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Floristic survey of a highly disturbed wetland within Shaker Median Park, Beachwood (Cuyahoga County), Ohio (1).

ABSTRACT. A 1.5 year-long investigation of a highly disturbed suburban wetland revealed 298 species, varieties, and formas of vascular plants, including several taxa uncommon elsewhere in Cuyahoga County. The site exhibited five vegetation subtypes which we compared using several measures including Floristic Quality Assessment Index and Shannon Diversity Index. Historically, the site has been subjected to numerous massive disturbances, but none in a period of 20 years from ca. 1982-2002. Data indicated that the site had recovered partially from disturbance, but was threatened by invasive species.

INTRODUCTION

Many attempts have been made to describe the Ohio flora, beginning with those of European explorers and surveyors in the late 18th century. Amzi Atwater, a subordinate of Moses Cleaveland, undertook early surveys within Ohio and described forest types in his journals (Atwater 1797). More recently, workers have begun to assess floras of urban and suburban areas in both the US (Aronson and others 2004; DeCandido 2004; DeCandido and others 2004; Wilder and McCombs 1999) and in Europe (Dana and others 2002; Wittig 2002). Many of the studies, aforementioned, yielded "baseline" information that may facilitate assessment of community change over time (including consequences of urban development and the introduction of exotic invasive species).

Most previous floristic surveys were of pristine natural areas, or at least of tracts manifesting unquestioned environmental and/or aesthetic value; however, the value of urban green space for preserving plant diversity was not widely recognized.

Herein, we describe plant diversity within an isolated, small, disturbed portion of Shaker Median Park, a tract of green space within Beachwood, OH, that was barred from public use at the time of the study. The City of Beachwood plans to convert part of this tract, including our study site, into parkland accessible to the public. Data from our investigation will constitute a baseline for monitoring future change.

Site Description

Shaker Median Park is located in Beachwood, OH, a suburb of Cleveland. Our study site comprises the western half of Shaker Median Park. The center of the study site is at, approximately, 41[degrees]28'42" north latitude, 81030'20" west longitude. Shaker Boulevard West, Richmond Road, Shaker Boulevard East, and the Beachwood/Shaker Heights boundary comprise the northern, eastern, southern, and western borders of the site, respectively (Fig. 1). The site occupies 11.03 ha and is 0.795 km long and 150 m wide. Three regions compose the site: upland to the north, a large basin in the center, and upland to the south.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Located on a ridge within the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, the study site includes parts of the Chagrin River watershed, the Doan Brook watershed and, to a small extent, the Euclid Creek watershed.

Average high temperature for the area is 14.67[degrees]C, average low temperature is 4.72[degrees]C; 93.04 cm of rain annually are normal. April 21 is the average date for the last occurrence of 0[degrees]C temperature during spring; October 29 is the average date for the first incidence of 0[degrees]C temperature in fall (Bray 2003).

Soil at the study site is a loamy udorthent (Ua in the soil series; Musgrave and Holloran 1980). This kind of soil may consist of clays, sand, topsoil, fill, rock fragments, ash, or other materials, and has been disturbed to such an extent that distinct horizons are no longer intact. Soil chemistry and soil borings undertaken at the site reveal that the soil is alkaline, rich in calcium, poor in phosphorus and potassium, and has one to several silty clay layers that cover shale bedrock.

Site History

The area now known as Beachwood, OH, was once part of the Connecticut Western Reserve. The first survey of the Western Reserve was completed in 1797. Unpublished, handwritten reports by surveyors showed the north line of plot 39 (which corresponds to the east-west axis of the study area) to be forested, with maple (Acer spp.), linden (Platanus sp.), white ash (Fraxinus americana), beech (Fagus grandifolia), chestnut (Castanea sp.), and elm (Ulmus spp.) trees present (Atwater 1797). After settlement by Europeans, the area was used for farming (Stranahan 1903). In the 1920s, real estate magnates Mantis and Oris Van Sweringen developed the site to be part of an extension of their Shaker Rapid System (Morris 1997). This development included excavating a channel in which the tracks would be laid, and building a bridge over this channel for automobile traffic (Fig. 2). Essentially, all vegetation was removed from the site at this time, as well as most of the soil from the central portion of the site. In 1982, the bridge over the channel was replaced with fill material (primarily soil, clay, and ash), upon which the road was rebuilt. This was the last major disturbance to the site at the time of the study.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant specimens were collected during two growing seasons, from April 2001 to October 2002. Two independent teams of researchers undertook collecting: Wilder and Ms. Martha McCombs (during 2001) and Delong and Jog (during 2001-2002). Plant materials were pressed, dried, and prepared as standard herbarium specimens. Specimens were deposited permanently as one collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CLM; accession number 2003-14).

Most collections were identified to species (and to variety when possible); however, relatively few specimens, that is, ones lacking characteristics essential for species identification, were identified to genus but not to species. Identifications of problematical specimens were verified by Dr. James Bissell, Dr. George Argus, and Mr. Charles Tubesing.

