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Fossil records in the Lythraceae.

The second eastern North American species is Trapa alabamensis Berry from the Pliocene of the Citronelle Formation (Berry, 1914a, 1916b). This species is also represented by compressions of a late Miocene (10-6 Ma,) 4-horned fruit in the Brandywine Flora of southern Maryland (McCartan et al., 1990), that have been verified as T. alabamensis by Stults (Stults, 2006; Stults & Axsmith, 2011; Stultz, pers. comm.) and are clearly equivalent to fruits of modern Trapa. Trapa disappeared from western and eastern North America in the late Pliocene (Axelrod, 1944). It was subsequently reintroduced in modern times to the eastern United States and Canada where it has become a major invasive from Vermont to Virginia and is classified as a Class A noxious weed (http://plants.usda.gov).

In Europe, the oldest occurrence of horned or appendaged fossil fruits is Hemitrapa cf. pomelii from a late Eocene diatomite in the northwestern Czech Republic. Wojcicki and Kvacek (2003) consider these faint but distinctive impressions closely similar to Hemitrapa pomelii (Boulay) Mai from the early Miocene of France (20.43 Ma; syn. Trapa pomelii (Saporta) Boulay, 1899). Other early occurrences of somewhat different Hemitrapa pomelii come from Oligocene and early Miocene localities in Germany (Mai & Walther, 1991). Hemitrapa fossils extend to the late Miocene or earliest Pliocene in Europe (Wojcicki & Wilde, 2001) and to the Pliocene in Russia. Hemitrapa heissigii, described from the middle Miocene of Bavaria (Gregor, 1982a), is known from late early Miocene/middle Miocene deposits in Germany and the Czech Republic (Wojcicki & Kvacek, 2002b). The widely-occurring Eurasian Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki (1941), first described from the late Miocene of Japan, is known from the middle Miocene of Germany under the synonym Hemitrapa teumeri (Menzel) Budantzev and from early Miocene deposits in Kazakhstan under the synonym Trapa vassiljevii Kornilova (1960; Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Hemitrapa trapelloidea is also recorded from the late Miocene of Austria (Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Numerous older collections of Hemitrapa were confused with Trapa silesiaca Goepp. (Gregor, 1982a; Wojcicki & Kvacek, 2002b), a species common in late Miocene deposits in Europe (Kovar-Eder et al., 2005) occurring in Austria, Portugal (Heer, 1881), and Poland (Wojcicki & Zastawniak, 1998), and probably elsewhere in Europe in the late Miocene.

In Asia Hemitrapa is known from the early/middle Miocene to late Miocene in Japan and on Sakahlin Island (Makinouchi, 1985; Momohara, 1997). At least three, possibly more, species of Hemitrapa are recorded from the Miocene and Pliocene of Asia: H. kryshtofovichii (V. Vassil.) Bud.; H. praeconocarpa (V. Vassil.) Bud.; and H. pseudoborealis Bud. (Budantzev, 1960; Vassiljev, 1967; Gregor, 1982a; but for H. pseudoborealis, see Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Other Asian Hemitrapa may be misclassified under Trapa (e.g., T. vassiljevii Kornilova fide Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Hemitrapa borealis (as T. borealis) is cited from a middle Miocene flora in northeastern China (Wojcicki et al., 1999). Some fossils cited as H. borealis in the Miocene of Japan probably are H. trapelloidea (Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). The actual range of H. borealis is not clear and within Eurasia, the differences between H. trapelloidea and H. borealis need to be clarified; they may represent the same widespread species. Reports of Hemitrapa or Trapa from the Eocene of China are rejected or unconfirmed.

Hemitrapa fossils in the Paleocene of North America and in the Miocene and Pliocene of Europe differ from the type species Hemitrapa trapelloidea from Japan (Compare Fig. 9a, b, and d). They are more similar to those species of Hemitrapa that Miki transferred from Trapa. It is possible that three different plant types contribute fruits to this complex: Trapa, with fruits of a modern form dating from the Miocene; Hemitrapa represented by such fossils as the Paleocene H. borealis and Miocene H. heissigii; and H. trapelloidea from a plant with slender appendaged and small-spined fruits.

There are rare reports of confirmed fruits of Hemitrapa and Trapa co-occurring in middle and late Miocene deposits, a time when the taxa co-existed (Fig. 10). The distinctive Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki co-occurs with Trapa pellendorfensis Wojcicki & Kovar-Eder in the same layers of a late Miocene fossil bed in Austria (Kovar-Eder et al., 2005). The fruits there are associated with unattached leaves of Mikia pellendorfensis which the authors suspect belong to Hemitrapa trapelloidea (Kovar-Eder et al., 2002; see also Mikia). Miki (1941) found this same widespread species of Hemitrapa co-occurring with Trapa mammillifera Miki at three Miocene localities in Central Hondo, Japan. A co-occurrence of Hemitrapa cf. hokkaidoensis with Trapa ezoana Tanai & Suzuki in the Miocene Kaminokuni Flora, Japan (Tanai & Suzuki, 1963) is unconfirmed because the credibility of Trapa ezoana as a Trapa is questioned due to poor preservation.

No attempt is made here to review all reports of fossil Trapa fruits from Europe and Asia. Papers by Miki, 1952b; Szafer, 1954; Jankovic, 1958; Budantzev, 1960; Bharadwaj & Kaul, 1981; Gregor, 1982a; Mai, 1985; Tzvelev, 1993; Wojcicki et al., 1999; Kovar-Eder et al., 2005, and Miotk-Szpiganowicz & Galka, 2009, among others, cover many of the more recent finds and provide additional references and information. The Appendix lists extinct Trapa fruits of particular taxonomic, nomenclatural, geological, or geographical interest, including those confused with Hemitrapa. A comparison of fossil fruit characters of Trapa, Hemitrapa, and Trapella, a genus initially confused in Japan with Trapa, is found in Table 3 and some of the variation is illustrated in Fig. 9.

Fossil pollen provides an independent source of information about the past distribution and relationship of Trapa and Hemitrapa. The pollen of modern Trapa is distinctive, being tricolpate, triangular in polar view with protruding, enlarged, domed apertures and a granular exine that is crossed by three frilled meridional ridges (crests) that unite and enlarge at the poles (Patel et al., 1984: fig. 11; Ding et al., 1991: pl. 1-3). Occurrences of fossil Trapa pollen comparable to modern Trapa were first reported in Europe under the form genus and species Sporotrapoidites illingensis Klaus (1954) from the late Miocene of Austria. Similar, but smaller grains with less prominent crests from middle Miocene deposits in Hungary (Nagy, 1979) were described as Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii (Nagy) Nagy (syn. Goerboepollenites erdtmanii Nagy and Trapapollis erdtmanii (Nagy) Kohlman-Adamska). Abundant pollen of S. erdtmanii was subsequently discovered in association with fruits of Hemitrapa heissigii in middle Miocene deposits in southern Germany. In the absence of any other trapacean remains, fruits of H. heissigii and pollen of S. erdtmanu have been considered parts of the same plant type (Mohr, 1983; Mohr & Gee, 1990). Three other German sites also record Hemitrapa fruits together with S. erdtmanu (Zetter & Ferguson, 2001).

A morphometric comparison of Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii and S. illingensis with pollen of modern Trapa natans L. found differences in the size of the grains and height of the crest that distinguished S. erdtmanii (=Hemitrapa; pollen mean length [P] x mean width [E]=40.6 P x 49.7 E [micro]m, polar crest 6.8 [micro]m) from S. illingensis (=extinct Trapa: 68.6 P x 62.7 E [micro]m, polar crest 18.6 [micro]m) and modern T. natans (74.7 P x 69.8 E [micro]m, polar crest 12.9 [micro]m; Mohr & Gee, 1990). Zetter and Ferguson (2001) recognized two additional species of Trapa-type Sporotrapoidites from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene deposits in Europe and Nepal and confirmed the significant difference between the Hemitrapa type pollen of S. erdtmanii (34-51 P [micro]m, polar crest 5-8 [micro]m) and pollen of the three fossil Trapa types: S. illingensis, S. carlesii Zetter & Ferguson, and S. cesarei Zetter & Ferguson (80-95 P [micro]m, polar crest 15-35 [micro]m). Pollen grains of Hemitrapa (i.e. Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii) and Trapa (all other species of Sporotrapoidites) have not been found together in the Austrian deposit where the fruits co-occur (Kovar-Eder et al., 2005).

In the early/early middle Miocene California Weaverville Flora containing Trapa borealis (MacGinitie, 1937), Barnett (1989) has recorded small pollen of Trapa sp. (45 Px45 E [micro]m). It is most similar to Hemitrapa pollen in size (= Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii). It would be the first report of Hemitrapa pollen for North America if confirmed by further comparative study of the specimen including polar crest height. It is at odds with the more Trapa-like fruits from the deposit. Similarly small pollen reported as cf. Trapa from the late Miocene of Alaska (Reinink-Smith & Leopold, 2005) may be pollen of Hemitrapa.

Additional reports of Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii come from the the lower Miocene of Taiwan (Shaw, 1995) and China, and from the middle Miocene of Poland (Worobiec, 2009) and Japan (Yamanoi, 1992c; Zetter & Ferguson, 2001). The presence of Sporotrapoidites in East China from the early middle Miocene and the late Miocene/earliest Pliocene is documented from several localities where the fruits are markers of distinct pollen zones (Wang, 2006; see extensive references in Wang to local fossil assemblages). Of the four species illustrated by Wang from China, S. erdtmanii from the early Miocene and S. medius Guan from the Miocene appear to be examples of Hemitrapa pollen, S. weiheensis (Sun & Fan) Guan from the middle Miocene to Pliocene appears equivalent to modern Trapa pollen; and S. minor Guan from the lower Miocene of Taiwan (Shaw, 1995) and Miocene of China is unconfirmed as either genus (Guan et al., 1989). Another fossil pollen, Hemitrapapollenites medius (Guan) Liu from the early middle Miocene and Pliocene of eastern China may be equivalent to S. medius if the broader separation of the colpi at the poles is accepted as an artifact of excessive expansion of the grain in preservation (Liang, 2004, pl. 10, fig. 15).

A study of variation of fossil and modern Trapa pollen in Russia (Popov & Kondratev, 1958) found modern Trapa pollen was smallest in western Siberia (avg. 75-77 P x 80-87 E [micro]m) and largest in the Far East (avg. 90 P x 99-103 E [micro]m) and this separation held for the fossils as well. The smallest modern grains of the study fall within the range of modern Trapa pollen and are distinctly larger than those of Hemitrapa.

Leaf remains have not been verified for Trapa or Hemitrapa, nor have Trapa-like fruits been found attached to vegetative parts of any Trapa-like genera, although some deposits contain leaves and Trapa fruits in close association (e.g. Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Floating leaves of Mikia pellendorfensis from the aquatic assemblage of late Miocene age in Austria containing Hemitrapa trapelloidea and Trapa pellendorfensis fruits at the same levels are possibly those of Hemitrapa (see details under Mikia; Kovar-Eder et al., 2002). Two other accounts of fossil Trapa leaves are rejected. Leaves of T. assmanniana (Goeppert) Gothan from the same deposit as the type of the fossil fruit Trapa silesiaca are of uncertain relationship. Trapophyllum europaeum Massalongo (1858), described from the Tertiary of Italy as morphologically like Trapa and Pontedera [sic] and closest to Trapa, is insufficiently described for identification and the specimen is not illustrated. The listing of Trapa sp. as a megafossil from the early Paleocene in northeastern China (Hao et al., 2010) is unconfirmed and unlikely.

Understanding the history of fossil Trapa from aquatic fresh water deposits has been further complicated by the presence of other fossils, in addition to Hemitrapa, attributed to or suggestive of Trapa, if only because of the generic name. Since "most of the similarities to the living genus Trapa are common to a large number of only distantly related aquatic angiosperms" (Cook, 1978, cited in Stockey & Rothwell, 1997), determining true relationships of these putative relatives is difficult. The following extinct genera have been related to Trapa or the name; see details under each genus on prior pages of this review. These are, excluding Hemitrapa, Eotrapa (Miki, 1961, flower-fruit); Mikia (Kovar-Eder et al., 2002, leaves); Palaeotrapa (Golovneva, 1991, fruit); Prototrapa (Vassiljev, 1960, 1967; Tiffney, 1984; Douglas, 1994, fruit); Pseudotrapa (Kvacek et al., 2004, leaves); Quereuxia (Baikovskaja, 1963, leaves); and Schenkiella (Wojcicki & Kvacek, 2002a, fruit). Morphological convergence of these primarily aquatic taxa is a difficult obstacle to overcome in determining true relationships, just as it has been a problem in clarifying relationships among several morphologically similar modern aquatic genera of the Lythraceae (Graham et al., 2011). With the exception of Hemitrapa, none can be supported as ancestral to or phylogenetically closely related to living Trapa.

In summary, the record of Hemitrapa in western North America begins in the late Paleocene or early Eocene (ca. 55 Ma), and the genus was possibly also present at that period in Spitzbergen and Greenland, although the collections listed by Penhallow (1907, 1908) need to be located for verification. Further efforts to find reports of any pre-Miocene Hemitrapa in eastern Siberia also need be made in order to more fully understand the early distribution of the genus. Oldest reported occurrences of Hemitrapa in Europe are from the Eocene in the Czech Republic and in Asia (Russia, Japan, China). Modem Trapa first appears in the Miocene. Distinct representatives of both genera, as well as puzzling intermediates or specimens insufficiently detailed to classify, appear in the middle and late Miocene in North America, Europe and Asia. Hemitrapa became extinct world-wide by the Pliocene while Trapa persists to the present time.

The morphological resemblance of some Trapa and Hemitrapa fruits, the number of fossil forms difficult to place, and the closely similar pollen morphology suggest either Hemitrapa is an ancestral morphotype of Trapa (Kovar-Eder et al., 2005) that gave "rise to Trapa in middle to late Miocene times" (Zetter & Ferguson, 2001: 324) or that Trapa and Hemitrapa "evolved from a shared common ancestor" (Wojcicki & Wilde, 2001:17). Whether Trapa is a direct descendant of Hemitrapa or not cannot be resolved by the information currently available. Another hypothesis of Trapa relationships is presented by Morley (2000) who sees a common derivation for Sporotrapodites pollen (i.e. Hemitrapa and Trapa types) and Florschuetzia/ Sonneratia pollen based on Florshuetzia types from Miocene deposits in Viet Nam that be considers morphologically intermediate. Derivation of Trapa and Sonneratia from a common ancestor is strongly supported by the molecular evidence of the sister relationship of Trapa and Sonneratia. The relationship is not apparent from comparative morphology due to the extensive autapomorphies produced on the path to modern Trapa (Graham et al., 2005). Evolution of Trapa by way of a Lythrum intermediate (Miki, 1959) is no longer seriously considered; the genera share only a family level relationship.

The center of origin for modern Trapa remains ah unsettled question. Miki (1952b: 26) wrote, "the birth place of Trapa seems to be Asia." Szafer (1954) considered it a Eurasian Arcto-Tertiary element. Trapa in modern form appeared at about the same time in Europe, Asia, and North America, in the middle Miocene. In Europe it reached its highest level of diversification in the late Miocene/early Pliocene before declining greatly in the Pliocene (see Mai, 1985: fig. 87 for an illustration of fossil Trapa fruits from the middle Miocene to the Holocene of Europe). In the Pliocene and thereafter cyclic and deteriorating climatic changes in the northern latitudes led to the present lower species diversity of Trapa and its restricted range.

Tripartisemen Manchester. Tripartisemen bonesii Manchester (1994) is a mono-specific genus of small subglobose seeds with suggested lythracean features recovered from the middle Eocene Nut Beds flora of the Clarno Formation in Oregon (Manchester, 1994). A similar type is noted by Manchester from the Eocene of Messel, Germany. The seeds, ca. 3.5 mm long, are tripartite, with a narrow, elongated central body raised on one surface. Internally, they are divided into a small central section flanked by two larger lateral sections. Manchester points out the resemblance to seeds of Microdiptera (syn. Mneme), which also has a central convex body, a germination valve, and lateral sections filled with spongy tissue. The seeds of Microdiptera are much smaller (avg. 1.25 mm, Tiffney, 1981) than in Tripartisemen, the central body can be larger, and there are narrow grooves flanking the raphe that are not present in Tripartisemen. Some basic features of Tripartisemen and Microdiptera are shared with the Eocene seed Alatospermum from England. Ali have a central raised section, a Y-shaped area on the flattened side of the seed, and lateral extensions. In the seeds of Alatospermum (ca. 1.1 mm) the lateral sections are more distinctly flattened and extended as wings and seed shape is more variable. Additional anatomical details of Tripartisemen are needed to confirm a relationship to the Lythraceae.

Woodfordia Salisb. Woodfordia is a shrub genus of two species, W. uniflora (A. Rich.) Koehne in Africa and western Saudi-Arabia and W. fruticosa (L.) S. Kurz occurring in Madagascar, and from Pakistan and India to Indonesia. The species prefer semi-xeric rocky places, dry montane grasslands, woodlands, and disturbed habitats (Graham, 1995). A leaf impression from the middle Miocene of lower Siwalik sediments in western Nepal is described as Woodfordia neofruticosa M. Prasad (1994c). Although details of the specimen are insufficient to confirm the relationship, they do not negate the possibility. A Pleistocene leaf impression from the northern slopes of the Pir Panjal mountain range at ca. 1,800 m in Kashmir is a match for leaves of modern W. fruticosa (Puri, 1943). Woodfordia does not occur in that area today but it is common on the warmer, southern Punjab slopes of the range.

The Record: Places, Ages, Relationships

The relatively rich fossil record of the Lythraceae is largely a consequence of the propensity of the family to grow in swamps, mangrove, and other wetland places that provide enhanced opportunities for preservation over drier upland habitats. The family today is primarily tropical and subtropical in distribution, as it was in the past. Fourteen of the 28 modern genera have fossil representatives and 10 extinct genera are recognized (Table 4 & Fig. 10). Both tree and herbaceous genera are present. The most abundant and diverse remains are seeds (12 genera) and pollen (11 genera). Five genera are represented by fossilized wood. Two pollen form genera, Florshuetsia and Verrutricolporites, represent modem Sonneratia and Crenea, respectively. Four extant genera are known from three or more fossilized plant parts (Table 4). Decodon is the most completely known member of the Lythraceae in the fossil record, lacking only fossilized flowers. The extinct genus Sahnianthus is the only fossil flower accepted with confidence among those attributed to the family.

