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Forest typology of broadleaf forests from Sierra Maestra, Eastern Cuba/Tipologia forestal de los bosques latifolios de la Sierra Maestra, Cuba Oriental.

Introduction

Forests provide many goods and services to humanity, mainly related to the conservation of biodiversity, soil and water. In the current situation of climate change they also work as carbon sinks, so it is essential their conservation and sustainable use. The number of Cuban forest formations depends on the classification used: Bisse (1988) identified 16 forest formations located throughout the country; while Reyes (2011-2012) found 23, for Eastern Cuba (with six subtypes) and 11, for Sierrra Maestra, with four subtypes (Reyes, 2006). The forestry law in Cuba categorized Cuban forests as producers, for conservation and protective. The 46.1% of the Cuban forest heritage are protective areas, while the 32.3% are for timber production (Alvarez & al., 2012). This shows the significance the Cuban state gives to forests.

The Cuban forest area has increased significantly: from a 13.4% of degraded forests in 1959 (Russo Milhet, 2015), to a 26.2% in 2009 (Alvarez & al., 2012) and 28.6% in 2014 (cITMA, 2014; Parada & Torranzo, 2014) in relation to the surface of the Cuban archipelago.

While studying nature, it is important to recognize the set of ecological conditions (oecotope) that are expressed in the characteristics of the vegetation and its floristic composition. Forest typology is of great significance when the results of such interrelationship constitute in a particular type of forest. Therefore, it is considered as forest typology the study of forest communities in its relation to environmental conditions; since they establish the quality and productive potential of the forest stations (sites). Alvarez & Varona (1988) considered as a forest site to all edaphic, climatic and biotic factors that determine the persistence and intensity of biomass production (gross primary productivity) of certain forest community, be it natural or created by man.

There are two basic methods for studying forest sites depending on the environmental situation: with emphasis on the oecotope (Kopp, 1965; Thomasius, 1965; Schwanecke, 1970) or prioritizing vegetation (Del Risco, 2000a, b; Del Risco & Samek, 1984). The method that prioritizes the oecotope is recommended in areas where the vegetation has been destroyed, while the other is applied in stations where the existing vegetation expresses the potential of that oecotope. In this work, the second method is applied because it is conducted in developed vegetation, which, although it is often secondary, also expresses the environmental conditions, including ecosystem values, which contribute to forest typing and planning.

Materials and Methods

Natural conditions of the study area

Sierra Maestra (Figure 1) is a very complex area, geologically speaking. There, the Palaeocene-Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Cobre Group predominate, mainly andesites and tuffs (Mendez et al., 1994). Relatively large granites intrusives occur in isolated areas of the southern slope (around Potrerillo river, Pinar de las Canas, La Francia, Nima Nima, Juragua-El Olimpo, etc). Likewise, the formations Maya River and Jaimanitas prevail in the coastal areas (Com. Cubano Hungara, 1976).

From 1500 m asl, the leached yellowish ferrallitic soil predominates. According to Renda (1989), the pH in the upper horizons is from acid to very acidic; it reaches values of 4.45 to 5.3 in water and 3.5 to 4.15 in ClK. The sum of basic cations (Change Bases Capacity, CCB, S value) is very low, generally ranging between 1.44 and 5.02 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. The cation exchange capacity (CIC, T value) varies from 2.5 to 18.75 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. There are very low content of calcium, magnesium and potassium. Beneath this soil, to about 600 m a.s.l, the soils are mainly leached red ferrallitic, from deep to very deep, and often derived from ferrallitic weathering crust in more or less stable places. They are from acids to highly acidic (pH [H.sub.2]O 4.0-5.5) and the S value is smaller than 7 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] (Renda, 1989; Renda & al., 1981b).

Siallitic brown and fersiallitic reddish-brown soils dominate the low and pre-mountain areas. The siallitic brown soils (without carbonate) have a variable depth: they usually have an S value ranging from 13 to 18 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] on the south side, and from 24 to 50 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] (rarely) in the north, where generally have higher saturation. The siallitic brown soils (with carbonate) are abundant in the north side, and they are richer and more saturated than the above. CCB is usually between 47 and 78 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] and the CIC ranges from 49 to 80 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] (Renda & al., 1980, 1981a, 1981b, 1982). The fersiallitic reddish-brown soils often eroded and usually with rocky outcrops and stones in the profile, have an approximated S value of 13 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] on the southern slope (Renda & al., 1980-81). In the north, they are somewhat richer, wherein the CCB ranges from 21 to 43 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. They are mainly observed in rocks from the Cobre Group.

Over the granitoids, there are usually grayish brown soils, sometimes sandy and poor. Their pH goes from slightly acidic to acidic, with an S value of 4 to 5 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] in the first horizon, and even lower below it.

In coastal limestone terraces, the very shallow red soils (rendzine) occupy the fractures and crevices of the dogtooth rock. A red ferrallitic soil is observed in coastal terraces, limestone hills and cumulative plains from Sierra Maestra's westernmost. It's CCB in the first horizon is 19 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1] and the T value is 24.3 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. Both values decrease in the lower horizons (Renda & al., 1981c).

In the higher areas of Sierra Maestra, it rains between 1600 and 2000 mm, with a less rainy season from November to April (Trusov & al., 1983). It is noteworthy that cloud condensation is produced between 800 and 1200 m asl (horizontal precipitation, moist shade, low clouds). Hence, when it occurs, a 100% of relative humidity is reached; sometimes it runs by the stem (Boytel Yambu, 1972). On average, in Gran Piedra (weather station at 1100 m asl) there are 239 days a year affected by horizontal precipitation, of which 163 days have dense fog, from october to may occur 20 days or more per month (Montenegro, 1990).

In the higher parts of western Sierra Maestra, above 1500 m asl, the influence of such horizontal precipitations is almost daily. Air saturation, however, is almost little, even with dense fog, which is formed lower down and goes up with the wind. These conditions produce a high tension on the foliage, which may turn it into microphyll and the decomposition from withered leaves is very slow (Reyes & Fornaris, 2011).

In Carso de Baire (north side), around 500 to 700 m asl, the mean annual rainfall varies from around 1200 mm in the less elevated areas up to more than 1600 mm in the highest (Gagua & al., 1989). The average rainfall in La Tabla (600 m asl) is 1634 mm, varying from 1216 to 2320 mm through the years: on average, there are 94 rainy days a year. A rainy period from March to November, with 85% of rainfall is clearly defined, as well as other less rainy from december to february with 15%. The heaviest rainfall ranges between 5.1 and 30 mm.

The coastal and pre-coastal strip, in the south of Sierra Maestra, is one of the most climatically extreme areas of Cuba. In the east of Santiago de Cuba's Bay, the weather is bixeric. The average rainfall hardly goes beyond the 700 mm a year. Exceeding the 100 mm, the rainiest months are May, September and October; while the driest months are December, March and July, in which rarely exceed 30 mm. The rainy days are usually less than 40 per year. To the west of the bay, rain increases gradually to about 1200 mm in front of Pico Turquino, where mountains plunge straight into the sea. From this point, rain then gradually decreases up to 800 mm near Cabo Cruz.

The air mean temperature in Gran Piedra (1100 m asl) is 18.4[degrees]C; the average minimum is 15.7[degrees]C and the average maximum, 22.4 [degrees]C. On top of Pico Real del Turquino, the air mean temperature reaches about de 13[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991a). On the north side, around the 500 and 700 m asl, the mean annual temperature is 20-22[degrees]C in the upper parts and 22-24[degrees]C in the lowest (Lapinel, 1989). By contrast, the mean annual temperature in the coastal zone ranges from 24-26[degrees]C, with an average maximum of 30-32[degrees]C, and an average minimum of 22-24[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991b). The decrease in temperature per 100 m of elevation in western Sierra Maestra is 0.62[degrees]C, and 0.66[degrees]C in the northern and southern sides respectively (Montenegro, 1991b).

At the top of Sierra de la Gran Piedra, relative humidity reaches high levels throughout the year, from just over 87% to about 92% among the different months. At 13:00 h, it has a minimum between 80 and 86%, and a maximum, at 07:00 h, from 88 to 92% (Montenegro, 1990). The mean annual relative humidity in Carso de Baire is from 80 to 85% (Montenegro, 1991c) and in Contramaestre (bottom, north side), is of 52 to 60%. In the coastal area, the mean annual relative humidity varies from 75 and 80%, the mean annual at 13.00 h is from 70 to 75%, and at 07:00 h, it is from 80 to 85% (Lapinel, 1989; Montenegro, 1991c). In Santiago de Cuba (lower part, southern slope) it varies between 47 and 60%. At 13:00 h, such humidity increases with altitude from the bottom up to 1400 m asl, remaining constant to about 1600 m asl. Then it decreases to the top of Pico Real del Turquino (Montenegro, 1991c).

Evaporation in Gran Piedra is low and for eight months in the year, it does not exceed 100 mm per month (Montenegro, 1990). The months with the highest evaporation (Piche) are april, june, july and august (from 75 to 82 mm), and with the smaller one, from October to january (less than 60 mm) (Montenegro (1991 d). In turn, in the coastal zone, evaporation fluctuates between 1900 and 2000 mm (Crespo, 1989). From March to September, it is over 110 mm (Piche), March, April, July and August are the months with the greater evaporation (130-1400 mm), and November and December show the smallest evaporation records, with 85 mm (Montenegro, 1991d). In Carso de Baire, the mean annual evaporation is of 1300 to 1500 mm (Montenegro, 1991d).

Methodology

The present paper used some data obtained from phytosociological studies (205 phytosociological plots from 625 [m.sup.2]) conducted in the forests of Sierra Maestra; some of them already published (Reyes & Acosta, 2003, 2004; Reyes & al., 2004a, b; Reyes & Martinez, 2005) and some others still unpublished. These syntaxa are transformed into this forest typology using the standards of the Institute of Agro-Forestry Research (Del Risco, 2000a, b). The scrub syntaxa, grasslands, etc. were not taken into account in this study.

Two main types of indicators were considered:

* Forests characteristics.

* Oecotope characteristics.

Forest Characteristics

Del Risco (2000a, b) methodology for strata, vertical structure of canopy layer, abundance-coverage, presence degree and each species's participation was applied for studying the forest characteristics. Out of it, the characteristic combination of each forest type was created. In case of analogous forests, having a similar feature combination, the differential combination was determined. In addition, the canopy layer or sub-layer coverage was considered, as well as the shrub and herbaceous layers.

Strata (layers): Samek (1973) criteria for separating the three main strata (canopy, shrub, herbaceous and ferns) and the other synusiaes were used according to:

Canopy: Trees greater than 5 m in height.

Shrub: Shrubs and little trees between 1 and 5 m.

Herbaceous: Plants under 1 m. Ferns were considered separately; there are different types of terrestrial ferns. In some forest, they are found in the three layers described before, mainly in the herbaceous layer.

Lianas: It involves the different types of vines or lianas.

Epiphytes: Plants living over the phorophytes without being parasites. Sometimes they play an important role as indicators in different forest types, especially of environmental humidity.

Vertical structure of canopy layer (C/V).

Components of this layer were individually calculated, directly on the plots. Kraft classification (in Samek, 1974) was used:

Predominant (P): The trees beyond the primary level.

Dominant (D): Those making up the main level.

Codominant (C): Those in the lower part of the primary level, but which are not well developed.

Intermediate (I): Those below the main level, which often form a sub-layer.

Oppressed (O): They are part of the bottom sub-layer. They have little vitality.

Abundance-Coverage (A-C). The projection of the crown or the number of individuals (only in the first two indices) was calculated, according to the modified scale of Braun Blanquet (1979). In this study, the scale from one to five was used. Each number represents a range from the A-C as discussed below. If there are two numbers, it means that the range varies between these two values. The scale is as follows:

1. Shortly rich or poor coverage. It covers up to 5% of the sample plot.

2. Little or too numerous, or coverage between 6 and 25%.

3. Coverage between 26 and 50%.

4. Coverage between 51 and 75%.

5. Seventy six percent (76%) or greater coverage.

Presence Degree (P-D). The existence of a species in the different sampled plots is conceived as presence. Values mean according to the number of times such species are found in the sampled plots and they are expressed in the following scale:

V. Constantly present: when species are observed in over 80% of the plots.

IV. Present most of the times: when species are found from 61 to 80%.

III. Often present: when species are found between 41 and 60%.

II. Rarely present: when species are present from 21 to 40%.

I. Rare: when species are observed in less than 20% of the plots.

Type of participation. It is the combination of the indices of abundance-coverage and the presence degree. It is considered as follows:

Main species: They are species having a presence degree of V and an abundance-coverage of two or greater.

Subdominant species: Species with a presence degree of V and an abundance-coverage lower than two or species with a presence degree of IV and any abundance-coverage.

Aggregated Species: Species with a presence degree of III, and any abundance-coverage.

Scattered Species: Species with a presence degree of II or I and any abundance-coverage.

Canopy layer coverage: It is the floor surface occupied by the horizontal projection of a plant foliage. It is calculated according to the classification of Samek (1974).

Superdense: When coverage is greater than 100%. The branches of some individuals enter in the space of the crowns of the neighboring individuals.

Dense: Coverage between 91 and 100%; branches touch each other.

Slightly sparse: Coverage between 81 and 90%.

Sparse: Coverage between 51 and 80%.

Very sparse: Coverage between 21 and 50%.

A coverage lower than/below the 20% corresponds to a "clearing" with scattered trees.

Coverage of the shrub and herbaceous layers. The percentage of each of these layers is calculated as follows:

Very high: Coverage between 91 and 100%.

High: Coverage of 51 to 90%.

Media: Coverage between 21 and 50%.

Low: Coverage below the 20%.

Characteristic combination: It is the set of species that characterize and typify the forest type. It is formed by main, subdominant and aggregated species. When there is a group of species that differentiates similar forest types in oecotopes with some dissimilarity, it forms a differential combination. In these combinations, constant species (those having a V presence degree), and accompanying species (those having IV and III presence degree) were differentiated.

Oecotopes characteristics: The oecotope is the climatope (climatic conditions) and edatope (soil conditions: higrotope and trofotope) assembly. Sites that occupy tilted areas are influenced by physiographic characteristics. They will be therefore taken into account.

Physiographic characteristics: These observations are made in each plot alongside its surrounding area. The following parameters are determined: elevation above sea level, type of relief, exposure, slope in degrees, position on the slope (relative elevation) and microrelief.

Climatope characteristics: Sierra Maestra climatope was determined using the Borhidi (1996) bioclimate, with some modifications from Samek & Travieso (1968), Montenegro (1990, 1991a, b, c, d, e) and Trusov & al. (1983) in the parameters: temperature, mean multi-annual rainfall and dry months.

Edatope characteristics: In the plot and its surroundings, there are observed: rock and soil types, depth of solum, texture, structure, stoniness, gravelness and erosion. Besides, the organic layers (L, F and H) and soil profile are described.

The trofotope (trophism) is studied: A = little fertile, B = moderately fertile, C = fertile and D = very fertile. The higrotope (soil moisture) is also studied, which according to the Pogrebnyak method (1955, in Samek, 1973) is classified as: 0 = very dry, 1 = dry, 2 = fresh, 3 = moderately wet and 4 = wet.

The percentage of stone on the surface and the presence of dogtooth (lapiez) are classified as follows: less than 40% (x), 40 to 59% (xx), 60% or more (xxx). The root mat has a vital role in nutrient cycle in some forests types, thereby it is important to take into account writing ([Rm.sup.*]) when they have up to 10 cm and ([Rm.sup.**]) for more than 10 cm.

Name of the forest type: To name the forest type, it is used the common name (Appendix 1) of two typical species from the characteristic combination (constant) of that type. The first one must belong to the canopy layer (constant and dominant) followed by another typical and constant species from any stratum. To differentiate some other types of forests more or less similar, the name of a typical and constant species from the differential combination is used, and then it is added to the previous name.

Through the characteristics of the oecotopes occupying the different forest types, it is possible to determine the relative qualities of the forest station or sites, which depends on the potential productive capacity (PPC), remaining defined five classes: excellent (I); good (II); regular (III); bad (IV) and very bad (V).

For forest management proposals, it is taken into account, in addition to the above, the floristic, syngenetic and physiognomic characteristics of forests (microphylly, mesophylly, size, degree of coverage, etc.); as well as the development strategies (nutrients circulation type), stages of degradation and strategies for rehabilitation and / or restoration.

Scientific names (genus, species and author) are fully written in Appendix 1.

Results and Discussion

Climatic type

Tropical climate with two dry periods: Type of bioclimate with little extension in Sierra Maestra, due to the rain shadow of the mountains. The following subtype is observed:

5aTh. Extremely dry tropical bixeric climate: It is observed in the coastal strip (zone of wetlands and semi-deciduous microphyll forest) east of the bay of Santiago de Cuba. It is one of the most climatically extreme areas in Cuba; it rains a little less than 800 mm a year on average (arid climate); the rainy months are May, September and October exceeding 100 mm; on the contrary, the driest ones are from december to March and July, in which hardly ever the rainfall goes over 30 mm (extremely dry). The rainy days are usually less than 40 per year. Evaporation ranges from 1900 to 2000 mm (Crespo, 1989). The increased evaporation months are March, April, July and August with 130 to 140 mm (Piche) and those with minor evaporation are November and December with 85 mm (Montenegro, 1991 d). Mean annual temperature ranges from 24-26[degrees]C, with a mean annual maximum of 30-32[degrees]C and a mean annual minimum of 22-24[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991b).

Tropical climate with dry winter: This type of bioclimate is the most widespread in Sierra Maestra, with the exception of the upper parts and the coastal area in the southeast opposite side. The two following subtypes are found:

4bTh--Tropical weather with 5 to 6 scarcely rainy months (medium-dry): It is observed on the "floor of semi deciduous forests and scrubs", longer spread to the west of the bay of Santiago de Cuba. The altitude ranges from sea level to 400-500 m asl in the northern and southern sides respectively; also, the mean annual temperature fluctuates between 24.5 and 26.0 [degrees]C and rainfall varies from 800 to 1200 mm (from low to medium rainy). Mean annual relative humidity is 75 to 80% and evaporation is 1700 to 1900 mm (Crespo, 1989; Montenegro, 1991 d). To the west of the bay, rain increases gradually up to about 1200 mm (medium rainy) before Pico Turquino (where the mountains plunge straight into the sea), from this point, it gradually decreases to 800 mm near Cabo Cruz (little rainy).

4cTh--Tropical climate with 3 to 4 little rainy months (moderately dry): It is observed on the "floor of evergreen forests", i.e., between 500 and 800 m asl. On the northern side, mean annual temperatures range between 21.3-23.1[degrees]C (top and bottom respectively), and 21.0-24.0[degrees]C on the southern slope (Montenegro, 1991b). The rainfall ranges from 1200 to 1800 mm (medium rainy to rainy), according to the locality. Relative humidity fluctuates during the year between 77 and 85% at 500 m asl and 84 to 92% at the top (Montenegro, 1991c). In Carso de Baire, mean annual evaporation is 1300 to 1500 mm (Montenegro, 1991 d). In mountainous areas below 800 m above sea level, in the evenings and in mid-april to late October, relative sunshine (percentage of real sunshine regarding the astronomical one) varies between 20 and 30%, the rest of the months is from 30 to 40%. During the mornings, it ranges from 40 to 60% (Montenegro, 1991e).

Wet mountainous tropical climate: This kind of climate occurs in higher parts of Sierra Maestra, from 800 m asl and the top of Pico Turquino (maximum elevation of the Cuban archipelago, 1972 m asl). Two subtypes are observed:

7a--Wet mountainous tropical climate: It occupies the "floor of the mountain rainforest", i.e. between 800 and 1500 m asl. Annual rainfall is 1600-2000 mm, with a lower rainy period from November to April (Regal, 1988) and with a great influence of the horizontal precipitation: 239 days in Gran Piedra (1100 m asl; Montenegro, 1990). It is noteworthy that in this area the orographic cloud condensation occurs, which takes place between 800 and 1200 m asl; therefore, a 100% relative humidity is observed when it occurs, sometimes getting to flow through the stems (Boytel Yambu, 1972). Due to these horizontal rainfall in above 800 m asl areas (evenings), for 9 months, it does not exceed the 20% of relative sunshine, including four months in which it is less than 10%. The other months it ranges between 20 and 30%. During the mornings, it varies from 30 to 50%. Throughout the year, such relative humidity reaches high values, from over 87% to nearby 92% among different months. The mean air temperature in Gran Piedra is 18.4 [degrees]C. Therefore, evaporation is low and for eight months in the year it does not exceed 100 mm/month (Montenegro, 1991 d). The zonal vegetation is mountain rainforest.

7b--Tropical climate of high mountain: This climatic type takes place on the "floor of cloud forests" from 1500 m above sea level to the top of Pico Real del Turquino (1972 m asl). The mean temperature fluctuates at 1500 m asl, between 14.1 [degrees]C and 19.3[degrees]C in january and july respectively; in turn, at the top of Turquino, it reaches about de 13[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991b). Rainfalls reach about 2000 mm (rainy weather). The influence of horizontal precipitations (orographic clouds and mists) is almost daily; however, on its outside, the forest experiences significant water stress due to the scarce air saturation (Reyes & Fornaris, 2011). Compared to the "floor of the mountain rainforest", relative humidity decreases in these altitudes, averaging between 81 and 85% at 1500 m asl, and 82-83% on top of Turquino in dry and rainy periods respectively (Montenegro, 1991c). Sometimes, values of 36 and 40% are reached during the hottest hours (Reyes & al., 2011).

Forest Typology

Due to the wide variety of oecotopes (types of weather, rocks and soils) and physiographic conditions (higher altitudes of the Cuban archipelago, sublatitudinal extension), Sierra Maestra has a great diversity of forest types. The main ones are:

Uva caleta with yana (Coccoloba uvifera with Conocarpus erectus; Table 1)

Physiognomy and floristic composition: This type of forest is known as sea-grape woodland and consists on a long and narrow tree strip dominated by Coccoloba uvifera (Table 1). Generally, its height does not exceed 8 m, excepting in beaches, where it can reach about 15 m. Due to the effect of the sea winds; it often forms an inclined plane, from near the ground to the appropriate height level.