Nomenclature mainly follows Kartesz (1999), with these exceptions: Rhamnus frangula L. var. asplenifolia Dipp. (Rehder 1927); Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. forma pallidum Farw., Daucus carota L. forma epurpuratus Farw., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. var. arcuata (Opiz) Fries, and Glechoma hederacea L. var. micrantha Moric. (Fernald 1950); Melilotus alba Desr. (Weishaupt 1971); Vitis labruscana Bailey and Physostegia alba Benth. var. alba Hort. (Bailey 1949); Spiranthes cernua (L.)L.C. Rich sensu lato (Case 1987). Also, our material of S. cernua has characteristics of both S. cernua and S. ochroleuca.

In addition, we used the system of nomenclature from Magee and Ahles (1999) for Crataegus species. These authors combined many narrowly circumscribed species of Crataegus and utilized former names of tribes of Crataegus as specific epithets for their broadly defined species.

We obtained stereo pairs of aerial photographs of the study site, prepared in 1998, from the Ohio Department of Transportation Division of Aerial Engineers (scale = 1:1500; enlargement 1:375). Photographs were analyzed with a stereoscope, allowing recognition of different vegetation subtypes, different forest types, and even different ages of vegetation (Hamilton and others 1995). Community types delineated using aerial photos were ground-truthed in the field.

Quantitative studies were conducted during the 2002 growing season. Six transects were established at the study site; plots were delineated at regular intervals along each transect, and these plots were divided into subplots. Creation of subplots was according to the Releve method (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974). For herbs, subplot radii were 0.9 m, for shrubs 3.0 m, and for trees 9.1 m. We determined lengths and numbers of plots, using a species-area curve (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974). We established one transect within each vegetation subtype except within disturbed wet forest, in which two transects were delineated (on the north side and south side, respectively) (Fig. 3).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

We investigated transects three times during 2002. Also, a meander survey (random visual assessment of taxa) was undertaken to account for species observed outside of transects or at different times of year. We compiled percent cover data for transects by combining data from all releves; thus, it is not uncommon for percent-cover values to exceed 100%. We calculated Shannon Diversity Indices (Ludwig and Reynolds 1988) and generated a cluster dendrogram (using Czekanowski's Index of Similarity; Pielou 1984).

We determined the floristic quality assessment index (FQAI) for each transect (Andreas and Lichvar 1995). This method assigns numerical values for the coefficient of conservatism (C of C) for individual plant species of northern Ohio. Coefficient values are defined: 0 = a species that is alien, invasive, or commonly found in highly disturbed areas; 1 to 3 = a species capable of growth in disturbed sites and exhibiting widely varied habitats; 4 to 6 = a species tolerating less disturbance and growing in more specific kinds of communities; 7 and 8 = a species tolerating little disturbance; 9 and 10 = a species tolerating very limited kinds of habitats with very little to no disturbance (Andreas and Lichvar 1995).

The FQAI was calculated using the following formula (I = the FQAI, R = sum of the C of C values for a given area, N = number of native species):

I = R/[square root of N]

Based upon examples cited by Andreas and Lichvar (1995), we defined individual areas with FQAI of 50 or higher as having extremely high quality, whereas, areas of 10 or less had low quality.

We recognize three categories of invasive plants with Ohio (Windus and Kroemer): 1) Targeted species--these are the most problematical and measures are being taken to control or remove them; 2) Well-established non-native species--these are widespread throughout Ohio, but not as invasive in natural areas as are targeted species; 3) Watch list species--these are not problematical yet, but have potential to become so.

RESULTS

Based upon aerial photo interpretation, we found three major vegetation types: wooded areas, open area, and urban area. Wooded areas were uplands, whereas, open area occupied the central basin. Urban area was a fringe of land encircling the entire site. It ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 m wide and consisted of lawns, sidewalks, and driveways of bare soil. Wooded areas and open area were classified among five vegetation subtypes: wet meadow, emergent marsh, disturbed shrub swamp, disturbed wet forest, and mixed hardwood forest (Fig. 1).

A total of 298 species, varieties, subspecies, and formas of vascular plants were found, representing 173 genera and 71 families (Appendix 1). The most prevalent species within the vegetation subtypes are summarized in Table 1. Ohio natives (Weishaupt 1971) comprised 53.4% of taxa. Twenty-seven species were invasive (10 targeted, 15 well-established, and two on the watch list; Table 2). According to wetland status, taxa were OBL (6.7%), FACW (16.1%), FAC (32.9%), FACU (13.1%), and either UPL, NI, or without formal designation (31.2%; Reed 1996).

Coefficient-of-conservatism values were assigned to all taxa observed: 9 to 10 (three taxa), 7 or 8 (three taxa), 4 to 6 (38 taxa), and from 1 to 3 (95 taxa). The remaining 159 taxa had values of zero. Using C of C values, we computed FQAI for each vegetation subtype: wet meadow (I = 13.5), emergent marsh (I = 12.7), disturbed shrub swamp (I = 17.3), disturbed wet forest (I = 19.4), and mixed hardwood forest (I = 18.7). Values indicated that habitats were of modest quality, on the scale between 10 (poor) and 50 (excellent) (Andreas and Lichvar 1995).

