Flotation reagent suppliers.
* Strong enough to enhance recovery but weak enough to enhance selectivity;
* Able to provide a high rate of flotation and good froth;
* Non-sensitive to variations in the composition of the ore and the quality of the water;
* Designed to meet environmental requirements;
* Easy to ship, store and handle;
* Cost effective.
To achieve this, you need the correct reagents, and the following companies are in the business not only of providing the correct chemicals, but helping you to select those appropriate for your requirements.
Akzo Nobel's mining chemicals group operates on a world-wide basis. The company develops and manufactures both standard and tailor-made anionic, amphoteric and cationic reagents. Its flotation collectors, marketed under the Atrac, Lilaflot, Armoflote, Armeen and Ethomeen brand names, are mainly used for the flotation of non-sulphide minerals such as apatite, barite, calcite, dolomite, feldspar, fluorspar, kyanite, magnesite, potash, pyrochlore, quartz, scheelite, wollastonite and zinc oxides. A particular application is the dephosphorisation of iron ore.
Allied Colloids supplies all the major types of reagents - collectors, frothers and depressants - used in all aspects of mineral processing and marketed under the Procol trademark. The company's sulphide collectors include xanthates, thiocarbamates, mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptans, dithiophosphates, dithiocarbamates and tailored reagents, while its non-sulphide collectors include fatty acids, ether amines, ether diamines, fatty amines, sulphosuccinamates and modified fatty acids.
A range of alcohol-based and soluble glycol-based frothing agents are available to suit a wide range of conditions, together with of depressants based on guar, quebracho, mimosa, dextrin and other modified starches, CMC, plus anionic, nonionic and cationic synthetics.
Newly developed is the Procol CA1000 collector, based on modified dialkyl thionocarbamate, supplied in liquid form, which is a selective collector for copper sulphides and activated sphalerite. This shows good iron sulphide rejection, generally at lower pH values than other collectors. Procol CA1000 also has an affinity for oxide copper minerals such as malachite, often requiring less sulphidisation than is needed with other collectors, leading to secondary benefits from savings in lime and sulphidising agents.
Cerquim Mineria S.A. is a Chilean company which has grown rapidly over the past 12 years, based on its philosophy of aiming to provide customer satisfaction through mutual development. It manufactures a wide range of flotation chemicals, including collectors CQ 7012 (ethyl xanthate), CQ7013 (isopropyl xanthate) and CQ7014 (isobutyl xanthate) for sulphide minerals and noble metals; frother-collector CQ 7015, a type of thiophosphate, very effective for copper/molybdenum flotation; frother CQ 7005, a special mix of chemicals including long-chain alcohols giving it a wide range of applications, and CQ 7001, a froth regulator - which is used, for example, at both Escondida and Chuquicamata.
Hoechst offers a complete range of collectors, frothers and modifying agents for all flotation operations.
The wide range of sulphhydril collectors consists of high quality xanthates and Hostaflot[R] grades (aliphatic dithiophosphates and thiocarbamates). In terms of activity and selectivity, the range is designed for the collective or selective flotation of sulphide minerals, noble metals and non-sulphidic but sulphidised minerals.
The anionic oxhydril collectors, listed under the trade name Flotinor[R], include alkyl sulphates and sulphonates as well as alkyl and aryl phosphates, phosphonic acids and a large number of special products such as aminocarboxylic acids, sulpho-succinates and sulphosuccinamates. The Flotinor collectors have proved successful for the flotation of non-sulphidic ores and industrial minerals such as cassiterite, columbite, wolframite, scheelite, barite, fluorite, heavy minerals from glass sands and particularly for apatite.
The cationic flotation collectors are listed under the trade names Flotigam[R] and Genamin[R]. These include primary fatty amines, fatty alkyl propylene-diamines, ether-diamines, ethoxylated fatty amines, quaternary alkyl ammonium chlorides and a number of special amines which all can be used as collectors for quartz, feldspars, mica and other silicate minerals, pyrochlore and crude potassium salts. They are often used, too, in reverse flotation, e.g. to remove quartz and siliceous gangue minerals from iron, magnesite and phosphate ores.
