146-149, rev. repr. in Martha W. Driver, The Image in Print: Book Illustration in Late Medieval England and Its Sources (London: British Library, 2004), 77-114, 111-112; 5) STC 14505.5 (attributed to Pynson but actually printed by de Worde in 1506); 6) a variant setting (reissue?) of STC 22270.5 [1506] in the Wurttemburgische Landesbibliothekin Stuttgart (shelfmark Inc.qt.8979), reported in Otto Leuze, "Zwei unbekannte Drucke des Wynkyn de Worde (1506)," Zeitschriftfur Bucherfreunde n.s., 22 (1930): 101-104, where he also describes a second copy of STC 12412.5 [1506] in the same institution; 7-8) a ca. 1509 indulgence (too fragmentary to catalogue) and two leaves of a duodecimo primer, both reported in Charles Sayle, "Cambridge Fragments," The Library 3rd ser., 2 (1911): 338-355, 349-350; 9) STC 14077c.116 (misattributed to Pynson); 10) STC 14077c.117 (misattributed to Pynson); 11) four leaves from an edition of Alexander de Villa Dei, Doctrinale, differing from STC 319.7 [1515?]; 12) STC 14077c.82 (misattributed to Pynson); 13) ESTC T301183 (an unrecorded edition of Sulpitius, Stanspuer ad mensam, printed after 1515); 14) ESTC S498654, a previously unnoticed edition of St. Peter of Luxembourg, The Next Way to Heuen [1520?]; 15) fragments of a ca. 1520 edition of A Treatise of a Galaunt in Cambridge University Library (shelfmark Pet.F.5.29), reported in STC addenda, 3:313; 16) ESTC S498386, fragments of a ca. 1531 edition of The Abbey of the Holy Ghost (discussed below); and 17-19) three Bandinel fragments: a) sigs. B3-4 of Everyman (attributed to Pynson, ca. 1518, but actually printed by de Worde, ca. 1508 or possibly 1511-1513); b) sigs. EE 1-5 of an edition of Carta feodi simplicis [ca. 1512?] and c) sigs. A3-4 of a Life of St. Catherine of Alexandria [ca. 1515], all described in Arthur Freeman, "Everyman and Others, Part II: The Bandinel Fragments," The Library 7th ser., 9 (2008): 397-427, 416-418 (nos. 1, 8, and 15). (Since I have not seen the four Whittington fragments catalogued as no. 9, I am unable to say if any is unique.) For the time being, I ignore the speculations in STC that sigs. b3,4 in 4[degrees] Rawl.598(9) of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and sig. B2 in the Harvard University copy of STC 25560.7 (1522) may come from editions other than STC 7016.4 [1508-1509] and STC 25464.5 (id. March 1522), respectively. The 1518 edition of Ortus vocabulorum at the Newberry Library (shelfmark Case X 9892.34) appears to differ from STC 13834(22 Oct. 1518) and may be an unrecorded edition with a repeated colophon date. Pending further investigation, however, I likewise ignore this matter.

(5.) The fourth book, which survives in two nearly complete copies, is STC 16232.4 (18 Feb. 1509), an edition of the York Ordinal. Goes also printed two indulgences--STC 14077c.81 [1505] and 14077c.63 [1506]--as well as patterned wallpaper. On the latter, see Sayle, "Cambridge Fragments," 339-344, and A. E. Shipley, "The Masters Lodgings, Christ's College, Cambridge," Country Life 40, 1030 (30 Sept. 1916): 378-385; 40, 1031 (7 Oct. 1916): 406-412.

(6.) For details, see Franklin B. Williams, Jr., ed., "The Gardyners Passetaunce" (c. 1512), with notes by Howard M. Nixon (London: Roxburghe Club, 1985), 43-50, 53-56, 65-75. A manuscript note in British Library Harl.5974(95) refers to a Donatus cum Remigio also printed by Goes and Watson, but the book does not survive. The other items removed from the Westminster Abbey binding are: 1) two leaves of the Medius part of STC 22924 (10 Oct. 1530); 2) a fragment of a Sarum Book of Hours (not in STC and, to my knowledge, still unidentified); 3) two leaves of STC 14280.5 [ca. 1530], a quarto edition of Sir Isumbras printed by John Skot; 4) two leaves of STC 11691a.5 [ca. 1530], a quarto edition of The Jest of Sir Gawaine, printed for John Butler; and 5) part of sheet B of Christoph Hegendorff, De instituenda vita et moribus corrigendis juventutis parceneses (Paris: Christian Wechel, 1529).

(7.) The romance in question is Le Iugement d'amour, a French translation of La historia de Grisely Mirabella (ca. 1475) by the Spanish writer Juan de Flores. On the discovery, see Frank Stubbings, "A New Manuscript of Generydes," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 10,3 (1993): 317-339, 331-332,339; Dennis E. Rhodes, "A Lost Romance Printed by Wynkyn de Worde," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 11,4 (1999): 463-467; and Joyce Boro, "A Source and Date for the Fragment of Grisely Mirabella Found in the Binding of Emmanuel College 338.5.43," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 12,4 (2003 [2005]): 422-436. The authors of these studies mistakenly attribute the fragment to de Worde.

(8.) Joseph J. Gwara, "Three Forms of w and Four English Printers: Robert Copland, Henry Pepwell, Henry Watson, and Wynkyn de Worde," Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 106 (2012): 141-230, 180, 195.

(9.) For a thorough and informative account of early English fragment collections, see Arthur Freeman, "Everyman and Others, Part I: Some Fragments of Early English Printing, and their Preservers," The Library 7th ser., 9 (2008): 267-305.

(10.) This fragment consists of portions of sigs. A5 and A6 plus most of sigs. A7 and A8 (both trimmed at the bottom). Given the similar damage patterns, I suspect that the British Library leaves also come from the Folger binding. If so, they must have been removed before 1973, when the Folger Library acquired the volume at an auction of books belonging to George Goyder; Catalogue of Valuable Printed Books, Autograph Letters and Historical Documents (8-9 October 1973) (London: Sotheby & Co., 1973), lot 62. The only information on the provenance of the British Library fragment is that it was purchased on March 5, 1929, and rebound in the same year. The name "Ch. Croftes" appears above de Worde's device on sig. A8v. It should be noted that fifty copies of STC 18528.5 were apparently among the unsold stock at the Sign of the George, Richard Pynson's former printing office, in 1553; Peter W. M. Blayney, "The Site of the Sign of the Sun," in The London Book Trade: Topographies of Print in the Metropolis from the Sixteenth Century, ed. Robin Myers, Michael Harris, and Giles Mandelbrote (New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press; London: British Library, 2003), 1-20, 20 n. 55.

(11.) For a modern study of his canonization process (July 20-September 28, 1325), see Sari Katajala-Peltomaa, Gender, Miracles, and Daily Life: The Evidence of Fourteenth-Century Canonization Processes, History of Daily Life 1 (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009), with primary sources in both manuscript and print on 301.

(12.) On printing by the religious orders, see James G. Clark, "Print and Pre-Reformation Religion: The Benedictines and the Press, c. 1470-c. 1550," in The Uses of Script and Print, 1300-1700, ed. Julia Crick and Alexandra Walsham (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 71-92. For general information on the culture of printed books at Syon, I have consulted the following three studies: Vincent Gillespie, "The Book and the Brotherhood: Reflections on the Lost Library of Syon Abbey," in The English Medieval Book: Studies in Memory of Jeremy Griffiths, ed. A. S. G. Edwards, Vincent Gillespie, and Ralph Hanna (London: British Library, 2000), 185-208; Vincent Gillespie, "Dial M for Mystic: Mystical Texts in the Library of Syon Abbey and the Spirituality of the Syon Brethren," in The Medieval Mystical Tradition in England, Ireland and Wales: Exeter Symposium VI: Papers Read at Charney Manor, July 1999, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1999), 241-268, repr. in Vincent Gillespie, Looking in Holy Books: Essays on Late Medieval Religious Writing in England, Brepols Collected Essays in European Culture 3 (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2011), 175-207; and Vincent Gillespie, "Syon and the English Market for Continental Printed Books: The Inclinable Phase," Religion & Literature 37,2 (Summer 2005): 27-49, rev. repr. in Syon Abbey and Its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion, c. 1400-1700, ed. E. A. Jones and Alexandra Walsham, Studies in Modern British Religious History 24 (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2010), 104-128.