Diversification of the Lythraceae following the appearance of Lythrum/Peplis and Decodon in the Late Cretaceous of North America occurred primarily during two major periods of extensive global temperature change: during the Paleocene and the early Eocene (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) when temperatures reached the highest of the Late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic Period (Graham, 2009) and plants of tropical and subtropical climates grew at high latitudes; and in the middle Miocene (after 15-14 Ma) when temperatures dropped markedly and seasonality increased (Graham, 1999, 2010a). The Miocene also saw the beginning of great mountain building in Asia and the Americas which furthered the evolution of more seasonal, dry-adapted plant types.

During the warm Paleogene the Lythraceae grew in mixed mesophytic forest vegetation, in inland swamps and lakes, and along margins of seas under tropical and subtropical to warm temperate, humid conditions. With the appearance of cooler, drier climates and new habitats created by geologic changes, the Lythraceae evolved genera such as Lawsonia in the middle Miocene of Europe, Woodfordia associated with drier open woodland slopes in the Pleistocene in Eurasia, and Cuphea in woodlands, savannas and cerrados in Latin America beginning in the Miocene and expanding in the Quaternary. Some modern Lythraceae of dry to desert-like habitats, although not represented in the fossil record, are also likely to have evolved with the onset of dry seasonal periodicity, including Capuronia and Koehneria in Madagascar and Diplusodon and Lourtella in South America.

Lythraceae fossils are known today from widely separated parts of the world and provide the primary evidence for the global radiation and evolution of the family. Some of the earliest and most productive fossil localities for the Lythraceae are the early Paleocene (Danian, 65.5-61.7 Ma) deposits of the Deccan Intertrappean Beds of India. They include the oldest known flower of the Lythraceae, the extinct Sahnianthus, and the associated fruit, Enigmocarpon. The flower Chitaleypushpam, from the same area as Sahnianthus at Mohgaon Kalan, Madhya Pradesh, is a tentative member of the Lythraceae. The earliest confirmed occurrences of Sonneratia and Lagerstroemia are also from Deccan Paleocene deposits. Wingospermocarpon mohgaonese Sheikh and Kapgate (1984) from Mohgaon Kalan, a unilocular capsule with 2-tailed, endospermous, winged seeds and a single-layered seed coat, has been compared to the Lythraceae but is not lythracean based mainly on the presence of endosperm. Several other extinct flower and fruit genera from the Deccan Intertrappean Beds at Mohgaon Kalan are suggestive of the Lythraceae by possession of features that are also shared by other angiosperm families, i.e. a superior ovary, syncarpous ovary with axile placentation, and capsular multilocular fruits; they are excluded from the Lythraceae by the presence of one or more non-lythracean character states. Duabanga, although not occurring in the Deccan Traps, appears in the Miocene and Pliocene of India, and in the Tertiary of Java. Fossils of Woodfordia are first known from the Pleistocene of Pakistan.

A number of genera of the Lythraceae are represented in fossil deposits of eastern Asia (central and western Siberia, China, Japan, and Korea). Late Cretaceous Peplis pollen is known from Russia. Hemitrapa is possibly present in the Paleocene of eastern Russia. The intriguing remains of the unconfirmed Sonneratia turonicum hint at the possibility of fossils in Central Asia that could alter the present understanding and timing of the evolution and radiation of the Lythraceae, just as the recent findings of Late Cretaceous Lythrum/Peplis and Decodon have done in North America.

Another area rich in fossil Lythraceae is southern England where the early Eocene London Clay Flora and other early Eocene and early Oligocene floras provide a carefully documented, indispensible reference to Early Tertiary vegetation in the northern latitudes (Reid & Chandler, 1933; Chandler, 1957, 1960, 1961a, b, 1962, 1963a, b, 1964; Collinson, 1983). The floras include the oldest occurrences of several extinct fruits and seeds from fresh or brackish water habitats with lythraceous characters: Alatospermum, Microdiptera, Minsterocarpum, Pachyspermum, and Paleolythrum.

In continental Europe first appearances of the Lythraceae include Florshuetzia in the late Paleocene of southern France; Punica in the middle Eocene, Pemphis in late Eocene and Oligocene deposits, and Lawsonia and Lythraceaepollenites in the middle Miocene. The earliest modern Trapa fruits and pollen in Europe are from the middle Miocene and they occur in the same epoch in Asia and North America.

In Western North America (Alaska; British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, Canada; western United States; and northern Mexico) the oldest remains of the family on the continent, and the oldest verified Lythraceae anywhere, are Lythrum/Peplis from the Late Cretaceous of Wyoming. Hemitrapa appears in the late Paleocene of western North America and later across the northern latitudes in eastern Asia and possibly (listed, unconfirmed) as far east as Greenland and Spitzbergen (Penhallow (1907, 1908). Seeds of Lawsonia-type and Tripartisemen are most likely extinct members of the Lythraceae from the middle Eocene of British Columbia and Oregon, respectively. Extinct Shirleya is unique to the middle Miocene of Washington state.

In Latin America, Verrutricolporites pollen (= Crenea) occurs in the early Eocene along the northern coast of South America. The oldest verified fossil of Cuphea is pollen from early/middle Miocene deposits in southern Mexico. The extensive diversification of Cuphea, the largest modem genus of the Lythraceae, however, is a relatively recent Quaternary phenomenon on both the North and South American continents, as evidenced by the increasing diversity of pollen types in the Quaternary. First reports of aff. Adenaria are from the Pliocene in the northern Andes and Lafoensia from the Pleistocene and Holocene of South America. The seven other endemic genera of the Lythraceae in South America and the Caribbean today have no verified fossil record: Diplusodon, Ginoria, Heimia, Lourtella, Pehria, Physocalymma, and Pleurophora.

The numbers of confirmed fossil Lythraceae reports for the African continent are few even though one-third of the modem genera (nine genera) including four narrow endemics of East Africa, Madagascar, and Mauritius occur in Africa. The continent has not been well studied paleobotanically (Van Zinderen Bakker & Coetzee, 1988). Much still is to be learned about the history of the family in this major region of the world.

The goal of this review has been to compile and assess a fossil record of the Lythraceae to provide confirmed identifications of fossils with well-established ages for use in dating phylogenies. A recent phylogenetic tree (Fig. 11; see Materials and Methods; Morris, 2007) is used here as a framework for summarizing the earliest actual occurrences confirmed in this review. The oldest known fossils of the Lythraceae are pollen grains of Lythrum elkensis and Peplis eaglensis from the early Campanian (82-81 Ma) Eagle Formation, Wyoming, USA (Grimsson et al., 2011). Next oldest are seeds of Decodon tiffneyi from the late Campanian (73.5 Ma) Cerro Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico (Estrada-Ruiz et al., 2009) and pollen of Peplis yakutiana from late Campanian to early Maastrichtian (72-68 Ma) deposits in western Central Siberia. Although the phylogenetic position of Decodon and Lythrum/Peplis has been unstable (cf. Graham et al., 2005), their position in the most current phylogeny as sister to one of the two large clades of the family is based on the most data and has the strongest support of any model thus far (Morris, 2007). The next oldest fossils, Sonneratia and Lagerstroemia from Paleocene/Danian and late Paleocene deposits respectively, are part of this large clade. Lythrum and Decodon establish a date for the origin of the stem lineage of the clade at 82-81 Ma. The age at the node to the crown group Duabanga--Trapa is constrained by the oldest confirmed fossil of Sonneratia wood at 67.3-63.8 Ma. The age of the oldest Lagerstroemia fossil is ca. 56 Ma, at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. Fossils of Duabanga and Trapa in modern form, first occur at ca. 16 Ma; both are young in comparison to their sister genera. However, if extinct Hemitrapa and extant Trapa share the same ancestor, that lineage would extend back approximately to the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. A single confirmed date is available for clade Lawsonia - Ammannia from Lawsonia seeds at ca. 16-12 Ma. Fossils of Ammannia in southeastern Asia are almost as old but pollen listed as a marker in Thailand for the early to middle Miocene still needs to be confirmed (Watanasak, 1990).

The other major clade of the Lythraceae comprises 13 genera in two subclades, one mostly distributed in the Old World (Pemphis - Capuronia; four of five genera), the other mostly New World (Lourtella--Adenaria; six of eight genera). The node to the former is dated by the middle Eocene wood of Punica (48.6-40.4 Ma). Earliest Pemphis fossils are late Eocene in age (37.2-33.9 Ma). Endemic Galpinia from East Africa and the Madagascar endemic Capuronia lack a fossil record. The fossil record of Lafoensia, a genus widely distributed in South America north to Mexico, is very recent (9,600-7,300 years ago). The New World subclade is poorly represented in the fossil record and the few dates available are young in comparison with most of the rest of the family. Of the three genera with fossil remains, the oldest is early/middle Miocene pollen of Cuphea in Mexico (ca. 14 Ma). Seeds of aff. Adenaria are recorded from the Pliocene of Colombia (ca. 3.6 Ma) and Woodfordia leaves from the Pleistocene of Pakistan (ca. 1 Ma). Significant radiation and diversification of the family in South America appears likely to have occurred after diversification in the Old World. However, in the absence of a verified fossil record for Diplusodon, Lourtella, Pehria, Physocalymma Pohl, and Pleurophora D. Don, (Diplusodon and Crenea not included in the phylogeny), the age of this South American subclade is unknown. The third clade, Heimia - Rotala + Didiplis, lacks a fossil record, although there is a good possibility that fossil Rotala pollen will be identified when appropriate deposits are discovered in Africa or southeastern Asia where the genus is common in shallow waters and other wet places.

The Lythraceae from the Paleocene onward were more diverse in Europe and Asia than in North America and more European and Asian genera were lost to extinction, the number of fossil taxa in Eurasia having peaked in ca. late middle Miocene and then declined significantly in the Pliocene as climates deteriorated. The record of the family in South America and Africa is limited compared to Europe, Asia, and North America. The reasons are probably several: perhaps fewer appropriate fossil sites, less paleobotanical research over time than in the northern latitudes, and either rare presence or actual absence of ancestral sources until ca. middle Miocene. The lack of confirmed fossil records from Africa and South America older than the Pliocene (excepting Crenea/Verrutricolporites) leaves the time of origin of most of the endemic genera on those two continents open to question. Dating analysis using the several reliable fossil points now available for the family will allow estimations for these lineages.

In addition to the use of the fossil record for dating origins and divergence times, the record in the presence of a well-supported phylogeny can provide information on the time of appearance of select characters in the evolution of a genus or group. Attempts to recognize patterns of evolution and plesiomorphic characters in the Lythraceae have been hampered by the lack of support for the lower branches of the phylogenetic trees produced and by excessive homoplasy (Graham et al., 1993, 2005, 2011). Confirmed, accurately dated fossils can provide significant information about the evolutionary state of a genus or group and whether specialized characters were present or absent at certain point in time.

The oldest known confirmed fossil remains of the Lythraceae are Late Cretaceous herbaceous to suffrutescent perennials of moist to aquatic habitats (Lythrum/Peplis, Decodon). Fossils of truly woody, long-lived genera occur later in early Paleocene deposits (Sonneratia and Lagerstroemia). A feature regarded as derived in the family and occurring in 18 of the 28 genera is inverted mucilaginous trichomes in the cells of the seed exotesta. These apparently function to increase water uptake at germination and may play a role in attaching seeds to ground suitably moist for establishment of seedlings. Decodon seeds, fossil and modern, lack inverted trichomes. They are adapted, however, for seed flotation and enhanced seed dispersal by possession of a spongy mesotesta. The same type of mesotesta appears in seeds of Enigmocarpon in the Paleocene, and in the Eocene genera Alatospermum, Microdiptera, Minsterocarpum, Pachyspermum, Tripartisemen, cf. Lawsonia, and Pemphis, an indication that spongy seed tissue was an early, widespread adaptation in the family to aquatic environments. Fossil Lythrum seeds are unknown. Seeds in modern Lythrum genera lack a spongy mesotesta but possess inverted seed trichomes. In pollen, an early adaptive character for harmomegathy is pseudocolpi, (Muller, 198lb). Fossil Lythrum and Peplis pollen is tri-pseudocolpate whereas Decodon is not pseudocolpate. The three or six-pseudocolpate condition appears in Sonneratia (67.3-63.8 Ma) and Lagerstroemia and occurs indepently in the more recently evolved genus Koehneria (ca. 1.8 Ma). Significant by their absence are fossil flowers of Decodon and Lythrum which could contribute to understanding the evolution of the specialized breeding system of heterostyly. Modern Decodon and Lythrum depend on pollinator intervention via heterostyly to promote outcrossing. Extant Decodon is a tristylous genus and Lythrum includes tristylic, distylic, and monostylic species. All North American Lythrum are distylic. The first question to be asked when flowers of Decodon are found is whether they are heterostylic. Some adaptive traits in seeds and pollen are demonstrated as already present in remains of the oldest known Lythraceae and the traits have been maintained to the present. The fossil record hints that much evolutionary history had transpired in the family prior to first knowledge of it in the fossil record of the Late Cretaceous.

The Lythraceae are too incompletely represented in the fossil record to be able to confidently state the time and place of origin of the family or its earliest dispersal routes. It is clear despite important missing pieces in the verified record that the Lythraceae were already well-diversified and growing in tropical-subtropical to warm temperate climates in widely separated parts of the world by the beginning of the Cenozoic. The geographical range of the family at that time extended into the northern latitudes of North America (Decodon, Lythrum, and Hemitrapa) and in the Old World to south of the equator on land rafting from Africa toward its current position as part of the Asian continent (Sahnianthus/Enigmocarpon, Sonneratia, and by late Paleocene also Lagerstroemia; Bande & Prakash, 1986). There is also a possibility, not confirmed, that Sonneratia-like plants were widely occurring and present on shores in the Tethys region north of the equator as early as the Turonian (93.5-89.3 Ma).

Appendix

Table 5 Fossil Lythraccae. The list includes taxa attributed to
modem, extinct, or form genera of the Lythraccac. The taxa are
evaluated at the family and generic level; species are not
evaluated taxonomically or nomenclaturally. The status of a fossil
is "accepted", "unconfirmed", or "rejected" based on the quality of
the information provided in the referenced description and/or
illustrations. Actual type specimens have not been examined in most
instances. "Accepted" refers to fossils that unquestionably
represent a modem or extinct member of the Lythraccae. They may be
accepted at the family level only (as Lyth) or also at the generic
level. "Unconfirmed" refers to reports that lack sufficient
information to establish the relationship with certainty.
"Rejected" refers to fossils that have been attributed in error to
the family or genus based on published data that is clearly
incompatible with accepted parameters of the taxa. "Listed" refers
to a fossil assigned in name to a fossil flora without further
documentation

FossilTaxon                          Organ          Age

Adenaria

Aff. Adenaria                        seed           Pliocene

Alatospermum (Extinct)

Alatospermum lakense Chandler       seed           early Eocene

Ammannia

Ammannia lakeasis Chandler           seed           early Eocene

Aff. Ammannia                        seed           Pliocene

Ammannia sp.                         pollen         middle Miocene

Ammannia sp.                         pollen         Holocene

Chitaleypushpam (Extinct)            flower         Paleocene

Cranmeria (Extinct)

Cranmeria trilocularis Reid &        fruit          Eocene
  Chandler

Crenea including Verrutricolporites

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         late Paleocene
van der Hammen & Wijmstra

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         middle Eocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         late Eocene to
                                                    Present

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         Oligo-Miocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         late Oligocene-
                                                    late Miocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         early Miocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         Miocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         Oligocene-
                                                    Miocene

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      pollen         early Miocene-
                                                    middle Pliocene

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       pollen         Paleocene

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       pollen         late Eocene

Cuphea, including Striasyncolpites Syncolporites, Lythraites

Syncolporites subtilis Boltenhagen   pollen         Late Cretaceous

Lythraites spp.                      pollen         Late Cretaceous,
                                                    Tertiary

Cuphea sp.                           pollen         Oligocene

Cuphea sp.                           pollen         early to middle
                                                    Miocene

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            pollen         middle Miocene
  Germeraad et al.                                  to Recent

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            pollen         Miocene to
                                                    Pliocene

Cuphea antiqua Britton               leaf           Miocene or
                                                    Pliocene

Cuphea sp.                           pollen         late Miocene

Cuphea sp.                           pollen         middle Pliocene

Cuphea cf. dipetala (L.f.) Koehne    pollen         Pleistocene -
                                                    Holocene

Cuphea spp.                          pollen         Holocene-Recent

Decodon, see also Lythraceaepollenites

Decodon tiffneyi Estrada-Ruiz        seed           Late Cretaceous:
  et al.                                            late Campanian

Decodon sp.                          seed           Paleocene

Decodon-like                         seed           Paleocene/Eocene

Decodon allenbyensis                 Stems,         middle Eocene
  Cevallos-Ferriz & Stockey          leaves,
                                     wood, roots,
                                     fruit, seed

Decodon sp.                          pollen         middle Eocene

Decodon sp.                          fruit, seed    middle Eocene

Decodon gibbosus (E. M. Reid)        seed           late Eocene
  E. M. Reid ex Nikitin

Decodon- fossil occurrences of       seed           late Eocene
  13 spp. summarized to 1981                        through Pliocene

Decodon vectensis Chandler           seed           Oligocene

Decodon brownii Meyer &              leaf           Oligocene
  Manchester

Decodon vectensis and 11             seed           Oligocene to
  other species                                     Pliocene

Decodon gibbosus                     seed           late Eocene to
                                                    early Miocene

Decodon gibbosus                     stems,         early Miocene
                                     leaves,
                                     fruits, seed

Decodon sp.                          seed           early Miocene

Decodon gibbosus                     seed           early to middle
                                                    Miocene

Decodon sp.                          seed           early Miocene

Decodon alaskana Wolfe & Tanai       leaf           middle Miocene

Decodon gibbosus, D. vectensis.      seed           middle Miocene
  Decodon sp.