Oecotope characteristics. Due to its location near the sea, it is remarkably influenced by salt laden sea breezes (salt spray) and by the splashes during heavy swell, which changes the local climate. It is generally observed over the Cobre Group and sandy beaches; soils are sandy and gravelly, usually very shallow.

Terms for forest management. Since they protect surrounding vegetation from marine salt spray and they are a narrow strip, they must be protected against any human intervention, since they can be easily destroyed.

Mangrove stands

Mangroves are affected by marine and fresh water influence, which determines the corresponding type. Therefore, the local climatic conditions have their greatest impact in the farthest areas from the sea and the estuaries.

Red mangrove community (Rhizophora mangle; Table 2)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This community is presented as a belt between 2 and 10 m wide where there is a very straightforward contact with the sea. It may reach higher values in flat areas. Its height is usually between 5 and 10 m and its structure is rather continuous, without defined layer. Regeneration is variable, sometimes scarce. Since it is exclusively composed by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), this forest forms a distinct ecosystem. Its anchoring aerial roots create special conditions for establishing and developing various types of fauna (Table 2).

Oecotope characteristics. It occurs in low-lying places with sediment deposition, usually in areas protected from ocean streams. It is directly in contact with the ocean waves, and the places where tide variation gets its highest values. The substrate consists of quaternary sediments whose composition varies depending on the surrounding geology.

Distribution. It takes place in all the Cuban archipelago coasts.

Terms for forest management. It must be protected from any human intervention, since it forms a narrow strip and protects the coasts and the communities behind them. There are important areas that have been destroyed and should be therefore, restored. Recovery can be made by means of the propagules, which are born in the tree (viviparous capacity).

Community of red mangrove with black mangrove (Rhizophora mangle with Avicennia germinans; Table 3)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. In San Miguel de Paradas, bay of Santiago de Cuba, this mixed mangrove stand forms a narrow belt of up to 70 m; being lower in some other places. Such strip is only composed by red and black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) altogether (Table 3). Usually, the first one is more abundant before the sea. This is where it forms the bulk of the canopy layer in the first 7 to 15 m; it appears later as seedlings in a forest dominated by the second type of mangrove. The canopy layer is between 10 and 12 m tall, with a dense coverage (around 90%), while in the shrub layer it is almost always low (5 and 10%); seedlings, on the other hand, show an average coverage from 20 to 50%.

Oecotope characteristics. They are similar to those of the red mangrove community, although with less influence of waves.

Distribution. It comes after the red mangrove community, or in direct contact with the sea; therefore, it receives alongside the former community, the strongest tidal influence and the greatest depth of water. At certain times, such a water height is of at least 20 to 30 cm at low tide.

Terms for forest management. This kind of mangrove stand should be protected from human activities due to its coastal protection functions and narrow strip condition.

Community of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans; Table 4)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of mangrove stand is found throughout the study area and is generally predominant. It is located behind the red mangrove, and/or the red with black mangrove communities. It consists of pure populations of Avicennia germinans, which gives it a distinctive look. It shows its greatest height in the part in contact with the community of red mangrove, where it reaches between 10 and 12 m. Behind this point, it only reaches from 3 to 6 m and can be considered as stunted mangroves. It is considerable the high density of pneumatophores, which are sometimes used as attachment points of seaweed and animals, and over which it is possible to walk easily (Table 4).

Oecotope characteristics. The soils are boggy (halomorphic) with quaternary sediments. It is located in the area of tidal fluctuation and it is completely affected during high tide.

Distribution. They can be found in all coasts of the Cuban archipelago.

Terms for forest management. It must be protected like all mangrove communities. There are significant areas affected by human impact. Such areas should be restored in order to re-establish their role as protector of the coasts and the biodiversity.

Black mangrove with acrostic (Avicennia germinans with Acrostichum danaefolium; Table 5)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of mangrove stand (Table 5) has a black mangrove canopy layer of 12 to 15 m high, with a cover from very sparse to sparce (40 to 70%). The shrub layer is of acrostic (Acrostichum danaefolium), which reaches about 5 to 6 m and has a cover between high and very high (51 to 100%).

Oecotope characteristics. It usually develops with freshwater influence, whose intensity determines the abundance of herbs.

Distribution. It is dispersed. It was studied at the northwestern edge of the mangrove stands of San Miguel de Paradas, where intermittent streams flow which cause significant freshwater input. Furthermore, it is little influenced by the tides, due to its geographical position in the mangrove stand.

Terms for forest management. Like other mangrove communities, it should be protected from all human activity.

Black mangrove community with white mangrove (Avicennia germinans with Laguncularia racemosa; Table 6)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of forest, composed by white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) and black mangrove is very poorly represented and it is known as mixed mangrove. Sometimes it is put apart from the red mangrove by salt marshes of variable size. It reaches between 4 and 10 m in height and it often has underneath, seedlings of both species (Table 6).

Oecotope characteristics. The soils are weakly flooded. In some places, they are just directly affected by salt water during high tides. They are also influenced by the rainwater.

Distribution. It is commonly seen throughout the study area.

Terms for forest management. Like other mangrove communities, it should be protected from all human activity.

Black mangrove with white mangrove and junco (Avicennia germinans with Laguncularia racemosa and Eleocharis mutata; Table 7)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. In San Miguel de Paradas, this forest is among the mangrove stands of black mangrove and black mangrove with acrostic, i.e., it comes after the latter into the mangrove stands. In addition to the black mangrove, there is often white mangrove in the canopy layer. It is 8 to 14 m high and its covers from very sparse to sparse (21-70%). The shrub layer has a variable cover, media (21-50%); while in the herbaceous layer is high (51-80%). This type of mangrove stand is the richest in herbaceous species (Table 7).

Oecotope characteristics. Water usually varies between 2 and 10 cm above the substrate, strongly influenced by freshwater.

Distribution. It is in the northwestern part of the mangrove stands of San Miguel de Paradas in the bay of Santiago de Cuba.

Terms for forest management. Like other mangrove communities, it should be protected from all human activity.

Yana community (Conocarpus erectus; Table 8)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of mangrove stand (Table 8) is exclusively composed by yana (Conocarpus erectus). Stratification is continuous and dense (100%) and can reach 8 to 12 m high.

Oecotope characteristics. Usually the ground is muddy and brown. It often occupies lagoon-like channels and is usually out of tidal influence.

Distribution. It is a highly disperse mangrove stand.

Terms for forest management. Like other mangrove communities, it should be protected from all human activity.

Jatia with no me toques (Phyllostylon brasiliensis with Oplonia tetrasticha; Table 9)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This forest type is part of the semi-deciduous microphyll forest. The canopy layer is between 8 and 10 meters high, unusual if more. Its coverage is between 60 and 80%, and considered as scarce. Within the group of constant species, only jatia [Phyllostylon brasiliensis (= Ph. rhamnoides)] is in the category of main species; baria (Cordia gerascanthus), carbonero (Colubrina elliptica) and chicharron (Pseudocarpidium avicennioides) are subdominants. In the shrub layer, with a cover considered medium to high (40-80%), no me toques (Oplonia tetrasticha) and Varronia globosa are main species; while picha de perro (Capparis flexuosa) and palo bronco (Malpighia suberosa) are subdominant species. In the herbaceous layer, cuaba de ingenio (Croton lucidus) is the main species, with a media average cover (20-50%). As lianas and epiphytes, bejuco san pedro (Stigmaphyllon sagreanum) and curujey (Tillandsia recurvata) are subdominant species, respectively (Table 9).

In the group of accompanying species from the canopy layer, agalla de costa (Randia aculeata) is observed as subdominant. Negracuba (Thouinia patentinervis), majaguilla (Carpodiptera cubensis), aceituna (Picrodendron baccatum) and yuraguana (Coccothrinax gundlachii) are aggregated species. In the shrub layer, Pictetia mucronata, Tabebuia myrtifolia and frijolillo (Senna atomaria) are aggregated. In the herbaceous layer, Malpighia apiculata is considered as subdominant, while jijira (Harrisia eriophora), marilope (Turnera ulmifolia), jiba (Erythroxylum havanense) and anamu (Petiveria alliacea) are aggregated species. Among lianas, bejuco de purgacion (Commicarpus scandens) is subdominant; and as aggregated species, there are bejuco angarilla (Serjania diversifolia), bejuco de berraco (Chiococca alba), amansa guapo (Triopteris rigida), Cynanchum sp. and bejuco uvi (Cissus trifoliata). Curujey (Tillandsia fasciculata) and barba de indio (T. usneoides) are subdominant in the epiphyte synusiae.

Oecotope characteristics. The altitude varies between 10 and 80 m asl with an inclination between 25 and 45 degrees and an exposure mainly southward. It is located on the bottom of the mountains, near the sea, with a varied microrelief and strongly affected by the salt-laden sea winds (salt spray). This south-coastal area of Sierra Maestra, where this forest type ("floor of semi deciduous forests and scrubs") is observed, is under the effect of the rain shadow (wind screen, Fohn effect) provoked by these mountains; which means low rainfall, very warm temperature, low relative humidity and high evaporations rate.

To the east of the bay of Santiago de Cuba, there is an extremely dry tropical bixeric climate (5aTh) and rainfall is less than 700 mm a year on average. The rainiest months are May, September and October, with more than 100 mm. The driest months are from December to March, and July, when barely exceeds the 30 mm. The rainy days are usually less than 40 per year, being one of the most climatically extreme areas Cuba's, hence, it is considered a hot climate with two dry periods and more than six months of drought. To the west of the bay, rain increases gradually, changing to tropical climate with dry winter, 4bTh subtype, semi-dry, with 5 to 6 months with little rain. Precipitation falls from 900 to about 1200 mm in front of the Pico Turquino (where the mountains tumble directly into the sea), from where it gradually decreases to 800 mm near Cabo Cruz. The mean annual temperature ranges from 24 to 26 [degrees]C, with a mean maximum of 30 to 32 [degrees]C and a mean minimum of 22 to 24 [degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991b). The mean annual relative humidity varies between 75 and 80%, the mean annual at 13.00 h is 70 to 75%, and from 80 to 85% at 07:00 h (Lapinel, 1989; Montenegro, 1991b, c). Evaporation ranges between 1900 and 2000 mm (Crespo, 1989); from March to September it is over 110 mm (Piche), March, April, July and August are the months with higher evaporation (130 to 140 mm) and November and December shows the smallest evaporation rates, 85 mm (Montenegro, 1991d).

It is geologically located on rocks from the Cobre Group (Mendez & al., 1994) and associated to limestone of Jaimanitas formation. There are mainly rocks and stones from the first group, mixed with the second's ones, although the reverse situation is also observed, i.e. limestone mixed with rocks and stones of the Cobre Group. The soil is reddish brown fersiallitic (Renda, 1989; Hernandez & al, 1994), very shallow, often gravelly, containing stones and rocks ranging from 60 to 90%. Therefore, it can be considered as very dry (0) and little fertile (A).

Because it grows in such difficult environmental conditions (shallow soil, high rockiness, stoniness, gravelness, high temperatures, high evaporation and marine salt spray influence), this forest is much stressed, which is expressed in its microphyll, sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous character (Reyes & Acosta, 2004). Therefore, the potential productive capacity should be considered as very bad (V). The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.xxx]0, 5a[Th.sub.a]--4b[Th.sub.b-c], V, Ph. b., O.t.

Distribution. This forest type had a much wider distribution in this coastal area, yet was studied in areas close to the coast of Sierra del Turquino and was observed in relatively large areas on both sides of the bay of Guantanamo and in scattered patches elsewhere.

Terms for forest management. Due to the ecological conditions in which it develops, this coastal forest has hardwood tree species and very slow growing, so handling should be especially careful. It must be protected in general, with 30-year-spaced selective interventions. Special care must be taken with regeneration, which is generally poor and scattered. There are plenty of coastal oecotopes adequate to restore this type of forest, which must be planted with jatia, as a main species, mixed with baria, almacigo, carbonero, majaguilla and negracuba. Climate change models predict increased drought in eastern Cuba (Alvarez & Mercadet & al, 2012). That is why, restoring this type of forest (due to its geographical position in the landscape) constantly raises its strategic value for protecting the coastal zone and the ecosystems behind from the effects of such climate changes.

Carbonero with majaguilla de costa (Colubrina elliptica with Helicteres semitriloba; Table 10)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This forest type corresponds to a late secondary community of the semi-deciduous microphyll forest and is the stage fiera II under the conditions in which it takes place. The canopy layer is very sparse (20%), occasionally more, and the height is 7 to 8 m, in more developed areas it can reach up to 10 m. As dominant species there is carbonero, and as co-dominant (subdominant species) there are majaguilla, almacigo and cafecillo. In the shrub layer, coverage is high (70 to 90%); frijolillo and Varronia globosa subsp. humilis are the main species, while bayua (Zanthoxylum elephantiasis) and picha de perro, are subdominant ones. The herbaceous layer coverage is high (60 to 70%), with cuaba de ingenio (Croton lucidus) as the main species with high abundance--coverage, and tapa culo (Helicteres semitriloba) as subdominant. Among lianas, bejuco san pedro (Stigmaphyllon sagreanum) and bejuco de purgacion are subdominants.

The group of accompanying species is numerous. In the canopy layer, negracuba, chicharron (Pseudocarpidium avicennioides), Pictetia mucronata and yuraguana (Coccothrinax gundlachii) they are subdominants, with high abundance--coverage. In the shrub layer jiba is subdominant and in the herbaceous layer, the following species are also subdominant: no me toques, palo bronco (Malphigia suberosa), abrojo de costa (Castela spinosa), Zapoteca gracilis, Lantana montevidensis, marilope (Turnera ulmifolia), Crossopetalum sp., yerba de guinea (Urochloa humidicola) and camagueyana (Bothriochloa pertusa). Barba de indio (Tillandsia usneoides) and curujey (Tillandsia recurvata) are subdominant species among the epiphytes (Table 10).

Oecotope characteristics. It occupies the upper areas of the micro-basins, where part of the rain water does not infiltrate but drains into the lower areas, hence, the hydraulic stress is very pronounced. It takes place between 70 and 120 m asl The slope is very steep, 40 to 45 degrees; exposure varies between the south and the east. A tropical climate with dry winter, subtype 4bTh, is observed with 5 to 6 months with little rain (semi-dry). The mean annual temperature ranges from 24-26[degrees]C, with average picks of 30-32[degrees]C and 22-24[degrees]C respectively. The mean annual relative humidity is 75 to 80%, this being 70 to 75% at 13:00 h and from 80 to 85% at 07:00 h. Evaporations rate is 1700-1900 mm (Montenegro, 1991b, c, d). It rains about 1000 mm, with a little rainy season from November to April and a rainy season from May to October. It is therefore considered a hot tropical climate with dry and semi-dry winter, with 5-6 dry months. Commonly, it is strongly affected by salt spray sea breezes.

Geologically, it is observed on rocks from the Cobre Group (Mendez & al, 1994). The soil is fersiallitic reddish brown (Renda, 1989), yellowish, very shallow, very gravelly, highly eroded and has truncated profiles; the amount of stones on the surface is 60 to 90%. For all the difficult conditions of the oecotope: topographic position, soil, hydraulic stress, etc, this type of forest grows under extreme conditions, which is expressed in its microphyll and sclerophyllous nature. Therefore, it is considered as very dry (0) and little fertile (A). The typology classification is [A.sub.xxx]0, 4b[Th.sub.b], V, C.e., H.s.

Distribution: It covers the bottom of the southern slope of Sierra del Turquino.

Terms for forest management. As it is a late secondary community with such difficult topographic and ecological conditions it must be protected, with the primary objective of preservation of the soil, the water and the micro-basins.

Cuya with guairaje (Sideroxylon salicifolium with Eugenia maleolens; Table 11)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. Even when it has been relatively anthropized, the canopy layer of this semideciduous microphyll forest has between 8 and 12 m tall in its highest extension; exceptionally from 7 to 8 m with emerging from about 10 m. Coverage is sparse to dense (70-100%). In the group of constant species, the main species are: cuya (Sideroxylon salicifolium), almacigo, yaiti and guairaje (Eugenia maleolens). As subdominant species, there are: ciguilla (Guettarda elliptica), lirio santana and carbonero. In the shrub layer, whose cover is high (50-80%), the subdominant species are yuraguana (Coccothrina fragans), cuabilla, carne de vaca (Maytenus buxifolia) and yarua de costa (Erythroxylum rotundifolium); and in the herbaceous layer (medium cover), the subdominant is the jiba. There are different species among lianas (Table 11). In the group of accompanying species, in the canopy layer: yaya (Oxandra lanceolata), ipil ipil, guatapana (Acacia macracantha) and macaguey (toad) (Guapira obtusata) are subdominant species. The shrub layer is poor and the herbaceous relatively rich (Table 11). Aggregated species are concentrated in the shrub and herbaceous layers and in the lianas synusiae.

Oecotope characteristics. The elevation is 40 to 80 m a.s.l, but not directly facing the sea. It is usually found on slopes of 28 from 40 degrees and exposure is to the north (NE to NW), so it is protected from the marine salt spray.

In this area, rainfall is about 800 mm, mainly concentrated from may to october; in turn, the humidity is low and temperatures and sunshine are very high, causing a large evaporation (Montenegro, 1991a, b, e; Crespo, 1989). It is considered as the beginning of the tropical climate zone with dry winter, semidry 4bTh subtype, with 5 to 6 months with little rain.

It is developed on marls from La Cruz formation. Soils are siallitic brown (sensu Hernandez & al., 1994), loamy, from very shallow to shallow, sometimes with gravel from the marl. Therefore this edatope must be considered dry (1) and little fertile (A), and the potential production capacity is considered bad (IV). The typology classification is as follows A1, 4bThb, IV, S.s., E.m.

Due to the steep slope, the withered leaves cover about 60% of the surface. It often accumulates in the anterior part of the stem, where it is thicker. The L layer ranges between 1 and 1.5 cm. The F layer is about 0.5 cm, but before the stems, it sometimes may be 1.0 cm. The H layer is missing (Reyes & Martinez, 2005).

Distribution. It is located in the coastal hills around the bay of Santiago de Cuba, in the south coastal terraces of Sierra Maestra (Nunez & Vina, 1989).

Terms for forest management. According to the ecological conditions in which it develops, this coastal forest has semi-hard and hardwood tree species, as well as slow and very slow growing. Therefore, it should be carefully managed. It should be preserved for being an ecosystem of great importance for coastal protection. Interventions should be selective and spaced at least, 30 years. Regeneration should be protected, since it is generally dispersed. There are oecotopes showing adequate conditions to restore this kind of forest. They should be planted cuya, jatia, almacigo, baria, carbonero, lirio santana and yarua (Caesalpinia violacea).

Macaguey (toad) with curujey and chicharron (Guapira obtusata with Hohenbergia penduliflora and Drypetes mucronata; Table 12)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. The canopy layer is irregular in height, usually between 7 and 12 m, its cover is sparse (50-60%) and is considered a clear microphyll evergreen forest; the leaves are mainly xeromorphic and mostly microphyllous. In the group of constant species the macaguey (toad) is the main specie, and as subdominant there are lirio amarillo or suchel (Plumeria emarginata), ayua de sierra (Zanthoxylum cubense), chicharron (Drypetes mucronata), bone (Drypetes alba), yuraguana (Coccothrinax elegans) and Tabebuia bibracteolata. The shrub layer has a medium to high covers (30-60%), occasionally less. The subdominant species are sigua (Ocotea coriacea), hicaquillo (Savia bahamensis) and yarua de costa (Erythroxylum rotundifolium). The herbaceous layer, in which there are many species considered as epiphytes in other ecosystems, has a high cover (80-90%). The main species are maguey (Agave underwoodii), no me toques, curujey (Hohenbergia penduliflora), curujey (Tillandsia fasciculata), and as subdominant, flor del caliz (Selenicereus grandiflorus), jijira (Pilosocereus brooksianus), bejuco lombricero (Philodendron lacerum), Polypodium polypodioides, Epidendrum pygmaeum and flor de san pedro (Epidendrum nocturnum). In the lianas, bejuco de berraco, alambrillo (Smilax havanensis), bejuco san pedro, Platygyne dentata and bejuco manteca (Passiflora penduliflora) are subdominants. Among the epiphytes the main species is barba de indio and the curujeyes (Tillandsia recurvata and T. pruinosa) are subdominants.

In the group of accompanying species, the subdominants in canopy layer are: carbonero, carmin (Alvaradoa arborescens) and cuabilla (Amyris elemifera). In turn, in the shrub layer aguedita (Celtis trinervia), cuaba prieta (Erithalis fruticosa), negracuba, yaiti (Gymnanthes lucida), brasil (Caesalpinia vesicaria) and picha jutia (Hyperbaena paucinervis) have the same category; as well as aguedita (Picramnia pentandra), canuela (Cyrtopodium punctatum), disciplinilla (Rhipsalis cassutha), among others within the herbaceous layer. Aggregated species are also diverse (Table 12).

This kind of forest have a rich differential combination that distinguish it from macaguey (toad) with curujey and lirio santana (Guapira obtusata with Hohenbergia penduliflora and Exostema caribaeum) (Table 11), due to some rain and altitudinal differences.

Oecotope characteristics. This kind of forest is present at the top of the mogotes (karstic dome hill) with a 600 to 670 m asl altitude. The microrelief is diverse, composed by big, sharp, with lots of holes and ruptures dogtooth rocks. The average exposure to sun light in this zone is of 3 to 5 hours per day, with lower and higher peaks during the rainy and dry seasons respectively. The mean annual temperature is 20-22[degrees]C, with a mean minimum of 16-18[degrees]C and a mean maximum of 26-28[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991b, e). The climate is tropical with 4cTh subtype dry winter and 3 to 4 months with little rain (moderately dry), the average rainfall is 1634 mm in La Tabla (1216 to 2320 mm), so it can be regarded as rainy (sensu Borhidi, 1991). On average there are 94 rainy days in the year. A rainy season is clearly defined from march to october with 85% of the rainfall while the dry season takes only the 15% of it. The mean annual relative humidity is 80-85%, ranging between a 60-70% at 13.00 h, and 85-90% at 07.00 h (Montenegro, 1991c, d). The mean annual evaporation is 1300 to 1500 mm, with a daily average of 2.5-3 mm (Piche) and up to 3.5-4 mm in sunny days (Montenegro, 1991d).