(13.) This table, maximally inclusive, has been compiled from the following sources (pages are noted only when they refer to specific books): David N. Bell, What Nuns Read: Books and Libraries in Medieval English Nunneries, Cistercian Studies Series 158 (Kalamazoo, MI; Spencer, MA: Cistercian Publications, 1995), 182-183 (STC 5065, 14042), 187 (STC 5065, 24234), 192-193 (STC 4815), 198 (STC 14042); N. F. Blake, "Wynkyn de Worde: The Later Years," Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (1972): 128-138, 132-134; Alexandra da Costa, "The King's Great Matter: Writing under Censure at Syon Abbey 1532-1534," Review of English Studies n.s., 62 (2010): 15-29; Alexandra da Costa, Reforming Printing: Syon Abbey's Defence of Orthodoxy, 1525-1534 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), esp. 10-13, 33-38, 41-42, 171-172; Christopher de Hamel, Syon Abbey: The Library of the Bridgettine Nuns and Their Peregrinations after the Reformation, introduction by John Martin Robinson (n.p.: Roxburghe Club, 1991), 72 (STC 17532), 84 (STC 1978), 98 (STC 14042), 101 (STC 1978, 4815, 17532, 25422-23, 3278, 25421.6), 112 (STC 4815), 126 (STC 5065); Mary Denise, "The Orchard of Syon: An Introduction," Traditio 14 (1958): 269-293, 269, 272-275 (STC 4815); A. I. Doyle, "Book Production by the Monastic Orders in England (c. 1375-1530): Assessing the Evidence," in Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Oxford, July 1988, ed. Linda L. Brownrigg (Los Altos Hills, CA: Anderson-Lovelace, Red Gull Press, 1990), 1-19, 15 (STC 1978); Mary C. Erler, "A London Anchorite, Simon Appulby: His Fruyte of Redempcyon and Its Milieu," Viator 29 (1998): 227-239, 230-231, 238 (STC 22557-60); Mary C. Erler, Reading and Writing during the Dissolution: Monks, Friars, and Nuns, 1530-1558 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 26-32 (STC 22557-60), 126-143; Mary C. Erler, Women, Reading, and Piety in Late Medieval England (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 118-119 (Lambeth Palace Library, 1494.6; STC 15875), 121-122 (STC 14042), 125 (STC 5065), 126 (STC 14507), 141 (STC 14507), 148 (STC 5065, 14042), 192 n. 34 (STC 14507 reissue); C. Annette Grise, '"Moche Profitable unto Religious Persones, Gathered by a Brother of Syon': Syon Abbey and English Books," in Syon Abbey and Its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion, c. 1400-1700, ed. E. A. Jones and Alexandra Walsham, Studies in Modern British Religious History 24 (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2010), 129-154; James Hogg, "The Contribution of the Brigittine Order to Late Medieval English Spirituality," Spiritualitat Heute und Gestern, Analecta Cartusiana 35,3 (1983): 153-174; James Hogg, "Richard Whytford," in Studies in St. Birgitta and the Brigittine Order 2, Analecta Cartusiana, Spiritualitat Heute und Gestern 35,19 (1993): 254-266; Sue Ellen Holbrook, "Margery Kempe and Wynkyn de Worde," in The Medieval Mystical Tradition in England: Exeter Symposium IV: Papers Read at Dartington Hall, July 1987, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1987), 27-46 (STC 14924); Robert A. Horsfield, "The Pomander of Prayer: Aspects of Late Medieval English Carthusian Spirituality and Its Lay Audience," in "De Celia in Seculum": Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England: An Interdisciplinary Conference in Celebration of the Eighth Centenary of the Consecration of St Hugh of Avalon Bishop of Lincoln, 20-22 July, 1986, ed. Michael G. Sargent (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1989), 205-213 (STC 25421.2, etc.); Ann M. Hutchison, "What the Nuns Read: Literary Evidence from the English Bridgettine House, Syon Abbey," Mediaeval Studies 57 (1995): 205-222; George R. Keiser, "The Mystics and the Early English Printers: The Economics of Devotionalism," in The Medieval Mystical Tradition in England: Exeter Symposium IV: Papers Read at Dartington Hall, July 1987, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1987), 9-26; George R. Keiser, "Patronage and Piety in Fifteenth-Century England: Margaret, Duchess of Clarence, Symon Wynter and Beinecke MS 317," Yale University Library Gazette 60 (1985): 32-46, 43-45 (STC 14508); Domenico Pezzini, "'The Meditacion of Oure Lordis Passyon' and Other Bridgettine Texts in MS Lambeth 432," in Studies in St. Birgitta and the Brigittine Order, vol. 1, Spiritualitat Heute und Gestern, Analecta Cartusiana 35,19 (1993): 276-295 (STC 14508, 13608.7); Henry R. Plomer, Wynkyn de Worde & His Contemporaries from the Death of Caxton to 1535: A Chapter in English Printing (London: Grafton & Co., 1925), 90-94 (STC 21471.5); Susan Powell, "What Caxton Did to the Festial," Journal of the Early Book Society 1 (1997): 48-77, 56-58; A. W. Reed, Early Tudor Drama: Medwall, the Rastells, Heywood, and the More Circle (London: Methuen & Co., 1926), 166-169 (STC 21471.5); Arthur W. Reed, "The Regulation of the Book Trade before the Proclamation of 1538," Transactions of the Bibliographical Society 15 (1917-1919): 157-184, 163-166 (STC 21471.5); J. T. Rhodes, "Religious Instruction at Syon in the Early Sixteenth Century," in Studies in St. Birgitta and the Brigittine Order, vol. 2, Spiritualitat Heute und Gestern, Analecta Cartusiana 35,19 (1993): 151-169; J. T. Rhodes, "Syon Abbey and Its Religious Publications in the Sixteenth Century," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 44 (1993): 11-25; Michael G. Sargent, "Walter Hilton's Scale of Perfection: The London Manuscript Group Reconsidered," Medium AEvum 52 (1983): 189-216 (STC 14042).

(14.) De Worde also printed at least one devotional image of the Five Wounds of Christ (STC 14077c.15, ca. 1505) for the Carthusian Charterhouse at Sheen, Syon Abbey's spiritual and intellectual partner. A second pious image from Syon, Christ Enthroned at the Last Judgment (STC 14077c. 18, ca. 1510), is traditionally ascribed to Richard Pynson, but the leaf is just as likely to have been printed by de Worde.

(15.) Mary Bateson, Catalogue of the Library of Syon Monastery, Isleworth (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1898), xxvii, 9, 103; Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues, vol. 9, Syon Abbey, ed. Vincent Gillespie, with The Libraries of the Carthusians, ed. A. I. Doyle (London: British Library in association with British Academy, 2001), 24 (no. 75), 229 (no. 763), with another copy of STC 4601 donated by William Barnarde (228-229, no. 761). See also de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 102. De Hamel observes that several Syon bindings, on both manuscripts and printed books, emanated from the Caxton bindery, which de Worde inherited (de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 102-103).

(16.) Except for STC 1912, 1913, and 3273.5, these editions also have de Worde's famous woodcut of St. Bridget of Sweden; Edward Hodnett, English Woodcuts, 1480-1535, rev. ed. (London: Oxford University Press for Bibliographical Society, 1973), 177-178 (no. 457, measuring 123x91mm), hereafter abbreviated as "Hodnett." As Martha W. Driver shows, this cut likely signals Syon Abbey's endorsement of the works in which they appear; Martha W. Driver, "Nuns as Patrons, Artists, Readers: Bridgettine Woodcuts in Printed Books Produced for the English Market," in Art into Life: Collected Papers from the Kresge Art Museum Medieval Symposia, ed. Carol Garrett Fisher and Kathleen L. Scott (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995), 237-267, 249-252; Martha W. Driver, "Pictures in Print: Late Fifteenth- and Early Sixteenth-Century English Religious Books for Lay Readers," in "De Celia in Seculum": Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England: An Interdisciplinary Conference in Celebration of the Eighth Centenary of the Consecration of St Hugh of Avalon Bishop of Lincoln, 20-22 July, 1986, ed. Michael G. Sargent (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1989), 229-244, 243-244; and Driver, Image in Print, 146-149. The St. Bridget cut was also used in STC 6833 (20 Nov. 1520), a likely Syon book, and in de Worde's three quarto primers from 1519 and later, where it accompanies the Fifteen Oes, traditionally ascribed to St. Bridget: STC 15922 (1519), 15934 (20 Nov. 1523), and 15948 (4 Non. Aug. 1526). (The block was too large to be used in octavo and duodecimo primers.) The promiscuous use of this block by other Syon printers--Lawrence Andrewe, Richard Fawkes, Richard Pynson, and Robert Redman--suggests that de Worde routinely lent (or leased) it to his fellow craftsmen, perhaps acting as the abbey's agent. Driver further argues that another woodcut illustration, Caxton's Crucifixion scene (Hodnett no. 374, measuring 119x82mm) from the Flemish Fifteen Oes series, may also indicate a Syon Abbey connection (Driver, "Nuns as Patrons, Artists, Readers," 258-260). The cut appears in at least twenty-nine Caxton and de Worde editions before 1503, thirteen of which have concrete or circumstantial links to Syon: STC 20195 [1491], 15875 [1493?], Lambeth Palace reprint of STC 15875 [ca. 1493-1494], 3261 (1494), 21334 [ca. 1494], 1916 (9 March 1496), 787 [1497-1498], 13609 [1497?], 5573 [1499], 1978 [1500], 13610 [1500?], 21335 [1500], and 14924 [1501].