Decodon gibbosus, D. globosus        seed           early to middle
                                                    Miocene

Decodon mosanruensis Matsumoto       seed           late middle
  et al.                                            Miocene

Decodon: as Myrtus oregonensis       leaf           late Miocene
  Lesq.

Lythraceaepollenites decodonensis    pollen         Miocene
  Stuchlik

Decodon sp.                          seed           middle Pliocene

Decodon sp.                          seed           Middle
                                                    Pleistocene

Decodon verticillatus                pollen         Holocene

Decodon verticillatus                pollen         Holocene

Dryoxylon (Extinct)

Dryoxylon mohgaoense Rode            wood           Late Cretaceous
  (syn. Parajugloxylon
  Mohgaonensis)

Duabanga. including Duabangoxylon & Duabangocarpon

Duabangocarpon deccanii Kadoo        fruit          Late Cretaceous
  & Kolhe

Duabanga-like                        leaf           middle Eocene

Duabanga? as Verrutriporites         pollen         early to middle
  perverrucatus                                     Miocene

Duabangoxylon indicam (Navale)       wood           middle Miocene;
  Awasthi (syn. Sapindoxylon                        Miocene/Pliocene
  indicum Navale)

Duabangoxylon tertiarum Prakash      wood           middle Miocene;
  & Awasthi                                         Miocene/Pliocene

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              wood           Tertiary

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              wood           Miocene

Duabangoxylon bifarium Gottwald      wood           middle Miocene

Duabangoxylon pakistanicum Ahmed     wood           Pleistocene to
  et al.                                            Subrecent

Enigmocarpon (Extinct), see also Sahnianthus

Enigmocarpon parijai Sahni           fruit/seed     Paleocene

Enigmocarpon sahnii Chitaley         fruit/seed     Paleocene
  & Kate

Eotrapa (Extinct)

Eotrapa tetrasepalum (Miki) Miki     flower         late Miocene
  (syn. Lythrum tetrasepalum Miki)

Florshuetzia (Extinct), see
  also Sonneratia

Florschuetzia sp. (as                pollen         late Paleocene
  Sonneratiaceae in
  Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988)

Florschuetzia trilobata              pollen         middle Eocene to
  Germeraad et al.                                  early Miocene

Florschuetzia minutus Rawat et al.   pollen         Eocene

Florshuetzia cf. meridionalis        pollen         Eocene
  Rawat et al.

Florshuetzia semilobata Germeraad    pollen         early Miocene
  et al.

Florschuetzia levipoli Germeraad     pollen         early Miocene-
  et al.                                            Pliocene

Florshuetzia levipoli                pollen         late Miocene
                                                    to Recent

Florschuetzia meridionalis           pollen         middle Miocene
  Germemad et al.

Florshuetzia meridionalis            pollen         late Miocene
                                                    to Recent

Florschuetzia sp.                    pollen         middle Miocene

Florschuetzia claricolpata Yamanoi   pollen         middle Miocene

Florshuetzia reticulata Sohma        pollen         Quaternary

Goerboepollenites. see Sporotrapoidites

Heimia

Heimia as Antholithus                flower         Miocene
  heimiaformis Berry

Hemitrapa (Extinct), see also Hemitrapapollenites, Sporotrapoidites

Hemitrapa borealis (Heer) Miki;      fruit          late Paleocene,
(syn. Trapa borealis Heer)                          Eocene, late
                                                    Oligocene,
                                                    early to middle
                                                    Miocene

Hemitrapa cf. pomeld (Boulay)        fruit          late Eocene,
  Mai (syn. Trapa pomelii                           late Oligocene,
  (Saporta) Boulay, Carpolithus                     early Miocene,
  pomeld Saporta)                                   Miocene

Hemitrapa sachalinensis              fruit          early/middle
  (Okutsu) Miki                                     Miocene

Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis              fruit          early/middle
  (Okutsu) Miki                                     Miocene

Hemitrapa yokoyamae (Nathorst)       fruit          early/middle
  Miki, (syn. Trapa yokoyamae                       Miocene
  Nathorst)

Hemitrapa heissigii Gregor           fruit          early Miocene to
                                                    late Miocene or
                                                    early Pliocene
                                     fruit

Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki (syn.                   middle Miocene
  H. teumeri (Menzel) Budantzev                     to late Miocene;
  & T vassiljevii Kornilova)                        late Miocene

Hemitrapa pseudoborealis             fruit          Tertiary
  Budantzev

Hemitrapapollenites (Extinct)

Hemitrapapollenites medius           pollen         middle Miocene
  (Guan) Liu                                        to Pliocene

Jugopollis (Extinct)

Jugopollis tetraporites              pollen         Eocene?
  Venkatachala & Rawat

Lafoensia

Lafoensia punicifolia D.C.           pollen         Holocene

Lafoensia sp.                        pollen         Pleistocene -
                                                    Holocene

Lagerstroemia. including Lagerstroemioxylon

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      leaf           late Paleocene
  & Guleria, cf L. speciosa.                        or early Eocene

Lagerstroemia as: Rugulitriporites   pollen         Paleocene?
  cf. vestibulipori Muller

Lagerstroemia sp.. cf. L.            leaf           Paleocene?
  indica L.

Lagerstroemia sp. cf. L. indica.     leaf           Paleocene

Lagerstroemia sahnii Singh et al.    fruit          early Eocene

Lagerstroemia-like                   pollen         middle Eocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    leaf           Oligocene

Lagerstroemia imamurae Tanai         leaf           Oligocene
  & Uemum

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         Oligocene or
                                                    early Miocene,
                                                    middle Miocene

Lagerstroemia-like as:               pollen         Oligocene
  Vemaricolporites pachydermis
  Sun et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         early Miocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         early Miocene,
                                                    middle Miocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         early Miocene

Lagerstroemia europaea Mai           fruit          middle Miocene

Lagerstroemia mioparviflora          leaf           middle Miocene
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia eomicrocarpa           leaf           middle Miocene
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia siwalica Prasad        leaf           middle Miocene
  et al.

Lagerstroemia jamraniensis Prasad    leaf           middle Miocene
  et al., cf. L. speciosa.

cf. Lagerstroemia                    leaf           middle Miocene

Lagerstroemioxylon cf.               wood           middle Miocene
  eoflosreginum

Lagerstroemia odaniense Choi & Kim   wood           middle Miocene

Lagerstroemioxylon tomentosum        wood           middle Miocene
  Prakash et al.

Lagerstroemia lignitica              fruit          late Miocene
  (Menzel) Mai

Lagerstroemia neyveliensis Agarwal   leaf           Miocene

Lagerstroemia as:                    pollen         Miocene
  Planotricolporites
  lagerstromiaformis (Zheng) Song,
  cf L. subcostata Koehne

Lagerstroemia cathayensis Liu        pollen         Miocene
  et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         middle Miocene

Lagerstroemia.sp.                    pollen         Miocene

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      leaf           Miocene-Pliocene
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      leaf           Miocene-Pliocene
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemioxylon irrawaddiensis    wood           Miocene-
  Prakash & Bande                                   Pliocene;
                                                    Miocene

Lagerstroemioxylon deomaliensis      wood           Miocene/Pliocene
  Lakhanpal et al., cf L. villosa

Lagerstroemioxylon arcotense         wood           Miocene/Pliocene
  Awasthi

Lagerstroemia cf. L. parviflora      wood           Miocene-Pliocene
  Roxb.

Lagerstroemioxylon parenchymatosum   wood           Tertiary;
  Prakash                                           Miocene/Pliocene

Lagerstroemioxylon durum Madler      wood           Pliocene

Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis      wood           Pliocene
  Y. M. Cheng et al.

cf. Lagerstroemia sp.                pollen         Pliocene

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     wood           middle Miocene
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf L.                         to Pleistocene
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     wood           middle Miocene
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf. L.                        to Pleistocene
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     wood           Late Tertiary?

Lagerstroemia sp. aff. L.            fruit          middle
  subcostata var. fauriei                           Pleistocene

Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne         leaf           Pleistocene

Lagerstroemioxylon eohypolucum       wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon floribunda        wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon harsolavense      wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon obliqueporatum    wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon royi              wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon vasicentricum     wood           Tertiary
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon benkoelense       wood           Quaternary
  Du, cf. L venusta Wall.

Lagerstroemia indica                 fruit          early
                                                    Pleistocene

Lagerstroemia subcostata             pollen         Pleistocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         late Pleistocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         late Pleistocene
                                                    /Holocene

Lagerstroernia sp.                   pollen         Pleistocene/
                                                    Holocene

Lagerstroemia sp.                    pollen         late Holocene

Lawsonia

Lawonia europaea                                    Eocene

cf Lawsonia                          seed           middle Eocene

Lawsonia lawsonioides (Menzel)       seed           middle Miocene
  Mai (ssyn. Carpolithus
  lawsonioides Menzel)

Lawsonia lawsonioides                seed           late Miocene

Lythraceaepollenites (Extinct)

Lyhraceaepollenites minimus          pollen         middle Eocene
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites bavaricus      pollen         Miocene
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites decodonensis   pollen         middle Miocene,
  Stuchlik                                          Pliocene

Lythrailes, see Cuphea

Lghraceocarpon (Extinct)

Lythraceocarpon mohgaonse Kapgate,   fruit          early Paleocene
  Saxena, & Sheikh

Lythrum

Lythmm elkensis Grimsson et al.      pollen         Late Cretaceous:
                                                    early Campanian

Lythmm sp.                           pollen         middle Miocene

Lythmm sp.                           pollen         late Miocene

Lythmm wilhelmii Grimsson et al.     pollen         late Miocene

Lythrun tetrasepalum Miki, see Eotrapa

Lythrum sp.                          pollen         Pliocene

?Lythrum salicaria                   pollen         Pliocene

Lythrum                              pollen         middle
                                                    Pleistocene

Lythnrm                              pollen         Middle
                                                    Pleistocene

Lythrum                              pollen         Holocene

Lythrum                              pollen         Holocene

Lythrum                              pollen         Holocene

Lythrum salicaria L.                 leaf?          late Quaternary

Microdiptera (Extinct)

Microdiptera parva Chandler (syn.    seed           middle Eocene
  M. major Chandler)

Microdiptera minor (Chandler) Mai    seed           late Eocene

Microdiptera menzelii (E. M.         seed           Oligocene-
  Reid) Mai                                         Miocene

Microdiptera parva Chandler          seed           Oligocene

Microdiptera tavdensis Dorofeev      seed           Oligocene

Microdiptera lusatica Mai            seed           late Oligocene,
                                                    early Miocene

Microdiptera uralensis (Dorofeev)    seed           late Oligocene,
  Mai (syn. Diclidocanya                            Miocene
  uralensis Dorofeev, Mnerne
  uralensis Eyde)

Microdipiera spp.                    seed           Oligocene-
                                                    Pliocene

Microdiptera donara (Holy) Tiffney   seed           Miocene

Microdiptera parva                   seed           early Miocene

Microdiptera/Mneme type              seed           early Miocene

Mikia (Extinct)

Mikia pellendorfensis Kovar-Eder     leaf           late Miocene
  & Wojcicki

Minsterocarpum (Extinct)

Minsterocarpum alatum Reid &         fruit          early Eocene
  Chandler

Pachyspermum (Extinct)

Pachyspermum quinqueloculare         fruit          early Eocene
  Reid & Chandler

Paleolythrum (Extinct)

Paleolythrum hournense Chandler      seed           early/late
                                                    Eocene

Paleolyhrum gailense Chandler        seed           Pliocene
  (syn. Carpolithus sp.
  E. M. Reid)

Paleotrapa (Extinct)

Palaeotrapa aculeata Golovneva,      fruit          Late Cretaceous:
  P angulata Golovneva, P.                          Maastrichtian
  triangulata Golovneva

Pemphis, including
  Tricolporopollenites

Pemphis-type                         pollen         late Eocene

Pemphis as Tricolporopollenites      pollen         middle Oligocene
  sp.

Peplis, see also Lythrum

Peplis eaglensis Grimsson et al.     pollen         Late Cretaceous,
                                                    early Campanian

Peplis pakutiano Grimsson et al.     pollen         Late Cretaceous,
                                                    late Campanian/
                                                    early
                                                    Maastrichtian

Planotricolporites. see Lagerstroemia

Protorrapa (Extinct)

P. douglasii V. N. Vassiljev:        fruit          Early
  P tenuirostrata V. N. Vassiljev;                  Cretaceous:
  P praepomelii V. N. Vassiljev                     Aptian-Albian

Pseudotrapa (Extinct)

Pseudotrapa buzekii Z. Kvacek        leaf           early Miocene

Punica, including Punicoxylon & Punicites

Punicoxylon eocenicum Prive-Gill     wood           middle Eocene

Punica antiquorum (Heer) Mai,        fruit/seed     late Eocene
  (syn. Cydonia? antiquorum Heer,                   to Pliocene
  Carpolithus natans Nikitin,
  Punica natans (Nitikin) Gregor)

Punica palaeogranatum-group          leaf/fruit     Oligocene/
                                                    Miocene

Punica terciaria Gregor              fruit/seed     middle Miocene

Punica                               leaf           early Miocene

Punica paleogranatum                 leaf           middle Miocene

Punica palaeogranatum                leaf           middle Miocene

Punica paleogranatum                 leaf           middle Miocene

Punica sp.                           pollen         Miocene

Punicites hesperidum O. Weber        flower         Miocene

Punica planchoni Saporta & Marion    leaf, buds     Pliocene

Quereuxia (Extinct), see also Trapa

Quereuria angulata (Newb.) Krysht.   leaf           Late Cretaceous,
  ex Baikovskaja,                                   Paleocene
  (syn. Trapago angulata Newb.,
  Trapa? microphylla
  Lesq.. Nymphaeites angulatus
  (Newb.) Bell, Nelumbites Berry,
  Jonquieria Krassilov; see
  others in Hickey 2001)

Quereuxia paulula (W. A. Bell)       leaf           Late Cretaceous:
  Nevolina; (syn. Trapa paulula                     Maastrichtian
  (Bell) R. W. Brown)

Raoanthus (Extinct)

Raoanthus intertrappea Chitaley      flower         Paleocene
  & Patel

Rotala

Rotala as: Heterocolpites            pollen         late Eocene-
  verrucatus Salad-Cheboldaeff                      Oligocene

Rotala as: Verrutricolporites        pollen         Oligocene
  rotundiporus

Rugulitriporites, see Lagerstroemia

Sahnianthus (Extinct)

Sahnianthus parijai Shukla           flower         Paleocene

Sahnianthus dinectrianum Shukla                     Paleocene

Sahnianthus? as Triorites sp.        pollen         Paleocene

Sahnipushpam (Extinct)

Sahnipushpam shuklai Verma (syn.     flower/fruit   Paleocene
  S. glandulosum Prakash)

Schenkiella (Extinct)

Schenkiella credneri (Schenck)       fruit          early Miocene
  Wojcicki & Kvacek, (syn. Trapa
  credneri Schenk)

Shirleya (Extinct)

Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore      fruit          middle Miocene

Sonneratia, including Sonneratioxylon: see also Florshuetzia

Sonneratioxylon turonicum            wood           Late Cretaceous
  Shelomentseva

Sonneratia meghalayensis Ambwani     leaf           Late Paleocene

Sonneratiorhizos raoi Chitaley       root           Paleocene

Sonneratiaceae (as Florshuetia       pollen         late Paleocene
  sp. in Plaziat et al. 2001)

Sonneratioxylon preapetalum          wood           Paleocene
  Awasthi (synonymsfide                             (Danian) -
  Mehrotra 1988 include: S.                         Miocene
  caseolarioides Shete & Kulkarni;
  S.nawargaoensis Bande & Prakash;
  and S. intertrappeum Biradar &
  Mahabale)

Sonneratioxylon aubrevevillei        wood           middle Eocene
  Louvet

Aff Sonneratia: Sonneratioipollis    pollen         Eocene
  bellus Venkatachala & Kar

Aff. Sonneratia: Jugopollis          pollen         Eocene
  tetraporites Venkatachala
  & Rawat

Sonneratia kyushuensis               wood           early Oligocene
  Srivastava & Suzuki

Sonneratioxylon prambachense         wood           late Oligocene
  Hofmann

Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler    pollen         early Miocene

Sonneratia alba J. Smith             pollen         middle Miocene

Sonneratioxylon dakshinense          wood           Miocene-Pliocene
  Ramanujam

Sonneratioxylon dudukurense Rao      wood           Tertiary
  & Ramanujam

Sonneratia sp.                       wood           Quaternary

Sonneratia sp.                       pollen         late Pleistocene

Sonneratioxylon duabangoides         wood           Paleocene

Sporotrapoidites, see also
  Trapa, Hemitrapa

Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii (Nagy)    pollen         early Miocene
  Nagy (syn. Goerboepollenites                      to Pliocene
  erdtmanii Nagy, Trapapollis
  erdtmanii (Nagy) Kohlman-
  Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         pollen         Miocene

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         pollen         early Miocene

Sporotrapoidites illingensis Klaus   pollen         middle Miocene
  (syn. Trapopollis illingensis                     to early
  (Klaus) Kohlman-Adamska)                          Pliocene

Sporotrapoidites weiheensis          pollen         middle Miocene-
  (Sun & Fan) Guan                                  Pliocene

Sporotrapoidites minor Guan          pollen         Miocene

Striasyncolpites. see Cuphea

Syncolporites, see Cuphea

Tamesicarpum (Extinct)

Tamesicarpum polyspermum Reid        fruit          late Eocene/
  & Chandler Trapa                                  Oligocene

Trapa? microphylla Lesquereux;       leaf           Late Cretaceous:
  (syn. Neuropteris (?)                             Campanian,
  angulata Newb., Nymphaeites                       Paleocene,
  angulatus Bell: Trapa angulata                   early Eocene
  Brown; Quereuxia angulata
  (Newb.)
   Baikovs.; see other names,
  Brown 1962, Hickey 2001)

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa paulula (W. A. Bell) R. W.     leaf           Late Cretaceous:
  Brown                                             Maastrichtian

Trapa borealis Heer See Hemitrapa    fruit          late Paleocene
  borealis (Heer) Miki                              or Eocene,
                                                    Miocene

Trapa mohgaoensis Paradkar           fruit          Paleocene
  & Patki

Trapa n. sp.                         fruit          Eocene

Trapa wilcoxensis Berry              fruit          early Eocene

Trapa protonatans Endo               fruit          late Eocene

Trapa vassiljevii Kornilova,         fruit          early Miocene
  see Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa americana Knowlton (syn.:      fruit          Miocene
  T? occidentalis Knowlton)

Trapa? occidentalis Knowlton, see Trapa americana

Trapa assmanniana (Goepp.)           leaf           Oligocene, Late
  Gothan (syn. Populus                              Neogene
  assmanniana Goepp.)