These mogotes are strongly carsified and dissected denude plateaus (Vina Bayes, 1991), with vertical walls, composed by limestones and marbles from Charco Redondo formation. Because of its topographic position, this forest is in a very irregular microrelief, with big, sharp, with lots of holes and ruptures dogtooth rocks, where sometimes there is a red, very shallow soil. That is why it is considered dry (1), with a little fertile (A) trophism.

However, withered leaves accumulates in the holes, sometimes reaching up to 20 cm, and form a root mat, where nutrient recycling takes place. The ecosystem depends on this recycling. Due to the particular conditions of this forest, the potential productive capacity is considered very bad (V). The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.xxx]1, 4c[TH.sub.d], V, G.o., H.p., D.m.

Distribution. This area of mogotes, where this forest type develops, occurs in the northern slope of Sierra Maestra, forming the central part of a typical territory known as Carso de Baire (La Tabla, Palma del Perro).

Terms for forest management. Due to the difficult environmental conditions where these forests evolved and their topographical position, the hardwood species with a very slow growth predominate. Therefore, it is considered a typical object of conservation and should not be exploited at any circumstances.

Macaguey (toad) with curujey and lirio santana (Guapira obtusata with Hohenbergia penduliflora and Exostema caribaeum; Table 13)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. The canopy layer of this clear-microphyll evergreen forest varies between 7 and 12 m in height and its cover is sparse (50-60%). In the group of constant species, the main species is macaguey (toad) and the subdominants are yuraguana (Coccothrinax elegans) and Tabebuia bibracteolata. In the shrub layer, with variable coverage between low and high (15 and 80%), is only subdominant sigua (Ocotea coriacea). In the herbaceous layer, with a high cover (50 and 80%), no me toques and curujeyes (Hohenbergia penduliflora and Tillandsia fasciculata) are the main species. Concerning lianas, alambrillo, bejuco de verraco, bejuco lombricero and flor del caliz are subdominants. In the group accompanying species, in the canopy layer, cuabilla, bone and suchel are subdominants. Other species from the shrub and herbaceous layers, and lianas are found in Table 13. In the canopy layer, among the aggregate species group, there are ayua de sierra (Zanthoxylum cubense), carmin and few species in other strata and synusiaes. Also, lirio santana (Exostema caribaeum), panetela (Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus) and pasionaria de cerca (Passiflora sexflora) are present in the differential combination.

Oecotope characteristics. Because it is also developed in the top of the mogotes of Carso de Baire, the ecological conditions and forest management are the same of the forest previously described [macaguey (toad) with curujey and chicharron]. However, there are some differences in its distribution, since this forest is located in Las Manuelas and in La Pimienta. Thus, it is somewhat lower and higher than the other described forest, respectively, which may result in some rainfall differences. The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.xxx]1, 4c[Th.sub.d], V, G.o., H.p., E.c.

Sigua with carmin (Ocotea coriacea with Alvaradoa arborescens)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of forest (2 plots) is an early community; it comes from excessive disturbance and fire, so it is currently a homeostasis I. Carmin (Alvaradoa arborescens) is the main species that make the current stability. The canopy layer is quite uneven, with a height between 6 and 11 m; the coverage is sparse, ranging between 60 and 70%. The most abundant species are carmin (D, A-C 3-4), sigua (D, A-C 1-2) and sometimes lirio amarillo (C, A-C 1), macaguey (toad) (I, A-C 1), ayua de sierra (I, A-C 1), picha jutia (Hyperbaena paucinervis, 0, A-C 1), penda (I, A-C 1), lirio santana (I, A-C 1), carbonero (I, A-C 1) and guama (Lonchocarpus longipes, 0, A-C 1) are also seen in this layer. Other scattered tree species are: raspalengua (Casearia hirsuta), aguedita sweet, aguedita (Picramnia pentandra), yaiti, cuabilla and pole box (Allophyllus cominia).

In the shrub layer, coverage is high (50-60%), and it is media at the herbaceous (30-40%), which is also the richest in species.

Ecology and distribution. It comes on top of the strongly dissected carsified plateaus, mogotes, which occupies the geographical area known as Carso de Baire. The altitude varies between 600 and 650 m asl Weather conditions are described in macaguey (toad) with curujey and chicharron, since they are located in the same territory. Although it is at the top of the mogotes, it occupies the edatopes with shallow to very shallow soils, with about 40% of rocks on the surface. Because of its topographic position, it is exposed to the average climatic conditions of the region. The L layer is variable in site, it ranges between 0.5 to 2 cm, the F layer fluctuate from 0.2 to 1 cm and the H layer occasionally it reaches 1.5 cm, with rootlets.

As the general conditions are similar to macaguey (toad) with curujey and chicharron, therefore it is also considered a typical object of conservation and should not be exploited at any circumstances. The typology classification is considered B1, 4c[Th.sub.d], IV, O.c., A.b.

Jocuma with guao (Sideroxylum foetidissimum subsp. foetidissimum with Comocladia dentata; Table 14)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This semideciduous microphyll forest was altered by intense selective logging, which has changed its structure. However, it maintains its floristic composition; therefore, nowadays, it can be rehabilitated.

The canopy layer is between 7 and 10 m in height, so it is considered a low forest. It has also emerging about 15 m. Cover is very sparse (30-50%). The main species are jocuma (Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp. foetidissimum) and guao (Comocladia dentata). The subdominant species are almacigo, sigua (sometimes abundant), cuya, lirio santana (locally abundant), guara (Cupania glabra), jia blanca (Adelia ricinella) and aroma blanca (Alvaradoa amorphoides). In the canopy layer of the group of accompanying species, yaicuaje (Exothea paniculata) is subdominant.

The shrub layer has a high cover (80 to 90%). Subdominant and abundant are guairaje (Eugenia sp.) and guao, there are too raspalengua and the jiba, among others species. In the herbaceous layer with an average from 20 to 30%, are present Zapoteca gracilis, amor seco (Desmodium incanum), cortadera (Scleria lithosperma) and canutillo (Commelina elegans). Lianas are diverse. The composition of the other strata and synusiaes (which are many) is found in Table 14.

Oecotope characteristics. This forest is present in small altitudes, between 230 and 240 m asl The slope is small, about 5 degrees, with a relatively uniform meso and microrelief. The exposure is varied. Climatically, it is in the area where the influence of Sierra Maestra ends. It has a tropical climate with dry winter, 4bTh subtype, with 5 to 6 months with little rain (semidry). In the area, it rains between 1000 and 1200 mm (medium rainy), distributed in a rainy season from May to October, and a less rainy from November to April. It has from 40 to 60 days with precipitation annually. The mean relative humidity is 75 to 80% (Montenegro, 1991b, c) and evaporation varies between 2000 and 2200 mm (Crespo, 1989). The mean annual temperature ranges from 24-26[degrees]C, with an average high of 32-34[degrees]C and an average low of 18-20[degrees]C.

It occurs in limestone from Charco Redondo geological formation. The soil is brown, very shallow, sometimes rocks cover up to 80% of the surface. Withered leaves have an L layer between 2 and 2.5 cm, and an F layer of 0.5 to 1 cm. The H layer is thin and forms a root mat of around 1 cm in some places. It is hence considered as a dry and moderately fertile edatope. Therefore, its potential productive capacity is considered bad (IV). The typology classification is as follows B1, 4b[TH.sub.c], IV, [Rm.sup.*], S.f.f., C.d.

Distribution. This forest has a more widespread distribution in the hills of the northern slope of Sierra Maestra. It was studied at the place known as El Granizo, between Jiguani and Baire, in the hills of northern edge of Sierra Maestra.

Terms for forest management. As intervention continues, this forest has lost part of its structure. However, there are many valuable species from the forestry point of view, which have an acceptable participation in the canopy layer and a very good regeneration (jocuma, cuya, sigua, guara, yaicuaje). Therefore, interventions should be limited to restrict guao and frijolillo in the canopy layer and release the seedlings of the most valuable species in the lower ones. It can be also enriched with mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni), cedar (Cedrela odorata), yarua, etc.

Group of cuya with curbana (Sideroxylon salicifolium with Canella winterana)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This forest type consists of three stages of successional development corresponding to a late community (sensu Budowski, 1985; Capote & al., 1988; Reyes & Acosta, 2005). Differences are given by the degree of successional development and the ecological conditions, mainly exposure and position on the slope. Therefore, as they are located in the same area, they will be studied together, specifying only the differences. The canopy layer is from sparse to slightly sparse (70 to 90%) and reaches between 9 and 12 m tall. Floristically, it is quite heterogeneous; a total of 41 species was found reaching this layer.

Oecotope characteristics. The studied site is hills between 20 and 100 m asl Most of it is located on the north side of the Coastal Terraces south of Sierra Maestra, so their secondary watershed and dells (that only run with considerable rainfall) are preferably north-northwest directed and to a lesser degree, northwest. The most frequent inclination is between 20-40[degrees]. The microrelief on the side is generally flat. The mean annual temperature is around 26[degrees]C and the average maximum is about 32[degrees]C. Annual precipitation is near 800 mm (little rainy) and the mean annual evaporation is between 1700 and 1900 mm (Montenegro, 1991a, b, d). Therefore, it is considered a tropical climate with 4bTh subtype dry winter, with 5 to 6 months with little rain (semidry).

From the geological point of view, these hills are composed by marls from La Cruz formation (Comision Cubano--Hungara, 1976). Soils are brown (with carbonate), and they are from shallow to very shallow. They even react with saliva. It is usually clay loam, sandy clay or sandy; stony in greater or lesser extent, with small and medium stones. Therefore, in general, the edatope is considered as dry (1) and little fertile (A), and the potential production capacity is inferred as bad (IV). The typology classification is considered A[1.sub.x], 4b[Th.sub.b], IV, S.s., C.w.

Regarding the withered leaves, the L layer reaches about 2 cm. The F layer is generally absent, except for areas with higher earthworm activity and the H is missing. This activity (which is higher in the more advanced successional stages) is very important here, because it incorporates organic matter into the soil. They form a mixed layer of 1 to 1.5 cm of soil and half-decomposed withered leaves, which influences the ecosystem nutrients cycle. Due to this rapid decomposition of fallen leaves and the total absence of root mat, the fermentation process can be considered as quick (Herrera & Rodriguez, 1988).

The three subtypes (successional stages) are:

Cuya with curbana and guatapana,

Cuya with curbana and black ebony,

Cuya with curbana and lirio santana.

Special features of the subtypes.

Cuya with curbana and guatapana (Sideroxylon salicifolium with Canella winterana and Acacia macracantha; Table 15)

This type of forest is the least advanced transitional successional stage. Here, frijolillo and guatapana still play an important role in the canopy layer, which is slightly sparse. The cover of guairaje and cuya is still very low. In the group of constant species, only guatapana is within the main species group. Frijolillo, cuya, curbana and almacigo are subdominants. In the shrub layer, whose coverage is from medium to high (30-70%), only guairaje is considered as main species, the others are subdominants. The same happens in the herbaceous layer (it is from low to high, 10-90%).

Usually, in this type of forest, soils have a higher degree of development and may be considered as shallow. They preferentially occupy the bottom of the slope (lower basin) and although they are usually steep (30-45[degrees]) are directed towards the north (NE-NW). Therefore, the humidity here is more favorable than in other types of forest in this series (dry with a tendency to fresh).

The differential combination has cabo de hacha (Trichilia hirta) as a main species and jocuma and uvita (Cordia alba) as subdominants. The rest of the species are found in Table 15.

Cuya with curbana and black ebony (Sideroxylon salicifolium with Canella winterana and Diospyrus grisebachii; Table 16)

It is found in the lower slopes of the entire community, as its inclination only occasionally exceeds 20 degrees. Although the position on the slope is variable, it is most commonly found in the upper part thereof; then, the relative height is usually greater than 20 m. The exposure is to the north (NE-NW). Here, the earthworm activity described above is common. This type of forest is a more advanced successional stage than the above (late secondary community). In the canopy layer, cuya is the main species and curbana, guatapana, frijolillo, almacigo and lirio santana are the subdominants ones. The main species from the shrub layer is guairaje (Eugenia axillaris), with a high cover (50-80%). From the herbaceous layer, cuaba de ingenio (media occasionally high covers, 40-70%) was the main specie. Here, the number of tree seedlings is higher than in the previous type of forest. In the differential combination, the subdominants species from the canopy layer are: black ebony and negracuba. Other subdominant species from the shrub and herbaceous layers and liana synusiae are shown in Table 16.

Cuya with curbana and lirio santana (Sideroxylon salicifolium with Canella winterana and Exostema caribaeum; Table 17)

It is generally observed in exposures to the west (N to SSW), on slopes of 20-40[degrees] and generally, in the mid to upper hillside, so the relative height is greater than 20 m. The microrelief is often slightly wavy.

This forest is also a late secondary community; the main tree pioneers (guatapana and frijolillo) generally have diminished vitality and poor or very poor regeneration. The dominant species in the canopy layer are cuya and curbana and the above mentioned species and the almacigo are also subdominant.

In the shrub layer (high cover, 50-80%) guairaje (Eugenia axillaris) is the main specie; while in the herbaceous (media to heig covers, 40-70%) it is cortadera (Scleria lithosperma). The other subdominant species in both layers, as well as lianas are shown in Table 17. The proportion of tree seedlings is high in these strata, which also confirmed how advanced the successional stage is.

The soil is very shallow, sometimes gravelly and with some stones on the surface. Due to its inclination, position on the slope and exposure, it can be considered as a dry (1) and little fertile (A) oecotope.

Terms for forest management. As these subtypes are successional stages, enrichment with valuable species from the forestry point of view should be achieved in silvicultural treatment, mainly in the less advanced stages. Some of these species are: cedar, bijaguara, roble (Tabebuia sp.), mahogany, bone, cuya, jocuma, brasil, sabicu, dagame and baria.

Guatapana with frijoliUo and cafecillo (Acacia macracantha with Senna atomaria and Bourreria virgata; Table 18)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. Low secondary forest showing dominance of thorny legumes. It is an early community (homeostasis I) after total or near total destruction of the previous vegetation. The canopy layer is low and fairly open sparse (50 to 60%); its height is about 7 to 8 m. The main species at the group of constant species are guatapana and frijolillo; while the subdominant are ipil ipil and uvita. The species from the other strata and synusiaes, including the group of accompanying species and of differential combination are shown in Table 18. The difference with the shrub layer is often unclear.

Oecotope characteristics. It can be seen below 150 m a.s.l, showing a flat microrelief; exposures are varied, mainly to the south. The slope varies between 15-25[degrees]. The mean annual temperature ranges from 24-26[degrees]C. The mean annual relative humidity is 75 to 80% and evaporation is 1700 to 1900 mm (Montenegro, 1991a, b, c). It rains about 1000 mm, with little rainy season from November to April and a rainy from May to October. It is therefore considered a tropical climate with dry winter, 4bTh subtype, with 5-6 dry months (semi-dry). It is also heavily influenced by the salt spray sea breezes. It occurs on soils derived from volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and limestones. The soil is fersiallitic reddish brown (Renda, 1989), very shallow and highly eroded. Therefore, it is considered as very dry (0) and little fertile (A). The potential production capacity is inferred as very bad (V) and the typology classification is A0, 4bThb-c, V, A.m., S.a., Bv.

Distribution. It was studied in the southern part of Sierra del Turquino, near the community of Las Brujas (Santiago de Cuba Province).

Terms for forest management. As they are an early community (homeostasis I) after the destruction of the original forest, it has very little diversity of tree species in the shrub and herbaceous layers. That is why, an enrichment with species adapted to the oecotope is advised; such as: jatia, baria, carbonero, majaguilla, almacigo, sigua, cuya, yarua and macaguey (toad).

Guatapana with frijolillo and raspalengua (Acacia macracantha with Senna atomaria and Casearia hirsuta; Table 19)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This forest type is an early community (homeostasis I), i.e. the relative equilibrium stage taking place after the first phase fiera (Reyes & al., 2004b). The canopy layer reaches between 6 and 9 m and is slightly sparse (80-90%). The main species are guatapana and frijolillo, especially the first which determine the physiognomy of the ecosystem. They form a continuous and clear canopy that allows the passage of light. Uvita is the subdominant species. The shrub (20-60%) and herbaceous (30-70%) layers have a covers from medium to high, exceptionally less. They are mainly composed by woody micro and nanophanerophytes, some herbaceous and lianas, which can be found in Table 19.

Since guatapana is the main contributor to the withered leaves, and it has leptophyll leaflets, the L layer is generally less than a centimeter and often scattered. The F layer is barely noticeable and the H only contains (sometimes) remains on the ground. For this and the absence of root mat, fermentation can be considered quick (Herrera & Rodriguez, 1988).

Oecotope characteristics. The studied areas are hills between 20 and 100 m asl Their secondary watershed and dells (which only run with considerable rainfall) are preferably north-west directed and to a lesser degree, northwest. The most frequent inclination is between 20 and 40 degrees, the microrelief on the side is generally flat. It prefers sunny exposures, especially to the southwest. The relative height is less than 20 m in general. The mean annual temperature is around 26[degrees]C and the mean maximum is about 32[degrees]C. The annual precipitation is near 800 mm (little rain) and the mean annual evaporation is between 1700 and 1900 mm (Montenegro, 1991a, b, c); so it can be considered a tropical climate with two dry periods, 5aTh subtype, extremely dry tropical bixeric.

Geologically, these hills are composed by Pliocene marl from La Cruz formation. Soils are brown (carbonate), from shallow to very shallow and even react with saliva. They are commonly sandy loam and sometimes locally gravelly. It is often rocky with small and mid-stones on the top of the profile. The laminar erosion is variable; in some places it is weak, in other is strong though. Regarding the edatope moisture, it can be considered as dry (1) and little fertile (A). The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.x]1, 5a[Th.sub.b], IV, A.m., S.a., C.h

Distribution. It presents its greatest extent in the northeastern part of the marly hills from the South Coastal Terraces of Sierra Maestra.

Terms for forest management. As it is a community similar to the previous forest (homeostasis I), it has very little diversity of tree species in the shrub and herbaceous layers. That is why, enrichment with species adapted to the oecotope is advised; such as: jatia, baria, carbonero, majaguilla, almacigo, sigua, cuya, yarua and macaguey (toad).

Yaya with almacigo (Oxandra lanceolada with Bursera simaruba; Table 20)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. Although this vegetation type (semideciduous mesophyll forest) has been exploited for livestock development, the analyzed area has a high degree of naturalness. The canopy layer has coverage from sparse to slightly sparse (50-90%) and a height between 7 and 15 m. In the group of constant species, almacigo and yaya (Oxandra lanceolada) are the main species; while baria and guama candelon (Piscidia piscipula) are the subdominant. These species from the shrub and herbaceous layers, as well as the synusiaes of lianas and epiphytes are found in Table 20.

In the group of accompanying species, jocuma, guarano (Cupania americana), guasima, jobo (Spondias mombin), jatia and sabicu (Lysiloma sabicu) are subdominant species. Bone, yaiti, guara, guaguasi, tengue (Poeppigia procera), royal palm (Roystonea regia), ramon horse (Trophis racemosa), cuya and majaguilla are aggregated species. Plants from other layer are shown in Table 20.

The species from the shrub layer with a cover from medium to high (40-90%) and the herbaceous layer with medium (30-50%) are found in Table 20. The composition of biological types is as follows: 40.5% of the species are trees, 24.3% are shrubs, 13.5% form the herbaceous layer, 2.7% are ferns, 16.2% are lianas and the 4.1%, epiphytes.

Oecotope characteristics. The microrelief is generally flat. It locally shows rocky outcrops on the surface. The slope is also very variable, ranging between 20 and 40 degrees. The exposure has two main trends: one to the east and the other to south. The altitude varies between 120 and 200 m asl The mean annual rainfall in this area is 1000 to 1200 mm per year, i.e. moderately rainy. There are two distinct periods: the dry season, from November to April (between 300 and 400 mm) and the rainy season, from May to October (800 and 1000 mm) (Montenegro, 1991a). It is considered a tropical climate with dry winter, subtype 4bTh, with 5-6 dry months (semi-dry).

The most important soil is the reddish brown fersiallitic; its depth varies from very shallow to moderately deep. It drains well, both internal and external. Therefore, the edatope is considered as dry (1) and from little to moderately fertile (B). Withered leaves are unevenly distributed, the L layer ranges between 1.5 and 3 cm, occasionally more; in isolated nanodepressions can reach up to 15 cm. F and H layers are almost imperceptible, and only the last is observed, mixed with the horizon A. In turn, the potential productive capacity is considered from bad (IV) to regular (III). The typology classification is as follows B1, 4bThc, III-IV, O.l., B.s.

Distribution. This forest is a typical semi-deciduous mesophyll forest, which had a large area in the flat and premountain areas. It was studied on the southern slope of the mountain range of Sierra Maestra. Nowadays, the most extensive relict is located near the mouth of Turquino river.

Terms for forest management. Almost all areas from the mesophyll semideciduous forest have been destroyed for agriculture and livestock purposes, so it is necessary to preserve these relics, which are relatively rich in tree species.

Jubaban with guasima (Trichilia hirta with Guazuma ulmifolia; Table 21)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This secondary forest is a late secondary community (fiera II and homeostasis II) from the successional series that takes place in the mesophyll semideciduous forest; the most advanced one has more species in all strata. The canopy layer is irregular in height and varies from 7 to 12 m. Cover is from sparse to dense (60-100%). Among the group of constant species, guasima (the most abundant) and frijolillo are the main species. The subdominants are jubaban, baria, jobo, majaguilla, negracuba and yuraguana (Coccothrinax gundlachii). In the group of accompanying species, almacigo is subdominant and aguedita (Celtis trinervia) aggregated. The species in the shrub layer with a covers from medium to high (40-80%) are in Table 21, as well as the species with medium coverage (30-50%) from the herbaceous layer and lianas.

