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Fodder growing and Trading - I.

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: Introduction

Fodder or animal feed is an agricultural food stuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock such as cattle goats sheep horses chickens and pigs. Most of the animal feed comes from plants but some is of animal origin.Fodder refers particularly to food given to the animals including plants cut and carried to them rather than that which they forage for themselves.

Fodder includes hay straw silage compressed and polluted feeds oils and mixed rations and sprouted grains and legumes.

According to the International Feed Industry Federation the worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million ton of feed in 2011 fast approaching to 1 billion with an annual growth rate of about 2pc.

The use of agricultural land to grow feed rather than human food is controversial; some types of feed such as corn (maize) can also serve as human food; those that cannot such as grassland grass may be grown on land that can be used for crops consumed by humans. Some agricultural byproducts fed to animals may be considered unsavory by human consumers.

Fodder production for Peri-urban Dairies in Pakistan

Pakistan is a large milk producer and demand is growing fast. However it has no natural pasture suitable for dairying stock mostly buffaloes rely on cultivated fodder.

On the irrigated plains there are also two very different types of stock rearing: subsistence and commercial; the latter in the milk shed areas around and within big cities and towns.

There are also two levels of fodder production: some farmers grow for their own stock again sub- divided for subsistence and commercial while others grow fodder as a cash crop and may not be involved in dairying. In an area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to agricultural production intensification is the only way to meet the country's demand for forage and livestock products. Improved forage cultivars have been developed and are proving extremely popular with growers although seed supply is still a problem. Commercial forage production has emerged as an important activity especially in and around big towns. Improved oat and berseem varieties have been developed and have become popular to replace the wheat and rice straw that used to form the bulk of the ration. These varieties are good producers even in the cold weather when green forage is scarce and are replacing the forage brassicas

which were formerly used in the winter lean period. Although commercial herds are few in rural areas but very common and important in the peri-urban regions not all the forage required is produced in peri-urban areas. For several town dairies forage is produced in distant rural areas some hundreds of kms away and huge quantities of forage and straw are transported daily. The practice of feeding all the milking animals at the same rate which is common in most dairy farms results in overfeeding of less productive and underfeeding of more productive animals.

Dairies should classify their herd into groups based on their daily productivity and feed them accordingly. Although cows eat less but produce higher milk yields than buffaloes but there is more demand for buffalo than cow milk. Buffaloes were the dominant animals on almost all the farms. Wheat straw and dry maize and sorghum stalks usually formed the bulk of feed in dairy farms. All farmers seemed unaware of the nutritive value of urea treated straw and stalks and of good quality hay. Average forage yields are very low as compared to their potential.Although improved varieties and technology are available they have been slow to reach the small scale farms that account for the bulk of forage producers and seed production has lagged behind plant breeding and introductions. Farm trials have indicated that yields can be enhanced two to three fold by using available improved varieties and appropriate agronomic techniques.

Milk and dairy products are important in the Pakistani diet and the demand for milk is rising sharply with an ever increasing population and per capita income. About 42200000 hectares 60 percent of the country is grazing land but it is dry range unsuitable for dairy cattle so their green feed and roughage comes from agricultural land most of it irrigated the FAO report indicated.

Types of Fodder

Various types of legume and grass fodder conserved forage plants: hay and silage compound feed and premixes often called pellets. Nuts or cake crop residues include Stover copra straw chaff sugar beet waste fish meal freshly cut grass and other forage plants meat and bone meal now declared illegal in cattle and sheep feeds in many areas due to risk of BSE.

Molasses

Molasses is a viscous by product of the refining of sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called sorghum molasses" in the American South.

Molasses consists of seaweedseeds and grains either whole or prepared by crushing and milling etc. The sprouted grains and legumes yeast extract Native green grass are included infodder. Bran concentrate mix oilseed press cake like cottonseed safflower sunflower soybean peanut or groundnut green maize and green sorghum are used as fodder.

Cane Molasses

To make molasses sugar cane is harvested and stripped of leaves. Often the fields of cane are set afire to burn off the leaves and drive out the snakes that seem to enjoy this habitat. robust flavor. It is used for producing ethyl alcohol for industry and as an ingredient in cattle feed.

Health Concerns

Barley is a crop sometimes grown for fodder in the past Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease") spread through the inclusion of ruminant meat and bone meal in cattle feed due to prom contamination. This practice is now banned in most of the countries where it has occurred. Some animals have a lower tolerance for spoiled or moldy fodder than others and certain types of molds toxins or poisonous weeds are mixed into a feed source may cause economic losses due to sickness or death of the animals.

Production of Sprouted Grains as Fodder

Fodder in the form of sprouted grains and legumes can be grown in small and large quantities. Techniques have been developed that helps many of sprouts to be produced each dayyear round. Sprouted grains can greatly increase the nutritional value of the grain compared with feeding the ingeminated grain to stock. In addition they use less water than traditional forage making them ideal for drought conditions. Sprouted barley and other cereal grains can be grown hydroponically in a carefully controlled environment. Under hydroponic conditions sprouted fodder at 150 mm tall with a 50 mm root mat is at its peak for animal feed. Although products such are barley are grain when sprouted they are approved by the American Grassfed Association to be used as livestock feed.