Trapa credneri Schenk                fruit          early Miocene

Trapa zapfei Berger                  fruit          early Miocene

Trapa pomelli Boulay; see            fruit          early Miocene
  Hemitrapa pomelii

Trapa sp.                            pollen         early Miocene,
                                                    possibly
                                                    Oligocene

Trapa teumeri Menzel, see            fruit          middle Miocene
  Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            pollen         middle Miocene
  illingensis Klaus                                 -early Pliocene

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            pollen         middle Miocene
  erdtmani (Nagy)Nagy

Trapa silesiaca Goeppert (syn.       fruit          late Miocene/
  T. heeri Fritsch, T. bifrons                      Pliocene,
  Goeppert emend. Wojcicki &                        middle-late
  Zastawniak)                                       Miocene

Trapa spectabilis Wojcicki &         fruit          late Miocene
  Kovar-Eder

Trapa yokoyamae Nathorst; see        fruit          early/middle
  Hemitrapa yokoyamae                               Miocene
  (Nathorst) Miki

Trapa hokkaidoensis Okutsu; see      fruit          Miocene
  Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis
  (Okutsu) Miki

Trapa sachaliensis Okutsu; see       fruit          Miocene
  Hemitrapa sachaliensis (Okutsu)
  Miki

Trapa chengsenii Wojcicki et al.     fruit          middle/late
                                                    Miocene

Trapa ezoana Tanai & Suzuki          fruit          middle Miocene

Trapa sp.                            fruit          early to middle
                                                    Miocene
Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa bifrons Goepp.                 fruit          late Miocene

Trapa bosniaca Jankovic & Pantic     fruit          late Miocene

Trapa praehungarica Wojcicki         fruit          Late Miocene
  & Bajzath

Trapa kvacekii Wojcicki &            fruit          late Miocene
  Velitzelos

cf. Trapa                            pollen         late Miocene

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites carlesii   pollen         late Miocene
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa ceretana Rerolle                              late Miocene

Trapa excelsa Dorofeev               fruit          Miocene
  (other Trapa included)

Trapa - 15 species listed from       fruit          Miocene,
  the Miocene and Pliocene                          Pliocene
  of Europe

Trapa prenalans Dorf                 fruit          Pliocene

Trapa sp.                            fruit          late Miocene

Trapa lydiae Chochiyeva              fruit          Quaternary

Trapa alabamensis Berry              fruit          Pliocene

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites cesarei    pollen         Pliocene
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa fritzlariensis Wojcicki        fruit          Pliocene
  & Wilde

T. espectata Givulescu & Ticleanu    fruit          Pliocene

Trapa - 5 fossil species             fruit?         Pliocene

Trapa baasii Gregor & Mehl           fruit          Plic-Pleistocene

Trapa minuta Opravil                 fruit          Pleistocene

Trapa natans L.                      fruit          Pleistocene

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.                fruit          Pleistocene

Trapa bicerata Miki                  fruit          early
                                                    Pleistocene

Trapa incisa S.& Z.                  fruit          early
                                                    Pleistocene

Trapa macropoda Miki                 fruit          early
                                                    Pleistocene

Trapa natans                         pollen         Holocene

Trapa natans                         fruit          Holocene

Trapa natans                         fruit          Holocene

Trapa natans                         fruit          Holocene

Trapapollis, see Sporotrapoidites

Trapophyllum (Extinct)

Trapophyllum europaeum Massalongo    leaf           Tertiary

Tricolporopollenites. see Pemphis

Triorites (Lythracidites), see
  Sahnianthus

Verrutricolporites. See Crenea

Verrutriporites. see Duabanga

Woodfordia

Woodfordia neofruticosa M. Prasad    leaf           middle Miocene

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz       leaf           Pleistocene

FossilTaxon                          Locality

Adenaria

Aff. Adenaria                        Colombia

Alatospermum (Extinct)

Alatospermum lakense Chandler       England

Ammannia

Ammannia lakeasis Chandler           Southern England

Aff. Ammannia                        Colombia

Ammannia sp.                         Thailand

Ammannia sp.                         Africa: Senegal

Chitaleypushpam (Extinct)            India

Cranmeria (Extinct)

Cranmeria trilocularis Reid &        England
  Chandler

Crenea including Verrutricolporites

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Colombia
van der Hammen & Wijmstra

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Florida

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Guyana, Trinidad

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Guyana

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Africa: Nigeria

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Venezuela

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Trinidad

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Brazil: Amapa, Para, Maranhao,
                                     Sergipe,
                                     Rio de Janeiro

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Africa: Cameroun

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       China, Tibet

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       China

Cuphea, including Striasyncolpites Syncolporites, Lythraites

Syncolporites subtilis Boltenhagen   Gabon

Lythraites spp.                      China

Cuphea sp.                           England

Cuphea sp.                           Mexico: Chiapas

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Trinidad
  Germeraad et al.

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Brazil: Amapa, Pard, Sao Paulo

Cuphea antiqua Britton               Bolivia

Cuphea sp.                           Alabama

Cuphea sp.                           Mexico: Vent Cruz

Cuphea cf. dipetala (L.f.) Koehne    Colombia

Cuphea spp.                          Brazil

Decodon, see also Lythraceaepollenites

Decodon tiffneyi Estrada-Ruiz        Mexico
  et al.

Decodon sp.                          England

Decodon-like                         Belgium

Decodon allenbyensis                 Canada: British Columbia
  Cevallos-Feniz & Stockey

Decodon sp.                          Canada: British Columbia

Decodon sp.                          USA: Oregon

Decodon gibbosus (E. M. Reid)        England
  E. M. Reid ex Nikitin

Decodon- fossil occurrences of       England, Eurasia, incl. Siberia
  13 spp. summarized to 1981

Decodon vectensis Chandler           England

Decodon brownii Meyer &              USA: Oregon
  Manchester

Decodon vectensis and 11             Asia, Russia, incl. Siberia
  other species

Decodon gibbosus                     Germany

Decodon gibbosus                     Czech Rep.

Decodon sp.                          Austria

Decodon gibbosus                     Belarus

Decodon sp.                          Canada: Northwest Territories

Decodon alaskana Wolfe & Tanai       USA: Alaska

Decodon gibbosus, D. vectensis.      Denmark
  Decodon sp.

Decodon gibbosus, D. globosus        Belanus

Decodon mosanruensis Matsumoto       Japan
  et al.

Decodon: as Myrtus oregonensis       USA: California
  Lesq.

Lythraceaepollenites decodonensis    Poland
  Stuchlik

Decodon sp.                          Canada: Nunavut Territory

Decodon sp.                          The Netherlands

Decodon verticillatus                USA: Alabama

Decodon verticillatus                USA: Tennessee

Dryoxylon (Extinct)

Dryoxylon mohgaoense Rode            India
  (syn. Parajugloxylon
  Mohgaonensis)

Duabanga. including Duabangoxylon & Duabangocarpon

Duabangocarpon deccanii Kadoo        India
  & Kolhe

Duabanga-like                        Canada: British Columbia

Duabanga? as Verrutriporites         India
  perverrucatus

Duabangoxylon indicam (Navale)       India
  Awasthi (syn. Sapindoxylon
  indicum Navale)

Duabangoxylon tertiarum Prakash      India
  & Awasthi

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Java

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Myanmar

Duabangoxylon bifarium Gottwald      Myanmar

Duabangoxylon pakistanicum Ahmed     Pakistan
  et al.

Enigmocarpon (Extinct), see also Sahnianthus

Enigmocarpon parijai Sahni           India

Enigmocarpon sahnii Chitaley         India
  & Kate

Eotrapa (Extinct)

Eotrapa tetrasepalum (Miki) Miki     Japan
  (syn. Lythrum tetrasepalum Miki)

Florshuetzia (Extinct), see
  also Sonneratia

Florschuetzia sp. (as                France
  Sonneratiaceae in
  Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988)

Florschuetzia trilobata              Bomeo, Java, Assam, Thailand,
  Germeraad et al.                   China,
                                     Red Sea, Nile Delta

Florschuetzia minutus Rawat et al.   India

Florshuetzia cf. meridionalis        India
  Rawat et al.

Florshuetzia semilobata Germeraad    Borneo, Thailand
  et al.

Florschuetzia levipoli Germeraad     Borneo, China
  et al.

Florshuetzia levipoli                New Guinea

Florschuetzia meridionalis           Borneo
  Germemad et al.

Florshuetzia meridionalis            New Guinea

Florschuetzia sp.                    Thailand

Florschuetzia claricolpata Yamanoi   Japan

Florshuetzia reticulata Sohma        Indonesia

Goerboepollenites. see Sporotrapoidites

Heimia

Heimia as Antholithus                Cuba
  heimiaformis Berry

Hemitrapa (Extinct), see also Hemitrapapollenites, Sporotrapoidites

Hemitrapa borealis (Heer) Miki;      USA: Alaska, Califomia;
(syn. Trapa borealis Heer)           Canada:
                                     Saskatchewan, Alberta

Hemitrapa cf. pomeld (Boulay)        Czech Rep., Germany, France
  Mai (syn. Trapa pomelii
  (Saporta) Boulay, Carpolithus
  pomeld Saporta)

Hemitrapa sachalinensis              Russia: Sakhalin Island
  (Okutsu) Miki

Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis              Japan
  (Okutsu) Miki

Hemitrapa yokoyamae (Nathorst)       Japan
  Miki, (syn. Trapa yokoyamae
  Nathorst)

Hemitrapa heissigii Gregor           Czech Rep., Germany

                                     Germany, Austria; Japan

Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki (syn.
  H. teumeri (Menzel) Budantzev
  & T vassiljevii Kornilova)

Hemitrapa pseudoborealis             Russia: Southern Siberia
  Budantzev

Hemitrapapollenites (Extinct)

Hemitrapapollenites medius           China: Shandong
  (Guan) Liu

Jugopollis (Extinct)

Jugopollis tetraporites              India
  Venkatachala & Rawat

Lafoensia

Lafoensia punicifolia D.C.           Panama

Lafoensia sp.                        Brazil: D.F.

Lagerstroemia. including Lagerstroemioxylon

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      India
  & Guleria, cf L. speciosa.

Lagerstroemia as: Rugulitriporites   China
  cf. vestibulipori Muller

Lagerstroemia sp.. cf. L.            India
  indica L.

Lagerstroemia sp. cf. L. indica.     India

Lagerstroemia sahnii Singh et al.    India

Lagerstroemia-like                   Java

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Romania

Lagerstroemia imamurae Tanai         Japan
  & Uemum

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Thailand

Lagerstroemia-like as:               China
  Vemaricolporites pachydermis
  Sun et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Japan

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Thailand

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Thailand

Lagerstroemia europaea Mai           Germany

Lagerstroemia mioparviflora          Nepal
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia eomicrocarpa           Nepal
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia siwalica Prasad        Nepal, India
  et al.

Lagerstroemia jamraniensis Prasad    India
  et al., cf. L. speciosa.

cf. Lagerstroemia                    India

Lagerstroemioxylon cf.               Romania
  eoflosreginum

Lagerstroemia odaniense Choi & Kim   Japan

Lagerstroemioxylon tomentosum        India
  Prakash et al.

Lagerstroemia lignitica              Germany
  (Menzel) Mai

Lagerstroemia neyveliensis Agarwal   India

Lagerstroemia as:                    China
  Planotricolporites
  lagerstromiaformis (Zheng) Song,
  cf L. subcostata Koehne

Lagerstroemia cathayensis Liu        China
  et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Korea

Lagerstroemia.sp.                    Japan

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      India
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      India
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemioxylon irrawaddiensis    Myanmar
  Prakash & Bande

Lagerstroemioxylon deomaliensis      India
  Lakhanpal et al., cf L. villosa

Lagerstroemioxylon arcotense         India
  Awasthi

Lagerstroemia cf. L. parviflora      India
  Roxb.

Lagerstroemioxylon parenchymatosum   Myanmar
  Prakash

Lagerstroemioxylon durum Madler      Germany

Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis      China
  Y. M. Cheng et al.

cf. Lagerstroemia sp.                Germany

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     India
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf L.
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     India
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf. L.
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Sumatra

Lagerstroemia sp. aff. L.            Japan
  subcostata var. fauriei

Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne         Japan

Lagerstroemioxylon eohypolucum       India
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon floribunda        India
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon harsolavense      India
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon obliqueporatum    India
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon royi              India
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon vasicentricum     India
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon benkoelense       Sumatra
  Du, cf. L venusta Wall.

Lagerstroemia indica                 Japan

Lagerstroemia subcostata             Japan

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Thailand

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Japan

Lagerstroernia sp.                   Taiwan

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Taiwan

Lawsonia

Lawonia europaea                     England

cf Lawsonia                          Canada: British Columbia

Lawsonia lawsonioides (Menzel)       Germany
  Mai (ssyn. Carpolithus
  lawsonioides Menzel)

Lawsonia lawsonioides                Germany

Lythraceaepollenites (Extinct)

Lyhraceaepollenites minimus          Germany
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites bavaricus      Germany; Poland
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites decodonensis   Poland
  Stuchlik

Lythrailes, see Cuphea

Lghraceocarpon (Extinct)

Lythraceocarpon mohgaonse Kapgate,   India
  Saxena, & Sheikh

Lythrum

Lythmm elkensis Grimsson et al.      USA: Wyoming

Lythmm sp.                           Spain

Lythmm sp.                           Spain

Lythmm wilhelmii Grimsson et al.     Austria

Lythrun tetrasepalum Miki, see Eotrapa

Lythrum sp.                          Germany

?Lythrum salicaria                   Romania

Lythrum                              Africa: Burundi

Lythnrm                              France

Lythrum                              France

Lythrum                              Korea

Lythrum                              USA: Arizona

Lythrum salicaria L.                 Iran

Microdiptera (Extinct)

Microdiptera parva Chandler (syn.    England
  M. major Chandler)

Microdiptera minor (Chandler) Mai    England

Microdiptera menzelii (E. M.         Eurosiberian
  Reid) Mai

Microdiptera parva Chandler          England, Germany

Microdiptera tavdensis Dorofeev      West Siberia

Microdiptera lusatica Mai            Germany

Microdiptera uralensis (Dorofeev)    Germany, Urals
  Mai (syn. Diclidocanya
  uralensis Dorofeev, Mnerne
  uralensis Eyde)

Microdipiera spp.                    Europe

Microdiptera donara (Holy) Tiffney   Czech Republic

Microdiptera parva                   USA: Vermont

Microdiptera/Mneme type              Canada: Northwest Territories

Mikia (Extinct)

Mikia pellendorfensis Kovar-Eder     Austria
  & Wojcicki

Minsterocarpum (Extinct)

Minsterocarpum alatum Reid &         England
  Chandler

Pachyspermum (Extinct)

Pachyspermum quinqueloculare         England
  Reid & Chandler

Paleolythrum (Extinct)

Paleolythrum hournense Chandler      England

Paleolyhrum gailense Chandler        France
  (syn. Carpolithus sp.
  E. M. Reid)

Paleotrapa (Extinct)

Palaeotrapa aculeata Golovneva,      Russia
  P angulata Golovneva, P.
  triangulata Golovneva

Pemphis, including
  Tricolporopollenites

Pemphis-type                         NE Spain

Pemphis as Tricolporopollenites      NW Spain
  sp.