Oecotope characteristics. It occurs between 40 and 100 m asl, with an inclination of 20-37[degrees] and in various exposures. The microrelief is relatively flat. The mean annual temperature ranges from 24 to 26 [degrees]C, with a mean annual high of 30-32[degrees]C and a mean annual low of 22-24[degrees]C. The mean annual relative humidity is 75-80%. Evaporation is 1700-1900 mm (Montenegro, 1991a, b, c, d). It rains about 1000 mm (slightly rainy limit), with a little rainy period from november to april and a rainy, from may to october. It is considered a tropical climate with dry winter, 4bTh subtype, with 5-6 dry months (semi-dry).

The soil is reddish brown fersiallitic, very shallow, gravelly, with a percentage of stones from 50-80%, exceptionally lower. This forest type occupies the middle and lower zones of the microbasin, so their water situation is relatively more favorable than in the upper basins. Due to the large slope, withered leaves are very sparse where it accumulates. Sometimes among the stones, an L layer (1-2cm) and a generally imperceptible F are observed. Sometimes such layers are mixed. Therefore, it is considered as a dry (1) and little fertile (A) edatope, so its potential productive capacity is considered bad (IV). The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.xx-xxx]1 4b[Th.sub.b-c], IV, T.h., G.u.

Distribution. It was studied at the bottom of the southern slope of Sierra del Turquino.

Terms for forest management. This forest can be enriched with cedar, mahogany, baria, yarua and ayua.

Guarano with guasima (Cupania americana with Guazuma ulmifolia; Table 22)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This secondary forest grows in the oecotopes from the semideciduous mesophyll forest and forms the late communities (fiera II and homeostasis II) under these conditions. The canopy layer varies according to the stage of development. In places where it is lower, it is between 7 and 8 m, while in the more syngeneticaly evolved places it reaches from 12 to 15 m. Cover is slightly sparse (usually 90%), occasionally less. In the group of constant species, the main species are guasima and guarano (Cupania americana), while baria, tengue, jubaban, ayua and royal palm are subdominants. In the group of accompanying species, frijolillo, algarrobo (Samanea saman), guarano hembra, yagruma (Cecropia peltata), cedar and yamagua (Guarea guidonia) are subdominants, while guama candelon (Piscidia piscipula) is aggregated. The species from the shrub (media to high covers, 20-80%) and herbaceous (media, 20-50%) layers, as well as lianas and epiphytes are found in Table 22.

Oecotope characteristics. It takes place at an altitude between 200 and 625 m asl, on slopes of 20 to 40 degrees and in various exposures. It locates in low and premountain areas from Sierra Maestra. Rainfall is seasonal, between 900 and 1200 mm, i.e., moderately rainy. The climate is tropical with dry winter, 4cTh subtype, 3 to 4 months with little rain (moderately dry). Soils vary from fersiallitic and brown to ferrallitic, and from shallow to moderately deep, sometimes with stones on the surface. Humus is underdeveloped. The L layer is between 1 and 3 cm. The F layer usually presents from vestiges to 0.3 cm, only in structurally complex areas can reach 2 cm (with rootlets). H layer is not common; exceptionally, in the above described sites can be, in dispersed form, up to 0.3 cm. Therefore, the edatope is moderately fertile (B), from dry to fresh (1-2), and the potential productive capacity is considered as regular (III). The typology classification is [B.sub.x]1-2, 4c[Th.sub.b-c], III, C.a., G.u.

Distribution. This type of forest is the average conditions of semideciduous mesophyll forest in the Sierra Maestra.

Terms for forest management. It is rich in species, 44 tree species are observed. Then, its treatment is to keep it as such, so that it can develop its full potential. Corresponding oecotopes to such type of forest can be restored with species such as cedar, mahogany, yarua, baria, ayua, jocuma, bijaguara and dagame, forming a mixed forest.

Amoroso with guasima (Zanthoxylum fagara with Guazuma ulmifolia; Table 23)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This secondary forest successive stage known as fiera II. The canopy layer increases in size with the development of the forest, from 6-8 m to 10-12 m and is considered dense (100%); in the lower parts, no real difference is observed between the canopy and the shrub layers. In the group of constants species guasima and frijolillo are dominant while guarano, guara, amoroso (Zanthoxylum fagara), guatapana, algarrobo, raspalengua and caimitillo (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) are subdominants. In turn, in the group of accompanying species are subdominants: jatia, ipil ipil, mije (Eugenia floribunda), aguedita (Picramnia pentandra), guama hediondo (Lonchocarpus blainii), aguedita sweet, guayaba (Psidium guajava) and jubaban. The composition of the other layers and sinusiaes are found in Table 23.

Oecotope characteristics. The micro relief is irregular and occupies preferably the middle and lower basins. The study was run at an altitude of 220 to 240 m asl, with a 15 to 39 degree slope and changing exposure. The climate is tropical with dry winter, 4bTh subtype, with 5 to 6 months of little rain (medium-dry). The average rainfall ranges from 1000 to 1200 mm and the average temperature is around 25[degrees]C.

It lies on rocks of the undifferentiated the Cobre Group. Soils are yellowish brown, shallow, with noticeable sheet erosion and about 5% of rock at the surface. The withered leaves are often scattered, in the less structurally evolved parts L and F layers are mixed and are no thicker than a centimetre; on the contrary, at the more developed layers the L is about 1.5 cm and F 0.5 cm, H is missing. The edatope is considered dry (1) and moderately fertile (B); therefore the potential production capacity is considered bad (IV). The typology classification is as follows B1, 4b[Th.sub.c], IV, Z.f., G.u.

Distribution. The study was run at the surroundings of the town El Cobre (Santiago de Cuba province).

Conditions of forest management. As advanced successive stage, it can be enriched with species of forest value such as cedar, mahogany, yarua, baria, jocuma, bijaguara and dagame, among others.

Sigua with guara (Ocotea coriacea with Cupania glabra; Table 24)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. The canopy layer varies between 7 and 15 m height and its cover is sparse, occasionally dense (50-100%). In the group of constant species it is only so the sigua, while the guara, jaguey (Ficus laevigata), macaguey (toad), yellow lily and aguedita (Picramnia pentandra) are subdominants; as for the group of accompaning species, this category is present with ramon cow (Dendropanax arboreus), bone, aguedita (Celtis trinervia), cuabilla, moruro rojo, raspalengua and guairaje (Eugenia asperifolia). As aggregated species, there are: abey (Abarema glauca), ayua de sierra, baria and penda. The species in the shrub layer, low sometimes high (10-90%), herbaceous (medium to high, 30-95%) and the sinucias of lianas and epiphytes are found in Table 24.

Oecotope characteristics. The altitude varies from 480 to 645 m asl. The slope is irregular, as it is the exposure. The mean annual temperature is 20 to 22[degrees]C (Montenegro, 1991a). In the central area of the studied territory mean annual rainfall is 1634 mm, varying in the analyzed years between 1216 and 2320 mm. There are 94 rainy days (average), ranging between 76 and 111. Evaporation ranges from 1300-1500 mm and relative humidity between 80 and 85% (Montenegro, 1991c, d). Accordingly there is a tropical weather with dry winter, 4cTh subtype, with 3-4 dry months (moderately dry).

This forest grows on limestone and marble. It is present in both the top and bottom of the mogotes in areas of reddish brown soil, or in dog tooth with cavities and diaclases with red soils, both very shallow. Generally, in this ecosystem, soil is highly involved in the recycling of nutrients. However, it occurs in less extreme conditions that macaguey (toad) with curujey and chicharron, occupying the same territory. So it is considered a little fertile ([A.sub.xxx]) and dry trophism (1). The withered leaves well developed, with an L layer between 1.5 and 5 cm; F is 0.2 to 3 cm, and an H sometimes converted into root mat 0.5 to 2.5 cm, of roots and rootlets embedded in a matrix of humus. In places with more soil, this root mat is smaller, with little humus; in this case there are more rootlets in the first soil horizon. Consistent with the difficult conditions in which this forest develops the potential productive capacity is considered bad (IV). The typology classification is as follows [A.sub.xxx]1, 4c[Th.sub.d], IV, [Rm.sup.*], O.c., C.g.

Distribution. This type of forest is located in the geographical area known as Carso de Baire (Nunez & Vina, 1989; Vina Bayes, 1991). It is present in Las Manuelas and La Pimienta.

Conditions of forest management. Due to the conditions under which this type of forest grows, managing only allows long-term selective extractions (30 or older) to avoid decreasing rates of valuable species from the forestry point of view.

Yamagua with ramon cow (Guarea guidonia with Dendropanax arboreus; Table 25)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of forest, relatively rich in tree species with 58, is a late secondary community (fiera II), resulting from the neglect of coffee plantations and / or alteration of the forest. It occupies scattered areas, because the corresponding sites are currently in use by agricultural ecosystems. However, it is considered that the full-grown community will have a floristic composition pretty similar to the current one.

The canopy layer is dense (90-100%) and irregular in height, between 8 and 20 m. In the group of constant species there are main ramon cow and yamagua whereas, the subdominant are: ayua, baria, sigua, yagruma and royal palm. In the group of accompanying species guasima is subdominant and aggregate are: red cedar (Cedrela cubensis), jobo, jocuma, jaguey (Ficus membranacea), macagua, guaguasi, jaguey (Ficus suffucans), yaya, yaba, jubaban, aguedita sweet and bone.

In the shrub layer with a fundamentally media covers (20-30%, exceptionally 60%) and herbaceous low to high (10-90%) are observed as seedlings and small trees: aguedita (Picramnia pentandra), raspalengua, ramon horse, guara, guarano, leviza, almendrillo (Prunus myrtifolia), ocuje (Calophyllum antillanum), guayabillo (Guettarda calyptrata), sweet potato laurel (Ocotea floribunda), caimitillo, pole box and aguedita (Celtis trinervia). Other species of these layers and sinusiaes are found in Table 25.

Oecotope characteristics. This forest is developed in the upper and lower mogotes which are formed by denudation plateaus, and dissected sharply (Vina Bayes, 1991), composed for limestones and marbles. The altitude varies in the two study areas (Las Manuelas, 190-200 m asl) and (La Pimienta, 565-650 m asl), the slope is between 8 and 35 degrees and exposure is north to south-southeast.

The annual rainfall mean in this area is 1 634 mm; from march to november the rainfall rate is over 100 mm while the dry season takes place from december to february, with only 15% of rainfall, so this area can be considered a tropical climate with dry winter, subtype 4cTh, with 3 to 4 dry months (moderately dry).

It occurs where the ecological conditions are most favorable. Its topographic position, protected by narrow valleys between the mogotes, or rock masses in the upper part thereof, makes for limited exposure to the sunlight and natural windshield; this reduces the air circulation and its effect on evaporation transpiration. Because this set of factors, the water regime is relatively friendly.

The soil is brownish sialitic (Hernandez & al., 1994), reddish, from shallow to moderately deep, with limestone rocks on the surface, which cover between 5 and 80%. The L layer has between 1.5 and 3 cm, the F layer varies from traces to 0.2 cm (with rootlets) and H is missing. In this forest, whose cycle of nutrients depends on the soil, the rate of withered leaves decomposition seems to be very quick (Herrera & Rodriguez, 1988). Therefore, the edatope is considered fresh (2) and moderately fertile (B), so that the potential production capacity is considered as regular (III). The typology classification is considered [B.sub.x-xxx]2, 4c[Th.sub.d], III, G.g., D.a.

Distribution. It is present in the area known as Carso de Baire.

Terms for forest management. This type of forest is rich in tree species, so it must be handled in order to obtain maximum development, freeing up the tops of the valuable species. Subsequently, extractions will be performed selectively.

Yaya with jobo (Spondias mombin with Oxandra lanceolata)

It consists of a gallery forest whose corresponding table is not presented since the minimum number of samples is nonexistent (2 plots). The canopy layer has two sublayers, the upper one is about 20 m high, with emergents of 25 m, sometimes this layer reaches the latter height; the lower layer on the other hand is from 8 to 10 m high, occasionally between 12 to 15 m; with a dense covert (100%). In general there are 41 tree species present, the most abundant are: jobo (D, AC 3), yaya (I, AC 2-3), yagruma (C, AC 2), guasima (D, AC 2), yamagua (D, AC 2), ramon cow (C, AC 2) and macagua (D, AC 2). There are also constant, although not abundant: sigua (D, AC 1), guarano (C, AC 1), guara (I, AC 1), royal palm (P, AC 1), jocuma (C, AC 1), jaguey male (Ficus membranacea, I, AC 1), jubaban (I, AC 1), ramon horse (C, AC 1), ayua (C, AC 1), guaguasi (I, AC 1), almacigo (I, AC 1), yaba (I, AC 1), raspalengua (I, AC 1), baria (I, AC 1), ocuje (C, AC 1) and caimitillo (0, AC 1). As spread tree species there can be observed: moruro rojo (I, AC 1), cupey (Clusia rosea, I, AC 1), dagame (I, AC 1), Thouinia sp. (0, AC 1), leviza (0, AC 1), guama candelon (I, AC 1), washing jaguey (Ficus suffucans, I, AC 1), guairaje (Eugenia sp., 0, AC 1), aguedita sweet (I, AC 1), saithe arabic (Erythroxylum areolatum, I, AC 1), tengue (0, AC 1), mije (Eugenia floribunda, 0, AC 1), bone (0, AC 1), yellow jucaro (C, AC 1), cuajani (C, AC 1), almendrillo (I, AC 1), dairy (Sapium jamaicense, I, AC 1) and guairaje (Eugenia axillaris, 0, AC 1).

The shrub layer has a media covert (2030%) and it is composed almost entirely of tree species. This covert is low in the herbaceous layer (approx. 10%) and near half of its composition is tree species.

Oecotope characteristics. Located near the river in the bottom of the slope and consequently receives the contribution of the runoff thereof. Besides, due to its topographic position it is affected by the gravitational night winds. Therefore, the water balance is favorable. The height is between 190 and 200 m a.s.l, the inclination from 8 to 35 degrees and exposure between east and north. The mean annual temperature is around 24 [degrees]C. The mean annual rainfall is between 1400 and 1600 mm, so it is considered moderately rainy. The relative humidity varies from 80 to 85%, whereas the evaporation varies from 1 500 and 1 700 mm. For that reason, it is considered a tropical climate with dry winter, subtype 4cTh, with 3-4 (moderately dry) dry months.

It is located on rocks of the Cobre Group, the soil is sialitic brown, deep, with gravel (20%); in addition it has 40 to 100% of rocks at the surface. Therefore the edatope is considered moderately wet (3) and fertile (C) and the potential productive capacity as good (II). The layers of humus are not well developed, the L is between 3.5 and 5 cm thick, covering about 80% of the surface, F is almost imperceptible, scattered among the rocks and gravel, while H is lacking. This type of withered leaves decomposition is known as quick.

The typology classification is as follows [C.sub.xx-xxx]3, 4c[Th.sub.c-d], II, O.l., S.m.

Distribution. The study was run at the middle of the Turquino river.

Terms for forest management. Due to its small size this forest should be preserved from any human activity. In the zone there are areas where it should be restored to mixed forests with the same species as currently presented.

Almendrillo with yamagua (Prunus myrtifolia with Guarea guidonia; Table 26)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This evergreen forest (mesophytic) has a canopy layer with 24 species of trees (average samples), it is from 12 to 25 m high and its covert is dense (90-100%). In the group of constant species there are as main species yamagua and ramon cow; as subdominants: boniatillo (Cinnamomum elongatum), toad (Ocotea leucoxylon), ayua, guarano, caimitillo, ramon horse, almendrillo, dominguito and aceitunillo (Beilschmiedia pendula). In the group of accompanying species there are as subdominant species: cuajani, royal palm, sweet potato, laurel, macagua, palma boba (Prestoea acuminata var. montana), sweet aguedita, mije (Eugenia floribunda) and copal (Protium cubense). In turn, the aggregate species observed are moruro rojo, aguacatillo (Alchornea latifolia), yaicuaje (Matayba oppositifolia), dairy, Ocotea globosa, maranon de costa (Talauma orbiculata), jaguey male (Ficus membranacea) and bone.

In the shrub layer, with a media covert and 12.2 tree species (average samples) there are as aggregate: pole box, cupey, casmagua (Wallenia laurifolia) and manaca (Calyptronoma plumeriana). The other species of the shrub and herbaceous layers (covert media to high and 13.5 average tree species), ferns and lianas are found in Table 26.

Oecotope characteristics. It usually develops between 500 and 800 m asl (locally up to 900 m above sea level on the south side), the slopes vary between 30 and 40 degrees and the exposure are varied. The microrelief is generally flat. This forest occurs in evergreen forest floor; climate is tropical with dry winter, 4cTh subtype, 3 to 4 months with little rain (moderately dry). The rainfall varies between 1200 and 1800 mm of rain, a moderately rainy, with large differences in their length; the dry season is from November to April and rainy from May to October (Montenegro 1991a, b). The average annual temperature is relatively cool, fluctuates between 22 and 23 [degrees]C at the bottom and around 20 [degrees]C at the top. At these altitudes (below 800 m asl), in the evenings and in mid-april to late October, relative insolation varies between 20 and 30%, the rest of these months is 30 to 40%. In the morning ranges from 40 to 60% (Montenegro, 1991e). This lowers the effect of drought.

It occurs on soils derived from rock the Cobre Group, mostly andesites, and these are mainly ferralitic brown, low to very shallow, sometimes with stones on the surface. The withered leaves are well developed, the L layer is between 2 and 7 cm thick; F varies from 0.5 to 3 cm, whereas H is missing; nanodepretions sometimes in humus accumulations are observed with roots and rootlets. Therefore, it is considered as fresh edatopes (2) and moderately fertile (B), so that their potential production capacity is rated as regular (III). The typology classification is as follows B2, 4c[Th.sub.c-d], III, P.m., G.g.

Distribution. This type represents the sub-mountain forests of the Sierra Maestra, i.e. evergreen mesophyllous forests (mesophytic), which were designated as manacales by Leon (1946) and as canelones by Samek (1974). At the top transitions of the mountain rainforests and bottom with mesophitic semi-deciduous forests. They were studied in the Sierra of Gran Piedra and Turquino river basin.

Forest management. These forests are rich in tree species and have been very impoverished, especially for growing coffee, meats and pastures, so the few remnants are severely threatened and must be protected. Many for this type of forest oecotopes should be restored to mixed forests, mainly: cedar, jubilla, jocuma, yamagua, boniatillo, almendrillo, cuajani, sweet potato laurel, coast maranon, ateje, purio, guarano, ayua, etc.

Dominguito with palma boba (Chionanthus domingensis with Prestoea acuminata var. montana; Table 27)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This type of forest is a mountain rainforest. The height and density of the canopy layer (averaging 15.5 species among samples) are presented fairly uniform; height fluctuates between 12 and 15 m, while coverage is dense (90-100%). In the group of constant species, palma boba, ramon cow and dominguito are main species; while toad, canelon (Ocotea cuneata), guarano, yaicuaje, aceitunillo and yareicillo (Myrcia fenzlian) are subdominants. In the group of accompanying species, cupey (Clusia tetrastigma), barril, pomarrosa and boniatillo are subdominants, while in the group of aggregated species are, cuajani and purio fangar (Guatteria neglecta).

The shrub and herbaceous layers with a covers from media to high (40-70%) and high (50-90%) respectively, ferns, lianas synusiaes and epiphytes are found in Table 27.

Oecotope characteristics. It takes place between 800 and 1120 m asl, the inclination is among 30 and 45 degrees, and exposures are mainly to the north.

The weather station in Gran Piedra reports the following data (Montenegro, 1990): 29 [degrees]C as absolute maximum temperature, 6 [degrees]C as absolute minimum temperature, 18.4 [degrees]C as average temperature, relative humidity at 89.6%, mean annual rainfall of 1664 mm (rainy), 139 days with rain on average, sunshine average 5 to 7 hours / day. Prevailing winds are the trade's from the northeast and north-northeast, which in turn are also the strongest. The average number of days with horizontal precipitation (fog and low cloud) is 238; of them 162 days are with dense fog (Montenegro, 1990). These horizontal precipitations, according Boytel Yambu (1972), come to moisten the soil and vegetation; while Samek & Travieso (1968) exposed that they can represent up to 50% of rainfall. Therefore, their importance as moisture providers is critical, as well as for limiting its loss in the ecosystem. Bioclimatically, the climate is moist Tropical Mountain (7a). Vilamajo & al. (1989) considered it as of termoxeric type (wet equatorial).

Soil is leachate red ferralitic (sensu Hernandez & al., 1994) or yellowish brown. It derived from rocks of the Cobre Group, mainly from andesites. It is very poor (Renda, 1989; Renda & al., 1980, 1981), moderately fertile (B) and fresh (2), so its potential productive capacity is considered regular (III). It has good internal and surface drainage. The withered leaves are well distributed on the surface; the L layer reaches from 3 to 5 cm; F and H layers are mixed, sometimes forming a weft that can reach up to 10 cm thick, sometimes it gets to be a real root mat. The typology classification is as follows B2, [7a.sub.e], III, [Rm.sup.*], Ch.d., P.a.

Distribution. It comes in the top of Sierra of Gran Piedra, from 800 m asl in the north side and locally 900 m asl in the south.

Forest management. This rainforest is of inestimable hydrologic value, and also as protector of a very erodible soil. It has been highly altered; only relatively preserved relicts are left. It must be protected from any human intervention since it is part of a Biosphere Reserve (also Protected Area of Managed Resources) and it is its main object of conservation. Only controlled observation of its values and scientific research should be allowed.