Pre Feasibility

Fodder Production and Trading Company

The objective of this prefeasibility study is to facilitate potential entrepreneurs in project identification for investment. The study may help to take investment decision as it covers various aspects of project concept development start up production marketing financing and business management.

It would facilitate potential investors in Fodder Production and Trading by providing them a general understanding of the business with the intension of supporting potential investors in crucial investment decisions. However the investor must consider critical aspects which form the basis of investment decisions.

Products include Dry Fodder and Green Fodder. The project will produce 67.5 ton dry fodder and 25 ton green fodder on 10 acre. There will be 6 crops per year total production will be 405 ton and 150 ton per annum for dry and green fodder respectively. The total cost estimate of business is Rs1.10 million with fixed investment Rs0.66 million and working capital Rs0.44 million. As per the cost assumptions the IRR of the venture is 39pc whereas the Payback period is 3.3 years. Animals consume green fodder in high quantity as compared to dry fodder due to high water content present in green fodder. However dry fodder is found to be more economical as compared to green fodder because it gives the same nutrition to the animal in lower quantities.

Furthermore dry fodder is considered beneficial for milking animals as it increases fat droplets content in milk. The requirement for dry fodder is consistent across Pakistan all round the year and can also be exported to international markets. The project is based on cultivation of Alfalfa crop employing best agriculture practices and marketing the produce through trading office for Alfafa.

The key factors of the project

Technology

The fodder production unit will use new cutting machines and used bailer machines for cutting and bailing of forage.

Location

The Fodder can be cultivated in any rural area of Sindh Punjab KPK and Balochistan where fresh water is easily available in abundant quantity and land is suitable for optimum fodder yield.

Product

The project will produce Green Fodder and Dry Fodder

Target Market

In addition to local markets of urban and mostly rural areas there is a huge potential of exports in dry and bailed form.

Employment generation

The unit will provide direct employment to 05 people. Financial analysis shows the unit shall be profitable from the very first year of operation.

The most critical factors for success of the project are:

Land

The selection of agricultural land contacts with the buyers availability of water using balanced nutrients and applying fertilizer at the right time.

Table - 1

###Fodder Crops

Year###Punjab###Sindh###KPK###Balochistan###Pakistan

###(Area'000' hectares)

1993-94###2150.6###323.8###121.3###48.0###2643.7

1994-95###2171.2###387.7###127.0###50.6###2736.5

2-Years'Avg:###2160.9###355.8###124.2###49.3###2690.1

1995-96###2144.5###391.3###125.9###53.5###2715.2

1996-97###2139.2###333.1###131.3###47.8###2651.4

1997-98###2114.7###376.0###140.4###49.0###2680.1

1998-99###2066.0###401.6###141.8###36.9###2646.3

1999-00###2060.8###326.3###141.8###27.4###2556.3

5-Years'Avg:###2105.0###365.7###136.2###42.9###2649.9

2000-01###2037.3###286.0###138.5###29.1###2490.9

2001-02###2052.1###297.6###125.0###38.0###2512.7

2002-03###2037.2###270.4###120.8###39.1###2467.5

2003-04###1965.9###349.8###115.2###38.0###2468.9

2004-05###1952.0###263.8###100.5###42.2###2358.5

5-Years'Avg:###2008.9###293.5###120.0###37.3###2459.7

2005-06###2027.1###269.5###109.3###42.2###2448.1

2006-07###1998.1###357.8###101.4###43.9###2501.2

2007-08###1993.8###322.1###105.2###38.4###2459.5

2008-09###1930.2###300.7###101.4###37.4###2369.7

2009-10###1908.9###265.9###103.7###33.7###2312.2

5-Years'Avg:###1971.6###303.2###104.2###39.1###2418.1

2010-11###1892.4###205.0###104.8###33.7###2235.9

###(Production `000' Ton)