Peplis, see also Lythrum

Peplis eaglensis Grimsson et al.     USA: Wyoming

Peplis pakutiano Grimsson et al.     Russia: western Central Siberia

Planotricolporites. see Lagerstroemia

Protorrapa (Extinct)

P. douglasii V. N. Vassiljev:        Australia
  P tenuirostrata V. N. Vassiljev;
  P praepomelii V. N. Vassiljev

Pseudotrapa (Extinct)

Pseudotrapa buzekii Z. Kvacek        Czech Republic

Punica, including Punicoxylon & Punicites

Punicoxylon eocenicum Prive-Gill     France

Punica antiquorum (Heer) Mai,        Germany, Belarus, west Siberia
  (syn. Cydonia? antiquorum Heer,
  Carpolithus natans Nikitin,
  Punica natans (Nitikin) Gregor)

Punica palaeogranatum-group          Spain, France, Germany, Poland,
                                     Bulgaria,
                                     Georgia, Moldova

Punica terciaria Gregor              Germany

Punica                               Germany

Punica paleogranatum                 Moldova (Romania)

Punica palaeogranatum                Moldova (Romania)

Punica paleogranatum                 Russia: North Caucasus

Punica sp.                           Poland

Punicites hesperidum O. Weber        Germany

Punica planchoni Saporta & Marion    France

Quereuxia (Extinct), see also Trapa

Quereuria angulata (Newb.) Krysht.   North America; Russia, Siberia
  ex Baikovskaja,
  (syn. Trapago angulata Newb.,
  Trapa? microphylla
  Lesq.. Nymphaeites angulatus
  (Newb.) Bell, Nelumbites Berry,
  Jonquieria Krassilov; see
  others in Hickey 2001)

Quereuxia paulula (W. A. Bell)       Canada: Saskatchewan
  Nevolina; (syn. Trapa paulula
  (Bell) R. W. Brown)

Raoanthus (Extinct)

Raoanthus intertrappea Chitaley      India
  & Patel

Rotala

Rotala as: Heterocolpites            Africa: Cameroun
  verrucatus Salad-Cheboldaeff

Rotala as: Verrutricolporites        Africa: Cameroun
  rotundiporus

Rugulitriporites, see Lagerstroemia

Sahnianthus (Extinct)

Sahnianthus parijai Shukla           India

Sahnianthus dinectrianum Shukla      India

Sahnianthus? as Triorites sp.        India

Sahnipushpam (Extinct)

Sahnipushpam shuklai Verma (syn.     India
  S. glandulosum Prakash)

Schenkiella (Extinct)

Schenkiella credneri (Schenck)       Germany, Czech Republic
  Wojcicki & Kvacek, (syn. Trapa
  credneri Schenk)

Shirleya (Extinct)

Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore      USA: Washington

Sonneratia, including Sonneratioxylon: see also Florshuetzia

Sonneratioxylon turonicum            Uzbekistan
  Shelomentseva

Sonneratia meghalayensis Ambwani     India

Sonneratiorhizos raoi Chitaley       India

Sonneratiaceae (as Florshuetia       France
  sp. in Plaziat et al. 2001)

Sonneratioxylon preapetalum          India, Thailand, Sumatra
  Awasthi (synonymsfide
  Mehrotra 1988 include: S.
  caseolarioides Shete & Kulkarni;
  S.nawargaoensis Bande & Prakash;
  and S. intertrappeum Biradar &
  Mahabale)

Sonneratioxylon aubrevevillei        Libya
  Louvet

Aff Sonneratia: Sonneratioipollis    India
  bellus Venkatachala & Kar

Aff. Sonneratia: Jugopollis          India
  tetraporites Venkatachala
  & Rawat

Sonneratia kyushuensis               Japan
  Srivastava & Suzuki

Sonneratioxylon prambachense         Austria
  Hofmann

Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler    Borneo

Sonneratia alba J. Smith             Bomeo

Sonneratioxylon dakshinense          India
  Ramanujam

Sonneratioxylon dudukurense Rao      India
  & Ramanujam

Sonneratia sp.                       SE China

Sonneratia sp.                       Thailand

Sonneratioxylon duabangoides         India

Sporotrapoidites, see also
  Trapa, Hemitrapa

Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii (Nagy)    Germany, Japan; Hungary,
  Nagy (syn. Goerboepollenites       Poland, Taiwan, China
  erdtmanii Nagy, Trapapollis
  erdtmanii (Nagy) Kohlman-
  Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         China

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         Thailand

Sporotrapoidites illingensis Klaus   Austria, Hungary, Sweden,
  (syn. Trapopollis illingensis      Poland, Russia,
  (Klaus) Kohlman-Adamska)           eastern Siberia

Sporotrapoidites weiheensis          China
  (Sun & Fan) Guan

Sporotrapoidites minor Guan          Taiwan, China

Striasyncolpites. see Cuphea

Syncolporites, see Cuphea

Tamesicarpum (Extinct)

Tamesicarpum polyspermum Reid        England
  & Chandler Trapa

Trapa? microphylla Lesquereux;       USA: Wyoming- Montana,
  (syn. Neuropteris (?)              Dakotas; Canada
  angulata Newb., Nymphaeites
  angulatus Bell: Trapa angulata
  Brown; Quereuxia angulata
  (Newb.)
   Baikovs.; see other names,
  Brown 1962, Hickey 2001)

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa paulula (W. A. Bell) R. W.     Canada: Saskatchewan
  Brown

Trapa borealis Heer See Hemitrapa    Alaska, Canada: Saskatchewan
  borealis (Heer) Miki

Trapa mohgaoensis Paradkar           India
  & Patki

Trapa n. sp.                         USA: Wyoming

Trapa wilcoxensis Berry              USA: Tennessee

Trapa protonatans Endo               Manchuria

Trapa vassiljevii Kornilova,         Kazakhstan
  see Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa americana Knowlton (syn.:      Idaho, Oregon, Nevada,
  T.? occidentalis Knowlton)         California

Trapa? occidentalis Knowlton, see Trapa americana

Trapa assmanniana (Goepp.)           Kazakhstan, Poland
  Gothan (syn. Populus
  assmanniana Goepp.)

Trapa credneri Schenk                Germany, Czech Republic

Trapa zapfei Berger                  Austria

Trapa pomelli Boulay; see            France, Germany, Czech Rep
  Hemitrapa pomelii

Trapa sp.                            Thailand

Trapa teumeri Menzel, see            Germany
  Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Austria, Hungary, Poland,
  illingensis Klaus                  eastern
                                     Siberia, Russia, Sweden

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Poland
  erdtmani (Nagy)Nagy

Trapa silesiaca Goeppert (syn.       Poland, Portugal, Germany,
  T. heeri Fritsch, T. bifrons       Czech Rep., Austria, Russia
  Goeppert emend. Wojcicki &
  Zastawniak)

Trapa spectabilis Wojcicki &         Austria
  Kovar-Eder

Trapa yokoyamae Nathorst; see        Japan
  Hemitrapa yokoyamae
  (Nathorst) Miki

Trapa hokkaidoensis Okutsu; see      Japan
  Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis
  (Okutsu) Miki

Trapa sachaliensis Okutsu; see       Russia: Sakahlin Island
  Hemitrapa sachaliensis (Okutsu)
  Miki

Trapa chengsenii Wojcicki et al.     China: Yunnan

Trapa ezoana Tanai & Suzuki          Japan

Trapa sp.                            Belaruss

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa bifrons Goepp.                 Poland

Trapa bosniaca Jankovic & Pantic     Bosnia

Trapa praehungarica Wojcicki         Hungary
  & Bajzath

Trapa kvacekii Wojcicki &            Greece
  Velitzelos

cf. Trapa                            southern Alaska

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites carlesii   Spain
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa ceretana Rerolle               Spain

Trapa excelsa Dorofeev               Russia: East Siberia
  (other Trapa included)

Trapa - 15 species listed from       Europe
  the Miocene and Pliocene
  of Europe

Trapa prenalans Dorf                 Idaho

Trapa sp.                            USA: Maryland

Trapa lydiae Chochiyeva              Georgia

Trapa alabamensis Berry              USA: Alabama

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites cesarei    Italy
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa fritzlariensis Wojcicki        Germany
  & Wilde

T. espectata Givulescu & Ticleanu    Romania

Trapa - 5 fossil species             Romania

Trapa baasii Gregor & Mehl           Germany

Trapa minuta Opravil                 Czech Republic

Trapa natans L.                      Kashmir

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.                Kashmir

Trapa bicerata Miki                  Japan

Trapa incisa S.& Z.                  Japan

Trapa macropoda Miki                 Japan

Trapa natans                         Sweden

Trapa natans                         England

Trapa natans                         England

Trapa natans                         Finland

Trapapollis, see Sporotrapoidites

Trapophyllum (Extinct)

Trapophyllum europaeum Massalongo    Italy

Tricolporopollenites. see Pemphis

Triorites (Lythracidites), see
  Sahnianthus

Verrutricolporites. See Crenea

Verrutriporites. see Duabanga

Woodfordia

Woodfordia neofruticosa M. Prasad    Nepal

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz       Kashmir

FossilTaxon                          Reference

Adenaria

Aff. Adenaria                        Wijninga 1996a, b

Alatospermum (Extinct)

Alatospermum lakense Chandler       Chandler 1962

Ammannia

Ammannia lakeasis Chandler           Chandler 1962, 1964

Aff. Ammannia                        Wijninga 19966

Ammannia sp.                         Watanasak 1990; Songtham et
                                     al. 2005

Ammannia sp.                         Lezine 1988

Chitaleypushpam (Extinct)            Paradkar 1973

Cranmeria (Extinct)

Cranmeria trilocularis Reid &        Reid and Chandler 1933
  Chandler

Crenea including Verrutricolporites

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Jammillo et al. 2007
van der Hammen & Wijmstra

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Jarzen and Dilcher 2006

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Germeraad et al. 1968

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      van der Hammen and Wijmstra 1964

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Gerneraad et al. 1968; Legoux 1978

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Lorente 1986

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Kumar 1981

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Regali et al. 1974

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Salard-Cheboldaeff 1976, 1981

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       Sun et al. 1980; Li et al. 2008

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       Liu and Yang 1999

Cuphea, including Striasyncolpites Syncolporites, Lythraites

Syncolporites subtilis Boltenhagen   Boltenhagen 1976

Lythraites spp.                      Wang et al. 1990; Song et al. 2004

Cuphea sp.                           Machin 1971

Cuphea sp.                           Palacios and Rzedowski 1993

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Germeraad et al. 1968
  Germeraad et al.

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Regali et al. 1974

Cuphea antiqua Britton               Britton 1892; Berry 1917, 1939a

Cuphea sp.                           Graham and Graham 1971a

Cuphea sp.                           Graham 1976

Cuphea cf. dipetala (L.f.) Koehne    Van der Hammen and Gonzdlez
                                     1960; Hooghiemstra 1984

Cuphea spp.                          Behling 1997; Barbers et al. 2000;
                                     Macedo et al. 2009; Scherer and
                                     Lorscheitter 2009

Decodon, see also Lythraceaepollenites

Decodon tiffneyi Estrada-Ruiz        Rodriguez-de la Rosa et al. 1998;
  et al.                             Estrada-Ruiz et al. 2009

Decodon sp.                          Collinson in Bone, 1986

Decodon-like                         Fairon-Demaret and Smith 2002

Decodon allenbyensis                 Cevallos-Ferriz and Stockey 1988;
  Cevallos-Ferriz & Stockey          Little and Stockey 2003

Decodon sp.                          Grimsson et al. 2012

Decodon sp.                          Manchester 1994

Decodon gibbosus (E. M. Reid)        Chandler 1960
  E. M. Reid ex Nikitin

Decodon- fossil occurrences of       Tifiney 1981
  13 spp. summarized to 1981

Decodon vectensis Chandler           Chandler 1963a

Decodon brownii Meyer &              Meyer and Manchester, 1997
  Manchester

Decodon vectensis and 11             Dorofeev, 1977
  other species

Decodon gibbosus                     Mai and Walther 1978, 1985, 1991

Decodon gibbosus                     Kvacek and Sakala 1999

Decodon sp.                          Meller 1998a, b; Kovar-Eder and
                                     Meller 2003

Decodon gibbosus                     Dorofeev 1960

Decodon sp.                          Matthews and Ovenden 1990

Decodon alaskana Wolfe & Tanai       Wolfe and Tanai 1980

Decodon gibbosus, D. vectensis.      Friis 1980
  Decodon sp.

Decodon gibbosus, D. globosus        Dorofeev 1960

Decodon mosanruensis Matsumoto       Matsumoto et al. 1997
  et al.

Decodon: as Myrtus oregonensis       Lesquereux 1883; Condit 1938;
  Lesq.                              Wolfe and Tanai 1980

Lythraceaepollenites decodonensis    Stuchlik 1994; Worobiec 2009
  Stuchlik

Decodon sp.                          Matthews and Ovenden 1990

Decodon sp.                          Grimsson et al., 2012

Decodon verticillatus                Delcourt 1980

Decodon verticillatus                Delcourt 1979

Dryoxylon (Extinct)

Dryoxylon mohgaoense Rode            Prakash 1956
  (syn. Parajugloxylon
  Mohgaonensis)

Duabanga. including Duabangoxylon & Duabangocarpon

Duabangocarpon deccanii Kadoo        Kadoo and Kolhe 2002
  & Kolhe

Duabanga-like                        Little et al. 2004

Duabanga? as Verrutriporites         Rao and Ramanujam, 1975
  perverrucatus

Duabangoxylon indicam (Navale)       Navale 1956; Awasthi 1981 a;
  Awasthi (syn. Sapindoxylon         Awasthi and Prasad 1987;
  indicum Navale)                    Prusad 1993

Duabangoxylon tertiarum Prakash      Prakash and Awasthi 1970;
  & Awasthi                          Mehrotra and Mandaokar 1998

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Kramer 1974

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Gottwald 1994

Duabangoxylon bifarium Gottwald      Gottwald 1994

Duabangoxylon pakistanicum Ahmed     Ahmed et al. 1991
  et al.

Enigmocarpon (Extinct), see also Sahnianthus

Enigmocarpon parijai Sahni           Sahni and Rode 1937; Sahni 1943

Enigmocarpon sahnii Chitaley         Chitaley and Kate 1977
  & Kate

Eotrapa (Extinct)

Eotrapa tetrasepalum (Miki) Miki     Miki 1959, 1961, 1967
  (syn. Lythrum tetrasepalum Miki)

Florshuetzia (Extinct), see
  also Sonneratia

Florschuetzia sp. (as                Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988;
  Sonneratiaceae in                  Plaziat et al. 2001
  Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988)

Florschuetzia trilobata              Germeraad et al. 1968; Muller 1981
  Germeraad et al.                   a; Watanasak 1990; Handique 1993;
                                     Liu
                                     and Yang 1999; Morley 2000

Florschuetzia minutus Rawat et al.   Rawat et al. 1977

Florshuetzia cf. meridionalis        Rawat et al. 1977
  Rawat et al.

Florshuetzia semilobata Germeraad    Gemteraad et al. 1968; Muller
  et al.                             1981a; Morley 2000

Florschuetzia levipoli Germeraad     Germeraad et al. 1968; Muller
  et al.                             1978; Wang 2006

Florshuetzia levipoli                Khan 1974

Florschuetzia meridionalis           Germeraad et al. 1968; Muller 1978
  Germemad et al.

Florshuetzia meridionalis            Khan 1974

Florschuetzia sp.                    Songtham et al. 2005

Florschuetzia claricolpata Yamanoi   Yamanoi 1984

Florshuetzia reticulata Sohma        Sohma 1973

Goerboepollenites. see Sporotrapoidites

Heimia

Heimia as Antholithus                Berry 1939b
  heimiaformis Berry

Hemitrapa (Extinct), see also Hemitrapapollenites, Sporotrapoidites

Hemitrapa borealis (Heer) Miki;      Heer 1869a; Dawson 1875, 1886
(syn. Trapa borealis Heer)           (identity unconfirmed); Knowlton
                                     1894, 1898b; Penhallow 1907, 1908;
                                     Macginitie 1937; Miki 1941, 1952a;
                                     Tanai and Suzuki 1963; Wolfe and
                                     Tanai 1980

Hemitrapa cf. pomeld (Boulay)        Saporta 1878; Boulay 1899; Mai and
  Mai (syn. Trapa pomelii            Walther 1991; Wojcicki and Kvacek
  (Saporta) Boulay, Carpolithus      2003; Kovar-Eden et al. 2005
  pomeld Saporta)

Hemitrapa sachalinensis              Okutsu 1939; Miki 1952a; Wojcicki
  (Okutsu) Miki                      and
                                     Kvacek 2003

Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis              Miki 1952a; Tanai and Suzuki 1963;
  (Okutsu) Miki                      Gregor 1982a; Wojcicki and
                                     Kvacek, 2003

Hemitrapa yokoyamae (Nathorst)       Nathorst 1888; Kryshtofovich 1920;
  Miki, (syn. Trapa yokoyamae        Miki 1952a;
  Nathorst)                          Huzioka 1963; Wojcicki and
                                     Kvacek, 2003

Hemitrapa heissigii Gregor           Gregor 1982a; Wojcicki and Wilde
                                     2001; Wojcicki and Kvacek
                                     2002a, b; Kovar-Eder et al. 2005

Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki (syn.    Miki 1941; Gregor 1982a;
  H. teumeri (Menzel) Budantzev      Kovar-Eder et al. 2002, 2005
  & T vassiljevii Kornilova)

Hemitrapa pseudoborealis             Budantzev 1960; Kovar-Eder et
  Budantzev                          al. 2002

Hemitrapapollenites (Extinct)

Hemitrapapollenites medius           Liang, 2004
  (Guan) Liu

Jugopollis (Extinct)

Jugopollis tetraporites              Venkatachala and Rawat 1972
  Venkatachala & Rawat

Lafoensia

Lafoensia punicifolia D.C.           Bartlett and Barghoom 1973

Lafoensia sp.                        Barberi et al. 2000

Lagerstroemia. including Lagerstroemioxylon

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Lakhanpal and Guleria 1981
  & Guleria, cf L. speciosa.

Lagerstroemia as: Rugulitriporites   Zhang and Zhan 1991
  cf. vestibulipori Muller

Lagerstroemia sp.. cf. L.            Trivedi 1956
  indica L.

Lagerstroemia sp. cf. L. indica.     Shukla 1950a

Lagerstroemia sahnii Singh et al.    Singh et al. 2010

Lagerstroemia-like                   Morley 2000

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Staub 1887; Liu et al. 2008

Lagerstroemia imamurae Tanai         Tanai and Uemura 1991
  & Uemum

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Songtham et al. 2005

Lagerstroemia-like as:               Sun et al. 1980
  Vemaricolporites pachydermis
  Sun et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Yamanoi 1978

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Songtham et al. 2005

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Watanasak 1990

Lagerstroemia europaea Mai           Mai 1964; Gregor 1978

Lagerstroemia mioparviflora          Dwivedi et al. 2006
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia eomicrocarpa           Dwivedi et al. 2006
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia siwalica Prasad        Prasad 1994a; Agarwal 2002
  et al.

Lagerstroemia jamraniensis Prasad    Prasad et al. 2004
  et al., cf. L. speciosa.

cf. Lagerstroemia                    Lakhanpal and Dayal 1966

Lagerstroemioxylon cf.               lamandei et al. 1998
  eoflosreginum

Lagerstroemia odaniense Choi & Kim   Choi et al. 2010

Lagerstroemioxylon tomentosum        Prakash et al. 1992, 1994
  Prakash et al.

Lagerstroemia lignitica              Mai 1960; Mai 1971; Gregor 1978
  (Menzel) Mai

Lagerstroemia neyveliensis Agarwal   Agarwal 2002

Lagerstroemia as:                    Song et al. 1999, 2004
  Planotricolporites
  lagerstromiaformis (Zheng) Song,
  cf L. subcostata Koehne

Lagerstroemia cathayensis Liu        Liu et al. 2008
  et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Yamanoi 1992a

Lagerstroemia.sp.                    Yamanoi 1992b

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Antal and Awasthi, 1993
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Prasad 1994b
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemioxylon irrawaddiensis    Prakash and Bande 1980;
  Prakash & Bande                    Prakash et al. 1994

Lagerstroemioxylon deomaliensis      Lakhanpal et al. 1981
  Lakhanpal et al., cf L. villosa

Lagerstroemioxylon arcotense         Awasthi 1981b
  Awasthi

Lagerstroemia cf. L. parviflora      Srivastava and Bande 1992
  Roxb.