Yareicillo with copey [Myrcia fenzliana (Gomidesia lindeniana) with Clusia tetrastigma; Table 28]

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This forest is a successional stage (homeostasis I and early fiera II) (sensu Capote & al., 1988; Reyes & Acosta, 2005) of the mountain rainforest in the Gran Piedra. Structurally, it can be considered as a shrubby forest and / or a tree scrub. A low canopy layer is present in the most evolved part (fiera II), between 7 and 10 m height and with a slightly sparse to dense (80-100%) cover. In the group of accompanying species, barril and clavellina (Lyonia latifolia subsp. calycosa) are subdominants, while in the group of aggregated species, arraigan (Myrica cerifera) is. In the shrub layer, with a cover from media to very high (40-100%) camaguilla is subdominant and Citharexylum sp., yaicuaje, yareicillo, vigueta (Guettarda valenzuelana) and uverillo (Coccoloba wrightii) are aggregated. In the herbaceous layer, with a cover of high to very high (80-100%) are dominguito, palma boba, yareicillo, toad, yaicuaje, Eugenia scaphophylla, copey, boniatillo, guarano, canelon and camaguilla. The other species of the shrub and herbaceous layers, ferns, lianas and epiphytes are in the Table 28.

Oecotope characteristics. This community was studied in the highest parts of Sierra de la Gran Piedra, above 1000 m asl; inclination is variable, usually greater than 20 degrees, the exposure is diverse and the microrelief is regular. Weather conditions are avoided, as they are described in palma boba with dominguito.

Soil is leachate red ferralitic (Hernandez & al., 1994), poor and acid, usually deep, moderately fertile (B) and fresh (2), so its potential productive capacity is regular (III). Withered leaves are well developed. The L layer varies between 1.5 and 4 cm, mostly between 2 and 2.5 cm, while the F layer fluctuates between 1 and 2 cm, exceptionally more. The H layer forms a root mat embedded in a matrix of humus. It is greater than 10 cm in the most advanced areas and littlte in smaller areas. At this successional stage, such root mat is the main element in the recirculation of nutrients in this ecosystem. Decomposition is very slow since plants that provide 75% or more of the observed withered leaves [copey, yareicillo, yaicuje, clavellina, fern (Cyathea parvula) and sometimes, tapa camino (Palicourea alpina) and aguacatillo] mainly provide a sclerophyllous material. The typology classification is as follows B2, [7a.sub.e], III, [Rm.sup.**], M.f., C.t.

Distribution. It locates in the top of Sierra de la Gran Piedra, up 1000 m asl.

Forest management. It must be protected from any human intervention as it is an early community (homeostasis I and early fiera II) from the mountain rainforest, typical of the place, and there are only isolated remnants.

Pomarrosa with palma boba (Syzygium jambos with Prestoea acuminata var. montana)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This secondary forest, consisting of a gallery forest or isolated forest fragments (2 plots), is observed in Sierra de la Gran Piedra, about 1000 m asl in oecotopes of mountain rainforest. The canopy layer covers 100% of the area (dense coverage) and is from 12 to 15 m high. Pomarrosa (D, A-C 5) is observed as main species and copey (I, A-C 1) as subdominant. The shrub layer is variable, between 20 and 80% (medium coverage). Dominguito (A-C 2) and palma boba (A-C 2) are abundant. The herbaceous layer is dense, 80 to 100% with a diverse composition.

Ecology and distribution. Soils are shallow and with relatively plastic clay, which favors moisture retention; exposures are to the north and the inclination is 15 to 20 degrees. Weather conditions are avoided as they are described in dominguito with palma boba. The typology classification is considered as B2-3, [7a.sub.e], II-III, S.j., P.a.

Forest management. Pomarrosa gallery forests exceptionally protect the banks of streams and rivers, so its replacement must be gradual, in small areas, and only continue it after the treated area is consolidated. Dominguito, moruro rojo, Tabebuia spp., yaicuaje, palma boba, guarano, ramon cow and aguacatillo can be used as alternative species. Planting should be dense in order to achieve rapid coverage. The areas where forests are stable must be also partially substituted, by group, with species typical of mountain rainforest, including: purio fangar, yaicuaje, toad, aguacate cimarron, barril, boniatillo, cuajani, aguacatillo, roble de olor, ayua, jubilla, macagua, etc.

Purio fangar with maranon de la maestra (Guatteria neglecta with Magnolia cubensis; Table 29)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. This is a very complex type of forest, since they are late and mature communities of this mountain rainforest. It usually has between 39 and 53 species per inventory (species average of 48.6).

In its mature stage, it usually has a canopy layer between 18 and 20 m high, often up to 25 m or showing emerging until that point. Coverage is dense (typically 100%). In the group of constant species, maranon de la maestra (Magnolia cubensis subsp. cubensis), yaicuaje, dominguito, purio fangar, toad, lengua de vaca (Ixora ferrea), aguacate cimarron (Persea anomala), camaguilla, cletra, cordoban (Miconia pteroclada) and Viburnum villosum are main species. In the group of accompanying species, boniatillo, copeicillo (Clusia grisebachiana), cuajani and ramon cow are subdominant species in this stratum; while barril, aguacatillo and roble de olor (Tabebuia brooksiana) are aggregated (Table 29). The shrub (thicket from medium to high, 40-70%) and herbaceous (medium to high, 40-80%) layers are rich in tree species.

Sometimes, pino de la maestra (Pinus maestrensis) forms successional stages (fiera II--homeostasis II) of this rainforest. In these places the pine tree forms a closed sub-layer of about 30 to 35 m tall. In addition, there is a second sub-layer between 10 and 16 m in height and of 50 to 60% coverage, exclusively composed by broadleaf from rainforests, where the most abundant species are dominguito (the most abundant), cordoban (Miconia dodecandra), cordoban (M. pteroclada), camaguilla, aguacatillo, boniatillo, lengua de vaca and brunelia.

In the successional stage homeostasis II, with exclusive participation of the broad-leaved species from the mountain rainforest, they form a dense canopy layer (100%) with a height between 15 and 18 m. Relict emergings are also seen of about 25 m. Although it is young, an ecosystem balance is observed in this stage, as there is stability in the species of this forest type. The most abundant species are dominguito, purio fangar, yaicuaje, barril, copeicillo, boniatillo, aguacate cimarron and other scattered species. At this stage there is a good development of the humus layers. The L layer is 3 cm, F is 1.5 cm and H layer constitutes a root mat embedded in a matrix of humus of about 3 cm.

Oecotope characteristics. It occupies the "floor of mountain rainforests", between 800 and 1400 m asl (low mountains), but it was mainly studied between 1200 and 1300 m asl The predominant slopes vary between 20 and 45 degrees and exposures are varied, the microrelief is also diverse. The climate is tropical moist mountain (7a). Rainfall is around 2000 mm (rainy weather), with fog and low clouds (usually dense) most days of the year, resulting in high atmospheric humidity. Main data are similar to those from the oecotope of palma boba with dominguito.

It develops mainly in the Cobre Group rocks, mainly tuffs, andesites and granites. The soil is leachate red ferrallitic (Renda, 1989), often deep, very poor and acidic, moderately fertile (B) and fresh (2), so its potential productive capacity is regular (III). It has good internal and external drainage. The L layer is between 1.5 and 3 cm thick, while the F layer generally ranges from 2 to 2.5 cm. Root mat ranges from 6 to 13 cm, sometimes up to 20 cm in nanodepressions. The tipology classification is considered as B2, [7a.sub.e], III, [Rm.sup.*-**], G.n., M.c.

Distribution. This type of forest grows in the highlands of Western Sierra Maestra.

Forest management. It must be protected from all human activity, even their successional stages, because due to its geomorphological position. Such position gives it a huge hydrological importance, and allows it to protect waters and an extremely erodible soil. Only controlled observation of its values and scientific research should be allowed. This should be prioritized especially in areas outside protected areas.

Ferns with barril (Cyathea furfuracea and C. parvula with Cyrilla silvae)

Initial forests that make up the ferns with barril are the successional stages homeostasis I and fiera II from the mountain rainforest in the Western Sierra Maestra. Cyrilla silvae and the tree ferns Cyathea furfuracea and C. parvula dominate the shrub-canopy layer. Each stage shows some structural and floristic differences, which allow separate studies, in two subtypes:

Ferns with barril,

Ferns with barril and yagruma macho.

Oecotope characteristics. It was studied between 1000 and 1400 m asl The ecological conditions are shown in purio fangar with maranon de la maestra (Guatteria neglecta with Magnolia cubensis).

Ferns with barril (Cyathea furfuracea and C. parvula with Cyrilla silvae; Table 30)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. As stage of homeostasis I in oecotopes of this mountain rainforest, barril and tree ferns Cyathea parvula and C. furfuracea dominate the shrub canopy layer, with a height between 5 and 8 m; occasionally reaching up to 12 m. They usually close the canopy, with 100% coverage and more (superdense). This creates umbrophylle conditions and the original forest species enter within them. They reach this layer or are already in the below ones. Likewise, the pioneer species: cucaracha (Pteridium aquilinum var. arachnoideum), Dicranopterispectinata, malva blanca (Urena lobata), rompezaraguey (Chromolaena odorata), etc, begin to disappear. In the group of constant species, barril, Cyathea parvula and C. furfuracea are main species. Lengua de vaca, camaguilla, copey, cletra and cordoban (Miconia dodecandra) are tree subdominant in shrub and herbaceous layers. Aguacatillo, brunelia, toad, maranon de la maestra and yaicuaje are agregated. Other species are shown in Table 30.

Humus diversification is clearly observed at this stage; an L layer of 1.5 to 3 cm is presented, as well as an F layer of 0.5 to 1.5 cm. There are big differences in the H layer, from traces up to a well-developed root mat 10 cm thick.

Ferns with barril and yagruma macho (Cyathea furfuracea and C. parvula with Cyrilla silvae and Schefflera morotottoni; Table 31)

As it is known, the fiera II phase begins when tree species surpass the homeostasis I stratum, and competitively interact among them.

They form a canopy layer of 8 to 12 m, with isolated individuals of 15 m and coverage from sparse to dense (50-100%). barril, cordoban (Miconia dodecandra) and the Cyathea furfuracea and C. parvula ferns are in the group of constant species from the tree and shrub layers. Brunelia, aguacatillo, camaguilla are subdominant, as well as lengua de vaca and toad in the shrub layer. In the group of accompanying species, copeicillo is subdominant and yagruma macho (Schefflera morotottoni), cletra, cordoban (Miconia pteroclada), maranon de la maestra and Eugenia laeteviridis are aggregated species.

The shrub and herbaceous layers have a high density, 60 to 90% and 50 to 70%, respectively, with various tree sprouts. Other species are found in Table 31.

Barril with maranon de la maestra (Cyrilla silvae with Magnolia cubensis; Table 32)

Physiognomy and floristic composition. As zonal formation it is a cloud forest (Samek, 1975; Reyes, 2006, 2011-2012), also known as fresh forest (Leon, 1946; Samek, 1974) and elfin forest (Borhidi, 1996). In this forest, the canopy layer with 10 to 15 m in height is dense (80-100%). Barril and maranon de la maestra are main species and the most abundant in the group of constant species. Cletra is subdominant in the group of accompanying species, while Henriettea ekmanii is aggregated. Other species from the shrub (media to high coverage, 40-70%) and herbaceous (high, 50-80%) layers are found in Table 32.

Oecotope characteristics. It usually occurs in steep topographic positions, mostly between 40 and 45 degrees (Reyes & Acosta, 2005) and with various exposures. In the range of altitudinal variation of this type of forest, the average temperatures at 1 500 m a.s.l vary between 15.2 [degrees]C in the north slope and 15.5 [degrees]C on the south side. It can also reach around 13 [degrees]C at 1972 m asl (Montenegro, 1991b). Although there are not direct measurements in the area occupied by this forest, it falls around 2 000 mm of rain. The wettest period is from april or may to october and the less rainy period is from november to march or april (Trusov & al., 1983). The mean annual relative humidity is between 85 and 90% (Montenegro, 1991c). Orographic clouds or mists occur almost every day of the year, and along with the rain, they bring lots of moisture into the forest (even in the dry season), the climate is high mountain tropical (7b).

From the geological point of view it occupies rocks from the Cobre Group, tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones, etc. (Mendez & al., 1994). The predominant soil is leached yellow ferrallitic, which dominates above 1500 m asl According to Renda & al. (1981b) and Renda (1989), the pH in the upper horizons is from acid to very acidic and it reaches values of 4.45 to 5.3 in water, and 3.5 to 4.15 in ClK. The assimilable nitrogen varies from 0.80 to 11.08 mg/100 g and tends to sharply decrease in depth. Phosphorus is absent or in traces; assimilable potassium fluctuates between 3.0 and 10 mg/100 g. The CCB (S value) is very low, generally ranging between 1.44 and 5.02 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. CIC (T value) is from 2.5 to 18.75 cmol (+).[kg.sup.-1]. This shows the low degree of saturation and that the complex has little cation due to intense weathering process. Therefore, this edatope should be regarded as little fertile (A), fresh (2) and with a potential productive capacity bad (IV).

A distinctive feature of this forest is its well-defined humus layers (sensu Herrera & Rodriguez, 1988). The L layer reaches about 2 cm, occasionally more or less; F layer fluctuates between 1 and 2 cm, and H layer is a well-developed root mat embedded in a matrix of humus, where the fine roots and rootlets are, and in which the nutrient cycle of this conspicuous ecosystem occurs (Reyes & al., 2011).This means, that this poor, acidic soil, is only used for plant fixation (thick roots) and virtually does not take part in their energy source.

The tipology classfications is considered as A2, [7b.sub.e], IV, [Rm.sup.**], C.s., M.c.

Distribution. This cloud forest develops in the highest parts of Western Sierra Maestra, from about 1 500 m above sea level to the top of Pico Real del Turquino. Its greatest extent is observed in the massifs of Turquino and La Maestrica de los Libertadores--La Bayamesa. In other places, there are only isolated fragments.

Forest management. Because of the ecology conditions (Reyes & Fornaris, 2011), the vegetation growth is extremely slow and trees have small thicket and size. Due to its topographic and geomorphologic position, the highest value of this type of forest is the protection of soil and water. That is why; it must be preserved against all forms of human intervention. An area from high La Bayamesa (1572 m asl) was studied. This area was deforested in 1962 due to the triangulation of Sierra Maestra. Forty five years later, regeneration have not exceed three meters, so it is considered that its recovery to mature forest can last from 150 to 200 years; even the restoration of the root mat (basis for its nutrient cycling) is exceptionally slow. Its protecting value widely exceeds the one it may have as wood producer; therefore only controlled observation and scientific research should be allowed.

Conclusions

Thirty five broadleaf forest types and / or subtypes were studied. The forest types and / or subtypes more abundant are those belonging to the semideciduous microphyll forest (12), followed by the mangroves and mountain rainforest with an equal amount (7).

The 27 forest types and / or subtypes without marine influence, with coastal and low altitude, 63%, have a potential productive capacity (PPC) going from bad (44.4%) to very bad (18.5%), because the erosion decrease the effective deep and increased the stony in the soil horizon. The regular PPC (III) is prevailing in the mittel and mountain zone because of the great profundity of soil. In the highest forest type the PPC decrease again owing to the poorest T and S value.

In its characteristic combination the primary forests types there are richest in tree species (18.4) than the secondary (8.4); outstanding for its richness the presents from 500 to 800 m asl, and for poorness those closed to marine influence. It's outstanding that, the primary montane types are lianas poorest and epipytes and ferns are richest than the types at low altitude. Forest types above 800 m asl and mangroves are protection forests.

The tropical climate with 5 to 6 months little rainy (4bTh) is the most prevalent in Sierra Maestra.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/LAZAROA.51054

Acknowledgments

Most of the samples were taken within the framework of two projects: "Biological diversity of Sierra Maestra and Nipe Sagua Baracoa mountain ranges" and " Environmental educational initiatives to encourage sustainable local development in protected areas of rainforests of the Eastern Cuban Region". Translation to English was made by Haydee Noemi Vidal Carrillo. We highly value your support.

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Appendix 1. Scientific names (genus, specie and author) and common
names from species used in the tables 1-32.