(17.) Several of these books were reprinted after 1534, often in revised or modified form: STC 23964.7 [1535?], 25413 [1537?], 25425 (8 Nov. 1537), and 25415 [1538?]. Many books with documented or possible links to Syon Abbey were printed by others: STC 17542 (Richard Fawkes, 4 Nov. 1530), 3273.3 (Richard Fawkes, [1530?]), 1914 (Robert Wyer, 1531), 1915 (Thomas Godfray, [1531?]), 25422.3 (Peter Treveris, [1531?]), 1915.5 (Thomas Godfray, [ca. 1535]), 3274.5 (Lawrence Andrewe, [1527]), 3275 (Michael Fawkes, [1534?]), 3276 (Michael Fawkes, [1534?]), 25413.5 (John Wayland, 1537), 25414 (John Wayland, 1537), 25425.5 (John Wayland, 1537), and 25420 (William Middleton, 1541).

(18.) Caxton books with Syon connections include: 1) the 1490 edition of Nicholas Love, The Myrroure of the Blessed Lyfoflhesu Cryste (STC 3260), one copy of which (British Library, shelfmarkIB.55119) was once owned by Susan Purferaye (Purefeye, Purefoy), a Syon nun; 2) the 1491 edition of the Fifteen Oes (STC 20195), printed at the behest of Lady Margaret Beaufort and Queen Elizabeth, her daughter-in-law; 3) two editions of the Quattuor sermones (STC 17957) plus the 1491 edition of Mirk's Festial (STC 17959); 4) the two editions (ca. 1484, 1489) of Clement Maydeston's Directorium sacerdotum (STC 17720, 17722); and 5) the Arsmoriendi (STC 786), quoted by Thomas Betson in STC 1978 (although STC 787, de Worde's 1497-1498 reprint of Caxton's edition, is an equally plausible source). On these items, see Bell, What Nuns Read, 190-191; H. S. Bennett, "Notes on Two Incunables: The Abbey of the Holy Ghost and A Ryght Profytable Treatyse," The Library 5th ser., 10 (1955): 120-121; de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 126; Erler, Women, Reading, and Piety, 118, 124-125; Keiser, "Mystics," 11-12; Keiser, "Patronage and Piety," 44-46; Susan Powell, "Preaching at Syon Abbey," Leeds Studies in English n.s., 31 (2000): 229-267, 240-244; Susan Powell, "Syon, Caxton, and the Festial," Birgittiana 2 (1996): 187-207; and Susan Powell, "What Caxton Did to the Festial," 56-58.

(19.) Keiser, "Mystics," 11-13, 24-25; Keiser, "Patronage and Piety," 43-46; Powell, "Syon, Caxton, and the Festial," 204-207; Susan Powell, "Lady Margaret Beaufort and Her Books," The Library 6th ser., 20 (1998): 197-240, 211-221; Susan Powell, "Syon Abbey and the Mother of King Henry VII: The Relationship of Lady Margaret Beaufort with the English Birgittines," Birgittiana 19 (2005): 211-224; Michael G. Sargent, "The Transmission by the English Carthusians of Some Late Medieval Spiritual Writings," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 27 (1976): 225-240, 239-240.

(20.) Both Copland editions of The Pomander of Prayer also have Hodnett no. 457 (St. Bridget of Sweden), emphasizing the Syon link. A copy of STC 13608 at Ampleforth Abbey (shelfmark C.V 130) once belonged to Dorothy Codrington, a Syon nun, and a second copy, at Trinity College, Cambridge (shelfmark C.7.12), was owned by Margaret Windsor, prioress of Syonin 1518 and 1539. According to Erler, Women, Reading, and Piety, 97, these two books plus one other--Folger Shakespeare Library STC 13608--were corrected against British Library Add. MS 24192, a Syon manuscript that may have served as printer s copy. These circumstances suggest that the abbey commissioned Copland to print STC 13608 from its own manuscript and that the sisters later corrected their copies against this source. For background information, see Bell, What Nuns Read, 176, 183; de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 97; Erler, Women, Reading, and Piety, 96-98, 149; and J.J. Vaissier, ed., "AD euout Treatyse Called the Tree & xii. Frutes of the Holy Goost" Edited from MS. McClean 132, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Groningen, Holland: J. B. Wolters, 1960), xxiv-xxix, xxxii-xxxiii, xxxvi-xxxviii. On the Image of Pity woodcuts, see Mary C. Erler, "Pasted-In Embellishments in English Manuscripts and Printed Books, c. 1480-1533," The Library 6th Series 14 (1992): 185-206, 188. Copland also printed two other devotional works with possible--but disputed--Syon connections: the 1531 edition of The Golden Letany in Englysshe (STC 15707) and the 1529 edition of The Psalter of fesus (STC 14563).

(21.) On the Abbey of the Holy Ghost, see Julia Boffey, "Conflations of the Abbey of the Holy Ghost and the Charter of the Abbey of the Holy Ghost in Manuscript and Print," in The Medieval Book and a Modern Collector: Essays in Honour of Toshiyuki Takamiya, ed. Takami Matsuda, Richard A. Linenthal, and John Scahill (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer; Tokyo: Yushodo Press, 2004), 245-254, 251-252. A 1530 edition of The Thre Kynges of Coleyne signed by Richard Whitford was reported in Thomas Frognall Dibdin, ed., Typographical Antiquities; or the History of Printing in England, Scotland and Ireland: Containing Memoirs of Our Ancient Printers, and a Register of the Books Printed by Them, Begun by Joseph Ames and Augmented by William Herbert, 4 vols. (London: William Miller, 1810-1812 [vols. 1, 2]; London: John Murray, 1816 [vol. 3]; London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1819 [vol. 4]), 2:167-268 (no. 230). However, Martha W. Driver dismisses this book as a probable ghost (Driver, "Nuns as Patrons, Artists, Readers," 266 n. 46). As mentioned in note 10, unsold copies of de Worde's books are listed in a 1553 inventory of goods at the sign of the George. Almost all of these remainders date from the 1520s and early 1530s, with one noticeable exception--the twelve (?) copies of Betson's A Ryght Profytable Treatyse [1500]. In my view, the remainders of Betsons treatise are likely to belong to a lost ca. 1530 reprint of this book, another sign of renewed interest in older Bridgettine texts at de Worde's shop.

(22.) Mary C. Erler, "Devotional Literature," in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain 3:1400-1557, ed. Lotte Hellinga and J. B. Trapp (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 495-525, 516-521.

(23.) The best-known illustration of this practice is STC 21471.5 (7 Oct. 1525), an edition of The Image of Loue by John Rickes. According to testimony given on December 19, 1525, de Worde sold sixty copies of this book to Syon Abbey, presumably one for each of the nuns, and an equal number to the public; Reed, "Regulation of the Book Trade," 163-166. Other evidence of bulk book purchases by Syon is slight. As discussed by Mary C. Erler, two copies of the same 1532 edition of a Sarum Primer have a Syon provenance, suggesting that they were acquired together, perhaps as part of a block purchase of new primers for the community; Erler, "Pasted-In Embellishments," 194-201. Presumably, books in frequent use would have been replaced at regular intervals, perhaps every generation.

(24.) For background information, see Francis Roth, The English Austin Friars, 1249-1538, vol. 1, History, vol. 2, Sources, Cassiciacum: Studies in St. Augustine and the Augustinian Order 6-7 (American Series) (New York: Augustinian Historical Institute, 1961 [vol. 2], 1966 [vol. 1]), 1:597, commenting that "[t]he life consists of short chapters apparently taken from the lessons of the breviary." It should be noted that the titles of all individual saints' lives printed in England before 1536 invariably begin (or include) the words "The lyf(e) of." The fact that de Worde's title lacks this phrase indicates that the work was understood as something other than a standard saint's life.

(25.) Quotations come from STC 18528, which preserves the complete text of the work. Where possible, I have checked the readings of this edition against those of STC 18528.5.

(26.) In all likelihood, the remaining lessons would have been devoted to the Octave of the Nativity of the Virgin (September 8). I am grateful to Sherry L. Reames (University of Wisconsin, Madison) for her expert guidance on these matters.

(27.) A likely fourth volume is The Pype or Tonne of the Lyfe of Perfection, revised by Whitford in 1525 to accompany his Augustinian rule in English; see P. G. Caraman "An English Monastic Reformer of the Sixteenth Century," Clergy Review n.s., 28 (1947): 1-16, 4, 14. Caraman's conclusion is accepted by da Costa, "King's Great Matter," 22-23; and da Costa, Reforming Printing, 18; and by Erler, Reading and Writing, 126, 130-131, who suggests that the work may have been written as early as 1518.