Lagerstroemioxylon parenchymatosum   Prakash 1965a, b; Prakash 1972;
  Prakash                            Guleria 1989

Lagerstroemioxylon durum Madler      Madler 1939

Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis      Cheng et al. 2007
  Y. M. Cheng et al.

cf. Lagerstroemia sp.                Menke 1976 (fide Muller 1981a)

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Prakash and Tripathi, 1970
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf L.
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Numerous other collections, e.g.,
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf. L.         Lakhanpal et al. 1984; Guleria
  speciosa (L.) Pers.                1989, 1992; Harsh and Sharma,
                                     1995; Tiwari
                                     and Mehrmra 2000, Mehrona et al.
                                     2004

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Kramer 1974

Lagerstroemia sp. aff. L.            Momohara et al. 2006
  subcostata var. fauriei

Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne         Iwauchi and Hase 1987

Lagerstroemioxylon eohypolucum       Harsh and Shams 1995
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon floribunda        Harsh and Shama 1995
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon harsolavense      Harsh and Sharma 1995
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon obliqueporatum    Harsh and Shams 1995
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon royi              Harsh and Sharma 1995
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon vasicentricum     Harsh and Shama 1995
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon benkoelense       Du 1988
  Du, cf. L venusta Wall.

Lagerstroemia indica                 Miki 1937

Lagerstroemia subcostata             Fujiki et al. 2001

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Rugmai et al. 2008

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Miyoshi et al. 1999

Lagerstroernia sp.                   Chung and Huang 1972

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Lin et al. 2004

Lawsonia

Lawonia europaea                     von Ettingshausen 1879

cf Lawsonia                          Cevallos-Ferriz and Stuckey, 1988

Lawsonia lawsonioides (Menzel)       May-01
  Mai (ssyn. Carpolithus
  lawsonioides Menzel)

Lawsonia lawsonioides                May-96

Lythraceaepollenites (Extinct)

Lyhraceaepollenites minimus          Thiele-Pfeiffer 1988
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites bavaricus      Thiele-Pfeiffer 1980;
  Thiele-Pfeiffer                    Worobiec 2009

Lythraeceaepollenites decodonensis   Stuchlik 1994; Worobiec 2009
  Stuchlik

Lythrailes, see Cuphea

Lghraceocarpon (Extinct)

Lythraceocarpon mohgaonse Kapgate,   Kapgate et al. 2003
  Saxena, & Sheikh

Lythrum

Lythmm elkensis Grimsson et al.      Grimsson et al. 2011

Lythmm sp.                           Barron et al. 2010

Lythmm sp.                           Van Campo 1989

Lythmm wilhelmii Grimsson et al.     Grimsson et al. 2011

Lythrun tetrasepalum Miki, see Eotrapa

Lythrum sp.                          Menke 1976

?Lythrum salicaria                   Ticleanu and Diaconia 1997

Lythrum                              Bonnefille and Rioliet 1988

Lythnrm                              Andrieu et al. 1997

Lythrum                              Bakels. 1995

Lythrum                              Fujiki and Yasuda 2004

Lythrum                              Davis and Shafer 1992

Lythrum salicaria L.                 Wasylikowa 1967

Microdiptera (Extinct)

Microdiptera parva Chandler (syn.    Chandler 1957, 1963a, b
  M. major Chandler)

Microdiptera minor (Chandler) Mai    Eyde 1972; Mai and Walther 1985

Microdiptera menzelii (E. M.         Mai 1985, 1987; other spp. listed
  Reid) Mai

Microdiptera parva Chandler          Chandler 1957; Mai 1998; Mai and
                                     Walther 1978, 1985, 1991

Microdiptera tavdensis Dorofeev      Dorofeev 1977; Mai 1985

Microdiptera lusatica Mai            Mai 1987; Mai and Walther 1991

Microdiptera uralensis (Dorofeev)    Mai 1987
  Mai (syn. Diclidocanya
  uralensis Dorofeev, Mnerne
  uralensis Eyde)

Microdipiera spp.                    Mai 1985

Microdiptera donara (Holy) Tiffney   Tiffney 1981

Microdiptera parva                   Tiffney 1981

Microdiptera/Mneme type              Matthews and Ovenden 1990

Mikia (Extinct)

Mikia pellendorfensis Kovar-Eder     Kovar-Eder et al. 2002
  & Wojcicki

Minsterocarpum (Extinct)

Minsterocarpum alatum Reid &         Reid and Chandler 1933
  Chandler

Pachyspermum (Extinct)

Pachyspermum quinqueloculare         Reid and Chandler 1933
  Reid & Chandler

Paleolythrum (Extinct)

Paleolythrum hournense Chandler      Chandler 1960, 1963b

Paleolyhrum gailense Chandler        Chandler 1963a
  (syn. Carpolithus sp.
  E. M. Reid)

Paleotrapa (Extinct)

Palaeotrapa aculeata Golovneva,      Golovneva 1991, 1994, 2000;
  P angulata Golovneva, P.           Hickey 2011
  triangulata Golovneva

Pemphis, including
  Tricolporopollenites

Pemphis-type                         Cavagnetto and Anadon 1996

Pemphis as Tricolporopollenites      Cavagnetto 2002
  sp.

Peplis, see also Lythrum

Peplis eaglensis Grimsson et al.     Grimsson et al. 2011

Peplis pakutiano Grimsson et al.     Grimsson et al. 2011

Planotricolporites. see Lagerstroemia

Protorrapa (Extinct)

P. douglasii V. N. Vassiljev:        Vassiljev 1967; Tiffney 1984;
  P tenuirostrata V. N. Vassiljev;   Douglas 1994 (citation P.
  P praepomelii V. N. Vassiljev      tenuifolia in error = A
                                     tenuirostrata)
Pseudotrapa (Extinct)

Pseudotrapa buzekii Z. Kvacek        Kvacek et al. 2014

Punica, including Punicoxylon & Punicites

Punicoxylon eocenicum Prive-Gill     Prive-Gill 1981

Punica antiquorum (Heer) Mai,        Mai and Walther 1978, 1985;
  (syn. Cydonia? antiquorum Heer,    Gregor 1978
  Carpolithus natans Nikitin,
  Punica natans (Nitikin) Gregor)

Punica palaeogranatum-group          Palamarev 1989

Punica terciaria Gregor              Gregor 1978

Punica                               Mai 1995

Punica paleogranatum                 Givulescu 1999

Punica palaeogranatum                Shtephyrtza 1989

Punica paleogranatum                 Kutuzkina 1974

Punica sp.                           Szafer 1961

Punicites hesperidum O. Weber        Weyland 1948

Punica planchoni Saporta & Marion    Saporta and Marion 1876

Quereuxia (Extinct), see also Trapa

Quereuria angulata (Newb.) Krysht.   Hickey 2001
  ex Baikovskaja,
  (syn. Trapago angulata Newb.,
  Trapa? microphylla
  Lesq.. Nymphaeites angulatus
  (Newb.) Bell, Nelumbites Berry,
  Jonquieria Krassilov; see
  others in Hickey 2001)

Quereuxia paulula (W. A. Bell)       Bell 1949; Brown 1962; Hickey 2001
  Nevolina; (syn. Trapa paulula
  (Bell) R. W. Brown)

Raoanthus (Extinct)

Raoanthus intertrappea Chitaley      Chitaley and Patel 1975
  & Patel

Rotala

Rotala as: Heterocolpites            Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978, 1981
  verrucatus Salad-Cheboldaeff

Rotala as: Verrutricolporites        Salard-Cheboldaeff 1976, 1981
  rotundiporus

Rugulitriporites, see Lagerstroemia

Sahnianthus (Extinct)

Sahnianthus parijai Shukla           Shukla 1944

Sahnianthus dinectrianum Shukla      Shukla 1958

Sahnianthus? as Triorites sp.        Chitaley 1951

Sahnipushpam (Extinct)

Sahnipushpam shuklai Verma (syn.     Verma 1956
  S. glandulosum Prakash)

Schenkiella (Extinct)

Schenkiella credneri (Schenck)       Schenk 1877; Wojcicki and Kvacek
  Wojcicki & Kvacek, (syn. Trapa     2002a
  credneri Schenk)

Shirleya (Extinct)

Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore      Pigg and Devore 2005

Sonneratia, including Sonneratioxylon: see also Florshuetzia

Sonneratioxylon turonicum            Shelomentseva 1992
  Shelomentseva

Sonneratia meghalayensis Ambwani     Ambwani 1991

Sonneratiorhizos raoi Chitaley       Chitaley 1968

Sonneratiaceae (as Florshuetia       Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988;
  sp. in Plaziat et al. 2001)        Plaziat et al. 2001

Sonneratioxylon preapetalum          Awasthi 1969; Kramer 1974;
  Awasthi (synonymsfide              Biradar and
  Mehrotra 1988 include: S.          Mahabale 1973; Shete and Kulkami,
  caseolarioides Shete & Kulkarni;   1982; Bande and Prakash 1984;
  S.nawargaoensis Bande & Prakash;   Lakhanpal et al. 1984; Mehrotra
  and S. intertrappeum Biradar &     1988; Vozenin-Serra et al. 1989;
  Mahabale)                          Guleria 1991; Srivastava 2008

Sonneratioxylon aubrevevillei        Louver 1970
  Louvet

Aff Sonneratia: Sonneratioipollis    Venkatachala and Kar 1968
  bellus Venkatachala & Kar

Aff. Sonneratia: Jugopollis          Venkatachala and Rawat 1972
  tetraporites Venkatachala
  & Rawat

Sonneratia kyushuensis               Srivastava and Suzuki 2001
  Srivastava & Suzuki

Sonneratioxylon prambachense         Hofmann 1952
  Hofmann

Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler    Germeraad et al. 1968; Muller
                                     1978; Morley 2000

Sonneratia alba J. Smith             Muller 1978

Sonneratioxylon dakshinense          Ramanujam 1956; Awasthi 1969;
  Ramanujam                          Mehrotra 1988

Sonneratioxylon dudukurense Rao      Rao and Ramanujam 1966; Mehrotra
  & Ramanujam                        1988

Sonneratia sp.                       Zheng and Li 2000

Sonneratia sp.                       Rugmai et al. 2008

Sonneratioxylon duabangoides         Shallom 1963; Chitaley 1968

Sporotrapoidites, see also
  Trapa, Hemitrapa

Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii (Nagy)    Nagy 1979; Mohr 1983; Mohr and
  Nagy (syn. Goerboepollenites       Gee 1990; Stuchlik 1994;
  erdtmanii Nagy, Trapapollis        Worobiec 2009; Shaw 1995
  erdtmanii (Nagy) Kohlman-
  Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         Wang 2006

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         Songtham et al. 2005

Sporotrapoidites illingensis Klaus   Klaus 1954; Stuchlik 1994
  (syn. Trapopollis illingensis
  (Klaus) Kohlman-Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites weiheensis          Wang 2006
  (Sun & Fan) Guan

Sporotrapoidites minor Guan          Shaw 1995; Wang 2006

Striasyncolpites. see Cuphea

Syncolporites, see Cuphea

Tamesicarpum (Extinct)

Tamesicarpum polyspermum Reid        Reid and Chandler 1933
  & Chandler Trapa

Trapa? microphylla Lesquereux;       Newberry 1861; Lesqueneux 1878;
  (syn. Neuropteris (?)              Ward 1887; Knowlton 18986:
  angulata Newb., Nymphaeites        Brown and Houldsworth
  angulatus Bell: Trapa angulata    1939: Dorf 1942; Brown 1962;
  Brown; Quereuxia angulata          Hickey 2001
  (Newb.)
   Baikovs.; see other names,
  Brown 1962, Hickey 2001)

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa paulula (W. A. Bell) R. W.     Bell 1949; Brown 1962; Hickey 2001
  Brown

Trapa borealis Heer See Hemitrapa    Heer 1869a; Dawson 1875; Penhallow
  borealis (Heer) Miki               1907, 1908

Trapa mohgaoensis Paradkar           Paradkar and Patki, 1987
  & Patki

Trapa n. sp.                         Stanton and Knowlton 1897

Trapa wilcoxensis Berry              Berry 1914a, 1916a

Trapa protonatans Endo               Endo 1934

Trapa vassiljevii Kornilova,         Komilova 1960; Kovar-Eder
  see Hemitrapa trapelloidea         et al. 2002

Trapa americana Knowlton (syn.:      Knowlton 18986; See text for
  T.? occidentalis Knowlton)         additional localities in
                                     North America
Trapa? occidentalis Knowlton, see Trapa americana

Trapa assmanniana (Goepp.)           Goeppert 1855; Kvacek et al. 2004
  Gothan (syn. Populus
  assmanniana Goepp.)

Trapa credneri Schenk                Schenk 1877; Kirchheimer 1957;
                                     Wojcicki and Kvacek 2002a

Trapa zapfei Berger                  Berger 1957; Gregor 1980b; Meller
                                     and van Bergen 2003

Trapa pomelli Boulay; see            Saporta 1878; Boulay 1899; Mai
  Hemitrapa pomelii                  and Walther 1991;
                                     Wojcicki and Wilde 2001; Wojcicki
                                     and Kvacek 2003; Kovar-Eder et al.
                                     2005

Trapa sp.                            Songtham et al. 2005

Trapa teumeri Menzel, see            Menzel 1933; Kovar-Eder et al.
  Hemitrapa trapelloidea             2002, 2005

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Klaus 1954; Smchlik, 1994
  illingensis Klaus

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Worobiec 2009
  erdtmani (Nagy)Nagy

Trapa silesiaca Goeppert (syn.       Goeppert 1852, 1855; Heer 1881;
  T. heeri Fritsch, T. bifrons       Gregor 1980a; Wojcicki and
  Goeppert emend. Wojcicki &         Zasstawniak 2002
  Zastawniak)

Trapa spectabilis Wojcicki &         Kovar-Eder et al. 2005
  Kovar-Eder

Trapa yokoyamae Nathorst; see        Nathorst 1888; Kryshtofovich
  Hemitrapa yokoyamae                1920, Miki l952a
  (Nathorst) Miki

Trapa hokkaidoensis Okutsu; see      Okutsu 1939; Miki 1952a
  Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis
  (Okutsu) Miki

Trapa sachaliensis Okutsu; see       Okutsu 1939; Miki 1952a
  Hemitrapa sachaliensis (Okutsu)
  Miki

Trapa chengsenii Wojcicki et al.     Wojcicki et al. 1999

Trapa ezoana Tanai & Suzuki          Tanai and Suzuki 1963

Trapa sp.                            Dorofeev 1960

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton

Trapa bifrons Goepp.                 Goeppert 1852;

Trapa bosniaca Jankovic & Pantic     Jankovic and Pantic 1953

Trapa praehungarica Wojcicki         Wojcicki and Bajzath 1997,
  & Bajzath                          Erdei et al. 2009

Trapa kvacekii Wojcicki &            Wojcicki and Velitzelos 2007
  Velitzelos

cf. Trapa                            Reinink-Smith and Leopold 2005

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites carlesii   Zetter and Ferguson 2001
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa ceretana Rerolle               Rerolle 1885; Kovar-Eder
                                     et al. 2005

Trapa excelsa Dorofeev               Dorofeev 1963
  (other Trapa included)

Trapa - 15 species listed from       Kovar-Eder et al. 2005
  the Miocene and Pliocene
  of Europe

Trapa prenalans Dorf                 Dorf 1936

Trapa sp.                            Stults 2006; Stults and
                                     Axsmith 2011

Trapa lydiae Chochiyeva              Chochiyeva 1967

Trapa alabamensis Berry              Berry 1914a, 1916b; Stults 2006

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites cesarei    Zetter and Ferguson, 2001
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa fritzlariensis Wojcicki        Wojcicki and Wilde 2001; Kovar-
  & Wilde                            Eder et al. 2005

T. espectata Givulescu & Ticleanu    Givulescu and Ticleanu 1986

Trapa - 5 fossil species             Ticleanu and Diaconi5 1997

Trapa baasii Gregor & Mehl           Gregor and Mehl 1987

Trapa minuta Opravil                 Opravil 1966


Trapa natans L.                      Puri 1951

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.                Puri 1951

Trapa bicerata Miki                  Miki 1938

Trapa incisa S.& Z.                  Miki, 1938

Trapa macropoda Miki                 Miki 1938

Trapa natans                         Assarsson 1927; Jonsell and
                                     Karlsson 2010

Trapa natans                         Flenley et al. 1975

Trapa natans                         Schofield and Bunting 2005

Trapa natans                         Korhola and Tikkanen 1997

Trapapollis, see Sporotrapoidites

Trapophyllum (Extinct)

Trapophyllum europaeum Massalongo    Massalongo 1858

Tricolporopollenites. see Pemphis

Triorites (Lythracidites), see
  Sahnianthus

Verrutricolporites. See Crenea

Verrutriporites. see Duabanga

Woodfordia

Woodfordia neofruticosa M. Prasad    Prasad 1994c

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz       Puri 1943

FossilTaxon                          Status

Adenaria

Aff. Adenaria                        Accepted as Lyth, possibly
                                     Adenaria
Alatospermum (Extinct)

Alatospermum lakense Chandler       Accepted as Lyth

Ammannia

Ammannia lakeasis Chandler           Rejected

Aff. Ammannia                        Rejected

Ammannia sp.                         Listed

Ammannia sp.                         Listed

Chitaleypushpam (Extinct)            Unconfirmed as Lyth

Cranmeria (Extinct)

Cranmeria trilocularis Reid &        Rejected as Lyth
  Chandler

Crenea including Verrutricolporites

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Unconfirmed as Lyth
van der Hammen & Wijmstra

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Unconfirmed as Crenea

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Accepted

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Accepted

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Unconfirmed as Crenea

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Accepted as Crenea

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Unconfirmed, probable

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Accepted as Crenea

Verrutricolporites rotundiporus      Unconfirmed as Crenea

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       Rejected as Crenea

Verrutricolporites pachydermis       Rejected as Crenea.
                                     Lagerstroemia?