1993-94###44626.5###8317.3###2676.0###1484.7###57104.5

1994-95###46218.1###9469.3###2806.6###1588.4###60082.4

2-Years'Avg:###45422.3###8893.3###2741.3###1536.6###58593.5

1995-96###46127.9###9724.0###2781.3###1709.8###60343.0

1996-97###47442.9###8669.5###2868.2###1537.8###60518.4

1997-98###47358.5###9388.9###2972.5###1579.8###61299.7

1998-99###46523.5###9811.1###2944.8###1220.7###60500.1

1999-00###46547.4###8062.2###2973.3###831.5###58414.4

5-Years'Avg:###46800.0###9131.1###2908.0###1375.9###60215.1

2000-01###45937.9###7240.4###2855.3###910.8###56944.4

2001-02###45151.2###7328.5###2555.4###1047.9###56083.0

2002-03###45048.5###7327.2###2524.5###1158.0###56058.2

2003-04###44025.8###8688.6###2448.4###1160.9###56323.7

2004-05###43689.3###7209.6###2235.2###1268.6###54402.7

5-Years'Avg:###44770.5###7558.9###2523.8###1109.2###55962.4

2005-06###44440.9###7392.5###2341.2###1296.9###55471.5

2006-07###44454.4###8563.2###2165.4###1406.3###56589

2007-08###43655.1###8223.8###2162.8###1015.0###55056.7

2008-09###43030.9###7362.6###2040.9###1182.0###53616.4

2009-10###42025.5###6823.7###2112.4###963.8###51925.4

5-Years'Avg:###43521.4###7673.2###2164.5###1172.8###54531.9

2010-11###41170.3###4980.7###2113.4###970.7###49235.1

Year###Punjab###Sindh###KPK###Balochistan###Pakistan

###(Yield in ton per hectare)

1993-94###20.8###25.7###22.1###30.9###21.6

1994-95###21.3###24.4###22.1###31.4###22.0

2-Years'Avg:###21.0###25.0###22.1###31.2###21.8

1995-96###21.5###24.9###22.1###32.0###22.2

1996-97###22.2###26.0###21.8###32.2###22.8

1997-98###22.4###25.0###21.2###32.2###22.9

1998-99###22.5###24.4###20.8###33.1###22.9

1999-00###22.6###24.7###21.0###30.3###22.9

5-Years'Avg:###22.2###25.0###21.4###32.1###22.7

2000-01###22.5###25.3###20.6###31.3###22.9

2001-02###22.0###24.6###20.4###27.6###22.3

2002-03###22.1###27.1###20.9###29.6###22.7

2003-04###22.4###24.8###21.3###30.6###22.8

2004-05###22.4###27.3###22.2###30.1###23.1

5-Years'Avg:###22.3###25.8###21.0###29.8###22.8

2005-06###21.9###27.4###21.4###30.7###22.7

2006-07###22.2###23.9###21.4###32.0###22.6

2007-08###21.9###25.5###20.6###26.4###22.4

2008-09###22.3###24.5###20.1###31.6###22.6

2009-10###22.0###25.7###20.4###28.6###22.5

5-Years'Avg:###22.1###25.3###20.8###30.0###22.6

2010-11###21.8###24.3###20.2###28.8###22.0

Capacity

Capacity of the fodder production and trading unit would be around 25 to 30 per acres per annum on contract farming basis. It was assumed that contract farming would be done on 10 acres of land where 90pc of fodder will be sold as dry fodder and 10pc of total production will be sold as green fodder. As moisture content is up to 70pc therefore production of dry fodder is calculated at 67.5 ton per acre on 10 acres (30% of green). There will be 6 cut per acre per annum for fodder; therefore total produce for 10 acres will be 405 ton per annum and 150 ton per annum for dry and green fodder respectively.

Geographical Potential for Investment

Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and majority of its population is directly involved in agriculture business. Therefore the project can be located in any rural areas of Sindh Punjab KPK and Balochistan where water is available in abundant quantity.

Growth in livestock sector has led to increased demand for dry and green fodder. Therefore most of the sales take place directly from the farm. However there are several other sale points available such as regular and temporary mandis (markets) farm houses and down town areas or suburbs across the country where people raise cattle.

Process flow

The process flow showing key activities of a fodder production and trading company are given in the diagram as follows:

Cost Estimates

A detailed financial model has been developed by Smeda to analyze the commercial viability of the Fodder Production and Trading unit. Various cost and revenue related assumptions along with results of the analysis are given in this report. The projected Income Statement Cash Flow Statement and Balance Sheet are also given in the report.

Project Economics

All the figures in this financial model have been calculated on contract farming basis on 10 acres of land with an assumption of 25 to 30 ton fodder production per acre per annum. There will be 6 crops

Table - 2

Project Economic

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)###39%

Payback Period (yrs)###3.3

Net Present Value (NPV)###Rs 2835688

Table - 3

Project Financing

Total Equity (10%)###Rs110213

Bank Loan (90%.)###Rs991913

Markup to the Borrower (%age/anum)###8%

Tenure of the Loan(Years)###08

Grace Period (Year)###01

Table - 4

Project Cost

Capital Investment###Amount (Rs)

Tools and Equipments###420000

Building/Infrastructure###60000

Furniture and fixtures###106000

Preliminary Expenses###80000

Total Capital Costs###666000

Initial Working Capital###436125

Total Project Cost###1102125

Table - 5

###Space Requirement

Area Required###Area###Monthly Rent Charges (Rs)###Yearly Rent (Rs)