The Hoechst range of flotation reagents is supplemented by a number of frothers sold under the trade names Montanol[R] (aliphatic alcohols), Flotol[R] (pine oils) and Flotanol[R] (polyglycols, polyglycol ethers and formulations thereof with alcohols). In addition, Hoechst AG supplies a number of flotation modifying agents including the Tylose[R] products as dispersants and depressants for slimes and clay silicates.
For special flotation problems, Hoechst AG is constantly developing new reagents which are available for test work in laboratories, pilot plants and full-scale operation.
Mineral Reagents International offers four new patented families of chemicals which are radically different from the products of the past. Simpler chemical mechanisms than traditional reagents, these novel products offer significantly increased selectivity and recovery of both sulphide and oxide values. They even make froth flotation possible for many minerals previously restricted to more expensive processing.
With the new B-Series silica control agents from Mineral Reagents International, froth flotation of slimy ores and ores with high silica contents becomes cost-effective. B-Series products are not collectors, but powerful silica and slime depressants and dispersants. In both oxide and sulphide separations and at very low dosages, B-Series products adsorb on silica, siliceous gangue and slime surfaces, so collectors do not. Collector dosage can be reduced with the same recovery; higher grades and recoveries can be expected at the same collector dose.
New C-Series collectors avoid the water chemistry sensitivity and poor selectivity in froth flotation of some oxide minerals with a unique approach: they float minerals based on mineral crystal structure, not on chemical composition. C-Series collectors allow separation of minerals according to their edge-to-surface ratios. Difficult oxide separations become possible and cost-effective with C-Series collectors; selected sulphide separations are also improved.
In the F-Series chelation-driven collectors, the laboratory potential of chelation meets the real world. F-Series collectors combine the strong complexing capability of nitrogen with substituted sulphur and its affinity for sulphur-containing metallic minerals. The result is a very powerful family of metal scavenger agents with almost unlimited structural optimisation. The recovery of difficult-to-float sulphide minerals is more efficient using F-Series collectors. An application worth highlighting is the use of F-100 collector for bulk sulphide flotation in gold plants. The benefits are higher overall gold recoveries, both for free gold and gold which is associated with the sulphide mineral.
Some sulphides exhibit a temporary flotability (hydrophobicity) after grinding. The new S-Series electrochemically driven collectors are designed to maintain and control the hydrophobicity of valuable minerals, while being very selective over pyrite. Ideal for select sulphide minerals, the S-Series collectors are less sensitive to water chemistry changes, requiring less pH regulation than thiol collectors to achieve equal of greater recoveries at higher grades. As examples, the Eh collectors S-701 and S-703 used in bulk Cu/Mo flotation are very selective over pyrite over a wide range of pH and, in addition, enhance gold recoveries.
The Nalco Chemical Company has been making chemicals for the mining industry for over 25 years. In 1991 it introduced the Nalflote[R] series of coal flotation reagents.
Nalflote[R] 9843 is a low-cost frother with strong frothing characteristics, recommended for use in easy-to-float coals, which should be used in conjunction with fuel oil; Nalflote[R] 9844 possesses excellent frothing characteristics and has moderate collecting ability - it produces a strong, stable froth which is capable of supporting coarser coal particles; Nalflote[R] 9845 has a very strong collecting ability and is recommended for harder-to-float and coarse coals; Nalflote[R] 9847 performs well on most types of coal and breaks down exceptionally well in the launders.
Two more reagents have recently been added to the product line offered by Nalco. Nalflote[R] 9839, with strong collecting ability coupled with a sturdy froth has been formulated to process hard-to-float coal; while Nalflote[R] 9840 has excellent frothing characteristics with moderate collecting ability and works well in soft water flotation circuits.
Oxiquim S.A. offers a wide range of chemicals for mineral processing. Modern production systems ensure the quality of its products. These include collectors such as sodium isopropyl and sodium isobutyl xanthate plus CT-700, a modified thionocarbamate; frothers such as methyl isobutyl carbinol and special frother mixtures; depressants and modifiers.