Cuphea, including Striasyncolpites Syncolporites, Lythraites

Syncolporites subtilis Boltenhagen   Rejected as Lyth

Lythraites spp.                      Rejected as Lyth

Cuphea sp.                           Rejected as Lyth

Cuphea sp.                           Accepted

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Accepted as Cuphea
  Germeraad et al.

Striasyncolpites zwaardii            Accepted as Cuphea

Cuphea antiqua Britton               Unconfirmed, possible

Cuphea sp.                           Accepted

Cuphea sp.                           Accepted

Cuphea cf. dipetala (L.f.) Koehne    Accepted

Cuphea spp.                          Accepted

Decodon, see also Lythraceaepollenites

Decodon tiffneyi Estrada-Ruiz        Accepted
  et al.

Decodon sp.                          Unconfirmed

Decodon-like                         Unconfirmed

Decodon allenbyensis                 Accepted
  Cevallos-Feniz & Stockey

Decodon sp.                          Accepted

Decodon sp.                          Accepted

Decodon gibbosus (E. M. Reid)        Accepted
  E. M. Reid ex Nikitin

Decodon- fossil occurrences of       Listed
  13 spp. summarized to 1981

Decodon vectensis Chandler           Accepted

Decodon brownii Meyer &              Accepted
  Manchester

Decodon vectensis and 11             Accepted
  other species

Decodon gibbosus                     Accepted

Decodon gibbosus                     Accepted

Decodon sp.                          Listed

Decodon gibbosus                     Accepted

Decodon sp.                          Accepted

Decodon alaskana Wolfe & Tanai       Accepted

Decodon gibbosus, D. vectensis.      Accepted
  Decodon sp.

Decodon gibbosus, D. globosus        Listed

Decodon mosanruensis Matsumoto       Accepted
  et al.

Decodon: as Myrtus oregonensis       Unconfirmed as Decodon
  Lesq.

Lythraceaepollenites decodonensis    Unconfirmed as Decodon, possible
  Stuchlik

Decodon sp.                          Accepted

Decodon sp.                          Listed

Decodon verticillatus                Accepted

Decodon verticillatus                Accepted

Dryoxylon (Extinct)

Dryoxylon mohgaoense Rode            Rejected as Lyth
  (syn. Parajugloxylon
  Mohgaonensis)

Duabanga. including Duabangoxylon & Duabangocarpon

Duabangocarpon deccanii Kadoo        Rejected as Lyth
  & Kolhe

Duabanga-like                        Rejected as Duabanga; referred to
                                     Deeodon allenbyensis

Duabanga? as Verrutriporites         Rejected, nomen nudum?
  perverrucatus

Duabangoxylon indicam (Navale)       Accepted as Duabanga
  Awasthi (syn. Sapindoxylon
  indicum Navale)

Duabangoxylon tertiarum Prakash      Accepted as Duabanga
  & Awasthi

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Accepted as Duabanga

Duabangoxylon tertiarum              Accepted as Duabanga

Duabangoxylon bifarium Gottwald      Accepted as Duabanga

Duabangoxylon pakistanicum Ahmed     Accepted as Duabanga
  et al.

Enigmocarpon (Extinct), see also Sahnianthus

Enigmocarpon parijai Sahni           Accepted

Enigmocarpon sahnii Chitaley         Accepted
  & Kate

Eotrapa (Extinct)

Eotrapa tetrasepalum (Miki) Miki     Rejected as Lyth
  (syn. Lythrum tetrasepalum Miki)

Florshuetzia (Extinct), see
  also Sonneratia

Florschuetzia sp. (as                Accepted
  Sonneratiaceae in
  Gruas-Cavagnetto et al. 1988)

Florschuetzia trilobata              Accepted
  Germeraad et al.

Florschuetzia minutus Rawat et al.   Rejected

Florshuetzia cf. meridionalis        Rejected
  Rawat et al.

Florshuetzia semilobata Germeraad    Accepted
  et al.

Florschuetzia levipoli Germeraad     Accepted, = Sonneratia caseolar-is
  et al.

Florshuetzia levipoli                Listed

Florschuetzia meridionalis           Accepted, = Sonneratia albs
  Germemad et al.

Florshuetzia meridionalis            Listed

Florschuetzia sp.                    Listed

Florschuetzia claricolpata Yamanoi   Rejected, = Lagerstoremia

Florshuetzia reticulata Sohma        Publication not seen

Goerboepollenites. see Sporotrapoidites

Heimia

Heimia as Antholithus                Rejected as Lyth
  heimiaformis Berry

Hemitrapa (Extinct), see also Hemitrapapollenites, Sporotrapoidites

Hemitrapa borealis (Heer) Miki;      Accepted as Hemitrapa; not all
(syn. Trapa borealis Heer)           collections confirmed.

Hemitrapa cf. pomeld (Boulay)        Accepted as Hemitrapa
  Mai (syn. Trapa pomelii
  (Saporta) Boulay, Carpolithus
  pomeld Saporta)

Hemitrapa sachalinensis              Accepted as Hemitrapa
  (Okutsu) Miki

Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis              Accepted as Hemitrapa
  (Okutsu) Miki

Hemitrapa yokoyamae (Nathorst)       Accepted as Hemitrapa
  Miki, (syn. Trapa yokoyamae
  Nathorst)

Hemitrapa heissigii Gregor           Accepted as Hemitrapa

                                     Accepted as Hemitrapa

Hemitrapa trapelloidea Miki (syn.
  H. teumeri (Menzel) Budantzev
  & T vassiljevii Kornilova)

Hemitrapa pseudoborealis             Unconfirmed, possibly Trapa
  Budantzev

Hemitrapapollenites (Extinct)

Hemitrapapollenites medius           Accepted as Hemitrapa
  (Guan) Liu

Jugopollis (Extinct)

Jugopollis tetraporites              Rejected as Lyth
  Venkatachala & Rawat

Lafoensia

Lafoensia punicifolia D.C.           Accepted

Lafoensia sp.                        Listed

Lagerstroemia. including Lagerstroemioxylon

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Accepted
  & Guleria, cf L. speciosa.

Lagerstroemia as: Rugulitriporites   Unconfirmed, unlikely
  cf. vestibulipori Muller

Lagerstroemia sp.. cf. L.            Unconfirmed
  indica L.

Lagerstroemia sp. cf. L. indica.     Rejected

Lagerstroemia sahnii Singh et al.    Unconfirmed

Lagerstroemia-like                   Unconfirmed

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Rejected as Lyth

Lagerstroemia imamurae Tanai         Accepted
  & Uemum

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Listed

Lagerstroemia-like as:               Unconfirmed
  Vemaricolporites pachydermis
  Sun et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Rejected

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Accepted

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Accepted

Lagerstroemia europaea Mai           Rejected, = Polnspora (Theaceae)

Lagerstroemia mioparviflora          Accepted
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia eomicrocarpa           Accepted
  Dwivedi et al.

Lagerstroemia siwalica Prasad        Accepted
  et al.

Lagerstroemia jamraniensis Prasad    Accepted
  et al., cf. L. speciosa.

cf. Lagerstroemia                    Rejected as Lagerstroemia

Lagerstroemioxylon cf.               Rejected
  eoflosreginum

Lagerstroemia odaniense Choi & Kim   Accepted

Lagerstroemioxylon tomentosum        Unconfirmed
  Prakash et al.

Lagerstroemia lignitica              Rejected, = Polyspora (Theaceae)
  (Menzel) Mai

Lagerstroemia neyveliensis Agarwal   Rejected

Lagerstroemia as:                    Unconfirmed as Lagerstroemia
  Planotricolporites
  lagerstromiaformis (Zheng) Song,
  cf L. subcostata Koehne

Lagerstroemia cathayensis Liu        Accepted
  et al.

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Unconfirmed

Lagerstroemia.sp.                    Listed

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Accepted
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemia patelii Lakhanpal      Unconfirmed
  & Guleria

Lagerstroemioxylon irrawaddiensis    Accepted
  Prakash & Bande

Lagerstroemioxylon deomaliensis      Accepted
  Lakhanpal et al., cf L. villosa

Lagerstroemioxylon arcotense         Accepted
  Awasthi

Lagerstroemia cf. L. parviflora      Accepted
  Roxb.

Lagerstroemioxylon parenchymatosum   Accepted
  Prakash

Lagerstroemioxylon durum Madler      Type of the form genus.
                                     Unconfirmed as Lagerstroemia

Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis      Accepted
  Y. M. Cheng et al.

cf. Lagerstroemia sp.                Rejected as Lagerstroemia,
                                     possibly Decodon

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Accepted
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf L.
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Various; some confinned, others
  Prakash & Tripathi; cf. L.         unconfirmed or rejected
  speciosa (L.) Pers.

Lagerstroemioxylon eoflosreginum     Accepted

Lagerstroemia sp. aff. L.            Accepted
  subcostata var. fauriei

Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne         Listed

Lagerstroemioxylon eohypolucum       Unconfirmed
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon floribunda        Unconfirmed
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon harsolavense      Unconfirmed
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon obliqueporatum    Unconfirmed
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon royi              Unconfirmed
  Harsh & Shama

Lagerstroemioxylon vasicentricum     Unconfimred
  Harsh & Sharma

Lagerstroemioxylon benkoelense       Accepted
  Du, cf. L venusta Wall.

Lagerstroemia indica                 Unconfirmed

Lagerstroemia subcostata             Accepted

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Listed

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Accepted

Lagerstroernia sp.                   Accepted

Lagerstroemia sp.                    Listed

Lawsonia

Lawonia europaea                     Rejected, nomen mutum

cf Lawsonia                          Unconfirmed, as Lawsonia, possible

Lawsonia lawsonioides (Menzel)       Accepted
  Mai (ssyn. Carpolithus
  lawsonioides Menzel)

Lawsonia lawsonioides                Accepted

Lythraceaepollenites (Extinct)

Lyhraceaepollenites minimus          Not reviewed
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites bavaricus      Accepted as Lyth
  Thiele-Pfeiffer

Lythraeceaepollenites decodonensis   Accepted as Lyth, unconfirmed as
  Stuchlik                           Decodon

Lythrailes, see Cuphea

Lghraceocarpon (Extinct)

Lythraceocarpon mohgaonse Kapgate,   Rejected as Lyth
  Saxena, & Sheikh

Lythrum

Lythmm elkensis Grimsson et al.      Accepted

Lythmm sp.                           Accepted

Lythmm sp.                           Accepted

Lythmm wilhelmii Grimsson et al.     Accepted

Lythrun tetrasepalum Miki, see Eotrapa

Lythrum sp.                          Accepted

?Lythrum salicaria                   Listed

Lythrum                              Listed

Lythnrm                              Listed

Lythrum                              Listed

Lythrum                              Listed

Lythrum                              Listed

Lythrum salicaria L.                 Listed

Microdiptera (Extinct)

Microdiptera parva Chandler (syn.    Accepted
  M. major Chandler)

Microdiptera minor (Chandler) Mai    Accepted

Microdiptera menzelii (E. M.         Accepted
  Reid) Mai

Microdiptera parva Chandler          Accepted

Microdiptera tavdensis Dorofeev      Accepted

Microdiptera lusatica Mai            Accepted

Microdiptera uralensis (Dorofeev)    Accepted
  Mai (syn. Diclidocanya
  uralensis Dorofeev, Mnerne
  uralensis Eyde)

Microdipiera spp.                    Listed

Microdiptera donara (Holy) Tiffney   Accepted

Microdiptera parva                   Accepted

Microdiptera/Mneme type              Accepted

Mikia (Extinct)

Mikia pellendorfensis Kovar-Eder     Unconfirmed as Lyth, =
  & Wojcicki                         Hemitrapa?

Minsterocarpum (Extinct)

Minsterocarpum alatum Reid &         Accepted as Lyth
  Chandler

Pachyspermum (Extinct)

Pachyspermum quinqueloculare         Accepted as Lyth
  Reid & Chandler

Paleolythrum (Extinct)

Paleolythrum hournense Chandler      Unconfirmed as Lyth

Paleolyhrum gailense Chandler        Unconfirmed as Lyth
  (syn. Carpolithus sp.
  E. M. Reid)

Paleotrapa (Extinct)

Palaeotrapa aculeata Golovneva,      Rejected as Lyth
  P angulata Golovneva, P.
  triangulata Golovneva

Pemphis, including
  Tricolporopollenites

Pemphis-type                         Accepted

Pemphis as Tricolporopollenites      Accepted
  sp.

Peplis, see also Lythrum

Peplis eaglensis Grimsson et al.     Accepted as Lythrum/Peplis

Peplis pakutiano Grimsson et al.     Accepted as Lythrum/Peplis

Planotricolporites. see Lagerstroemia

Protorrapa (Extinct)

P. douglasii V. N. Vassiljev:        Rejected as Lyth
  P tenuirostrata V. N. Vassiljev;
  P praepomelii V. N. Vassiljev

Pseudotrapa (Extinct)

Pseudotrapa buzekii Z. Kvacek        Rejected as Lyth

Punica, including Punicoxylon & Punicites

Punicoxylon eocenicum Prive-Gill     Accepted as Punica

Punica antiquorum (Heer) Mai,        Accepted tentatively as Punica
  (syn. Cydonia? antiquorum Heer,
  Carpolithus natans Nikitin,
  Punica natans (Nitikin) Gregor)

Punica palaeogranatum-group          Listed

Punica terciaria Gregor              Accepted as Punica

Punica                               Listed

Punica paleogranatum                 Listed

Punica palaeogranatum                Accepted as Punica

Punica paleogranatum                 Unconfirmed as Punica

Punica sp.                           Publication not seen

Punicites hesperidum O. Weber        Unconfirmed as Punica

Punica planchoni Saporta & Marion    Unconfirmed as Punica

Quereuxia (Extinct), see also Trapa

Quereuria angulata (Newb.) Krysht.   Rejected as Lyth
  ex Baikovskaja,
  (syn. Trapago angulata Newb.,
  Trapa? microphylla
  Lesq.. Nymphaeites angulatus
  (Newb.) Bell, Nelumbites Berry,
  Jonquieria Krassilov; see
  others in Hickey 2001)

Quereuxia paulula (W. A. Bell)       Rejected as Lyth
  Nevolina; (syn. Trapa paulula
  (Bell) R. W. Brown)

Raoanthus (Extinct)

Raoanthus intertrappea Chitaley      Rejected as Lyth
  & Patel

Rotala

Rotala as: Heterocolpites            Rejected as Rotala
  verrucatus Salad-Cheboldaeff

Rotala as: Verrutricolporites        Rejected as Rotala
  rotundiporus

Rugulitriporites, see Lagerstroemia

Sahnianthus (Extinct)

Sahnianthus parijai Shukla           Accepted as Lyth

Sahnianthus dinectrianum Shukla      Accepted as Lyth

Sahnianthus? as Triorites sp.        Rejected as Lyth

Sahnipushpam (Extinct)

Sahnipushpam shuklai Verma (syn.     Rejected as Lyth
  S. glandulosum Prakash)

Schenkiella (Extinct)

Schenkiella credneri (Schenck)       Rejected as Lyth
  Wojcicki & Kvacek, (syn. Trapa
  credneri Schenk)

Shirleya (Extinct)

Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore      Accepted as Lyth

Sonneratia, including Sonneratioxylon: see also Florshuetzia

Sonneratioxylon turonicum            Unconfirmed as Sonneratia
  Shelomentseva

Sonneratia meghalayensis Ambwani     Unconfirmed

Sonneratiorhizos raoi Chitaley       Rejected

Sonneratiaceae (as Florshuetia       Accepted as Florshuetzia
  sp. in Plaziat et al. 2001)

Sonneratioxylon preapetalum          Accepted; numerous other
  Awasthi (synonymsfide              collections; probably
  Mehrotra 1988 include: S.          not all are correctly assigned.
  caseolarioides Shete & Kulkarni;
  S.nawargaoensis Bande & Prakash;
  and S. intertrappeum Biradar &
  Mahabale)

Sonneratioxylon aubrevevillei        Accepted
  Louvet

Aff Sonneratia: Sonneratioipollis    Rejected.
  bellus Venkatachala & Kar

Aff. Sonneratia: Jugopollis          Rejected
  tetraporites Venkatachala
  & Rawat

Sonneratia kyushuensis               Accepted
  Srivastava & Suzuki

Sonneratioxylon prambachense         Unconfirmed as Sonneratia
  Hofmann

Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler    Accepted - see also Florshuetria
                                     levipoli

Sonneratia alba J. Smith             Accepted -see also Florshuetria
                                     meridionalis

Sonneratioxylon dakshinense          Rejected
  Ramanujam

Sonneratioxylon dudukurense Rao      Rejected
  & Ramanujam

Sonneratia sp.                       Listed

Sonneratia sp.                       Accepted

Sonneratioxylon duabangoides         Rejected: nomen nudum.

Sporotrapoidites, see also
  Trapa, Hemitrapa

Sporotrapoidites erdtmanii (Nagy)    Accepted as Hemitrapa
  Nagy (syn. Goerboepollenites
  erdtmanii Nagy, Trapapollis
  erdtmanii (Nagy) Kohlman-
  Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         Accepted as Hemitrapa

Sporotrapoidites medius Guan         Unconfirmed

Sporotrapoidites illingensis Klaus   Accepted as Trapa
  (syn. Trapopollis illingensis
  (Klaus) Kohlman-Adamska)

Sporotrapoidites weiheensis          Accepted as Trapa
  (Sun & Fan) Guan

Sporotrapoidites minor Guan          Unconfirmed

Striasyncolpites. see Cuphea

Syncolporites, see Cuphea

Tamesicarpum (Extinct)

Tamesicarpum polyspermum Reid        Rejected as Lyth
  & Chandler Trapa

Trapa? microphylla Lesquereux;       Rejected as Trapa; see Quereuxia
  (syn. Neuropteris (?)
  angulata Newb., Nymphaeites
  angulatus Bell: Trapa angulata
  Brown; Quereuxia angulata
  (Newb.)
   Baikovs.; see other names,
  Brown 1962, Hickey 2001)

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton              nomen nudum?