Land on Contract Farming###10 Acres###16667###200000

Total Rent per annum###-###-###200000

Table - 6###

###Machinery and Equipment

###Quantity CostRs/unit###TotalRs

Cutter (Local)###1###120000###120000

Bailer###1###300000###300000

Tractor###1###

Raker###1###

Total###-###420000

Table - 7

###Office Equipment###

###Quantity Cost Amount(Rs

Computerswith UPS 1###25000 25000

Computer printer###1###10000 10000

Telephones###1###2000 2000

Fax machines###1###10000 10000

UPS and Battery###1###25000 25000

Furniture###Nos 34000 34000

Total###-###106000

Table - 8

###Raw Material

###Unit###Rate###Rs/Acre

Seeds (Kg / acre)###10###450###4500

Fertilizers###1###1700###1700

Pesticides Spray###1###1000###1000

PP Bags (50 Kg)###185###50###9250

Water###1###1200###1200

Cost per Unit###-###17650

cut per annum where dry fodder is produced by drying 70pc of moisture content from green fodder. For the project 90pc of revenue will come from dry fodder therefore average production of dry fodder will be 67.5 ton per 10 acre per annum and green fodder (10% of total production) 25 ton per 10 acre per annum.

The table-2 shows internal rate of return and payback period. Returns on the scheme and its profitability are highly dependent on fertility of land good agricultural practices availability of water and use of good quality seeds.

Space Requirement

Fodder will be cultivated on 10 acres of fertile land which will be acquired on contract farming basis. Trading will be managed from production site. For this project it was assumed that the following lease/

Table - 9

Human Resources

Nos. Salary per month Total(Rs)

Owner###01###20000###20000

Land Labor###04###10000###40000

Total Staff###05###60000

rental rates for agriculture land table-5.

List of machinery and equipment required for cultivation of fodder These costs are based on the assumption that a setup will be required for book keeping marketing and trading of fodder across the country.

Table -9 shows details of human resources required to run a fodder production and trading company. Salaries of all employees are estimated to increase at 10pc annually.

Revenue Generation

In the project it was assumed that 10 acres of land will be cultivated to produce six crops of fodder in a year. Total 405 ton (30% of green) of dry fodder and 150 ton of green fodder will be produced will generate average annual revenue of Rs2.5 million. It was also assumed that 10pc of sales will be on credit.

Table - 10

###Revenue Generation

Product###Unit (ton) Sales Price (Rs/ Unit)###1st year Production 1st year sales

Dry Fodder (30% of Green)###67.5###5500###405###2227500

Green Fodder###25###2200###150###330000

Total Sales Revenue###2557500

Other Costs

An essential cost to be borne by the company is the travelling and associated cost incurred by management staff during their visits to farmers. It is estimated that on an average Rs.30000 will be incurred in a month.

Working Capital

It was estimated that an additional amount of approximately Rs436125 will be required as cash in hand to meet the initial working capital requirements during operations. The requirement is based on the utilities salaries land lease office rent raw material inventories and miscellaneous expense for three months.

Project Management Tips Technology

Machinery Suppliers

Should be asked for training and after sales services under the contract.

Quality Assurance and Standards

To meet product quality standards need to be defined on the packaging and a mechanism to check them should be instituted this improves credibility.

Marketing

Product Development and Packaging Experts' help may be engaged for product / service and packaging design and development Advertisements and Promotion

Business promotion and dissemination through banners and launch events is highly recommended. Product brochures should be developed from good quality service providers.

Sales and Distribution Network Experts' advice and distribution agreements should be sought for developing the sales and distribution network.

Price and Bulk Discounts Cost plus Introduc- tory Discounts

Pricing decisions should never compromise quality of the products. Price during introductory phase may be kept lower and used as promotional tool. Product cost estimates should be carefully documented before price setting. Government controlled prices need to be displayed if required.

Human Resources

Adequacy and Competencies

Skilled and experienced staff should be considered an as asset of the business and investments should be made in developing and motivating them through various means and incentives.

Performance Based Remuneration

Efforts to manage human resource cost should be focused through performance measurement and performance based compensation.

Training and Skill Development

Encouraging training and skill development of self and other employees through experts and exposure to best practices helps in continuous improvements in the business. Least cost options for Training and Skill Development (TandSD) should be developed and linked with compensation

Country Forage Resources

Rangelands and alpine pastures are used by herders of small stock and subsistence cattle farmers often under transshipment system. Traditionally large numbers of dairy animals have been concentrated in and around the main towns probably due to the difficulty of transporting fresh milk in a hot climate.

These town dairies are supplied with both green and dry feed from the countryside and there is a considerable industry in providing and delivering it.

Background

Pakistan's climate and cropping systems.The main agricultural and dairying lands are in the great plains of the valley of the Indus and its tributaries in the Punjab Sindh and to a lesser extent the North West Frontier Province (KPK). Irrigated land about 16000000 hectares is by far the most important from the point of view of production; there are also about 5000000 hectares of rainfed ( barani) land.

The semi-arid to arid climate of the main agricultural areas is typified by great seasonal changes in temperature; the more easterly and northerly areas receive considerable amounts of monsoon rain. The climate of mountain areas is greatly affected by altitude and topography those behind the Himalaya are in a rain shadow and the Balochistan highlands west of the Indus are very dry. The main agro- ecological regions.