             Scientific names                       Common names

Abarema glauca (Urb.) Bameby & J.W. Grimes    abey
Abrus precatorius L.                          peonia
Abutilon sp.                                  --
Acacia macracantha H. & B. ex Willd.          guatapana
Acrostichum danaefolium Lang. & Fisch         acrostico
Adelia ricinella L.                           jia blanca
Adiantum trapeziforme L.                      culantrillo de monte
Agave underwoodii Trelease                    maguey
Agave sp.                                     maguey
Alchornea latifolia Sw.                       aguacatillo
Allophyllus cominia (L.) Sw.                  palo de caja
Alsophylla major Caluff & Shelton             --
Alternanthera maritima (Mart.) Standl.        --
Alvaradoa amorphoides Lieb.                   aroma blanca
Alvaradoa arborescens Griseb.                 carmin
Amyris elemifera L.                           cuabilla, cuaba
Anthirea radiata (Griseb.) Urb.               vera
Anthurium cubense Engler                      anturio
Aristolochia lindeniana Duch.                 --
Arthrostylidium angustifolium Nash            tibisi
Arthrostylidium multispicatum Pilger          tibisi
Auerodendron cubensis Britt. & Wils.          cocuyo de costa
Avicennia germinans (L.) L.                   black mangrove
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennull var. monnieri    verdolaga de costa
Begonia cubensis Hassk.                       begonia
Beilschmiedia pendula (Sw.) Benth. & Hook.    aceitunillo
Bidens pilosa L.                              romerillo
Blechnum fragile (Liebm.) Morton &            --
  Lellinger
Blechnum occidentale L.                       --
Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus            camagueyana
Bourreria setoso-hispida O.E. Schulz          --
Bourreria virgata (Sw.) G. Don                cafecillo
Bourreria sp.                                 --
Brunellia comocladifolia Bonpl.               brunelia
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sargent.                almacigo
Caesalpinia vesicaria L.                      brasil
Callicarpa oblanceolata Urb.                  filigrana
Calophyllum antillanum Britt.                 ocuje
Calyptronoma plumeriana (Martius) Lourtier    manaca
Campiloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) Fee         --
Campyloneurum phyllitidis (L.) C. Presl       pasa de negro
Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn.                curbana
Capparis cynophallophora L.                   aceitunillo
Capparis flexuosa L.                          picha de perro
Capparis grisebachii Eichl.                   olivo
Capsicum frutescens L.                        aji gaguao
Carpodiptera cubensis Griseb.                 majaguilla
Casearia hirsuta Sw.                          raspalengua
Casearia sylvestris Sw. var. myricoides       sarnilla cimarrona
Casearia sylvestris Sw. var. sylvestris       aguedita dulce
Castela spinosa Cronq.                        abrojo de costa
Catopsis cf. floribunda L. B. Sm.             curujey
Cecropia peltata L.                           yagruma
Cedrela cubensis Bisse                        red cedar
Cedrela odorata L.                            cedar
Celtis trinervia Lam.                         aguedita
Cenchrus ciliaris L.                          guizazo
Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth.            crica de negra
Cinnamomum elongatum (Nees) Kosterm.          boniatillo
Cissampelos pareira L.                        bejuco prieto
Cissus trifoliata L.                          bejuco uvi
Cissus verticillata (L.) D.H. Nicolson &      bejuco uvi
  C. Jarvis
Citharexylum caudatum L.                      penda
Citharexylum sp.                              --
Clethra cubensis A. Rich.                     cletra
Clidemia umbellata (Mill.) L.O. Wms.          cordoban
Clusia rosea Jacq.                            cupey
Clusia tetrastigma Vesque                     cupey
Coccocypselum lanceolatum Aubl                --
Coccoloba diversifolia Jacq.                  guayacanejo
Coccoloba uvifera Jacq.                       uva caleta
Coccoloba wrightii Lindau                     uverillo
Coccoloba sp.                                 --
Coccothrinax elegans Borhidi & Mz.            yuraguana
Coccothrinax fragans Burret                   yuraguana
Coccothrinax gundlachii Leon                  yuraguana
Coffea arabica L.                             cafeto
Cojoba arborea (L.) Britt. & Rose             moruro rojo
Colubrina elliptica (Sw.) Brizicki & Steam.   carbonero
Columnea cubensis (Urb.) Britt.               --
Commelina elegans K.                          canutillo1
Commelina erecta L.                           canutillo
Commicarpus scandens (L.) Standl.             bejuco de purgacion
Comocladia dentata Jacq.                      guao
Conocarpus erectus L.                         yana
Corchorus sp.                                 --
Cordia alba Jacq.                             uvita
Cordia collococca L.                          ateje
Cordia gerascanthus L.                        baria
Crossopetalum sp.                             --
Croton lucidus L.                             cuaba de ingenio
Cupania americana L.                          guarano
Cupania glabra L.                             guara
Cupania glabra Sw. var. glabra                guara
Cyathea aspera (L.) Sw.                       --
Cyathea furfuracea Baker                      helecho
Cyathea parvula (Jenm.) Domin                 helecho
Cynanchum sp.1                                --
Cynanchum sp.2                                --
Cyperus alternifolius L.                      paraguita
Cyperus giganteus Vahl                        --
Cyrilla silvae Berazain                       barril
Cyrtopodium punctatum (L.) Ldl.               canuela
Chaptalia sp.                                 --
Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.                   bejuco de berraco.
Chionanthus domingensis Lam.                  dominguito
Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robins.       rompezaraguey
Chromolaena sp.                               --
Chrysophylum oliviforme L.                    caimitillo
Dalechampia scandens L.                       --
Davila rugosa Poit.                           bejuco colorado
Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd.               adormidera
Desmodium incanum DC.                         amor seco
Desmodium sp.                                 --
Dichaea hystricina Rchb.                      --
Dicliptera vahliana Nees                      gallitos
Dicranopteris pectinata (Willd.) Und.         pata de gallina
Diospyrus grisebachii (Hiem.) Standl.         black ebony
Diplazium sp.                                 --
Distictis rhynchocarpa Urb.                   bejuco logarte
Ditta myricoides Griseb.                      --
Drypetes alba Poit.                           bone
Drypetes mucronata Griseb.                    chicharron
Drypetes sp.                                  --
Echites umbellata Jacq.                       huevo de gallo
Elaphoglossum chartaceum (Baker ex Jenm.)     --
  C. Christ.
Eleocharis elegans (K.) R. & S.               junco
Eleocharis mutata (L.) R. & S.                junco
Encyclia sp.                                  --
Epidendrum nocturnum Jacq.                    flor de san pedro
Epidendrum pygmaeum Hook.                     --
Erithalis fruticosa L.                        cuaba prieta
Erythroxylum areolatum L.                     arabo carbonero
Erythroxylum havanense Jacq.                  jiba
Erythroxylum rotundifolium Lunan              yarua de costa
Eugenia asperifolia Berg.                     guairaje
Eugenia axillaris (Sw.) Willd.                guairaje
Eugenia floribunda West.                      mije
Eugenia maleolens Poir.                       guairaje
Eugenia scaphophylla Wr.                      --
Eugenia sp.                                   guairaje
Eupatorium sp.                                --
Euphorbia heterophylla L.                     lechosa
Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) R. & S.            lirio santana
Exothea paniculata Radlk.                     yaicuaje
Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.            --
Ficus laevigata Vahl                          jaguey
Ficus membranacea C. Wr.                      jaguey macho
Ficus suffucans Griseb.                       jaguey
Galactia sp.                                  --
Garrya fadyena Hook.                          --
Geoffroea inermis Wr.                         yaba
Gesneria heterochroa Urb.                     --
Gesneria viridiflora (Dcne.) Kuntze.          --
Gesneria sp.                                  --
Gouania lupuloides (L.) Urb.                  jaboncillo
Graffenrieda rufescens Britt. & Wils.         --
Grisebachianthus plucheoides (Griseb.)        --
  King & Robins.
Guapira obtusata (Jacq.) Little               macaguey (toad)
Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer                  yamagua
Guatteria neglecta (Griseb.) P. Wils.         purio fangar
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.                        guasima
Guettarda calyptrata A. Rich.                 guayabillo
Guettarda elliptica Sw.                       ciguilla
Guettarda valenzuelana A. Rich.               vigueta
Guettarda sp.                                 --
Guzmania monostachya (L.) Rusby ex Mez        curujey
Guzmania sp.                                  curujey
Gymnanthes lucida Sw.                         yaiti
Harrisia eriophora (Pfeiff.) Britt.           jijira
Hedyosmun grisebachii Solms                   --
Helicteres semitriloba Bert.                  tapa culo
Helicteres sp.                                --
Heliotropium indicum L.                       alacrancillo
Henriettea ekmanii (Urb.) Alain               --
Hibiscus brasiliensis L.                      palo peregrino
Hippocratea volubilis L.                      bejuco de castana
Hymenophyllum sp.                             --
Hyperbaena paucinervis Urb.                   picha jutia
Hyperbaena sp.                                --
Hypolepis nigrescens Hook.                    --
Ichnanthus mayarensis (Wr.) Hitchc.           --
Ilex macfadyenii (Walp.) Rehder               acebo cubano
Ilex repanda Griseb.                          vigueta naranjo
Ilex sp.                                      --
Ipomoea alba L.                               flor de Y
Ipomoea sp.                                   --
Isidorea polyneura (Urb.) Aiello.             --
Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br.             --
Ixora ferrea (Jacq.) Benth.                   lengua de vaca
Jatropha gossipifolia L.                      frailecillo
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn.            white mangrove
Lantana camara L.                             filigrana
Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq.         filigrana cimarrona
Lantana reticulata Pers.                      oregano cimarron
Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc.              tibisi chico
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit           ipil ipil
Licaria jamaicensis (Nees) Kost.              leviza
Lisianthius glandulosus A. Rich.              --
Lithacne pauciflora (Sw.) Beauv.              pito enano
Lonchocarpus blainii Wr.                      guama hediondo
Lonchocarpus domingensis Urb.                 guama
Ludwigia erecta (L.) H. Hara                  --
Lygodium volubile Sw.                         --
Lyonia elliptica (Small) Alain                clavellina
Lyonia latifolia (A. Rich.) Griseb. subsp.    clavellina
  calycosa
Lysyloma sabicu Benth.                        sabicu
Magnolia cubensis Urb. subsp. cubensis        maranon de la maestra
Malpighia apiculata Urb.                      --
Malpighia cnide Spreng.                       palo bronco
Malpighia suberosa Small.                     palo bronco
Malvastrum corchorifolium (Desv.) Britt.      --
Matayba oppositifolia (A. Rich.) Britt.       yaicuaje
Maytenus buxifolia (A. Rich.) Griseb.         carne de vaca
Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq.                    mamoncillo
Melochia nodiflora Sw.                        malva colorada
Meriania leucantha Sw. var. nana Triana       --
Merrenia bisecta (Jacq.) Hall f.              aguinaldo de almendra
Miconia dodecandra (Desv.) Cogn.              cordoban
Miconia pteroclada Urb.                       cordoban
Mikania micrantha K.                          guaco
Morinda royoc L.                              pinipini
Myrcia fenzliana O. Berg. (=Gomidesia         yareicillo
  lindeniana Berg.)
Myrica cerifera L.                            arraigan
Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem.        camaguilla
Ocotea cuneata (Griseb.) Urb.                 canelon
Ocotea floribunda (Sw.) Mez                   boniato laurel
Ocotea globosa Schlecht. & Cham.              --
Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw.) Laness.               toad
Octomeria tridentata Lindl.                   --
Odontosoria jenmanii Maxon                    --
Odontosoria scandens (Desv.) C. Christ.       tembladera
Oeceoclades maculata (Ldl.) Ldl.              --
Olyra latifolia L.                            tibisi
Oplismenus setarius (Lam.) R. & S.            canamazo
Oplonia tetrasticha (Wr. ex Griseb.) Steam.   no me toques
Ossaea granulata Urb.                         --
Oxandra lanceolata (Sw.) Baill.               yaya
Palicourea alpina (Sw.) DC.                   tapa camino
Panicum glutinosum Sw.                        pega pega
Panicum sp.                                   --
Paspalum breve Chase                          canamazo
Passiflora foetida L.                         pasionaria hedionda
Passiflora penduliflora Bert.                 bejuco manteca
Passiflora sexflora Juss.                     pasionaria de cerca
Passiflora suberosa L.                        bejuco mantequilla
Pavonia fructicosa (Mill.) Fawcett & Rendle   tabano
Pavonia spinifex (L.) Cav.                    malaguilla de costa
Peperomia maculosa (L.) Hook.                 --
Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jacq.) A. Dietr.    --
Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) K.                lengua de las mujeres
Peperomia tenella A. Dietr.                   --
Peperomia sp.                                 --
Peperomia sp. 1                               --
Peperomia sp. 2                               --
Persea anomala Britt. & Wils.                 aguacate cimarron
Petiveria alliacea L.                         anamu
Phaius tankervilliae (Banks) Blume            --
Pharus glaber K.                              pelo de perro
Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott           bejuco lombricero
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene                   oro azul
Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus L.                 panetela
Phyllostylon brasiliensis Cap.                jatia
Picramnia pentandra Sw.                       aguedita
Picrodendron baccatum Kruge & Urb.            aceituna
Pictetia mucronata (Griseb.) Beyra & Lavin    --
Pilosocereus brooksianus (Vamp.) Bol. &       jijira
  Row.
Pinus maestrensis Bisse                       pino de la maestra
Piper sp.                                     --
Piscidia piscipula (L.) Sargent.              guama candelon
Pisonia aculeata L.                           zarza
Pithecoctenium echinatum (Aubl.) Schum.       huevo de toro
Platygyna dentata Alain                       --
Pleurothallis gelida Ldl.                     flor de llanten
Pleurothallis sertularioides (Sw.) Spreng.    --
Plumbago scandens L.                          malacara
Plumeria emarginata Griseb.                   lirio amarillo, suchel
Poeppigia procera Presl.                      tengue
Politrichum sp.                               --
Polybotria osmundacea H. & B. ex Willd.       --
Polypodium aureum L.                          --
Polypodium loriceum L.                        --
Polypodium polypodioides (L.) A.S. Hith.      --
Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H.E. Moore        palma boba
  var. montana (Graham) An. Hend. & Galeano
Protium cubense (Rose) Urb.                   copal
Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb.                   almendrillo
Prunus occidentalis Sw.                       cuajani
Pseudocarpidium avicennioides (A. Rich.)      chicharron
  Millsp.
Pseudolmedia spuria Griseb.                   macagua
Psidium guajava L.                            guayaba
Psychotria grandis Sw.                        tapa camino
Psychotria uliginosa Sw.                      tapa camino
Psychotria sp.                                --
Purdiaea stenopetala Griseb. var.             --
  stenopetala
Randia aculeata L.                            agalla de costa
Randia spinifex (R. & S.) Standl.             espuela
Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.                      aleli
Ravenia leonis M. Vict.                       arraijan
Rhipsalis cassutha Gaertn.                    disciplinilla
Rhizophora mangle L.                          red mangrove
Rivina humilis L.                             coralitos
Roystonea regia (K.) O.F. Cook.               royal palm
Salacia nipensis Britt.                       --
Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.                   algarrobo
Sapium erythrospermum Muell. Arg.             --
Sapium jamaicense Sw.                         dairy
Savia bahamensis Britt.                       hicaquillo
Schefflera morotottoni (Aubl.) Mag., Stey.    yagruma macho
  & Frodin
Scirpus olneyi A. Gray                        junco de tres filos
Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw.                  cortadera
Selenicerus grandiflorus (L.) Britt.          flor del caliz, pitahaya
  & Rose
Senna atomaria (L.) Irwin. & Barneby.         frijolillo
Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk.          bejuco angarilla
Serjania subdentata Juss.                     bejuco esquinado
Sida rhombifolia L.                           malva, malva de cochino
Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq. subsp.        jocuma
  foetidissimum
Sideroxylon salicifolium (L.) C.F. Gaertn.    cuya
  (=Dipholis salicifolia A. DC.)
Smilax havanensis Jacq.                       alambrillo
Smilax lanceolata L.                          zarzaparrilla
Solandra longiflora Tuss.                     palo guaco
Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pavon             garro
Spermacoce laevis Lam.                        garro morado
Spirotecoma sp.                               --
Spondias mombin L.                            jobo
Sticherus bifidus (Willd.) Ching              pata de gallina
Stigmaphyllon lineare Wr.                     bejuco san pedro
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum A. Juss.              bejuco san pedro
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston in Trimen         pomarrosa
Tabebuia bibracteolata Griseb.                --
Tabebuia brooksiana Britt.                    roble de olor
Tabebuia myrtifolia (Griseb.) Britt.          --
Talauma orbiculata Britt.                     maranon de costa
Thouinia patentinervis Radlk.                 negracuba
Tillandsia balbisiana Schult.                 curujey
Tillandsia fasciculata Sw.                    curujey
Tillandsia pruinosa Sw.                       curujey
Tillandsia recurvata L.                       curujey
Tillandsia schiediana Stud.                   curujey
Tillandsia usneoides L.                       barba de indio
Tournefortia glabra L.                        nigua
Tournefortia hirsutissima L.                  nigua
Tournefortia volubilis L.                     nigua
Tragia hexandra Jacq.                         amansa guapo
Tragia volubilis L.                           --
Trema micrantha (L.) Blume                    almez de flores pequenas
Trichilia hirta L.                            cabo de hacha
Trichocentrum undulatum (Sw.) Ackerman &      guataca de burro
  M.W. Chace
Trichomanes robustum Fourn.                   --
Trichostigma octandrum (L.) Britt.            bejuco de canasta
Triopteris rigida Sw.                         amansa guapo
Trophis racemosa (L.) Urb.                    ramon horse
Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf.                   aguinaldo de pascuas
Turnera ulmifolia L.                          marilope
Typha domingensis (Pers.) Kunth               macio
Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.                    chichicate
Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone &        yerba de guinea
  Zuloaga
Vanilla sp.                                   vainilla
Varronia globosa L.                           --
Varronia globosa L. subsp. humilis            --
Varronia lineata L.                           --
Vernonia hieracioides Griseb.                 rompezaraguey
Vernonia sp.                                  --
Viburnum villosum Sw.                         --
Vitis tiliaefolia H. & B.                     uva cimarrona
Wallenia laurifolia Sw.                       casmagua
Waltheria indica L.                           malva blanca
Weinmannia pinnata L.                         oreganillo
Wissadula amplissima (L.) R.E. Fries.         --
Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) Presl.          --
Zamia angustifolia Jacq.                      guayara
Zanthoxylum cubense P. Wils.                  ayua de sierra
Zanthoxylum elephantiasis Macfd.              bayua
Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sargent.              amoroso
Zanthoxylum martinicense (Lam.) DC.           ayua
Zapoteca gracilis (Griseb.) Bassler           --
Zeugites americana Willd.                     --
Zuelania guidonia (Sw.) Britt. & Millsp.      guaguasi


Orlando J. Reyes (1)

Received: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2016

(1) Eastern Center of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (BIOECO), Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA), Jose A. Saco Nr. 601, esq. Barnada, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. E mail joel@bioeco.cu

Caption: Figure 1. Main forests types in Sierra Maestra range (Cuba)
Table 1. Characteristic combination of uva caleta with yana (Coccoloba
uvifera with Conocarpus erectus, 6 plots)

Species                               Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
                                      structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Coccoloba uvifera                         D           4           V
Conocarpus erectus                        D           2           V

Scattered tree species: majagua de la florida (Thespesiapopulnea),
ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), vomitel (Cordia sebestena) and
guacalote amarillo (Caesalpinia bonduc).

Table 2. Characteristic combination of the red mangrove community
(Rhizophora mangle, 10 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             All layers

Rhizophora mangle                         D           5           V

Table 3. Community of red mangrove with black mangrove
(Rhizophora mangle with Avicennia germinans, 10 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             All layers
Rhizophora mangle                         D           3           V
Avicennia germinans                       D           2           V

Scattered tree species: white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa)

Table 4. Characteristic combination of the black mangrove community
(10 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                              All layers
Avicennia germinans                       D           5           V

Table 5. Black mangrove with acrostic
(Avicennia germinans with Acrostichum danaefolium, 5 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                          Canopy layer
Avicennia germinans                       D           3           V

                           Shrub layer
Acrostichum danaefolium                  --           4           V

Table 6. Black mangrove community with white mangrove
(Avicennia germinans with Laguncularia racemosa, 7 plots)

Species                               Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
                                      structure    Coverage     Degree

                            All layers
Avicennia germinans                       D           3           V
Laguncularia racemosa                     C           1           V

Scattered tree species: yana, cambron (Prosopis juliflora)

Table 7. Black mangrove community with white mangrove and junco
(Avicennia germinans with Laguncularia racemosa and Eleocharis mutata,
7 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             Canopy layer
Avicennia germinans                       D           3           V
Laguncularia racemosa                     C           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Eleocharis mutata                        --           2           V
Typha domingensis                        --           2           V
Eleocharis.elegans                       --           1           V
Cyperus giganteus                        --           1           V
Scirpus olneyi                           --           1           V
Cyperus alternifolius                    --           1          III
Ludwigia erecta                          --           1          III
Bacopa monnieri var. monnieri            --           1          III
Alternanthera maritima                   --           1          III

                                Lianas
Mikania micrantha                        --           1          III

Scattered tree species: yana.

Table 8. Yana community (Conocarpus erectus), 6 plots

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                               All layers
Conocarpus erectus                        D           5           V

Table 9. Characteristic combination of jatia with no me toques
(Phyllostylon brasiliensis with Oplonia tetrasticha, 7 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Phyllostylon brasiliensis                 D           4           V
Collubrina elliptica                      D           1           V
Pseudocarpidium avicennioides             D           1           V
Cordia gerascanthus                       C           1           V
Randia aculeata                           I           1           IV
Picrodendron baccatum                     C           1          III
Carpodiptera cubensis                     C           1          III
Thouinia patentinervis                    C           1          III
Coccothrinax gundlachii                   I           2          III

                             Shrub layer
Oplonia tetrasticha                      --           2           V
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           2           V
Capparis flexuosa                        --         1 to 2        V
Malpighia suberosa                       --           1           V
Tabebuia myrtifolia                      --           1          III
Pictetia mucronata                       --           1          III
Senna atomaria                           --           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Croton lucidus                           --           2           V
Malpighia apiculata                      --           1           IV
Harrisia eriophora                       --           1          III
Turnera ulmifolia                        --           1          III
Erythro xylum havanense                  --           1          III
Petiveria alliacea                       --           1          III

                               Lianas
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Commicarpus scandens                     --           1           IV
Cynanchum sp.                            --           1          III
Cissus trifoliata                        --           1          III
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1          III
Chiococca alba                           --           1          III
Triopteris rigida                        --           1          III

                              Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           V
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           IV
Tillandsia usneoides                     --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: almacigo (Bursera simaruba),
guasima (Guazuma ulmifolia), cafecillo (Bourreria virgata), yamaquey
(Belairia spinosa) and aguedita (Picramniapentandra).

Localities: Southern part of Sierra del Turquino.

Table 10. Characteristic combination of carbonero with majaguilla de
costa (Colubrina elliptica with Helicteres semitriloba, 3 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Colubrina elliptica                       D          2-5          V
Carpodiptera cubensis                     C           1           V
Bursera simaruba                          C           1           V
Bourreria virgata                         C           1           V
Thouinia patentinervis                    C           4           IV
Pseudocarpidium avicennioides             C           4           IV
Pictetia mucronata                        I           4           IV
Coccothrinax gundlachii                   I           4           IV

                             Shrub layer
Senna atomaria                           --           2           V
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           2           V
Zanthoxylum elephantiasis                --           1           V
Capparis flexuosa                        --           1           V
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           IV

                           Herbaceous layer
Croton lucidus                           --           3           V
Helicteres semitriloba                   --           1           V
Oplonia tetrasticha                      --           1           IV
Malphigia suberosa                       --           1           IV
Castela spinosa                          --           1           IV
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           IV
Lantana montevidensis                    --           1           IV
Turnera ulmifolia                        --           1           IV
Crossopetalum sp.                        --           1           IV
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1           IV
Bothriochloa pertusa                     --           2           IV

                                Lianas
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Commicarpus scandens                     --           1           V

                               Epiphytes
Tillandsia usneoides                     --           1           IV
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: yarua (Caesalpinia violacea),
lirio santana (Exostema caribaeum) and jatia.

Localities: in the pre mountain area of the southern slope of Sierra
del Turquino.

Table 11. Characteristic combination of cuya with guairaje
(Sideroxylon salicifolium with Eugenia maleolens, 5 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Sideroxylon salicifolium (Dipholis        D           2           V
  salicifolia)
Bursera simaruba                          D           2           V
Gymnanthes lucida                         I           2           V
Eugenia maleolens                         I           3           V
Guettarda elliptica                       I           1           V
Exostema caribaeum                        I           1           V
Colubrina elliptica                       I           1           V
Oxandra lanceolata                        I           1           IV
Leucaena leucocephala                     I           2           IV
Guapira obtusata                          I           1           IV
Acacia macracantha                        O           1           IV

                             Shrub layer
Randia aculeata                          --           1           V
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1           V
Amyris elemifera                         --           1           V
Maytenus buxifolia                       --           1           V
Erythroxylum rotundifolium               --           1           V

                           Herbaceous layer
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           V
Randia spinifex                          --           1           IV
Melicoccus bijugatus                     --           1           IV
Croton lucidus                           --           1           IV
Drypetes sp.                             --           1           IV
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1           IV
Panicum sp.                              --           1           IV
Zanthoxylum fagara                       --           1          III
Celtis trinervia                         --           1          III
Thouinia trifoliata                      --           1          III
Canella winterana                        --           1          III
Ravenia leonis                           --           2          III
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1          III

                                Lianas
Chiococca alba                           --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1           V
Capparis flexuosa                        --           1           IV
C. cynophallophora                       --           1           IV
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1          III
Capparis grisebachii                     --           1          III
Dalechampia scandens                     --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: aguedita (Picramnia pentandra),
peonia (Citharexylum sp.), yarua, roble prieto (Ehretia tinifolia),
Licaria sp., abey macho (Jacaranda coerulea) and espuela de caballero
(Bucida spinosa).

Table 12. Characteristic combination of macaguey (toad) with curujey
and chicharron (Guapira obtusata with Hohenbergia penduliflora and
Drypetes mucronata, 4 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                           Canopy layer
Guapira obtusata                          D          2-3          V
Zanthoxylum cubense                       C           1           V
Drypetes alba                             C           1           V
Coccothrinax elegans                      I           1           V
Tabebuia bibracteolata                    I           1           V
Plumeria emarginata                       I           1           V
Colubrina elliptica                       I           1           IV
Alvaradoa arborescens                     I           1           IV
Amyris elemifera                          I           2           IV
Spirotecoma sp.                           O           1          III

                            Shrub layer
Ocotea coriacea                          --           1           V
Savia bahamensis                         --           1           V
Celtis trinervia                         --           1           IV
Hyperbaena paucinervis                   --           1           IV

                          Herbaceous layer
Agave underwoodii                        --           3           V
Hohenbergia penduliflora                 --           3           V
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           3           V
Oplonia tetrasticha                      --           2           V
Pilosocereus brooksianus                 --           1           V
Philodendron lacerum                     --           1           V
Selenicerus grandiflorus                 --           1           V
Epidendrum nocturnum                     --           1           V
Grisebachianthus plucheoides             --           1           IV
Zamia angustifolia                       --           1           IV
Vanilla sp.                              --           1           IV
Arthrostylidium angustifolium            --           2           IV
Croton lucidus                           --           1          III
Vernonia sp.                             --           1          III
Hex sp.                                  --           1          III
Pharus glaber                            --           1          III

                               Lianas
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Chioccoca alba                           --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Platygyna dentata                        --           1           V
Capparis flexuosa                        --           1          III
Cynanchum sp.                            --           1          III

                              Epiphytes
Tillandsia usneoides                     --           2           V
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           V

   Differential combination from macaguey (toad) with curujey and
                              chicharron
Drypetes mucronata                        C           1           V
Erythroxylum rotundifolium               --           1           V
Polypodium polypodioides                 --           1           V
Epidendrum pygmaeum                      --           1           V
Passiflora penduliflora                  --           1           V
Tillandsia pruinosa                      --           1           V
Erithalis fruticosa                      --           1           IV
Thouinia trifoliata                      --           1           IV
Gymnanthes lucida                        --           1           IV
Caesalpinia vesicaria                    --           1           IV
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           IV
Trichocentrum undulatum                  --           1           IV
Cyrtopodium punctatum                    --           1           IV
Rhipsalis cassutha                       --           1           IV
Polypodium aureum                        --           1           IV
Encyclia sp.                             --           1           IV
Octomeria tridentata                     --           1           IV
Pleurothallis gelida                     --           1           IV
Campiloneurum phyllitidis                --           1           IV
Gesneria heterochroa                     --           1          III
Auerodendron cubensis                    --           1          III
Solandra longiflora                      --           1          III
Isidorea polyneura                       --           1          III
Peperomia rotundifolia                   --           1          III
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1          III
Tillandsia schiediana                    --           1          III
T. balbisiana                            --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: jaguey (Ficus laevigata), ramon
cow (Dendropanax arboreus), lirio santana and jaguey (Ficus perforata).