The Phillips Petroleum Company's Mining Chemicals Division manufactures a wide range of chemicals for use in mineral processing, marketed under the ORFOM[R] trademark. These include the ORFOM[R] CO series of collectors. Amongst these, ORFOM[R] CO 100, an n-dodecyl mercaptan, is a highly effective secondary or scavenger collector for copper and iron sulphides as well as precious metals, which can be used, for example, for pyrite complexed with gold. ORFOMR CO 404 is a strong, fast-acting proven collector for chalcopyrite, chalcocite and sphalerite, where high selectivety is not required. ORFOM[R] CO 500, on the other hand, a sodium diethyldithiophosphate, is not only a fast acting, strong collector, it also exhibits a distinct selectivity for copper sulphides over pyrite. ORFOM[R] CO 540 consists of sodium di-isobutyl dithiophosphate and is predominantly used for flotation of copper sulphides, specifically where selectivity over pyrite is necessary. ORFOM[R] CO 800, sodium n-butyl trithiocarbonate, is an effective collector of many sulphide minerals, with a particular application as a primary collector for a number of copper, nickel, lead or zinc ore types.
Phillips also manufactures the ORFOM[R] D1 and ORFOM[R] D 8 depressants, both of which can be used for depressing iron, copper and lead sulphides in by-product molybdenum flotation circuits.
The company also produces a range of 'Flotation Oils': ORFOM[R] MCO is a non-polar collector which is highly effective for molybdenite, as is MOLYFO[R] Flotation Oil, while PHILFLO[R] Flotation Oil is a non-polar extender for use in phosphate and potash flotation. Peruvian-based Reactivos Nacionales S.A. (RENASA), founded in 1976, manufactures a comprehensive range of flotation reagents. Collectors include a variety of xanthates, including potassium ethyl xanthate (designated Z-3), generally used in the processing of complex ores of silver/lead/zinc. Z-11, sodium isopropyl xanthate, similar in action to Z-3, is the most widely used in Peru for polymetallic ores. Z-14, sodium isobutyl xanthate, is an energetic collector useful in scavenger circuits, while Z-6, potassium amyl xanthate, is the most powerful and least selective collector.
Renasa also manufactures a variety of dithiophosphate collectors, used principally to float silver/lead minerals. Some, such as AR-125, perform well in neutral or alkaline circuits, whereas AR-1404, for example, functions well in weakly acidic circuits with pH 6.
Sasolchem, a division of Sasol Chemical Industries, produces and supplies a range of mineral processing chemicals, including collectors in the SASCOL[R] range and frothers marketed under the SASFROTH[R] trademark.
Sascol[R] 61 is a sodium di-ethyl dithiophosphate and Sascol[R] 62 is a sodium di-n-propyl dithiophosphate, both used in copper and zinc sulphide flotation circuits. Sascol[R] 95 is a sodium n-butyl dithiophosphate used for a number of flotation applications, while Sascol[R] 105 is a blended product of sodium di-ethyl and di-n-butyl dithiophosphate whose main application is in the flotation of copper sulphide minerals as well as gold and silver. Sascol[R] 704 is a blend of di-n-butyl dithiophosphate and a secondary promoter for use on sulphide and oxide metallic ores.
Sasfroth[R] SC16, SC26, SC39 and A1222 are various proprietary blended frothers for use on either sulphide or non-sulphide ores.
Senmin was formed specifically to market quality tailor-made flotation reagents for mineral beneficiation in the mining industry. These products are produced in South Africa by National Chemical Products and Karbochem. The company's association with the mining industry dates back to the early 1950s. The service provided to the industry includes technical backing and R&D programmes. The company's products are used extensively in the recovery of sulphide minerals and precious metals. These include gold, the PGM group of metals, copper, lead, zinc and oxide minerals which have been suitably treated.
The products provided include the full range of xanthates. The Senkol collector range includes mercaptobenzothiazoles, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, thionocarbamates, and xanthic esters as well as various blends of these chemicals. The frothers are synthetically manufactured and include TEB, 41G, 6000 Series and 9000 Series products.
Since 1977, Shell Chile S.A. has had an active participation in the mining industry and is a major supplier, both within Chile and overseas, of chemical reagents for flotation.