The climate of the main farming areas can be summarized as follow:

The Indus Delta

The climate is arid tropical marine with moderately hot summers and very mild winters. The mean daily maximum to temperature range is 34 to 45 oC in summer and 19 to 20 oC in winter. The mean monthly summer rainfall during July-September is approximately 75 mm and in winter December- February is less than 5 mm.

The Southern Irrigated Plains

The climate is arid subtropical and continental with hot summers and mild winters. The mean daily temperature range is 40 to 45 oC during May to July. The mean daily minimum temperature in winter is about 8.5 oC. Mean monthly rainfall is only about 16 to 20 mm in summer with little rain in winter.

The Northern Irrigated Plains

This zone has a semi-arid subtropical continental climate. The mean daily maximum temperature in summer is 39.5 oC and in winter the mean daily minimum temperature is 6.2 oC. The mean annual rainfall range is 300 to 500 mm. Mean monthly summer (JulyAugust September) rainfall varies from 108 mm in the east to 75 mm in the southwest while in winter it varies from 14 to 22 mm per month.

The Barani Lands

The climate of this zone is semi-arid with hot summers and cold winters and with a short dry season in early summer. In summer the mean daily temperature is 38 oC. In winter the mean daily temperature range is 3 to 6 oC. The mean monthly rainfall is approximately 200 mm in summer and 36 to 50 mm in winter (December-February).

The temperature regime allows at least double cropping over most of the irrigated tracts although temperatures in December January are low enough to slow down or stop growth of berseem but not oats; the southerly limit of frost is about the level of Multan.

The climate and the need to keep irrigated land in production for as long as possible each year for land tax reasons favor annual crops. Few perennials can produce over such an annual temperature range without being dormant at some season. Two main cropping seasons are recognized: rabi crops are sown in autumn for spring harvest and kharif crops are sown in summer to grow through the monsoon for autumn harvest. Both seasons are very important for irrigated land; but the kharif is the most important for the barani tracts.

It is suggested that to avoid the competition between forages and field crops which leads to competition between animals and people. Due to limited land some farmers prefer to grow cash crops rather than forage and their animals are fed only dry roughages. It would be better to intercrthatop some compatible leguminous forage with the main cash crops to obtain good quality forage for livestock without affecting the main crop.

Based on requirement subsistence or commercial production several forage options are available to farmers. The concept of diversified agriculture Ranjhan and Pathak would help enhance farm families' income. As a result of expansion in dairying commercial forage production has become an important activity especially near and around big towns. Adequate green forage is only available in March-April when berseem and oats are plentiful and from July to November but by the end of this period the nutritive value of mature sorghum maize and bulrush millet is low.

Mixed farming should continue in a situation of small land holding; this has been greatly facilitated by mechanization. Since crop residues are deficient in protein and minerals the forages grown should preferably be legumes so that poor crop residues could be better supplemented. In milk-shed areas with adequate demand and sufficient facilities for marketing liquid milk agriculture has shifted towards dairying and commercial forage production a research paper indicated.

Fodder is very important in rural farming systems both for livestock and soil fertility maintenance. Draught animals are still widely used although mechanization is increasing rapidly; even in towns animal power is used for short haul work.

The Main Forages in Pakistan

Fodder is a traditional crop in Pakistan especially in the irrigated tracts it is usually grown under basin irrigation which makes mechanical harvesting very difficult so forages are usually cut by sickle; on barani lands the fields are usually leveled terraces.

Due to increased demand improved forage crops such as multi-cut oats berseem Lucerne Sorghum Sudan grass hybrids maize and millet have been developed. These have become very popular in irrigated areas such as Kasur Sheikhupura Gujranwala Faisalabad Sargodha and Renala Khurd Punjab Nowshera Charsada Mardan and Peshawar KPK.

Average forage yields in Pakistan are extremely low compared to yields obtained on research institutes and from well managed farms and fields. It was also reported in a report that an intensive fodder cultivation system and organization of farm input supply assists smallholders in the Punjab to avoid forage shortages and to earn additional income through increased milk production.

Most of the dairy animals are reared in the intensively cultivated irrigated plains with no fallow or natural pasture are kept around the homesteads and stall fed on forages crop residues and some concentrates. The vast irrigated tracts of the Punjab the KPK and Sindh which are the major source of forage for urban dairies are at low altitude with a sub-tropical monsoon climate and hot summers.

Cash crops such as wheat cotton sugarcane maize rice and forage crops like sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids lucerne berseem and oats are commonly grown. These areas supply the grain and forage requirements of urban dairies. Due to suitable temperatures and availability of irrigation green forage is produced year round.

In the semi arid deserts of Balochistan and the Northern Areas (a territory administered by Pakistan comprising the disputed territories other than Azad Jammu and Kashmir the old Gilgit Agency there is a seasonal movement of livestock usually to high pastures in summer and small quantities of forage are produced where irrigation is possible. The very successful improvement of fodder production in the Northern Areas by introduction of better cultivars and improved husbandry is described by the researchers.