(28.) Aside from their daily performance of the Divine Office, the sisters read selections from the martyrology every day after Terce, plus, weekly at refectory, the Rule of St. Augustine, the constitutions of Bridgettine Order (the Regula Sancti Salvatoris), and selections from the Additions for the Sisters. For general comments, see John Henry Blunt, ed., The Myroure of Oure Ladye, Containing a Devotional Treatise on Divine Service, with a Translation of the Offices used by the Sisters of the Brigittine Monastery of Sion, at Isleworth, during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Early English Text Society, Extra Series 19 (London: N. Trubner for the Early English Text Society, 1873; repr. Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973), xxxiii, xxxvi-xi, xiv-xivi; A. Jefferies Collins, ed., The Bridgettine Breviary of Syon Abbey from the MS. with English Rubrics F.4.11 at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Henry Bradshaw Society 96 (Worcester, UK: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1969), xvii, xxxii, xxxvi-xl; de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 71-72, remarking that the martyrology was read daily after Prime; Claes Gejrot, "The Syon Martiloge," in Syon Abbey and Its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion, c. 1400-1700, ed. E. A. Jones and Alexandra Walsham, Studies in Modern British Religious History 24 (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2010), 203-227, 205-208; C. Annette Grise, "'In the Blessid Vynezerd of Oure Holy Saueour': Female Religious Readers and Textual Reception in the Myroure of Oure Ladye and the Orcherd of Syon," in The Medieval Mystical Tradition in England, Ireland and Wales: Exeter Symposium VI: Papers Read at Charney Manor, July 1999, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1999), 193-211; Ann M. Hutchison, "Devotional Reading in the Monastery and in the Late Medieval Household," in "De Celia in Seculum": Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England: An Interdisciplinary Conference in Celebration of the Eighth Centenary of the Consecration of St Hugh of Avalon Bishop of Lincoln, 20-22 July, 1986, ed. Michael G. Sargent (Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1989), 215-227, 219-223; Ann M. Hutchison, "The Myroure of Oure Ladye: A Medieval Guide for Contemplatives," in Studies in St. Birgitta and the Brigittine Order, vol. 2, Spiritualitat Heute und Gestern, Analecta Cartusiana 35,19 (1993): 215-227, 220-221, 224-225; Ann M. Hutchison, "What the Nuns Read," 208-209; Susan Powell, "Cox Manuscript 39: A Rare Survival of Sermons Preached at Syon Abbey?" Medieval Sermon Studies 52 (2008): 42-62, 53-54; and F. Procter and E. S. Dewick, eds., The Martiloge in Englysshe after the Vse of the Chirche of Salisbury and as It Is Redde in Syon with Addicyons: Printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1526, Henry Bradshaw Society 3 (London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1893).

(29.) Procter and Dewick, Martiloge in Englysshe, 143-144 (September 10), with no reference to St. Nicholas of Tolentino but with entries elsewhere for St. Nicholas of Myra (72, 85, 189), St. Nicholas the Pilgrim (88), and Pope Nicholas I (189); Collins, Bridgettine Breviary, xli-li; and de Hamel, Syon Abbey, 62-77, 91-94, with a list of the surviving manuscripts on 114-124.

(30.) Only one other book associated with the Augustinians was published in England in the early sixteenth century, a Latin comedia about St. Nicholas of Tolentino (STC 19816, ca. 1510). Roth, English Austin Friars, 1:209-210, describes this work as "Monks' Theatre," intended strictly for the instruction of the novices. A Middle English Life of St. Nicholas of Tolentino is found in a fifteenth-century manuscript probably from Clare Priory; Simon Horobin, "A Manuscript Found in the Library of Abbotsford House and the Lost Legendary of Osbern Bokenham," in English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, vol. 14, Regional Manuscripts 1200-1700, ed. A. S. G. Edwards (London: British Library, 2008), 130-162,141. The importance of de Worde's text is underscored by the extreme rarity of materials documenting the liturgy of the Austin Friars in England; see Richard W. Pfaff, The Liturgy in Medieval England: A History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 338-340.

(31.) Caraman, "English Monastic Reformer," 1, 3-4, 7, 13-16; da Costa, Reforming Printing, 1-2, 13-17; Erler, Reading and Writing, 126, 128-131.

(32.) By all appearances, Treveris was a German immigrant, perhaps from Trier (Eng. Treves). The location of his printing office in Southwark, which had a large Northern European immigrant community, supports this deduction; see Matthew Groom, "John Siberch (d. 1554), the First Cambridge Printer: New Findings from English Records," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 12,4 (2003 [2005]): 403-413, 407-408.

(33.) For evidence of this relationship, see Joseph J. Gwara and Mary Morse, "A Birth Girdle Printed by Wynkyn de Worde," The Library 7th ser., 13 (2012): 33-62, 54-55.

(34.) The only other important printer of Whittingtons was Richard Pynson, who issued twenty editions between 1521 and 1530, the year of his death. For purposes of comparison, I also include Pynson's annual output in Table 2. Aside from de Worde, Pynson, and Treveris, only Henry Pepwell is known to have printed a Whittington grammar after 1520, a single edition of De octo partibus (STC 25502.5, Id. Feb. 1523).

(35.) This interpretation of events, which I find convincing, comes from Nicholas Orme, "Whittington, Robert (c. 1480-1553?)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), http://www. oxforddnb.com/ view/ article/29331 (accessed September 9, 2013). David R. Carlson, English Humanist Books: Writers and Patrons, Manuscript and Print, 1475-1525 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993), asserts that Treveris merely pirated Whittington's editions (225 n.6). To my knowledge, the faults for which Whittington criticized Treveris have not been identified.

(36.) Hedwig Gwosdek, ed., Lily's Grammar of Latin in English: "An Introduction of the Eyght Partes of Speche, and the Construction of the Same" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 6-10, 83-88. The earliest edition of the Latin part is STC 15610.5 (London: Thomas Berthelet, 1540); the earliest surviving edition of the English part, which contains the royal proclamation authorizing the Lily text and banning all other grammars, is STC 15610.6 (London: Thomas Berthelet, 1542). Both parts were likely prescribed for British students in 1540 or shortly before. See also Nicholas Orme, Medieval Schools from Roman Britain to Renaissance England (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), 308-309.

(37.) Liber usualis missae et officii pro dominicis etfestis I. vel II. classis cum cantu gregoriano (Paris: Typ. Soc. S. Joannis Evang., Desclee, 1928), 739-740,743.

(38.) Associated fragments at Westminster Abbey include parts of sigs. x1-2 and y7-8 of STC 15865 (6 Cal. July 1532), now Printed Fragment 26, and parts of sigs. 2a2 and 2a3 of STC 15790 (1519), Printed Fragment 27. The fragments of STC 15863 reported at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, appear to come from STC 15865; twenty-one folios survive, shelved at WP.vi.3: nine complete folios (sigs. 17; 03, 06; v1, 2, 7, 8; [sup.2]F3, [sup.2]F6) and parts of twelve others (C3-6; D1, 2, 7, 8; E2, 3, 6, 7). I thank Julie Blyth for identifying these items for me.

(39.) For a summary discussion of this phenomenon, see George D. Painter, Dennis E. Rhodes, and Howard M. Nixon, "Two Missals Printed for Wynkyn de Worde," British Library Journal 2 (1976): 159-171, esp. 159-161. Painter claims that de Worde printed a Sarum Missal in 1508 (ibid., 160), but the book in question (STC 16182a.5) was actually printed for him in Paris. An apparently perfect copy of STC 16182a.5, formerly in the collection of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), is in the National Library of Russia; see Olga Frolova, "Sixteenth-Century English Books in the National Library of Russia: The Editions Published by Wynkyn de Worde," in Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, vol. 9, Western European Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Russia: Delving into the Collections of the Libraries of St Petersburg and Oxford, ed. Leena Kahlas-Tarkka & Matti Kilpio, Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English (VARIENG), University of Helsinki, 2012, http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/09/frolova/. See also H. S. Bennett, English Books & Readers, 1415 to 1557: Being a Study in the History of the Book Trade from Caxton to the Incorporation of the Stationers' Company, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 65-66.

(40.) On paper sizes, I have consulted Paul Needham, "Res papirea: Sizes and Formats of the Fate Medieval Book," in Rationalisierung der Buchherstellung im Mittelalter und in derfruhen Neuzeit: Ergebnisse eines buchgeschichtlichen Seminars, Wolfenbuttel 12.-14. November 1990, ed. Peter Ruck and Martin Borghardt, Elementa Diplomatica 2 (Marburg an der Fahn, Germany: Institut fur Historische Hilfswissenschaften, 1994), 123-145, 125. The estimated sheet dimensions of the Folger fragment are 384x540mm, too large for Chancery and Median paper. With maximum dimensions of 355x230mm, the Westminster Abbey folios have been more severely trimmed.