Trapa paulula (W. A. Bell) R. W.     Rejected as Lyth, = Quereuxia
  Brown                              paulula

Trapa borealis Heer See Hemitrapa    Rejected as Trapa
  borealis (Heer) Miki

Trapa mohgaoensis Paradkar           Rejected as Lyth
  & Patki

Trapa n. sp.                         Listed

Trapa wilcoxensis Berry              Unconfirmed

Trapa protonatans Endo               nomen nudum

Trapa vassiljevii Kornilova,         Rejected as Trapa
  see Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa americana Knowlton (syn.:      Accepted as Trapa; collections
  T.? occidentalis Knowlton)         in part
                                     Hemitrapa?

Trapa? occidentalis Knowlton, see Trapa americana

Trapa assmanniana (Goepp.)           Rejected
  Gothan (syn. Populus
  assmanniana Goepp.)

Trapa credneri Schenk                Rejected, - Schenkiella

Trapa zapfei Berger                  Rejected, = Ceratostratiotes
                                     zapfei (Berger) Gregor

Trapa pomelli Boulay; see            Rejected as Trapa
  Hemitrapa pomelii

Trapa sp.                            Unconfirmed, listed with illus.

Trapa teumeri Menzel, see            Rejected as Trapa
  Hemitrapa trapelloidea

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Accepted as Trapa
  illingensis Klaus

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites            Rejected as Trapa
  erdtmani (Nagy)Nagy

Trapa silesiaca Goeppert (syn.       Accepted as Trapa: collections
  T. heeri Fritsch, T. bifrons       frequently include misidentified
  Goeppert emend. Wojcicki &         Hemitrapa
  Zastawniak)

Trapa spectabilis Wojcicki &         Accepted as Trapa, recorded as
  Kovar-Eder                         possible hybrid

Trapa yokoyamae Nathorst; see        Rejected as Trapa
  Hemitrapa yokoyamae
  (Nathorst) Miki

Trapa hokkaidoensis Okutsu; see      Rejected as Trapa
  Hemitrapa hokkaidoensis
  (Okutsu) Miki

Trapa sachaliensis Okutsu; see       Rejected as Trapa
  Hemitrapa sachaliensis (Okutsu)
  Miki

Trapa chengsenii Wojcicki et al.     Accepted as Trapa, possibly mixed
                                     with Hemitrapa sp.

Trapa ezoana Tanai & Suzuki          Unconfirmed

Trapa sp.                            Listed

Trapa? cuneata Knowlton              nomen nudum?

Trapa bifrons Goepp.                 nomen nudum

Trapa bosniaca Jankovic & Pantic     Publication not seen

Trapa praehungarica Wojcicki         Accepted
  & Bajzath

Trapa kvacekii Wojcicki &            Accepted
  Velitzelos

cf. Trapa                            Accepted as Trapa

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites carlesii   Accepted as Trapa
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa ceretana Rerolle               Accepted

Trapa excelsa Dorofeev               Accepted
  (other Trapa included)

Trapa - 15 species listed from       Listed
  the Miocene and Pliocene
  of Europe

Trapa prenalans Dorf                 Accepted as Trapa

Trapa sp.                            Accepted

Trapa lydiae Chochiyeva              Accepted

Trapa alabamensis Berry              Accepted

Trapa as Sporotrapoidites cesarei    Accepted
  Zetter & Ferguson

Trapa fritzlariensis Wojcicki        Unconfirmed
  & Wilde

T. espectata Givulescu & Ticleanu    Accepted

Trapa - 5 fossil species             Listed; names valid?

Trapa baasii Gregor & Mehl           Accepted

Trapa minuta Opravil                 Accepted

Trapa natans L.                      Accepted

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.                Accepted

Trapa bicerata Miki                  Accepted

Trapa incisa S.& Z.                  Accepted

Trapa macropoda Miki                 Accepted

Trapa natans                         Accepted

Trapa natans                         Accepted

Trapa natans                         Accepted

Trapa natans                         Accepted

Trapapollis, see Sporotrapoidites

Trapophyllum (Extinct)

Trapophyllum europaeum Massalongo    Rejected as Lyth

Tricolporopollenites. see Pemphis

Triorites (Lythracidites), see
  Sahnianthus

Verrutricolporites. See Crenea

Verrutriporites. see Duabanga

Woodfordia

Woodfordia neofruticosa M. Prasad    Unconfirmed

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz       Accepted


DOI 10.1007/s12229-012-9116-1

Acknowledgments

I appreciate the help of many people around the world who answered my questions and provided digital images and advice: M. Collinson, L. Cripps, D. Erwin, E. M. Friis, L. Goloneva, F. Grimsson, B. Jacobs, D. Kapgate, J. Keller, F. Krasnov, S. Manchester, B. Mohr, K. Pigg, T. Shulkina, M. Stiffler, R. Stockey, D. Stultz, H.-D. Sues, S. Wing, R. Zetter, and especially A. Graham for his suggestions, help with many references, and review of the manuscript. The Missouri Botanical Garden generously provided physical facilities and extensive library support.

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Shirley A. Graham (1,2)

(1) Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA

(2) Author for Correspondence; c-mail: shirley.graham@mobot.org

Table 1 Comparison of wood anatomical characters of Sonneratioxylon
turonicum (Shelomentseva, 1992) and other fossil species of
Sonneratioxylon (Louvet, 1970; Shete & Kulkami, 1982; Mehrotra,
1988) with the genera of the Lythraceae having similar wood
anatomy: Sonneratia, Duabanga, Lagerstroemia, and Punica, (Boas &
Zweypfenning, 1979; Van Vliet & Baas, 1984; Rao et al., 1987; Deng
et al., 2004). na = not available

               Sonneratioxylon         Other fossil
Character      turonicum               Sonneratioxylon spp.

Vessels

Distribution   Diffuse porous          Diffuse porous

Arrangement    Solitary or radial      Solitary or radial multiples
               multiples of            of 2-5 (-8)
               2-3 (4-5)

Density        na                      10-50/[mm.su[p.2], avg. 22/
                                       [mm.su[p.2] (Shete & Kulkami;
                                       Louver)

Tangential     92-150 lLm              28-160 [micro]m
diam.

Length         na                      avg. 390 (S. byushuensis),
                                       226-420 (Scaseolarioides);
                                       350-500 (S. aubrevillei)

End wall       Simple, walls           Simple, walls tranverse
perforation    transverse to oblique   to oblique

Intervessel    na                      Alternate, vestured
pits

Axial          Absent                  Absent; sparse paratracheal
Parenchyma                             (S. praambachense)

Rays

               Homogeneous to weakly   Homogeneous to weakly
               heterogeneous, mainly   heterogeneous, mainly
               procumbent cells with   procumbent some erect
               erect cells, esp.       cells, esp. margin
               margin

               1(-2) -seriate          1(2)-seriate

Height;        avg. 562 [micro]m       126-476 [micro]m, avg 272 tun
                                       (S. caseolarioides);
                                       110-850 Itm (S. aubrevillei)

Crystals       na                      Present in rays (S. aubrevillei);
                                       none in S. Ryushuensis

Fibers

               Some septate            Septate (non-septate
                                       in S. preapetalum)

Length         na                      340-840 Itm (S. preapetalum)

Character      Sonneratia                   Duabanga

Vessels

Distribution   Diffuse porous               Diffuse porous

Arrangement    Solitary or radial           Solitary or radial
               multiples of 2-4             multiples of 2, 3

Density        ca. 15-130/[mm.sup.2]        2-8/[mm.sup.2]
               (Deng et al.)                (Rao et al.)

Tangential     50-200 lLm, avg.             100->200 [micro]m, Avg
diam.          120-160 [micro]m             120-230 [micro]m

Length         avg. 650-670 [micro]m (Rao   753-780 [micro]m
               et al,; 279-489 [micro]m     (Rao et al.);
               (Deng et al.); 400-500       600-800 [micro]m
               (vanVlict & Baas)            (Metcalfe & Chalk)

End wall       Simple, walls transverse     Simple,walls transverse
perforation    to oblique                   to oblique

Intervessel    Alternate, vestured,         Alternate, large, round
pits           medium to small              to polygonal, vestured

Axial          Absent                       Abundant paratracheal,
Parenchyma                                  narrow to wide

Rays

               Homogeneous to weakly        Strongly heterogeneous,
               heterogeneous, mainly        upright and procumbent;
               procumbent, squared,         up to 10 marginal rows
               often with solitary
               crystal, margin erect

               1(2) -seriate, mostly        1-4-seriate, commonly
               uniseriate (Metcalf &        2-seriate
               Chalk)

Height;        160-6620 [micro]m, avg       Commonly 1000 [micro]m
               176 [micro]m; shorter        (Metcalfe & Chalk)
               than Duabanga

Crystals       Present in rays,             Present in rays and
               rhomboidal, occasional       axial parenchyma,
               to abundant,                 rhomboidal or variable
                                            in size and shape

Fibers

               Septate (non-septate in      Non-septate
               S. caseolaris and
               S. acida, Shete &
               Kulkanni)

Length         700-1000 [micro]m (Van       1291-1526 [micro]m (Rao
               Vliet & Baas); avg.          et al.); 1200-1400
               1154-1204 Itm                [micro]m
               (Rao et al.)                 (Metcalfe & Chalk)

Character      Lagerstroemia               Punica

Vessels

Distribution   Diffuse to ring-porous      Diffuse porous

Arrangement    Solitary or radial          Solitary or radial
               multiples of 2, 3 (-7)      multiples of 2-4(-9)

Density        4-52/[mm.sup.2]             45-84/[mm.sup.2]

Tangential     (30-)60-229(-380)           (26-)37-66(-87) [micro]m
diam.          [micro]m

Length         (110-)220-580(-880)         (160-)250-330(-530)
               [micro]m                    [mciro]m

End wall       Simple, walls transverse    Simple, walls transverse
perforation    to oblique                  to oblique

Intervessel    Alternate, vestured,        Alternate, vestured,
pits           round to polygonal          round to polygonal

Axial          Scanty paratracheal to      Scanty parattacheal to
Parenchyma     vasicentric or abundant,    nearly absent

Rays

               Homogeneous, rarely         Heterogeneous, cells
               weakly heterogeneous;       square to erect, often
               procumbent                  centrally procumbent

               1(2)-seriate, mostly        1(2-3) seriate
               uniseriate

Height;        na                          na

Crystals       Rarely present in rays,     Not in rays, rhomboidal,
               rhomboidal infrequent       I or more per chamber
               in chambers of fibers       in fibers
               and axial parenchyma

Fibers

               Septate, in some species    Septate, tendency to
               dimorphic, some             dimorphism, some thinner
               thinner and shorter with    and shorter with
               solitary rhomboid           crystals in chambers
               crystal in chambers

Length         540-1860 ;.[micro]m         (300-)460-540(-820)
                                           [mciro]m

Table 2 Comparison of fruit and seed characters in extinct Decodon
allenbyensis, Enigmocarpon, Lawsonia-like seeds, Minsterocarpum,
and Shirleya with extant Decodon verticillatus and Lagerstroemia.
The fossil and living taxa share the following characters:
persistent floral tube, valvate sepals (unknown in Minsterocarpum),
superior ovary, axile placentation, capsular fruit, loculicidal
dehiscence (unknown in fossil Decodon), septum attached to outer
wall of the valve at dehiscence, multiple anatropous seeds per
locule, and a t obtrigonal shaped seed body with a sclerotic inner
lining of the seed coat. na = information not available

Genus                   Age               Fruit size, mm

Decodon allenbyensis    Middle Eocene     5 x 3-4, globose
Decodon verticillatus   Modem             5 x 3-4, globose

Enigmocarpon parijai    Early Paleocene   15-18 x 14-16, globose
Lagerstroemia spp.      Modem             5-40x6-35, ovoid

Lawsonia-like           Middle Eocene     na
Minsterocarpum alatum   Lower Eocene      16-22 x 4-8, sub-cylindric
Shirleya grahamae       Middle Miocene    10 x 11.5-12.5, globose

Genus                   Locules   Seeds per     Seed position
                                  locule
Decodon allenbyensis    4-6       ~12-18        in three or four
Decodon verticillatus   3(4)      ~7-10         rows/locule
                                                covering placenta,
                                                horizontal to
                                                pendulous

Enigmocarpon parijai    (7)8(9)   ~18           2 alternating rows/
Lagerstroemia spp.      3-6       ~9-13         locule covering
                                                placenta, erect,
                                                wing up

Lawsonia-like           na        na            na
Minsterocarpum alatum   4(-6)     >25           2 alternating rows/
Shirleya grahamae       5-7       5-7 or more   Iocule covering
                                                placenta,
                                                pendulous, wing
                                                down

Table 3 Comparison of fruits of Trapa, the extinct genus Hemitrapa
(based on type collection), and Trapella, genera with conspicuous
appendages, horns, or spines confused in  the fossil record by
morphological similarities. Dimensions are based on published
descriptions (Miki, 1941, 1952a; Dorofeev, 1963; Tralau, 1964;
Patel et al., 1984; Kataoka &  Miyoshi, 2002)

                                              Fruit
             Fruit shape      Ovary           exsertion

Trapa        Broadly          Inferior        'Neck' exserted
             obtriangular
             in outline,
             obtrullate

Hemitrapa    Spindle-shaped   Semi-inferior   Exserted ca.
                                              half-way (5 mm)

Trapella     Slender          Inferior        Not exserted
             cylindrical,
             ribbed

             Fruit size              Fruit 'neck'

Trapa        Extensive variability   [+ or -]
             [ca. 9-41 x 8-55 mm];   cylindrical,
             horns to 22 mm          typically
                                     sunken

Hemitrapa    Type: ca. 16 x 6-9 mm   Conical,
             [20 mm long incl.       tapering
             peduncle]; other        to apex
             species: 14-60 x
             9-25 mm

Trapella     4.5-10x0.9-2.2 mm       Conical,
                                     tapering
                                     to apex

             Appendages                 Attachment

Trapa        Lateral on floral tube,    Peduncle typically
             2 or 4 major horns,        detached, rarely
             less than to 2x longer     attached in both
             than the fruit, on two     fossil and living
             levels, sturdy, brush-     species
             barbed at apex, re
             curved, horizontal or
             ascending; small
             tubercles present

Hemitrapa    Marginal on floral tube,   Peduncle attached
             2(-4) major spines,        in fruit
             equal- 2x longer than
             floral tube, slender,
             tapering, finely brushy
             at apex, alternating
             with 4 short spines,
             ascending to horizontal,
             without tubercles

Trapella     Marginal on floral tube,   Peduncle attached
             2+1, bilateral or 5, all   in fruit
             slender, 2-3 x length
             of the floral tube,
             glabrous, ascending
             to spreading

             Pollen

Trapa        Spheroidal-triangular,
             ca. 75 [micro]m P,
             meridional crests tall,
             ca. 13 [micro]m,
             undulating, apertures
             domed, exine granular

Hemitrapa    Spheroidal-triangular,
             ca. 41 [micro]m P,
             meridional crests ca.
             7 [micro]n, apertures
             domed, exine granular

Trapella     spheroidal-oblate,
             irregularly rugulate,
             28.3 [micro]m, apertures
             not domed.

Table 4 Summary of extant and extinct genera and form genera of the
Lythraccac. NA = North America; CA = Central America; SA = South
America and Caribbean; AF = Africa; AU = Australia; ENG = England;
EU = continental Europe; SA = Asia. E = early; M = middle; L = late.
Organs represented by fossil remains: W = wood; L = leaf; Fl = flower;
P = pollen; F = fruit; S = seed

                                                Fossil
Genus                       Oldest Occurrence   Distribution

Adenaria                    Pliocene            SA
Alatospermum                early Eocene        ENG
Crenea                      late Eocene         SA
  (Verrutricolporites)
Cuphea                      early Miocene       NA SA
Decodon                     Late Cretaceous     NA EU AS
Duabanga                    middle Miocene      AS
Florshuetzia                late Palcocene      EU AS
Hemitrapa                   late Palcocene?     NA EU AS
Lafoensia                   Holocene            SA
Lagerstroemiu               late Palcocene/     AS
                              carly Eocene
Lawsonia                    middle Miocene      EU
Lythraceaepollinites        middle Miocene      EU
Lythrum/Peplis              Late Cretaceous     NA EU AF AS
Microdiptera                middle Eocene       NA ENG EU AS
Minsterocarpum              early Eocene        ENG
Pachyspermttm               early Eocene        ENG
Pemphis                     late Eocene         EU
Punica                      middle Eocene       EU
Sahnianthus/Enigmocarpon    early Palcocene     AS
Shirleya                    middle Miocene      NA
Sonneratia (incl.           early Palcocene     AS, AF
  most Florshuetzia)
Trapa                       middle Miocene      NA EU AS
Woodfordia                  Pleistocene         AS

                            Modern
Genus                       Distribution        Organs

Adenaria                    SA CA               S
Alatospermum                Extinct             S
Crenea                      SA                  P
  (Verrutricolporites)
Cuphea                      NA CA SA            P
Decodon                     NA                  W L P F S
Duabanga                    AS                  W
Florshuetzia                Extinct             P
Hemitrapa                   Extinct             P F S
Lafoensia                   SACA                P
Lagerstroemiu               AS                  W L P
Lawsonia                    EU AS               FS
Lythraceaepollinites        Extinct             P
Lythrum/Peplis              NA SA EU AF AS AU   LP
Microdiptera                Extinct             S
Minsterocarpum              Extinct             FS
Pachyspermttm               Extinct             FS
Pemphis                     AFAS                P
Punica                      EU AS               W L F S
Sahnianthus/Enigmocarpon    Extinct Extinct     F1 F S
Shirleya                    Extinct             FS
Sonneratia (incl.           AS AFU              W P
  most Florshuetzia)
Trapa                       EU AS AF            FS
Woodfordia                  AF AS AF            L
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Title Annotation:p. 97-145
Author:Graham, Shirley A.
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2013
Words:28413
Previous Article:Fossil records in the Lythraceae.
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