Improved forage varieties and technology have been slow to reach the small scale farms which account for the bulk of forage production seed production has lagged behind plant breeding and introductions. Medium scale on farm work in the late nineteen-eighties demonstrated that yields can be raised two to three fold by using available improved varieties and appropriate agronomic techniques. In an area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to agricultural production intensification is the only way to meet the country's needs for forage and livestock products.

Hence intensive forage cultivation and economical production of several forage crops per unit area per season should be practiced in peri-urban and urban areas to feed dairy animals kept in the towns.

Winter Annuals

These are mainly grown under irrigation since the sparse winter rains are unsuitable for their cultivation especially of berseem.

Berseem

Berseem or Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) is the major winter fodder. It is always an irrigated crop. If sown in late August or early September berseem will be ready for cutting before the cold weather on the Punjab plains and should produce four to six cuts. It dies off in late April to early May. Where the cropping pattern does not favour early sowing as in the rice tracts where the land may not be free until well into November berseem may be broadcast either into the crop at the last irrigation or into stubble after harvest; this provides no fodder until spring but does give a great flush in March and April; such areas are often used for seed production.

Berseem is not an easy crop to make into hay although this is possible by careful drying off the field but this is laborious and expensive. Berseem is a crop of relatively recent introduction having been brought to Sindh from Egypt after the First World War and became the major winter fodder of what was then Northern India in less than twenty years.

Oats

Oats (Avena sativa) have become a very important crop in the past fifteen years or so. Previously they were almost restricted to Military Farms and Government stations but with the introduction of high yielding multi cut cultivars in the late eighties the situation changed dramatically and Oats have become a major forage and now figure largely in the green feed and hay sold to urban markets. Oats provide a high quality feed and are high yielding they continue to grow at lower temperatures than does berseem so can provide feed in the winter gap when prices are high. Oats are frequently mixed with berseem to give early bulk. Like berseem they are mostly an irrigated crop. Oats are easily made into hay and oat hay is now a traded commodity being sent from the irrigated tracts to urban dairies.

One potential constraint in getting the oat varieties into large scale cultivation once research institutions had released them was the gap between the amounts of seed which stations had on hand and the quantities needed to build up an adequate supply; seed bulking of good proven cultivars of oats and other forages notably berseem.

Oats are grown in temperate regions. They have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals such as wheat rye or barley so are particularly important in areas with cool wet summers.

Uses

Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly they are rolled or crushed intooatmeal or ground into fine oat flour.

Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding due to its soft relatively dust free and absorbent nature. The straw can also be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag oat straw was used to soften bath water.

Protein

Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume like protein avenalin as the major (80pc) storage protein. Globulins are characterised by solubility in dilute saline as opposed to the more typical cereal proteinssuch as glutenand zein are prolamines (prolamins). The minor protein of oat is a prolamine avenin.

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to meat milk and egg protein. The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12 to 24pc the highest among cereals.

Persian Clover or Shaftal

Persian Clover or Shaftal (Trifolium resupinatum) is a crop of ancient cultivation in the region and was previously widely grown but has largely been replaced by berseem since it produces nothing in autumn but gives two big cuts in spring. It is still grown on soils which are too wet or too saline for berseem and is a very common contaminant in commercial berseem seed. It is a cold tolerant crop and is grown in some higher areas. It is an excellent hay crop and its young shoots are used as a vegetable.

Shaftal is a soft seeded Persian Clover with a semi erect growth habit that demonstrates late season maturity. This late maturity makes Shaftal well suited to areas with a long growing season. Shaftal produces large numbers of thin walled hollowed stems which contribute to its erect and bushy appearance. It is well adapted to various soil types and tolerant to waterlogging and mild soil salinity. Shaftal is very palatable highly digestible (1624pc crude protein) and is well suited to multiple hay cuts grazing or silage production and can be successfully used in pasture mixes with ryegrass and oats to increase winter productivity.

However it produces less herbage and is more susceptible to rust infection compared to superior replacements such as Laser and Morbulk.Shaftal Persian Clover provides a good alternative crop that can provide an effective disease break in cropping rotations and has the ability to fix high levels of soil nitrogen. Sowing Rate 4-6 kg/ha (Pure) 6-8 kg/ha (Irrig) 2-4 kg/ha (Mixes)

Pest ResistanceAll Persian Clovers are susceptible to Red Legged Earth Mite (Halotydens destructor) and control measures need to take place prior to sowing or soon after germination. FeaturesLate season maturity about 160 days to flowering

Seeded PodsPersian clover is mostly used for fodder and supplies highly palatable and nutritive pasture and hay. Its high protein and moisture content may make it unsuitable for ensiling depending on the variety.

Hardseeded varieties Trifolium resupinatum L. var resupinatum Gib and Belli and Tresupinatum which have a prostrate habit with smaller and thinner stems and yield large quantities of seeds are often used on dryland pastures and can be locally important in natural grazing (Soft-seeded varieties which have an erect habit and thick hollow stems that reach up to 80 cm have a low seed yield and produce high quality forage that can also be used for silage.