(41.) Robert Steele, The Earliest English Music Printing: A Description and Bibliography of English Printed Music to the Close of the Sixteenth Century, Illustrated Monographs 11 (London: Bibliographical Society, 1903; repr. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino, 2005), credits de Worde with STC 22924 (10 Oct. 1530), the earliest English vocal part book (5, 9-10, 36, Fig. 6). This book is now assigned to an unknown London printer operating at Sign of the Black Morens (Blackamoor).

(42.) Anne F. Sutton, "William Bretton, Publisher of Fine Books, 1506-10," The Library 7th ser., 14 (2013): 3-17, 9-14. Bretton invested in high-quality books for a clientele of wealthy clerics. Six of his seven known editions were printed by Hopyl.

(43.) E. Gordon Duff, A Century of the English Book Trade: Short Notices of All Printers, Stationers, Book-Binders, and Others Connected with It from the Issue of the First Dated Book in 1457 to the Incorporation of the Company of Stationers in 1557 (London: Bibliographical Society, 1905), 135-136 (Reynes) and 153 (Sutton). Although his name appears only in STC 15863, Sutton was Warden of the Stationers' Company in 1526.

(44.) The binding--erroneously described as bearing "the royal arms blind-stamped on both covers"--is in fact the unrecognized work of Martin Dature [Datier, Deyter, Dotier] (d. September 1563). The panels are HE.6: Royal Arms (front cover) and ST.46: St. Paul and Evangelistic Symbols (back cover), as discussed and illustrated in J. Basil Oldham, Blind Panels of English Binders (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1958), 23,43; plates XVI, LV. See also G. D. Hobson, Blind-Stamped Panels in the English BookTrade, c. 1485-1555, Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, Supplement 17 (London: Bibliographical Society, 1944), 41,45-46. On Dature's will, see Wayne H. Phelps, "Some Sixteenth-Century Stationers' Wills," Studies in Bibliography 32 (1979): 48-59, 50-51. Additional information is provided by Patrick King, "Martin Dature: London Bookbinder, 1526-1556," Antiquarian Book Monthly Review 5, 2,46 (February 1978): 59-61. The Folger has two other examples of Dature's work: pressmarks STC 3039 [ca. 1547] and STC 10484 [ca. 1544]; for details on the former (plus an image), see Frederick A. Bearman, et al., Fine and Historic Bookbindings from the Folger Shakespeare Library (Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare Library, Harry N. Abrams, 1992), 79. Images of the bindings of STC 3803, STC 3039, and STC 10484 can be accessed through the Folger Bindings Image Collection at http:// www.folger.edu/Content/Collection/Folger-Bindings-Image-Collection/.

(45.) In addition to STC, I have compiled Table 4 from the following sources: Alan Coates, et al., A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century Now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 6 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 3:1387-1389 (H-184 = STC 15875); Lotte Hellinga, ed., Catalogue of Books Printed in the XVth Century Now in the British Library, vol. 11, England ('t Goy-Houten, Holland: Hes & De Graaf, 2007), 186-188 (STC 15875, 15876); and Lotte Hellinga, ed., Printing in England, 49-50 (nos. 182-183, 185), 123-125 (suppls. 10-11). I count STC 15932.5 as three separate editions and include all fragments except that in Christ's College, Cambridge (see note 4). In several cases, the published collations strike me as dubious. For some primers, it appears that the calendars were printed in larger quantities in regularly signed gatherings of six leaves and that each gathering was inserted into an unsigned fold between the title page and the Easter table. This structure would have allowed de Worde to update the title page and the Easter table for later reissues of the same book without having to reprint the calendars.

(46.) Apparently discovered around 1960, the fragments came from the binding of the Ordinary of the Whyte Book of Trykes of Christopher Barker (d. 1550), Garter King of Arms. The original binding is preserved at the College of Arms. I thank Dr. Lynsey Darby, Archivist of the College of Arms, for this information.

(47.) On the Hours of the Compassion of Our Lady, which consists of eight stanzas of the hymn Matris cor virgineum inserted after each of the Short Hours of the Cross, see R. W. Pfaff, New Liturgical Feasts in Later Medieval England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), 103 n. 1. The hymn text is in Clemens Blume and Guido M. Dreves, ed., Analecta hymnica Medii Aevi, vol. 30, Pia dictamina: Reimgehete und Leselieder des Mittelalters, 3rd ser., Stunden- und Glossen-Lieder, ed. Guido Maria Dreves (Leipzig, Germany: O. R. Reisland, 1898), 106-107.

(48.) According to Hodnett, English Woodcuts, 17, these metal-cuts, of French origin, are first seen in STC 15898. Although no. 626 is found only in primers, no. 628 was used in several other de Worde books, specifically the successive editions of The Festyuall (STC 17971-75), The Fruyte of Redempcyon (STC 22557-60), and the English translation of the Legenda aurea (STC 24878.3-80). Hodnett further observes that with the exception of one wood-cut--no. 338 (Madonna and Child, measuring ca. 51xca. 40mm)--all the illustrations in STC 15899 are actually illuminations (ibid., 18).

(49.) The exception is Hodnett no. 405 (Dream of Jesse), measuring 50x37mm, which appears on sig. K6r in STC 15936. For comments on the origin and function of these illustrations, see Hodnett, English Woodcuts, 31. The two small woodcuts in the Folger fragment--Hodnett nos. 559 and 603 (or 604)--also belong to the French Horae border series. They appear in only three other books, all primers: STC 15934, 15936, and 15948.

(50.) For the hymn text, see Blume and Dreves, ed., Analecta hymnica, 32-35.

(51.) Mary C. Erler, "The Maner to Lyue Well and the Coming of English in Francois Regnault's Primers of the 1520s and 1530s," The Library 6th ser., 6 (1984): 229-243. See also, more generally, Erler, "Devotional Literature," 502-504.

(52.) STC 15951 (27 June 1527) is apparently a reissue, with the first gathering reprinted, of STC 15950, while the only known copy of STC 15952 appears to be made up of sheets from STC 15950 and 15951. The purported copy of STC 15951 at the Library of Congress (shelfmark BX2090.A2 1527 English Print) seems to be a duplicate of STC 15954; it lacks, among many other leaves, the first gathering and the colophon leaf.

(53.) Erler, "Maner to Lyue Well," 232.

(54.) Ibid., 232.

(55.) The quatrains also appear in STC 15928 [1520?], but the date conjectured for this book by STC is too early. Since I have been unable to examine all surviving primers, the date when these English quatrains first appeared in print must remain provisional.

(56.) The de Worde fragments transmit a metrically defective version of line 3 of the stanza for Terce/Hours of the Virgin: "Sayenge the sone of god is borne" (sig. E2r); in contrast, STC 15954 has "Sayng the veray sone of god is borne" (sig. E3r). Unless "veray" is an ad hoc correction, we must conclude that a word was accidentally dropped from the de Worde text at a later stage of transmission.

(57.) Erler, "Maner to Lyue Well," 232.

(58.) Ibid., 230-231; Erler, "Devotional Literature," 503-504.

(59.) Erler, "Devotional Literature," 503, speculated that de Worde and Regnault had a formal business arrangement concerning the production and distribution of primers, suggesting a possible way for Copland's text to have reached Paris. That Regnault chose to partner with Redman for his 1532 gradual (STC 15865) speaks against this hypothesis.

(60.) It is tempting to think that The Maner to Lyue Well also circulated as a separate book, perhaps similar to one of the nine devotional sextodecimos that Copland printed during his career: STC 14552 (1522), 23707 (1522), 14563 (1529), 20196 (1529), 22141 (20 Sept. 1529), 6933 (28 Sept. 1529), 17545 (1531), 15707 (l9 June 1531), and 14552.7 [1533?].
Table 1. Wynkyn de Worde Books with Syon Abbey Associations

STC                Author/Title           Notes

24766 [1492?]      The Lyf of             1. No direct Syon
                   Saint Katherin         connection, but
                   of Senis               Saint Catherine's
                                          mystical writings
                                          had strong
                                          Bridgettine appeal.

                                          2. De Worde reissue
                                          with some sheets
                                          reset: STC 24766.3
                                          [1500?].

5065 [1493]        The Chastysing         1. Sidney Sussex
                   of Goddes              College, Cambridge,
                   Chyldern               Bb.2.14, once owned
                                          by Edith Morepath
                                          and Katherine
                                          Palmer, both Syon
                                          nuns.

                                          2. Gottingen
                                          University Library,
                                          4[degrees] Theol.
                                          Mor. 138/53 Inc.,
                                          once owned by Awdry
                                          Daly and Mary
                                          Nevell, both Syon
                                          nuns.

                                          3. Possibly issued
                                          with STC 24234.

14508 [1493]       Simon Winter, The      1. Winter was a Syon
                   Lyf of Saint Ierom     brother.