Localities: Carso de Baire.

Table 13. Characteristic combination of the forest macaguey (toad) with
curujey and lirio santana (Guapira obtusata with Hohenbergia
penduliflora and Exostema caribaeum, 5 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Guapira obtusata                          D           3           V
Coccothrinax elegans                      C           1           V
Tabebuia bibracteolata                    I           1           V
Amyris elemifera                          I           1           IV
Hyperbaena paucinervis                    O           1           IV
Drypetes alba                             O           1           IV
Plumeria emarginata                       O           1           IV
Zanthoxylum cubense                       C           1          III
Alvaradoa arborescens.                    I           1           I

                             Shrub layer
Ocotea coriacea                          --           1           V
Savia bahamensis                         --           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Oplonia tetrasticha                      --           2           V
Hohenbergia penduliflora                 --           2           V
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           2           V
Agave underwoodii                        --           2           IV
Vernonia sp.                             --           1           IV
Grisebachianthus plucheoides             --           1           IV
Pilosocereus brooksianus                 --           1           IV
Epidendrum nocturnum                     --           1          III

                                Lianas
Philodendron lacerum                     --           1           V
Selenicerus grandifloras                 --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Chioccoca alba                           --           1           V
Vanilla sp.                              --           1          III
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1          III

                              Epiphytes
Tillandsia usneoides L.                  --           1           IV

 Differential combination from macaguey (toad) with curujey and lirio
                               santana
Exostema caribaeum                       --           1          III
Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus               --           1          III
Passiflora sexflora                      --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: baria, maboa de sabana
(Cameraria retusa), penda (Citharexylum caudatum), carbonero and
guairaje (Eugenia asperifolia).

Table 14. Characteristic combination ofjocuma with guao (Sideroxylon
foetidissimum subsp. foetidissimum with Comocladia dentata, 3 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                           Canopy layer
Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp.          P           3           V
  foetidissimum
Comocladia dentata                        D           2           V
Bursera simaruba                          P           1           V
Sideroxylon salicifolium                  C           1           V
Ocotea coriacea                           C           1           V
Exostema caribaeum                        C           1           V
Cupania glabra                            C           1           V
Adelia ricinella                          O           1           V
Alvaradoa amorphoides                     O           1           V
Exothea paniculata                        C           1           IV

                            Shrub layer
Eugenia sp.                              --           3           V
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           V
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1           V
Erythtroxylum havanense                  --           1           V
E. rotundifolium                         --           1           V
Varronia globosa                         --           1           V
Capparis flexuosa                        --           1           IV
Coccoloba diversifolia                   --           1           IV
Erithalis fruticosa                      --           1           IV
Chrysophylum oliviforme                  --           1           IV
Guettarda sp.                            --           1           IV
Senna atomaria                           --           1           IV
Zanthoxylum fagara                       --           1           IV

                          Herbaceous layer
Desmodium incanum                        --           1           V
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           V
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1           V
Commelina elegans                        --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Selenicereus grandifloras                --           1           IV
Rivina humilis                           --           1           IV
Oeceoclades maculata                     --           1           IV
Agave sp.                                --           1           IV
Lantana camara                           --           1           IV
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1           IV

                               Lianas
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1           V
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1           V
Chiococca alba                           --           1           V
Turbina corymbosa                        --           1           IV
Tragia hexandra                          --           1           IV

                             Epiphytes
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: cedar (Cedrela odorata),
carbonero, bijaguara (Colubrina ferruginosa), guama (Lonchocarpus
domingensis), penda, roble (Tabebuia sp.), mamoncillo (Melicoccus
bijugatus), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni), yaiti, bone and curbana
(Canella alba).

Table 15. Cuya with curbana and guatapana (Sideroxylon salicifolium
with Canella winterana and Acacia macracantha, 6 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Acacia macracantha                        D           2            V
Senna atomaria                            D           1            V
Sideroxylon salicifolium                  C           1            V
Canella winterana                         C           1            V
Bursera simaruba                          C           1            V
Lonchocarpus domingensis                  I           1           III

                            Shrub layer
Eugenia axillaris                        --           2            V
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1            V
Comocladia dentata                       --           1            V
Bourreria virgata                        --           1            V
Randia aculeata                          --           1           IV

                          Herbaceous layer
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1            V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1            V
Paspalum breve                           --           1            V
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           IV
Lantana camara                           --           1           III
Trema micrantha                          --           1           III

                              Lianas
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1            V
Chiococca alba                           --           1            V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           IV
Cissampelos pareira                      --           1           III

    Differential combination from cuya with curbana and guatapana
                            Canopy layer
Trichilia hirta                           D           2            V
Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp.          C           1            V
  foetidissimum
Cordia alba                               C           1            V

                             Shrub layer
Ehretia tinifolia                        --           1            V
Turnera ulmifolia                        --           1            V

                           Herbaceous layer
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1            V
Chrysophyllum oliviforme                 --           1            V
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1            V
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1            V
Heliotropium indicum                     --           1           IV
Commelina erecta                         --           1           IV
Desmanthus virgatus                      --           1           IV

                                Lianas
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1            V
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1            V
Salacia nipensis                         --           1           IV

                               Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: carbonero, jia blanca (Adelia
ricinella), guara (Cupania glabra), Citharexylum ternatum, guaguasi
(Zuelania guidonia), sigua, black ebony (Diospyrus grisebachii), guama
(Lonchocarpus longipes) and brasil (Caesalpinia vesicaria).

Table 16. Cuya with curbana and black ebony (Sideroxylum salicifolium
with Canella winterana and Diospyrus grisebachii, 8 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Sideroxylon salicifolium                  D           3           V
Canella winterana                         C           1           V
Acacia macracantha                        C           1           V
Senna atomaria                            C           1           V
Bursera simaruba                          C           1           V
Exostema caribaeum                        I           1           V
Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp.          C           1           IV
  foetidissimum
Colubrina elliptica                       C           1           IV
Bourreria virgata                         I           1           IV

                             Shrub layer
Eugenia axillaris                        --           3           V
Comocladia dentata                       --           1           V
Randia aculeata                          --           1           V
Lantana montevidensis                    --           1           IV
Zanthoxylum fagara                       --           1           IV

                           Herbaceous layer
Croton lucidus                           --           2           V
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Paspalum breve                           --           1           IV
Scleria lithosperma                      --           2           IV
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1          III
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           1          III
Morinda royoc                            --           1          III
Erytrhroxylum rotundifolium              --           1          III

                                Lianas
Tragia hexandra                          --           1           V
Chiococca alba                           --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           IV
Salacia nipensis                         --           1           IV
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1           IV
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1          III
Distictis rhynchocarpa                   --           1          III
Triopteris rigida                        --           1          III

    Differential combination from cuya with curbana andck ebony
                            Canopy layer
Diospyrus grisebachii                     I           1           V
Thouinia patentinervis                    I           1           IV

                             Shrub layer
Trema micrantha                          --           1           IV
Erithalis fruticosa                      --           1           IV
Lantana camara                           --           1           IV

                           Herbaceous layer
Spermacoce laevis                        --           1           IV
Bourreria setoso-hispida                 --           1           IV
Varronia lineata                         --           1           IV
Euphorbia heterophylla                   --           1           IV

                                Lianas
Cissus verticillata                      --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: cuabilla (Amyris elemifera),
guaguasi, roble prieto, guama de costa (Lonchocarpus longipes), guama
(Lonchocarpus domingensis), guara, sigua, Citharexylum ternatum,
brasil, jia blanca and raspalengua (Casearia hirsuta).

Table 17. Cuya with curbana and lirio santana (Sideroxylon salicifolium
with Canella winterana and Exostema caribaeum, 6 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Sideroxylon salicifolium                  I           2           V
Canella winterana                         I           1           V
Bursera simaruba                          C           1           V
Acacia macracantha                        I           1           V
Senna atomaria                            I           1           V

                             Shrub layer
Eugenia axillaris                        --           2           V
Randia aculeata                          --           1           V
Lantana montevidensis                    --           1           V
Amyris elemifera                         --           1           V
Caesalpinia vesicaria                    --           2           I
Comocladia dentata                       --           1           I

                          Herbaceous layer
Scleria lithosperma                      --           2           V
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1           V
Croton lucidus                           --           1           V
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           V
Zanthoxylum fagara                       --           1           V
Paspalum breve                           --           1           V
Simarouba laevis                         --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Oplonia tetrasticha                      --           1           I

                              Lianas
Tragia hexandra                          --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Chiococca alba                           --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Tragia volubilis                         --           1           I
Salacia nipensis                         --           1           I
Distictis rhynchocarpa                   --           1           I

  Differential combination from cuya with curbana and lirio santana
Exostema caribaeum                        I           1           V
Colubrina elliptica                       C           1           I
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1           I

Scattered species in the canopy layer: negracuba, raspalengua, black
ebony, jocuma, roble prieto, sigua, guara, Citharexylum ternatum and
cuaba prieta.

Table 18. Characteristic combination of guatapana with frijolillo and
cafecillo (Acacia macracantha with Senna atomaria and Bourreria
virgata, 4 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                           Canopy layer
Acacia macracantha                        D           3           V
Senna atomaria                            D           2           V
Cordia alba                               C           1           V

                          Herbaceous layer
Bothrichloa pertusa                      --           2           V
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           V
Commelina diffusa                        --           1           V
Spermacoce laevis                        --           1           V
Malpighia cnide                          --           1           IV
Sida rhombifolia                         --           1           IV
Malvastrum corchorifolium                --           1          III
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1          III
Helicteres sp.                           --           1          III
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1          III
Desmanthus virgatus                      --           1          III
Zanthoxylum fagara                       --           1          III
Corchorus sp.                            --           1          III
Bourreria sp.                            --           1          III
Wissadula periplocifolia                 --           1          III
Sida acuta                               --           1          III
Desmodium sp.                            --           1          III

                               Lianas
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Dalechampia scandens                     --           1           V
Cissus trifoliata                        --           1           V
Chiococca alba                           --           1           IV
Tournefortia volubilis                   --           1           IV
Triopteris rigida                        --           1           IV
Centrosema virginianum                   --           1          III
Commicarpus scandens                     --           1          III
Galactia sp.                             --           1          III
Ipomoea sp.                              --           1          III

                             Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           IV

 Differential combination from guatapana with frijolillo and cafecillo
Bourreria virgata                         I           2           V
Leucaena leucocephala                     C           1           V
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           3           V
Wissadula amplissima                     --           1           V
Lantana reticulata                       --           1           V
Phyllostyllon brasiliensis               --           1           IV
Adelia ricinella                         --           1           IV
Randia aculeata                          --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: Casearia
sp., cuaba prieta.

Table 19. Guatapana with frijolillo and raspalengua (Acacia macracantha
with Senna atomaria and Casearia hirsuta) in the marls from the South
Coastal Terraces of Sierra Maestra (6 plots).

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             Canopy layer
Acacia macracantha                        D           4           V
Senna atomaria                            D           2           V
Cordia alba                               C           1           V
Ehretia tinifolia                         C           1           IV

                             Shrub layer
Coccothrinax fragans                     --           1           IV
Lantana camara                           --           1           IV

                           Herbaceous layer
Waltheria indica                         --           1           V
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1           V
Lantana montevidensis                    --           1           V
Wissadula periplocifolia                 --           1           V
Melochia nodiflora                       --           1           V
Euphorbia heterophylla                   --           1           V
Spermacoce laevis                        --           1           V
Bothriochloa pertusa                     --           1           V
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1           V
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           V
Dicliptera vahliana                      --           1           IV
Jatropha gossipifolia                    --           1           IV
Cenchrus ciliaris                        --           2           IV
Commelina erecta                         --           1           IV
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           1          II]
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1          II]
Hibiscus brasiliensis                    --           1          II]
Comocladia dentata                       --           1          II]
Chromolaena odorata                      --           1          II]
Pavonia spinifex                         --           1          II]

                               Lianas
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Tournefortia volubilis                   --           1           V
Centrosema virginianum                   --           1           V
Desmanthus virgatus                      --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Triopteris rigida                        --           1           V
Passiflora foetida                       --           1           IV
Salacia nipensis                         --           1           IV
Merrenia bisecta                         --           1          II]
Chiococca alba                           --           1          II]
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1          II]

                              Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           IV
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1          II]

Differential combination from guatapana with frijolillo and raspalengua
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1           V
Turnera ulmifolia                        --           1           V
Paspalum breve                           --           1           V
Echites umbellata                        --           1           V
Plumbago scandens                        --           1           V

Scattered species in the canopy layer: cuya, jubaban (Trichilia hirta),
brasil, curbana, jia blanca, jocuma, penda, ague-dita dulce, carbonero,
agalla de costa and cafecillo.

Table 20. Yaya with almacigo (Oxandra lanceolada with Bursera simaruba,
9 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Bursera simaruba                          D           2           V
Oxandra lanceolata                        D           2           V
Cordia gerascanthus                       C           1           V
Piscidia piscipula                        C           1           V
Sideroxylonfoetidissimum subsp.           C           1           IV
  foetidissimum
Cupania americana                         C           1           IV
Guazuma ulmifolia                         C           1           IV
Spondias mombin                           C           1           IV
Phyllostylon brasiliensis                 I           1           IV
Lysyloma sabicu                           I           1           IV
Drypetes alba                             C           1          III
Gymnanthes lucida                         I           1          III
Cupania glabra var. glabra                C           1          III
Zuelania guidonia                         C           1          III
Roystonea regia                           C           1          III
Trophis racemosa                          C           1          III
Sideroxylon salicifolium                  C           1          III
Poeppigia procera                         I           1          III
Carpodiptera cubensis                     I           1          III

                              Shrub layer
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           V
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           V
Coccothrinax gundlachii                  --           1           IV
Trichilia hirta                          --           1           IV
Capparis flexuosa                        --           1          III
Casearia sylvestris var.                 --           1          III
  myricoides

                            Herbaceous layer
Olyra latifolia                          --           1           V
Oeceoclades maculata                     --           1           IV
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1          III
Zapoteca gracilis                        --           1          III
Rivina humilis                           --           1          III

                                Lianas
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1           V
Gouania lupuloides var lupuloides        --           1           V
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V

                               Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           V

Scattered species in the canopy layer: yaicuaje (Exothea paniculata),
yaba (Geoffroea inermis), dagame (Calycophyllum candidissimun),
carbonero (Collubrina reclinata), almendrillo (Prunus myrtifolia),
jaguey macho (Ficus membranacea), ayua (Zanthoxylum martinicensis),
roble blanco (Tabebuia angustata) and ceiba (Ceiba pentandra).

Localities: Southern slope of Sierra Maestra.

Table 21. Characteristic combination of jubaban with guasima
(Trichilia hirta with Guazuma ulmifolia, 6 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                          Canopy layer
Guazuma ulmifolia                         D           4           V
Senna atomaria                            I           2           V
Trichilia hirta                           D           1           V
Spondias mombin                           C           1           V
Cordia gerascanthus                       C           1           V
Carpodiptera cubensis                     I           1           V
Thouinia patentinervis                    I           1           V
Coccothrinax gundlachii                   I           1           V
Bursera simaruba                          C           1           IV
Celtis trinervia                          I           1          III

                            Shrub layer
Varronia globosa subsp. humilis          --           2           V
Phyllostylon brasiliensis                --           1           V
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           V

                          Herbaceous layer
Melochia nodiflora                       --           1           V
Lantana montevidensis                    --           1           V
Desmodium incanum                                     1           V
Commelina elegans                        --           1           V
Wissadula amplissima                     --           1           V
Bothriochloa pertusa                     --           1           V
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1           IV
Pavonia fructicosa                       --           1           IV
Abutilon sp.                             --           1           IV
Eupatorium sp.                           --           1          III
Harrisia eriophora                       --           1          III
Malpighia suberosa                       --           1          III
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1          III
Bidens pilosa                            --           1          III

                              Lianas
Centrosema virginianum                   --           1           V
Gouania lupuloides var. lupuloides       --           1           V
Stigmaphyllon sagreanum                  --           1           V
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1           IV
Plumbago scandens                        --           1           IV
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1          III

                             Epiphytes
Tillandsia recurvata                     --           1           V

Scattered species in the canopy layer: cuabilla, yarua, bayua
(Zanthoxylum elephantiasis), yaba and lirio santana

Localities: Southern slope of Sierra del Turquino.

Table 22. Characteristic combination of guarano with guasima
(Cupania americana with Guazuma ulmifolia, 4 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                          Canopy layer
Guazuma ulmifolia                         D           2           V
Cupania americana                         D           2           V
Cordia gerascanthus                       C           1           V
Poeppigia procera                         C           1           V
Trichilia hirta                           C           1           V
Zanthoxylum martinicense                  C           1           V
Roystonea regia                           C           1           V
Senna atomaria                            I           2           IV
Cupania glabra                            C           1           IV
Samanea saman                             C           1           V
Cecropia peltata                          C           1           IV
Cedrela odorata                           C           1           V
Guarea guidonia                           C           1           V
Piscidia piscipula                        I           1           I

                            Shrub layer
Casearia sylvestris var.                 --           1           V
  sylvestris
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           V
Eugenia floribunda                       --           1           V
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           V
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1           V
Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp.         --           1           V
  foetidissimum
Chrysophylum oliviforme                  --           1           V
Cordia collococca                        --           1           V
Psidium guajava                          --           1           V
Oxandra lanceolata.                      --           1           V

                          Herbaceous layer
Desmodium incanum                        --           1           V
Urochloa humidicola                      --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           V
Adiantum trapeziforme                    --           1           V
Pavonia fruticosa                        --           1           V
Spermacoce assurgens                     --           1           V
Pharus glaber                            --           1           V
Randia aculeata                          --           1           I
Chromolaena odorata                      --           1           V
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1           V
Sida rhombifolia                         --           1           V
Capsicum frutescens                      --           1           V
Petiveria alliacea                       --           1           V
Campiloneurum phyllitidis                --           1           V

                               Lianas
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1           V
Ipomoea alba                             --           1           V
Pithecoctenium echinatum                 --           1           V
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1           V
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1           V
Tournefortia hirsutissima                --           1           V
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           V
Salada nipensis                          --           1           I
Trichostigma octandrum                   --           1           V
Cissampelos pareira                      --           1           V
Cissus verticillata                      --           1           V
Aristolochia lindeniana                  --           1           V
Plumbago scandens                        --           1           V
Hippocratea volubilis                    --           1           V

Scattered species in the canopy layer: bijaguara, penda, jagua (Genipa
americana), jatia, mije (Eugenia asperifolia), majaguilla, yaiti, jobo,
fustete (Clorophora tinctoria), yaba, anacahuita (Sterculia apetala),
dagame, bien vestido (Gliricidia sepium), roble prieto, guatapana,
almacigo, guasimilla del pinar (Casearia arborea), yagruma hembra
(Schefflera morotottoni), jaguey macho (Ficus membranacea), dairy
(Sapium jamaicense) and guaguasi.

Localities: Sierra Maestra.

Table 23. Characteristic combination of amoroso with guasima
(Zanthoxylum fagara with Guazuma ulmifolia, 3 plots).

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                        Canopy + shrub layers
Guazuma ulmifolia                         D           3           V
Senna atomaria                            C           3           V
Cupania americana                         C           1           V
Cupania glabra                            C           1           V
Acacia macracantha                        C           1           V
Samanea saman                             C           1           V
Zanthoxylum fagara                        I           1           V
Casearia hirsuta                          I           1           V
Chrysophyllum oliviforme                  I           1           V
Phyllostylon brasiliensis                 D           1           IV
Leucaena leucocephala                     C           1           IV

                            Shrub layer
Eugenia floribunda                       --           1           IV
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           IV
Lonchocarpus blainii                     --           1           IV
Casearia sylvestris var.                 --           1           IV
  sylvestris
Psidium guajava                          --           1           IV

                          Herbaceous layer
Chromolaena odorata                      --           1           V
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           V
Rivina humilis                           --           1           V
Commelina elegans                        --           1           V
Petiveria alliacea                       --           1           V
Abutilon sp.                             --           1           V
Pavonia typhalea                         --           1           V
Trichilia hirta                          --           1           IV
Spermacoce laevis                        --           1           IV
Desmanthus virgatus                      --           1           IV
Phyla nodiflora                          --           1           IV
Turnera ulmifolia                        --           1           IV
Rauvolfia tetraphylla                    --           1           IV
Desmodium incanum                        --           1           IV
Adiantum trapeciforme                    --           1           IV
Varronia globosa ssp. humilis            --           1           IV
Oeceoclades maculata                     --           1           IV

                             Lianas
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1           V
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           V
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1           V
Turbina corymbosa                        --           1           V
Trichostigma octandrum                   --           1           IV
Smilax havanense                         --           1           IV
Lasiasis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Cissampelos pareira                      --           1           IV
Chiococca alba                           --           1           IV
Tournefortia hyrsutissima                --           1           IV
Centrosema sp.                           --           1           IV
Stigmaphyllum lineare                    --           1           IV
Stigmaphyllum sagreanum                  --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: anacahuita, ayua, yamagua,
yagruma, Citharexylum sp., jobo, sigua, royal palm, pomarrosa (Zyzygium
jambos), jagua, cedar, tengue, corojo (Gastrococos crispa) and jocuma.