However these varieties are not suitable for permanent pastures as the seeds germinate too quickly during summer and young plants tend to dry during dry periods).

BrassicaFodder Brassicas are commonly sown for early winter bulk; several species which are also used as oilseeds and vegetables are grown. The commonest is sarson" Brassica campestris var. sarson but Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera var. toria and mustard or rai" Brassica juncea are also used. Brassicas are often mixed with berseem and while they increase the yield at first cut generally have an overall depressing effect through shading berseem seedlings. In subsistence systems the sarson shoots are picked as a favorite vegetable in Punjab.

BarleyBarley (Hordeum sativum) is grown as a minor winter crop; it is tolerant of salinity and low rainfall. There are some other minor winter fodders. Senji or Indian clover (Melilotus indica) has been superseded by berseem but is still sometimes used on a few very saline fields or on sites too dry for berseem. Vetches (Vicia spp.) perform well in trials but have not gained popularity.

Barley is a member of the grass family it is a major cereal grain. It was one of the first cultivated grains and is now grown widely. Barley has also been used as animal fodder as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages and as a component of various health foods. In a 2007 ranking of cereal crops in the world barley was fourth both in terms of quantity produced (136 million ton) and in area of cultivation (566000 square kilometres or 219000 square miles).

Italian Ryegrass

Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is an excellent winter fodder with good cold season growth and is a good mixer with berseem but to date its seed supply problems have not been solved. Wheat was widely used but now except in special circumstances is being replaced by oats.

Summer annualsThese crops are grown under both rain fed and irrigated conditions since the monsoon provides plentiful precipitation over about ten weeks.

Sorghum

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is widely grown on both barani and irrigated land often broadcast at fairly high seed rates. It may be used fresh although there are dangers of toxicity or allowed to reach near maturity and dried as karbi". Successional seeding is required where a supply of green feed is needed. Fodder cultivars are available but most of that grown is local landraces.

Sorghum sudanense has been gaining in popularity over the past twenty years since it provides several cuts through the warm season (provided that maintenance fertilizer is given); it also does away with the necessity of cultivating land during the monsoon for the successional sowings needed for single cut crops.Local hybrids have been developed but their seed production is still being organised and much of that used comes from multinational companies. Sweet sorghum is a safer feed with little danger of HCN toxicity than ordinary sorghum. Seed is expensive and the crop is usually row planted under irrigation by commercial fodder growers and dairymen.

Ryegrass

Sorghum is a genus of grasses with about 30 species one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warm climates worldwide. They are native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World and one species is endemic to Mexico; a number have been introduced into other parts of the world. Sorghum is in thesub family Panicoideae andthe tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Cultivation and usesOne species Sorghum bicolor native to Africa with many cultivated forms now is an important crop worldwide used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or sorghum molasses") fodder the production of alcoholic beverages and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant and are especially important in aridregions where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. S. bicoloris an important food crop in Africa S.vulgare var. technicum is commonly called broomcorn. An annual grass like other Sorghums grows 6 to 15 ft tall although dwarf varieties are only 3 to 7 ft in height. The upper peduncle is normally 8 to 18 in long topped by a branched inflorescence or panicle from which the seed-bearing fibers originate. The fibers are usually 12 to 24 in long but can be up to 36 in long; they are branched toward the tip where the flowers and seed grow.

The seeds number about 30000/lb with feed value similar to oats.Aton of the fibrous panicle makes 900 to 1200 brooms. Plants selected for long panicle branches probably originated in central Africa but the variety was known to be used for broom-making in the Mediterranean in the Dark Ages. It was first described in Italy in the late 1500s.

Maize

Maize (Zea mays) is a very important fodder. It is used in many ways. In the irrigated tracts it is first grown as a catch crop to help cover the May-June gap and later in the season is grown when profitable. In the barani tracts it is grown where soil and moisture conditions are deemed suitable for green feed or dried fodder. Since considerable areas of maize are used for green cobs as vegetables their green residues contribute to the forage pool.

Bulrush Millet

Bulrush millet (Pennisetum americanum) is a popular fodder on lighter soils especially under rain fed conditions.

Pearl Millet

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown Pearl millet is well adapted to growing areas characterized by drought low soil fertility and high temperature. It performs well in soils with high salinity or low pH. Because of its tolerance to difficult growing conditions it can be grown in areas where other cereal crops suchas maize or wheat would not survive.Today pearl millet is grown on over 260000 km2 of land worldwide. It accounts for approximately 50 percent of the total world production of millets.

Cowpeas

Cowpeas (Vigna uinguiculata) are a high quality summer fodder and can be sown early but are grown on relatively small areas commercially they are also grown as both pulses and vegetables and provide very useful by-products.