                                          2. The text is found
                                          in two Bridgettine
                                          anthologies
                                          (Lambeth MS 432,
                                          Beinecke MS 317).

15875 [1493?]      [Horae ad vsum         1. Bodleian Library,
                   Sarum]                 Arch.G e.43,
                                          exhibiting the Syon
                                          Library fore-edge
                                          tabs.

                                          2. Has Hodnett no.
                                          374 (Crucifixion).

24234[1493]        This Tretyse Is        1. Gottingen
                   of Loue               University Library,
                                          4 Theol. Mor. 138/
                                          53 Inc., once owned
                                          by Awdry Daly and
                                          Mary Nevell, both
                                          Syon nuns.

                                          2. Possibly issued
                                          with STC 5065.

--[ca.             [Horae ad              1. Lambeth Palace
1493-1494]         vsum Sarum]            Library, 1494.6,
                                          possibly owned by
                                          Margaret Beaufort.

                                          2. Contains a
                                          separate devotional
                                          engraving of
                                          Bridgettine origin.

                                          3. Has Hodnett no.
                                          374 (Crucifixion).

3261(1494)         Speculum vite          1. De Worde reprint
                   Cristi, trans.         of STC 3260 [1490],
                   Nicholas Love
                                          2. Has Hodnett no.
                                          374 (Crucifixion).

                                          3. Later de Worde
                                          editions: STC 3263.5
                                          [1507?], 3264 (4
                                          March 1517), 3266 (7
                                          Sept. 1525), 3267 (8
                                          Feb. 1530).

14042(1494)        Walter Hilton, Scala   1. Cambridge
                   perfeccionis           University Library,
                   (English)              Inc. 3.J. 1.2
                                          [3545], once owned
                                          by Katherine Palmer,
                                          a Syon nun.

                                          2. Rosenbach
                                          Library,
                                          Philadelphia, Inc.
                                          H491, once owned by
                                          Joan (Joanna)
                                          Sewell, a Syon nun.

                                          3. Printed for Lady
                                          Margaret Beaufort.

                                          4. Later deWorde
                                          editions: STC
                                          14043.5 (3 Jan.
                                          1519), 14044 (31
                                          March 1525), 14045
                                          (27 May 1533).

21334              The Rote or Myrour     1. Later de Worde
[ca. 1494]         of Consolacyon &       editions: STC 21335
                   Conforte               [1500], 21336
                                          (1511), 21337 (23
                                          March 1530).

                                          2. STC 21334 and
                                          21335 have Hodnett
                                          no. 374
                                          (Crucifixion).

14507(1495)        Vitas patrum           1. John Rylands
                                          University Library
                                          of Manchester,
                                          15441, once owned by
                                          Agnes Regent, a Syon
                                          nun.

                                          2. Reissued ca.
                                          1529, with some
                                          sheets reprinted,
                                          for Syon Abbey?

17723(1495)        Clement Maydeston,     1. Maydeston was a
                   [Directorium           Syon author, but it
                   sacerdo-tum]           is unclear that the
                                          edition was a Syon
                                          commission.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          editions: STC 17726
                                          [1499], 17728.3 (23
                                          Feb. 1504).

1916               Medytacions of Saynt   1. Translated by
(9 March 1496)     Bernarde               Richard Whitford?

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          editions: STC 1917
                                          [1498-1499], 1918
                                          (19 Sept. 1525).

                                          3. Has Hodnett no.
                                          374 (Crucifixion).

5572[1496]         The Lyfe of the Thre   1. Later de Worde
                   Kynges of Coley ne     editions: STC 5573
                                          [1499], 5574 (1511),
                                          5575 (1526).

                                          2. STC 5573 has
                                          Hodnett no. 374
                                          (Crucifixion).

13608.7            Abbey of the Holy      1. A possible Syon
[ca. Sept. 1496]   Ghost; The Charter     text, found in at
                   of the Abbey of the    least one
                   Holy Ghost             Bridgettine
                                          anthology (Lambeth
                                          MS 432).

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          editions: STC 13609
                                          [1497?], 13610
                                          [1500?], and
                                          fragments of a ca.
                                          1531 edition.

                                          2. STC 13609 and
                                          13610 have
                                          Hodnettno. 374
                                          (Crucifixion).

787[1497-1498]     Ars moriendi           1. Reprint of STC
                                          786, with likely
                                          Syon connections.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition: STC 788
                                          (1506).

                                          3. STC 787 has
                                          Hodnett no. 374
                                          (Crucifixion).

1978[1500]         Thomas Betson, A       1. A Syon commission.
                   Ryght Profytable
                   Trea-tyse              2. Betson was keeper
                                          of the brothers'
                                          library.

13829 (1500)       Ortus vocabulorum      1. One copy donated
                                          by de Worde to the
                                          brothers' library at
                                          Syon Abbey.

14924[1501]        Margery Kempe, A       1. A connection to
                   Shorte Treatyse of     Syon Abbey and Lady
                   Con-templacyon         Margaret Beaufort
                                          has been suggested
                                          but not proved.

                                          2. Has Hodnett no.
                                          374 (Crucifixion).

22557(1514)        Simon Appulby, The     1. The connection to
                   Fruyte of Redempcyon   Syon is
                                          circumstantial and
                                          disputed, but the
                                          work seems to have
                                          received the abbey's
                                          endorsement.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          editions: STC 22558
                                          (1517), 22559 (21
                                          May 1530), 22560
                                          (1532).

                                          3. Another edition
                                          by Robert Redman:
                                          STC 22559.5 (1531).

4601 (27           Noua legenda Anglie    1. One copy donated
Feb. 1516)                                by de Worde to the
                                          brothers' library at
                                          Syon Abbey.

4815 (28           Raymond of Capua,      1. A Syon commission.
Sept. 1519)        The Orcharde of
                   Syon                   2. New York Public
                                          Library, Spencer
                                          Coll., Eng. 1519,
                                          once owned by
                                          Elizabeth Stryckland,
                                          a Syon nun.

6833 (20           The Dyetary of         1. A possible Syon
Nov. 1520)         Ghostly Helthe         commission.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition: STC 6836 (6
                                          Aug. 1527).

                                          3. Both de Worde
                                          editions have
                                          Hodnett no. 457 (St.
                                          Bridget of Sweden).

                                          4. Editions printed
                                          by others: STC 6834
                                          (Henry Pepwell, 15
                                          Nov. 1521), 6835
                                          (Robert Copland for
                                          Henry Pepwell, ca.
                                          1523).

922.3 (28          Richard Whitford,      1. A Syon
Nov. 1525)         trans., The Rule of    commission.
                   Saynt Augustyne
                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition: STC 922.4
                                          (8 Oct. 1527).

                                          3. Both editions
                                          have Hodnett no. 457
                                          (St. Bridget of
                                          Sweden).

21471.5            John Ryckes, The       1. Sixty copies were
(7 Oct. 1525)      Ymage of Loue          sold to Syon Abbey
                                          (one for each of the
                                          sisters?) and an
                                          equal number to the
                                          public. All were
                                          ordered recalled due
                                          to their suspect
                                          content.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition (for John
                                          Gough): STC 21472
                                          [1532?].

17532 (15          Richard Whitford,      1. A Syon
Feb. 1526)         trans., The            commission.
                   Martiloge in
                   Englysshe after the
                   Vse of the Chirche
                   of Salisbury / & as
                   It Is Redde in Syon
                   /with Addicyons

                                          2. Has Hodnett no.
                                          457 (St. Bridget of
                                          Sweden).

1912               Richard Whitford,      1. A likely Syon
(23 Nov. 1530)     ed., The Golden        commission. Whitford
                   Pystle                 edited an older
                                          text.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition: STC 1913
                                          [1531?].

                                          3. Edition printed
                                          by Robert Wyer: STC
                                          1914(1531).

25422              Richard Whitford, A    1. A Syon
(20 Dec. 1530)     Werkefor Housholders   commission.

                                          2. Later de Worde
                                          edition: STC 25423
                                          (2 May 1533).

                                          3. Both de Worde
                                          editions have
                                          Hodnett no. 457 (St.
                                          Bridget of Sweden).

                                          4. Editions printed
                                          by others: STC
                                          25421.8 [1530?],
                                          25422.3 [1531?],
                                          25422.5 (19 Aug.
                                          1531), 25423.5 (14
                                          Oct. 1533), 25425 (8
                                          Nov. 1537), 25425.5
                                          (1537).

                                          5. STC 25422.5 has
                                          Hodnett no. 457 (St.
                                          Bridget of Sweden).

3278 (23 Feb.      William Bonde,         1. A Syon
1531)              The Pilgrymage of      commission.
                   Perfeccyon

                                          2. Edition by
                                          Richard Pynson: STC
                                          3277 (1526).

                                          3. The de Worde and
                                          Pynson editions have
                                          Hodnett no. 457 (St.
                                          Bridget of Sweden).