Table 24. Characteristic combination of sigua with guara (Ocotea
coriacea with Cupania glabra, 6 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Ocotea coriacea                           D           2           V
Cupania glabra var. g labra               C           1           V
Ficus laevigata                           C           1           V
Guapira obtusata                          C           1           V
Plumeria emarginata                       I           1           V
Amyris elemifera                          C           1           IV
Drypetes alba                             C           1           IV
Celtis trinervia                          I           1           IV
Dendropanax arboreus                      C           1           IV
Abarema glauca                            C           1          III
Zanthoxylum cubense                       C           1          III
Cordia gerascanthus                       C           1          III
Citharexylum caudatum                     I           1          III

                             Shrub layer
Hyperbaena paucinervis                   --           1           V
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           V
Cojoba arborea                           --           1           IV
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1           IV
Eugenia asperifolia                      --           1           IV
Herbaceous layer
Faramea occidentalis                     --           1           V
Pharus glaber                            --           1           IV
Zamia angustifolia                       --           1           IV

                               Lianas
Chiococca alba                           --           1           V
Philodendron lacerum                     --           1           V
Selenicereus grandifloras                --           1           V
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Lasiacis divaricata                      --           1           IV
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1          III
Smilax lanceolata                        --           1          III
Vanilla sp.                              --           1          III

                              Epiphytes
Hohenbergia pendulflora                  --           1           V
Trichocentrum undulatum                  --           1           V
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           V
Tillandsia usneoides                     --           1           IV
Peperomia magnoliaefolia                 --           1          III
Rhipsalis cassutha                       --           1          III
Pleurothallis sertularioides             --           1          III
Tillandsia pruinosa                       .           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: carmin, roble macho (Tabebuia
hypoleuca), aguedita dulce, palo de caja, yaya, yaicuaje, Ficus
perforata, guayabillo (Guettarda calyptrata), yaiti, royal palm,
combretaceae, leviza (Licaria jamaicensis), Pithecellobium sp.,
guaguasi, canilla de venado (Citharexylum fruticosum), cupey (Clusia
rosea), macagua (Pseudolmedia spuria), yellow jucaro (Buchenavia
(tetraphylla) capitata), dominguito (Chionanthus domingensis), cuya,
Tabebuia sp., carbonero, maboa (Cameraria latifolia), chicharron, ayua,
yagruma, ceiba, guasima and cedar.

Localities: Carso de Baire.

Table 25. Characteristic combination of yamagua with ramon cow (Guarea
guidonia with Dendropanax arboreus, 3 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Dendropanax arboreus                      D           3           V
Guarea guidonia                           D           2           V
Cordia gerascanthus                       D           1           V
Ocotea coriacea                           D           1           V
Zanthoxylum martinicense                  D           1           V
Cecropia peltata                          C           1           V
Roystonea regia                           C           1           V
Guazuma ulmifolia                         C           1           IV
Cedrela cubensis                          C           1          III
Spondias mombin                           C           2          III
Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp.          C           1          III
  foetidissimum
Ficus membranacea                         C           1          III
Pseudolmedia spuria                       C           1          III
Zuelania guidonia                         C           1          III
Bursera simaruba                          C           1          III
Ficus suffucans                           C           1          III
Oxandra lanceolata                        I           2          III
Geoffroea inermis                         I           1          III
Trichilia hirta                           I           1          III
Casearia sylvestris var.                  I           1          III
  sylvestris
Drypetes alba                             I           1          III

                             Shrub layer
Picramnia pentandra                      --           1           V
Casearia hirsuta                         --           1           V
Trophis racemosa                         --           1           V
Cupania glabra                           --           1           V
Licaria jamaicensis                      --           1           IV
Prunus myrtifolia                        --           1           IV
Calophyllum antillanum                   --           1          III
Guettarda calyptrata                     --           1          III
Coffea arabica                           --           1          III
Ocotea floribunda                        --           1          III
Erythroxylum areolatum                   --           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Cupania americana                        --           1           V
Pharus glaber                            --           1           V
Adiantum trapeziforme                    --           1           V
Erythroxylum havanense                   --           1           IV
Pavonia spinifex                         --           1           IV
Oeceoclades maculata                     --           1           IV
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1           IV
Chrysophyllum oliviforme                 --           1          III
Psychotria sp.                           --           1          III
Lithacne pauciflora                      --           1          III
Allophyllus cominia                      --           1          III
Celtis trinervia                         --           1          III
Faramea occidentalis                     --           1          III
Anthurium cubense                        --           1          III
Urera baccifera                          --           1          III

                               Lianas
Cissus verticillata                      --           1           V
Pithecoctenium echinatum                 --           1           IV
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           IV
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1           IV
Abrus precatorius                                     1           IV
Trichostigma octandrum                   --           1          III
Hyperbaena sp.                           --           1          III
Passiflora suberosa                      --           1          III
Tournefortia glabra                      --           1          III
Chiococca alba                           --           1          III
Serjania subdentata                      --           1          III
Philodendron lacerum                     --           1          III

                              Epiphytes
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           IV
Tillandsia usneoides                     --           1          III
Campiloneurum phyllitidis                --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: bucare (Erythryna poeppigiana),
Ficus laevigata, dominguito, yaicuaje, toad (Ocotea leucoxylon), penda,
tabaco (Cordia sulcata), bien vestido (Gliricidia sepium), lechero
(Tabernaemontana amblyocarpa), comecara (Eugenia aeruginea), siguaralla
(Trichilia havanensis), aceitunillo (Beilschmiedia pendula), ayua de
sierra, moruro rojo (Cojoba arborea), dagame, Thouinia sp., cupey,
guama candelon, Eugenia sp., tengue, mije (Eugenia floribunda), yellow
jucaro, cuajani (Prunus occidentalis), dairy and guairaje (Eugenia
axillaris).

Table 26. Characteristic combination of almendrillo with yamagua
(Prunus myrtifolia with Guarea guidonia, 4 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Guarea guidonia                           D           2           V
Dendropanax arboreus                      D           2           V
Prunus myrtifolia                         C           1           V
Ocotea leucoxylon                         C           1           V
Cinnamomum elongatum                      C           1           V
Zanthoxylum martinicense                  C           1           V
Cupania americana                         C           1           V
Trophis racemosa                          C           1           V
Chionanthus domingensis                   C           1           V
Beilschmiedia pendula                     C           1           V
Chrysophyllum oliviforme                  I           1           V
Prunus occidentalis                       C           1           IV
Roystonea regia                           C           1           IV
Ocotea floribunda                         C           1           IV
Pseudolmedia spuria                       C           1           IV
Prestoea acuminata var. montana           I           1           IV
Casearia sylvestris var.                  I           1           IV
  sylvestris
Eugenia floribunda                        I           1           IV
Protium cubense                           I           1           IV
Cojoba arborea                            C           1          III
Alchornea latifolia                       C           1          III
Matayba oppositifolia                     C           1          III
Sapium jamaicense                         C           1          III
Ocotea globosa                            C           1          III
Talauma orbiculata                        C           1          III
Ficus membranacea                         C           1          III
Drypetes alba                             I           1          III

                            Shrub layer
Allophyllus cominia                      --           1          III
Gesneria sp.                             --           1          III
Palicourea alpina                        --           1          III
Clusia rosea                             --           1          III
Wallenia laurifolia                      --           1          III
Anthirea radiata                         --           1          III
Piper sp.                                --           1          III
Calyptronoma plumeriana                  --           1          III

                          Herbaceous layer
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1           IV
Oeceoclades maculata                     --           1           IV
Desmodium sp.                            --           1          III
Faramea occidentalis                     --           1          III
Psychotria sp.                           --           1          III
Psychotria uliginosa                     --           1          III
Pavonia spinifex                         --           1          III
Lithachne pauciflora                     --           1          III
Peperomia sp.                            --           1          III

                              Ferns
Campyloneurum phyllitidis                --           2           V
Blechnum occidentale                     --           1           V
Cyathea parvula                          --           1          III
Adiantum trapeciforme                    --           1          III

                              Lianas
Vitis tiliaefolia                        --           1           V
Pisonia aculeata                         --           1           V
Gouania lupuloides                       --           1           V
Lygodium volubile                        --           1           V
Hyperbaena paucinervis                   --           1           IV
Trichostigma octandrum                   --           1           IV
Davila rugosa                            --           1           IV
Smilax lanceolata                        --           1           IV
Hippocratea volubilis                    --           1          III
Cissampelos pareira                      --           1          III
Passiflora sexflora                      --           1          III
Smilax havanensis                        --           1          III
Serjania diversifolia                    --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: bucare, camaguilla (Myrsine
coriacea), cuero (Guettarda monocarpa), penda, Clusia sp., Colubrina
sp., Cassia sp., aguedita (Picramniapentandra), yareicillo (Myrcia
fenzliana = Gomidesia lindeniana), pomarrosa, yaya, Ocotea globosa,
jubilla (Sideroxylon jubilla), roble blanco (Tabebuia angustata),
guaguasi, jocuma, Thouinia sp., yaicuaje, sarnilla cimarrona (Casearia
sylvestris var. myricoides), cedar, yagruma hembra (Schefflera
morotottoni), purio (Oxandra laurifolia) and ateje (Cordia collococca).

Table 27. Characteristic combination of dominguito with palma boba
(Chionanthus domingensis with Prestoea acuminate, 9 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                            Canopy layer
Chionanthus domingensis                   D           2           V
Prestoea acuminata var. montana           D           2           V
Dendropanax arboreus                      D           2           V
Ocotea leucoxylon                         D           1           V
Cupania americana                         C           1           V
Matayba oppositifolia                     C           1           V
Ocotea cuneata                            C           1           V
Beilschmiedia pendula                     C           1           V
Myrcia fenzliana (Gomidesia               I           1           V
  lindeniana
Clusia tetrastigma                        I           2           IV
Cyrilla silvae                            C           1           IV
Syzygium jambos                           C           1           IV
Cinnamomum elongatum                      C           1           IV
Prunus occidentalis                       C           1          III
Guatteria neglecta                        C           1          III
Shrub layer
Gesneria viridiflora                     --           1           V
Lyonia latifolia subsp. calycosa         --           1          III
Ilex sp.                                 --           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Callicarpa oblanceolata                  --           1           V
Psychotria grandis                       --           1           V
Phaius tankervilliae                     --           1           IV
Palicourea alpina                        --           1           IV
Hedyosmun grisebachii                    --           1           IV
Meriania leucantha var. nana             --           1           IV
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1           IV
Columnea cubensis                        --           1           IV
Peperomia sp. 1                          --           1          III
Coccoloba sp.                            --           1          III
Peperomia sp. 2                          --           1          III

                              Ferns
Cyathea parvula                          --           1           V
Blechnum occidentale                     --           1           V
Cyathea aspera                           --           2           IV

                              Lianas
Philodendrum lacerum                     --           1          III

                             Epiphytes
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1           V
Campiloneurum phyllitidis                --           1          III
Diplazium sp.                            --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: moruro rojo, sarnilla cimarrona,
Ficus sp., palo de caja, aguacatillo, cletra (Clethra cubensis),
guayacanejo (Coccoloba diversifolia), camaguilla (Myrsine coriacea),
brunelia (Brunellia comocladifolia), roble macho (Tabebuia hypoleuca),
almendrillo, roble blanco (Tabebuia angustata), maranon (Talauma sp.),
penda, Ocotea globosa, yagruma, mije (Eugenia floribunda), cuero
(Guettarda monocarpa), macagua, aguedita dulce, Hieronyma pallida,
cupey (Clusia rosea), achotillo (Sloanea curatellifolia).

Table 28. Characteristic combination of yareicillo with copey (Myrcia
fenzliana (Gomidesia lindeniana) with Clusia tetrastigma, 8 plots

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                          Canopy layer
Clusia tetrastigma                        D           3           V
Myrzia fenzliana (Gomidesia               I           2           V
  lindeniana)
Eugenia scaphophylla                      C           1           V
Matayba oppositifolia                     C           1           V
Ocotea leucoxylon                         C           1           V
Coccoloba diversifolia                    C           1           V
Alchornea latifolia                       C           1           V
Clethra cubensis                          I           1           V
Cyrilla silvae                            C           1           IV
Lyonia latifolia subsp. calycosa          I           1           IV
Myrica cerifera                           I           1          III

                            Shrub layer
Ilex macfadyenii                         --           1           V
Ossaea granulata                         --           1           V
Palicourea alpina                        --           1           V
Gesneria viridiflora                     --           1           V
Myrsine coriacea                         --           1           V
Ilex repanda                             --           1           IV
Citharexylum sp.                         --           1           IV
Guettarda valenzuelana                   --           1          III
Coccoloba wrightii                       --           1          III

                          Herbaceous layer
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1           V
Panicum glutinosum                       --           1           V
Psychotria sp.                           --           1           IV
Chionanthus domingensis                  --           1           IV
Prestoea acuminata var. montana          --           1           IV
Eupatorium sp.                           --           1           IV
Phaius tankervilliae                     --           1           IV
Olyra latifolia                          --           1           IV
Ichnanthus mayarensis                    --           1           IV
Vernonia hieracioides                    --           1          III
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1          III
Cinnamomum elongatum                     --           1          III
Piper sp.                                --           1          III
Chaptalia sp.                            --           1          III

                               Ferns
Cyathea parvula                          --           3           V
Sticherus bifidus                        --           1           IV
Blechnum occidentale                     --           1           IV
Cyathea aspera                           --           --         III
Odontosoria scandens                     --           1          III
Lianas
Smilax havanensis                        --           1           V
Smilax lanceolata                        --           1           IV
Arthrostylidium multispicatum            --           1           IV

                             Epiphytes
Isochilus linearis                       --           1           IV
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           IV
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1           IV
Dichaea hystricina                       --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: aguedita dulce, ramon cow,
cuero, guarano, cedar, cupey, roble macho, poma-rrosa, purio prieto
(Guatteria blainii), palo de caja, aceitunillo and canelon.

Table 29. Characteristic combination of purio fangar with maranon de la
maestra (Guatteria neglecta with Magnolia cubensis, 9 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             Canopy layer
[E.sub.3,2,1] Magnolia cubensis           P           1           V
  subsp. cubensis
Guatteria neglecta                        D           1           V
Matayba oppositifolia                     D           1           V
Chionanthus domingensis                   D           1           V
Ocotea leucoxylon                         D           1           V
Ixora ferrea                              D           1           V
Persea anomala                            D           1           V
Myrsine coriacea                          I           1           V
Clethra cubensis                          I           1           V
[E.sub.3,2] Miconia pteroclada            I           1           V
Viburnum villosum                         I           1           V
[E.sub.3,2,1] Dendropanax arboreus        C           1           IV
Cinnamommum elongatum                     C           1           IV
Prunus occidentalis                       C           1           IV
[E.sub.3,1] Clusia grisebachiana          I           1           IV
[E.sub.3,2,1-] Cyrilla silvae             C           2          III
[E.sub.3,1] Alchornea latifolia           C           1          III
[E.sub.3,2] Tabebuia brooksiana           I           1          III

                             Shrub layer
[E.sub.2,1] Meriania leucantha           --           1           V
  var. nana
Graffenrieda rufescens                   --           1           V
Palicourea alpina                        --           1           V
Psychotria grandis                       --           1           V
Eugenia laeteviridis                     --           1           V
Garrya fadyena                           --           1          III
Weinmannia pinnata                       --           1          III
Clidemia umbellata                       --           1          III

                        Herbaceous layer
[E.sub.1] Zeugites americana             --           1           V
Arthrostylidium multispicatum            --           1           V
Hedyosmum grisebachii                    --           1          III
Panicum glutinosum                       --           1          III
Peperomia maculosa                       --           2          III
Begonia cubensis                         --           1          III

                              Ferns
[E.sub.3]- Cyathea parvula                I           1           V
[E.sub.3,2] Cyathea furfuracea            I           1           IV
[E.sub.2]- Alsophylla major              --           1           V
L- Odontosoria aculeata                  --           1           IV
Ep- Hymenophyllum sp.                    --           1           IV
Polybotria osmundacea                    --           1          III
Campiloneurum angustifolium              --           1          III
Polypodium loriceum                      --           1          III

                            Epiphytes
Guzmania sp.                             --           1           V
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1           IV
Tillandsia fasciculata                   --           1           IV
Isochilos linearis                       --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: Ocotea spathulata, macaguey
(toad), yagruma, ayua, macagua, yareicillo, Sapium erythrospermum,
almendrillo, guarano, jubilla, cordoban (Miconia dodecandra), pino de
la maestra, palma boba, brunelia, Pimenta sp., ramon horse, achotillo
(Hieronyma nipensis), Manilkara valenzuelana, bone, jiqui (Pera
bumeliifolia), Ditta myricoides, Coccoloba sp. and vigueta.

Table 30. Characteristic combination of ferns with barril (Cyathea
parvula and C. furfuracea with Cyrilla silvae, 7 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                          Canopy layer
Cyrilla silvae                            D           3           V
Cyathea parvula                           D           3           V
Cyathea furfuracea                        D           2           V
Shrub layer
Ixora ferrea                             --           1           V
Myrsine coriacea                         --           1           V
Chromolaena sp.                          --           1           V
Palicourea alpina                        --           1           V

                   Shrubs and herbaceous layers
Alchornea latifolia                      --           1          III
Brunellia comocladifolia                 --           1          III
Ocotea leucoxylon                        --           1          III
Magnolia cubensis subsp. cubensis        --           1          III
Ossaea granulata                         --           1          III
Mataybe oppositifolia                    --           1          III
Viburnum villosum                        --           1          III

                         Herbaceous layer
Clidemia umbellata                       --           1           V
Clusia grisebachiana                     --           1           IV
Clethra cubensis                         --           1           IV
Miconia dodecandra                       --           1           IV
Panicum glutinosum                       --           1           IV
Coccocypselum lanceolatum                --           1           IV
Zeugites americana                       --           1          III
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1          III

                              Ferns
Hypolepis nigrescens                     --           1           IV
Sticherus bifidus                        --           1          III
Dicranopteris pectinata                  --           1          III

                            Epiphytes
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: roble de olor, cordoban (Miconia
pteroclada), Eugenia laeteviridis, jubilla.

Table 31. Ferns with barril and yagruma macho (Cyathea furfuracea and
C. parvula with Cyrilla silvae and Schefflera morotottoni, 7 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                        Canopy and shrub layers
Cyrilla silvae                            D           3           V
Miconia dodecandra                        D           2           V
Cyathea furfuracea                        D           2           V
Cyathea parvula                           D           2           V
Brunellia comocladifolia                  C           1           V
Alchornea latifolia                       C           1           V
Myrsine coriacea                          C           1           V
Clethra cubensis                          I           1          III
Miconia pteroclada                        I           1          III

                             Shrub layer
Palicourea alpina                        --           2           V
Ixora ferrea                             --           1           V
Clidemia umbellata                       --           1           V
Ocotea leucoxylon                        --           1           V
Clusia grisebachiana                     --           1           IV
Chromolaena sp.                          --           1           IV
Magnolia cubensis subsp. cubensis        --           1          III

                           Herbaceous layer
Panicum glutinosum                       --           1           V
Coccocypselum herbaceum                  --           1           IV
Eugenia laeteviridis                     --           1          III
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1          III

Ferns
Hypolepis nigrescens                     --           1           V
Sticherus bifidus                        --           1          III
Dicranopteris pectinata                  --           1          III
Epiphytes
Guzmania monostachya                     --           1          III

  Differential combination from ferns with barril and yagruma macho
Arthrostylidium multispicatum            --           1           V
Passiflora sexflora                      --           1           V
Blechnum fragile                         --           1           V
Schefflera morotottoni                    C           1          III
Callicarpa ferruginea                    --           1          III
Oplismenus setarius                      --           1          III
Alsophylla major                                      1          III
Odontosoria jenmanii                     --           1          III
Elaphoglossum chartaceum                 --           1          III

Scattered species in the canopy layer: yaicuaje, canelon, roble de
olor, oreganillo (Weinmannia pinnata), dominguito and ramon cow.

Table 32. Characteristic combination of barril with maranon de la
maestra (Cyrilla silvae with Magnolia cubensis, 6 plots)

                                      Vertical    Abundance-   Presence
Species                               structure    Coverage     Degree

                             Canopy layer
Cyrilla silvae                            D           3           V
Magnolia cubensis subsp. cubensis         D           2           V
Clusia grisebachiana                      C           1           V
Ditta myricoides                          C           1           V
Ixora ferrea                              C           1           V
Chionanthus domingensis                   C           1           V
Weinmannia pinnata                        C           1           V
Brunellia comocladifolia                  I           1           V
Myrsine coriacea                          I           1           V
Clethra cubensis                          I           1           IV
Henriettea ekmanii                        I           1          III

                             Shrub layer
Graffenrieda rufescens                   --           3           V
Purdiaea stenopetala var.                --           1           V
  stenopetala
Palicourea alpina                        --           1           V
Ilex macfadyenii                         --           1           V
Viburnum villosum                        --           1           V
Lyonia elliptica                         --           1           V
Eugenia laeteviridis                     --           1           V
Guapira obtusata                         --           1           IV

                           Herbaceous layer
Hedyosmum grisebachii                    --           1           V
Lisianthius glandulosus                  --           1           V
Scleria lithosperma                      --           1           V
Zeugites americana                       --           1           V
Ocotea spathulata                        --           1           IV
Ilex sp.                                 --           1           IV
Callicarpa ferruginea                    --           1           IV
Sapium erythrospermum                    --           1          III
Phaius tankervilliae                     --           1          III
Peperomia tenella                        --           1          III

                                Ferns
Alsophylla major                         --           1           V
Cyathea parvula                          --           1           V
Odontosoria scandens                     --           1           V
Sticherus bifidus                        --           1           V
Trichomanes robustum                     --           1           V
Cyathea furfuracea                        I           1           IV
Elaphoglossum chartaceum                 --           1           IV
Campiloneurum phyllitidis                --           1          III
Politrichum sp.                          --           1          III
Polybotria osmundacea                    --           1          III

                               Epiphytes
Isochilus linearis                       --           1           V
Catopsis cf. floribunda                  --           1           IV

Scattered species in the canopy layer: Guatteria moralesii, macurije,
cordoban (Miconia dodecandra), pino de la maestra and Wallenia sp.

Localities: highest altitudes of Sierra Maestra.
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Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:Reyes, Orlando J.
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:28662
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