The cowpea is one of several species of the widely cultivated genus Vigna. Four subspecies are recognised of which three are cultivated Cowpeas are one of the most important food legume crops in the semiarid tropics covering Asia Africa southern Europe and Central and South America. A drought- tolerant and warm-weather crop cowpeas are well adapted to the drier regions of the tropics where other food legumes do not perform well. It also has the useful ability tofix atmospheric nitrogen through its root nodules and it grows well in poor soils with more than 85% sand and with less than 0.2pc organic matter and low levels of phosphorus. In addition it is shade tolerant so is compatible as an intercrop withmaize millet sorghum sugarcane and cotton. This makes cowpeas an important component of traditional intercropping systems especially in the complex and elegant subsistence farming systems of the dry savannas in sub-Saharan Africa.

In these systems the haulm (dried stalks) of cowpea is a valuable by-product used as animal feed.

Cowpea beans

According to the USDA food database the leaves of the cowpea plant have the highest percentage of calories from protein among vegetarian foods.

History of Cultivation owpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans although the leaves fresh peas and fresh pea pods can also be consumed meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. The nitrogen fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole-crop the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum millet maize cassava or cotton.

Guar

Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba) is an useful summer fodder sometimes sown in admixture with sorghum. It is suitable for both barani and irrigated situations. At present local landraces are used.

There are many minor summer fodders such as Swank" (Echinochloa sp.) is still used on wet lands during the monsoon in the irrigated tracts. Mung (Vigna radiata) and moth (Vigna aconitofolia) are summer pulses used as fodder. True millet (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) are grown in the Northern Areas as is Lathyrus sativus the grass pea.

It was domesticated in India and Pakistan where it has been cultivated for many centuries. Guar grows well in arid to semiarid areas but frequent rainfall is necessary. This legume is a very valuable plant within a crop rotation cycle as it lives in symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria. agriculturists in semi arid regions of Rajasthan follow crop- rotation and use guar as a source to replenish the soil with essential fertilizers and nitrogen fixation before the next crop. Guar as a plant has a multitude of different functions for human and animal nutrition but its gelling agent containing seeds (guar gum) are today the most important use.[2] Demand is rising rapidly due to industrial use of guar gum in hydraulic fracturing (oil shale gas).[2]About 80% of world production occurs in India and Pakistan but due to strong demand the plant is being introduced into new areas.

Cultivation Climate Requirements

Guar is very drought tolerant and sun loving but it is very susceptible to frost. Even though it can cope with little but regular rainfall it requires sufficient soil moisture before planting and during maturation of seeds Frequent drought periods can lead to delayed maturation. On the contrary too much moisture during early phase of growth and after maturation leads to lower seed quality. Guar is also produced near to coastal areas in the Gandhidham region of Kutch Gujarat India.

Perennial Fodders

The climate of the irrigated tracts with its enormous differences in temperature between seasons is not well suited to perennial fodders; only two are in common use:

Lucerne

Lucerne (Medicago sativa) probably the world's best overall fodder is traditional in the higher and drier areas but has increased in popularity in the irrigated tracts in recent years. In much of the Punjab it is grown as an annual or short term perennial since lucerne zfields tend to become diseased and infested by perennial grasses during the monsoon; in the more westerly drier tracts lucerne is a more reliable crop. Californian cultivars are generally used and much of the seed is imported. In the semi-desert conditions of Balochistan lucerne thrives where perennial irrigation can be assured; it is grown on tubewell irrigation around the city of Quetta often as an under- crop in apple orchards; much of the seed comes from Afghanistan. In the northern areas lucerne is a traditional crop and fields usually last many years; recently the introduction of non-winter-dormant cultivars to the lower areas has greatly increased yields and prolonged the productive season.

Elephant Grass

Elephant Grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) has been on stations in Pakistan for decades but the cultivars of early introduction were adapted to tropical conditions and remained dormant for six to seven months of the year; this is not compatible with land use in the irrigated tracts.An improved cultivar Mott" was introduced from the USA in the nineteen-eighties which is much more cold tolerant and even at the latitude of Lahore has a growing season of eight to nine months; Mottgrass has been widely introduced to farming communities in the area; it is usually planted on field edges and odd bits of land and is probably more important in the subsistence than in the commercial sector since it is vegetative propagated and now spreads mainly by farmer to farmer exchange. There is no information as to its area but it has become popular with small holders.

USAID Pumps Over $4 Million into Maize Seed

DuPont Pioneer in collaboration with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Ghana Advanced Maize Seed Adoption Programme (GAMSAP) to help improve the productivity of smallholder maize farmers in Ghana. The programme will also promote the use and acceptance of high quality inputs and production techniques by the stakeholders.

Over $4 million is expected to be invested in the programme which will last for the next four years. DuPont Pioneer is the world's leading developer and supplier of advanced plant genetics providing high quality seeds to farmers in more than 90 countries. Maize smallholder farmers also account for over 80 percent of production though their yield per hectare averages around 1.5 ton per hectare which is significantly below the average 2 ton per hectare of maize yields in Africa and 10 ton per hectare in the United States.
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Publication:PIAR Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Nov 15, 2014
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