3273.5 (1532)      Richard Whitford,      1. A possible Syon
                   trans., The            commission.
                   Crosrowe, or A, B, C
                                          2. Translated and
                                          edited by Richard
                                          Whitford.

                                          3. Edition by
                                          Richard Fawkes: STC
                                          3273.3 [1530?].

25421.6            [Richard Whitford,     1. A possible Syon
(1532)             ed.,] The Pomander     commission.
                   of Prayer
                                          2. Though not the
                                          author, Whitford
                                          likely edited the
                                          text.

                                          3. Editions by
                                          Robert Copland: STC
                                          25421.2 (24 Dec.
                                          1528), 25421.3 (31
                                          Oct. 1530).

                                          4. The de Worde and
                                          Copland editions
                                          have Hodnett no. 457
                                          (St. Bridget of
                                          Sweden).

                                          5. Edition by Robert
                                          Redman: STC 25421.5
                                          (1531).

Table 2. Editions (and Reissues) of Whittington's
Works Printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1521-1535;
Peter Treveris, 1525-1533; and
Richard Pynson, 1521-1529

Date   De Worde   Treveris   Pynson

1521      17         --        1
1522      12         --        3
1523      6          --        7
1524      11         --        1
1525      9          0         4
1526      6          0         1
1527      9          3         3
1528      4          2         0
1529      8          4         0
1530      1          3         --
1531      4          7         --
1532      0          0         --
1533      11         0         --
1534      1          --        --
1535      0          --        --

Table 3. Sarum Graduais Printed for the English Market

STC                    Printer                Notes

15862 (4 Id.           Paris: Wolfgang        Sold in London by
April 1507;            Hopyl for William      Henry Jacobi and
1508)                  Bretton                Joyce Pelgrim.

15863 (17              Paris: Nicolas         De Worde was
Cal. Jan. 1527)        Prevost forWynkyn de   presumably the
                       Worde, John Reynes,    principal investor.
                       and Lewis Sutton

15864 (6 Cal.          Paris: Nicolas         Sold in London by
July 1528)             Prevost for Franz      Birckman.
                       (Francis) Birckman

15865 (6 Cal.          Paris: Nicolas         Sold in London by
July 1532)             Prevost for Francois   Robert Redman and in
                       Regnault               Paris by Regnault.
                                              The last Sarum
                                              Gradual printed
                                              before the
                                              Reformation.

Table 4. Sarum Primers Printed by Wynkyn de Worde

Note: Items marked with an asterisk (*) have not been examined.

STC                    Format/Collation     Notes

15875 [1493?]          4: A(6)a-t(8)V(6)    1. Copies: 1)
                                            British Library,
                                            IA.55260 (gathering
                                            A only); 2) Bodleian
                                            Library, Arch. G
                                            e.43 (lacks a8, c34,
                                            f7, g7, i8, l6,
                                            o3, p4-5, v6); 3,4)
                                            Cambridge University
                                            Library, Inc. 4.J.
                                            1.2 [3570,3571]
                                            (both imperfect).

                                            2. 22 11. per page.

15876 [1493?]          4: [](6)a-t(8)V(6)   1. Copy: British
                       [?]                  Library, IA.55169
                                            (lacks gatherings ab,
                                            q-v; 1,6 [?] of
                                            calendar; c1, c3-6,
                                            c8, g1, g6-8, i1-2,
                                            i7-8, k1, o3, 06,
                                            p4, p7-8).

                                            2. 2211. per page.

--[ca. 1493-1494]      4: A(6)a-t(8)V(6)    1. Copy: Lambeth
                                            Palace Library,
                                            1494.6.

                                            2. This edition was
                                            apparently printed
                                            after STC 15876. The
                                            calendar is in the
                                            same typesetting as
                                            STC 15875, but the
                                            rest of the book is
                                            a paginary reprint
                                            of STC 15875.

                                            3. 22 11. per page.

                                            4. Equivalent text:
                                            c8r4-d1v18,
                                            d5v1-d7r4.

15878 [1494?]          8: ?                 1. Copy: Corpus
                                            Christi College,
                                            Oxford, <t>.c.1.3
                                            (yl-2, y7; fragments
                                            of y3-4, y6; stubs
                                            of y5, y8).

                                            2. 1711. per page.

                                            3. No equivalent
                                            text.

15898 (1502)           8: a(8)A(6)B-        1. Copy: Bodleian
                       T(8)V(6) [?]         Library, Arch. G
                                            e.39 (lacks
                                            gathering A; al,
                                            a3-7).

                                            2. 26 11. per page.

                                            3. Other copy:
                                            Corpus Christi
                                            College, Oxford,
                                            WP.iii.29(1)
                                            (fragments of H5-6
                                            only).

                                            4. Equivalent text:
                                            D3v20-D5r16;
                                            D8r9-E1v1.

15899 (31 July 1503)   4: a(8)b(6)A(6)B-    1. Copy: British
                       S(8)2a(6)            Library C.41.e.8
                                            (lacks B8, 03).
                                            Gathering 2a is an
                                            appendix with the
                                            Office of the Holy
                                            Name of Jesus.

                                            2. Equivalent text:
                                            C5v2-C7r6;
                                            D2rl-D3r25.

15901.5 [ca. 1503] *   8: ?                 1. Copy: Lincoln
                                            Cathedral Library,
                                            RR.5.32 (lacks first
                                            Al).

                                            2. Printed on vellum
                                            in de Worde's 112mm
                                            Great Primer font.

                                            3. 2611. per page.

15908 [1508?]          8: ?                 1. Copy: Cambridge
                                            University Library,
                                            Rit.d.350.5 (four
                                            leaves plus
                                            fragments of four
                                            others only: parts
                                            of the calendar, the
                                            four Gospel lessons,
                                            and a prayer to the
                                            Holy Trinity
                                            beginning
                                            "Auxiliatrix sis").

                                            2. 1911. per page.

                                            3. No equivalent
                                            text.

15908.5 (1510)         4: a(8)A(6)B-X(8);   1. Copy: British
                       A-B(8)C(6)           Library, C.123.d.32
                                            (D3-6 in manuscript
                                            with hand-stamped
                                            illustrations; C1
                                            and 2B8 mutilated).
                                            The collation
                                            assumes that a2 and
                                            a4 are mis-signed al
                                            and a3. It is
                                            possible, however,
                                            that the calendar
                                            was printed
                                            separately and
                                            inserted into a
                                            fold, as follows: n2
                                            (rrl+a6).

                                            2. Equivalent text:
                                            D7r2-D8v18;
                                            E4r17-E6r5.

15914 (1513)           4: a(8)A(6)B-X(8);   1. Copy: British
                       A-B(8)C(6)           Library, C.35.e.7
                                            (lacks gatherings
                                            B-G; al, 8). The
                                            collation assumes
                                            that a2-4 are
                                            mis-signed al, a2,
                                            and a3. It is
                                            possible, however,
                                            that the calendar
                                            was printed
                                            separately and
                                            inserted into a
                                            fold, as follows:
                                            7t2 (7t1+a6).

                                            2. No equivalent
                                            text.

15919 (24 July 1514)   12: a-i(12)k(6)      1. Copy: Cambridge
                                            University Library,
                                            Syn.8.51.13 (lacks
                                            el, e12, i7).

                                            2. Equivalent text:
                                            b12r26-c1r25;
                                            c3v1-c4r28.

15922 (1519)           4: A-X(8)y-          1. Copy: Cambridge
                       z(8)[et](8)          University Library,
                                            SSS.29.10 (lacks
                                            gathering A; Bl, B8,
                                            C4-5, H8, [et]3-8).

                                            2. Other copies:
                                            British Library,
                                            C.25.f.17 (lacks Al,
                                            8); Houghton
                                            Library, Harvard
                                            University, STC
                                            16266 (upper half of
                                            N8 used as front
                                            pastedown).

                                            3. Equivalent text:
                                            E5v12-E7r27;
                                            F2v3-F4r11.

15932.5 [after 1521]   8: ?                 1. Copy: College of
                                            Arms, London.

                                            2. Fragments of six
                                            sheets and two
                                            halfsheets
                                            representing several
                                            editions, as
                                            follows: 1) one
                                            sheet signed E and
                                            ending with
                                            Terce/Short Hours of
                                            the Cross; 2) one
                                            signed E and ending
                                            with None/Short
                                            Hours of the Cross;
                                            3) one signed F and
                                            beginning with the
                                            Salve Regina; 4) one
                                            sheet signed N; 5)
                                            one sheet signed o;
                                            6) one unsigned
                                            sheet; 7) one
                                            half-sheet
                                            consisting of S2, 3,
                                            6, 7; 8) one
                                            half-sheet
                                            consisting of T1,
                                            4,5, 8.