SF-113, sodium isopropyl xanthate, is the better known of the xanthates, used as a collector in the flotation of copper, iron, molybdenum, zinc and lead ores. SF-114, sodium isobutyl xanthate, is a widely used collector for the flotation of gold and silver ores, in addition to its application for non-ferrous metals. SF-203, dialkyl xanthogenformate, is a collector for copper, iron and molybdenum sulphides in acid and alkaline circuits. It is normally used as supplied or blended with complex alcohols and/or with hydrocarbons when any of the latter are required as collectors of molybdenite.
SF-323, isopropyl ethyl thionocarbamate is a powerful collector, yet more selective than the xanthates. This product is used in the flotation process for copper sulphides in alkaline or neutral circuits. Its selectivity makes it suitable for the flotation of copper sulphide in the presence of pyrite at ranges of pH between 10 and 11.5. Because of these collection and selection properties, it is frequently employed together with other collectors, thus allowing the operating pH to be reduced to the range of 8.5 to 9.5 and decreasing lime consumption. Due to its high selectivity, it is recommended for the flotation of zinc sulphides.
Trohall, a Henkel/Chemserve company, is involved in the design, production and application of Acrol[R] gangue depressants. The Acrol[R] depressants are a range of anionic and nonionic macromolecules formed by chemical substitution of the guar gum molecule and are designed to produce selective depression of certain gangue minerals during froth flotation. The majority of the Acrol[R] range of reagents is designed for the depression of layer silicate minerals during the flotation of sulphide minerals using collectors such as xanthates, dithiophosphates and mercapto-benzothiazole-based reagents. Other reagents have been developed for the depression of calcite during fluorspar and apatite flotation using fatty acid-based collectors and for carbon depression from gold-bearing ores.
The company represents, in southern Africa, several major international chemical manufacturers. Amongst the reagents supplied are Oreprep frothers, which are primarily alcohol, glycol and glycol-ether blends sourced from Baker Performance Chemicals, Inc. of the U.S., and CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose), from the Metsa Serla Chemicals range. CMC can be used as a gangue depressant in a similar manner to Acrol[R]. Ore mineralogy dictates which polysaccharide type is most suitable for any particular application.
RELATED ARTICLE: Table 1: Flotation reagent suppliers
Azko Nobel Surface Chemistry AB S-444 85 Stenungsund, Sweden. Tel: +46 303 850 00; Fax: +46 303 889 10.
Allied Colloids P.O. Box 38, Low Moor, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD12 0JZ, U.K. Tel: +44 1274 417 483; Fax: +44 1274 606 499.
Cerquim Mineria S.A. Cueto 138, Santiago, Chile. Tel: +56 2 6814795; Fax: +56 2 681 5305.
Hoechst AG Division E/Marketing TH 2, D-65926, Frankfurt a.M., Germany. Tel: +49 69 305 5022; Fax: +49 69 303 299.
Mineral Reagents International c/o GST Steel Co., 7000 Roberts St., Kansas City, Mo 64125, U.S.A. Tel: +1 816 242 5902; Fax: +1 816 242 5011.
Nalco Chemical Company One Nalco Center, Naperville, Illinois 60563-1198, U.S.A. Tel: +1 708 305 2348; Fax: +1 708 305 2879
Oxiquim S.A. Carlos Valdovinos 3081, Santiago, Chile. Tel: +56 2 556 8078; Fax: +56 2 551 9921.
Phillips Petroleum Company 309 Short Street, Bartlesville, Oklahoma 74004, U.S.A. Tel: +11 918 661 8617; Fax: +1 918 661 7636.
Reactivos Nacionales S.A. Casilla 3139, Callao 1, Peru. Tel: +51 52 6192; Fax: +51 52 7197.
Sasol Chem P.O. Box 62177, Marshalltown 2107, Republic of South Africa. Tel: +27 11 880 1322; Fax: +27 11 880 1362.
Senmin P.O. Box 98881, Sloane Park 2152, Republic of South Africa. Tel: +27 11 463 2862; Fax: +27 11 463 3936.
Shell Chile S.A. El Bosque Sur 90, Santiago, Chile. Tel: +56 2 233 7085; Fax: +56 2 233 6131.
Trohall Pty Ltd P.O. Box 14032, Wadeville 1422, Republic of South Africa. Tel: +27 11 864 4950; Fax: +27 11 908 3969.