15934(20 Nov. 1523)    4: A-X(8)y-z(8)      1. Copy: British
                       [et](8)[con](6)      Library, C.36.e.15
                                            (lacks D1, D3-6, D8,
                                            E1, E3-6, K3, K6;
                                            K1, L6, T4
                                            mutilated).

                                            2. Other copies:
                                            Salisbury Cathedral
                                            (imperfect);
                                            Salisbury Library
                                            (imperfect).

                                            3. Equivalent text:
                                            E7v2-F1r16;
                                            F4v1-F6rl0.

15941 [1524?]          12: A-M(12) [?]      1. Copy: Cambridge
                                            University Library,
                                            Rit.e.352.1 (lacks
                                            gatherings A-C, L,
                                            M; F6-7, G1,
                                            G3-4,16-7, K6-7).

                                            2. No equivalent
                                            text.

15936 [1525?]          12: A-M(12)          1. Copy: Emmanuel
                                            College, Cambridge
                                            (first and last
                                            gatherings
                                            mutilated).

                                            2. Equivalent text:
                                            Clr9-C2v12;
                                            C5v1-C6v32.

15948 (4 Non. Aug.     4: A-X(8)y-z(8)      1. Copy: Lambeth
1526)                  [et](8)[con](6)      Palace Library,
                                            1526.2 (lacks
                                            [con]1, 2,5, 6).

                                            2. Other copy:
                                            Bodleian Library,
                                            Vet. A1 e.127
                                            (imperfect).

                                            3. Equivalent text:
                                            E7v2-F1r16;
                                            F4v1-F6r10.

[1528?]                12: A-M(12) [?]      1. Copy: British
                                            Library,
                                            C.161.f.2(98)
                                            (gathering D only
                                            from an edition
                                            paginary with STC
                                            15936).

                                            2. No equivalent
                                            text.

Table 5. Verse in the Hours of the Virgin and Short Hours of the
Cross, Sarum Primers, 1519-1534

Note: The following index is based on an examination of
readily available copies, many of which are imperfect. I
list only the verse that appears, even when missing folios
likely contain additional quatrains. Items marked with an
asterisk (*) have not been examined. The individual Hours
marked with a dagger symbol ([dagger]) have the same verse as is
found in de Worde's octavo fragments.

                  Printer           Hours of          Hours of
STC               (Format)          the Virgin        the Cross

15923(14          Paris: ? (4)      No verse          No verse
April 1519)

15924(24          Paris: N.         No verse          No verse
Oct. 1519)        Higman (4)

15925(14          Paris: ? (4)      No verse          No verse
June 1520)

15926             Paris: N.         No verse          No verse
[1520?]           Higman (4)

15926.5           Paris? (4)        No verse          No verse
[1520?]

15928             Rouen:? (12)      English verse:    English verse:
[1520?]                             Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Vespers
                                    Compline

15929             Paris? (64)       No verse          No verse
[1520?]
15930 (Jan.       Paris: for F.     No verse          No verse
1521)             Birckman (4)

15931(9           Paris: T.         No verse          No verse
April 1521)       Kerver (4)

15932             Paris: J.         No verse          No verse
[1521?]           Bignon (12)

15933 (18 Jan.    London: R.        No verse          No verse
1522)             Pynson (8)

15935             Antwerp: C. van   No verse          No verse
[1523?]           Ruremond (4)

15937(19          Antwerp: C. van   Not examined
Aug. 1524)*       Ruremond (4)

15938(22          Antwerp: C. van   N/A (fragment)
Nov. 1524)        Ruremond (12?)

15938.5 (27       Antwerp: C. van   Not examined
Nov. 1524)*       Ruremond (4)

15939 (May        Antwerp: C. van   No verse          No verse
1525)             Ruremond (4)

15940(28          Rouen: ? (12)     No verse          No verse
July 1525)

15943 (11 Jan.    Paris: F.         Latin             Latin
1526)             Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Terce, Sext,      Matins, Prime,
                                    None, Vespers,    Terce, Sext,
                                    Compline          Vespers,
                                                      Compline

15944(1           Paris: F.         No verse          No verse
March 1526)       Regnault (4)

15945(17          Paris: F.         No verse          Latin
March 1526)       Regnault (4)                        quatrains:
                  Rouen: for J.                       Matins, Prime,
                  Cousin (4)                          Terce, Sext,
                                                      None, Vespers,
                                                      Compline

15946(1 Aug.                        Not examined
1526)*

15946.5(14        Paris: J.         Not examined
Oct. 1526)*       Prevel (64)

15949(17          Paris: F.         No verse          No verse
March 1527)       Regnault (4)

15950(27          Paris: F.         No verse          No verse
June 1527)        Regnault (4)

15951(27          Paris: F.         English           No verse
June 1527)        Regnault (4)      quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Tercet,
                                    Sext, None (=
                                    STC 15954?)

15952(27          Paris: F.         No verse          No verse
June 1527)        Regnault (4)

15953 (18         Paris: N.         No verse          No verse
July 1527)        Prevost (4)

15953.5 (26       Paris: N.         Not examined
July 1527)*       Prevost (4)

15954(10          Paris: F.         English           English
Oct. 1527)        Regnault (4)      quatrains:        quatrain:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins
                                    Tercet, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline

15955(13          Paris: F.         English           English
Dec. 1527)        Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Matins, Primet,
                                    None, Vespers,    Terce, Sext,
                                    Compline          Vespers,
                                                      Compline

15956(1527)       Paris: Y.         No verse          No verse
                  Kerver (32)

15957 (2 Sept.    Paris: Y.         English           English
1528)             Kerver (16)       quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15958[1528]       Rouen: N. le      English           English
                  Roux (4)          quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Vespers
                                    Compline

15959             Paris: G.         No verse          No verse
[1528?]           Hardouyn (8)

15961             Paris: R          N/A (fragment)
[1528?]           Regnault (4)

15961.3           Paris: R          Not examined
(1529) *          Regnault (8)

15961.5(30        Paris: R          N/A (imperfect)
April 1529)       Regnault (16)

15962 (Jan.       Antwerp: C. van   No verse          No verse
1530)             Ruremond (4)

15963(30          Paris: F.         No verse          No verse
April 1530)       Regnault (4)

15964(30          Paris: F.         Not examined
April 1530)*      Regnault (16)
15965(11          Paris: G.         English           English
May 1530)         Hardouyn (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15966 (Oct.       Antwerp: C. van   No verse          No verse
1530; 1531)       Rure- mond (4)

15968(1530)       Paris: F.         English           English
                  Regnault (4)      quatrains:        quatrain:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins
                                    Tercet, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline

15969(14          Antwerp: C. van   No verse          No verse
May 1531)         Ruremond (4)

15970(10          Paris: F.         English           English
June 1531)        Regnault (16)     quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Prime, Tercet,    Matins, Primet,
                                    Sext, None,       Terce, Sext,
                                    Vespers,          Nonet, Compline
                                    Compline

15971(30          Paris: F.         English           English
June 1531)        Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15973(1531)       Paris: F.         English           English
                  Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15974 [1531]      Paris: F.         English           English
                  Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15975             Paris: F.         English           English
[1531?]           Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15977 (7 Aug.     Paris: F.         English           English
1532)             Regnault (16)     quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15978 (Aug.       Paris: Y.         English           English
1532)             Kerver (16)       quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15979 (Aug.       Paris: Y.         English           English
1532)             Kerver (16)       quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Prime, Tercet,    Matins, Primet,
                                    Sext, None,       Terce, Sext,
                                    Vespers,          Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15980(31          Paris: F.         English           English
Oct. 1532)        Regnault (8)      quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15981 (4 Nov.     Paris: F.         English           English
1533)             Regnault (16)     quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15981a            Paris: F.         English           English
[1533?]           Regnault (16)     quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Primet, Sext,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Ves- pers,
                                    None, Vespers,    Compline
                                    Compline

15982             Paris: G.         No verse          No verse
[1533?]           Hardouyn (8)

15983             London: R. Wyer   English           English
[1533?]           (8)               quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15984(1534)       Paris: F.         English           English
                  Regnault (4)      quatrains:        quatrain:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins
                                    Tercet, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline

ESTC              Paris: F.         English           English
SI26806           Regnault (4)      quatrains:        quatrain:
(1534)                              Lauds, Prime,     Matins
                                    Tercet, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline

15985(1534)       Paris: Y.         English           English
                  Kerver (16)       quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15985a            Rouen: N. le      English           English
[1534?]           Roux (8)          quatrains:        quatrains:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins, Primet,
                                    Tercet, Sext,     Terce, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,    Nonet, Vespers,
                                    Compline          Compline

15985a.5          Paris: F.         English           English
[1534; 1535]      Regnault (16)     quatrains:        quatrain:
                                    Lauds, Prime,     Matins
                                    Tercet, Sext,
                                    None, Vespers,
                                    Compline
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Title Annotation:p. 150-179
Author:Gwara, Joseph J.
Publication:The Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:13903
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