Values for Shannon diversity index were low: wet meadow = 2.37, emergent marsh = 1.48, disturbed shrub swamp = 2.87, disturbed wet forest = 3.04, and mixed hardwood forest = 2.47. Sites were fairly dissimilar to one another; however, the most similar subtypes were wet meadow and disturbed shrub swamp (Fig. 4). Disturbed wet forest and mixed hardwood forest were also relatively comparable. Emergent marsh was the subtype least similar to the others, having a distinctive, low-diversity flora.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

DISCUSSION

The percentage of taxa native to Ohio at the study site was 53.4%. By comparison, a previous study at Fawn Pond (Brecksville, OH) revealed 74.2% native species (Wilder and McCombs 1999), and investigation at Highland Heights Community Park (Highland Heights, OH) indicated 60% native species (Jog and others 2005). In the present study, many non-native species were escapes from cultivation (for example, Juniperus horizontalis [creeping juniper], Pyracantha coccinea [firethorn], and Cotoneaster divaricatus [cotoneaster]). Wilder and McCombs (2003) reported the three species, aforementioned, as new Ohio records.

Probably, humans have inadvertently introduced many escapes to the site. We detected 25 to 30 cases of yard waste dumped at the site during the period of this study. Several species grew within this waste: Lamium purpureum, Viola sororia, and Iris sp. We have not recognized these species herein, because they never became rooted within soil of the site. We speculate that large populations of Vinca minor, Ajuga reptans, and Hedera helix at the site all arose via addition of yard waste.

We also envision that seeds of various species (for example, of Pyracantha and Cotoneaster) were consumed by birds in residential areas nearby and later deposited at the site, within excrement. This probably accounts for the existence of certain species within the basin.

The vast majority of taxa at the site had a C of C value of zero. We applied zero-ratings to three categories of species: non-native species, native species that adapt to almost any environment, and invasive species (native or non-native). It is a general rule that species with low C of C values can be found in disturbed areas.

FQAI values of 12.7 to 19.4 signify that habitats at the site were of low to moderate quality. Had solely invasive species entered the site immediately after the last major disturbance, values would have been even lower. Values indicate recovery of the site after disturbance. Invasive species were unable to completely dominate the site--a conclusion based on the determination that FQAI was moderate for certain subtypes.

The first plants to inhabit the study site after disturbance presumably belonged to native species such as Eleocharis rostellata and Asclepias tuberosa, and to escaped species grown elsewhere in cultivation, for example, Juniperus horizontalis. We base this conclusion on the abundance of these species at the study site, yet, of few elsewhere in Cuyahoga County. Apparently such species entered the site soon after disturbance and thrived before invasive species could arrive and out-compete them. Now that invasive species, particularly Frangula alnus (P. Mill.) (syn = Rhamnus frangula L.), are established at the site, the uncommon escaped plants there may cease to thrive.

Wet forest and shrub swamp had higher FQAI values than did the other vegetation subtypes. We conclude that disturbance was either more intense or more recent (or both) in the central basin area than in upland areas. Our conclusion is supported by the circumstance that most soil was removed from the basin area, leaving bedrock exposed in places. Also, fill was added to portions of the basin, most obviously at the eastern end. Recovery might, therefore, be slow in the central basin. Possible, too, is that only competitive k-selected species thrive in the areas of shaded forest. Shrub swamp and wet forest are the two largest vegetation subtypes at the site. One might expect community size to correlate positively with species richness, but that Shannon Diversity Index (a measure of evenness) would be independent of these effects. FQAI is also theoretically independent of community size (Andreas and Lichvar 1995).

Values of Shannon Diversity Index mirrored findings pertaining to FQAI. Wet forest scored highest in both indices, followed by shrub swamp, mixed hardwood forest, wet meadow, and emergent marsh, in decreasing order.

Interior-basin areas exhibited more invasive species than did upland areas. The emergent marsh and wet meadow were much smaller and had less vertical stratification than did the other vegetation subtypes. Perhaps sun-loving invasive species have taken advantage of the minimal stratification to enter these areas and become established. The domination of wet meadow and emergent marsh by invasive species corresponds with the presence within these vegetation subtypes of least diversity and least floristic quality.

The emergent marsh having the lowest Shannon value for vegetation subtypes considered in this study contained Phragmites australis. This invasive species covered 48.4% of the transect in the emergent marsh. No other species in this study covered as much area of one transect. Phragmites australis grows aggressively and tends to out-compete other species for nutrients, light, etc. (Keller 2000). Thus, we conclude that P. australis has suppressed species diversity within the emergent marsh, aforementioned.</p> <pre> APPENDIX 1 Plaid list arranged by families.

LYCOPHYTA Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium digitatum

Fan Ground-Pine Dill. ex A. Braun

SPHENOPHYTA Equisctaceae Equisentum arvense L.

Field Horsetail PTEROPHYTA Aspleniaceae

Asplenium platyneuron Ebony Spleenwort (L.) B.S.P. * Dryopteridaccae Dryopteris cartbusiana Spinulose Wood Fern (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs Onoclea seusibllis L.

Sensitive Fern Ophioglossaceac Botyrichium Sw. sp.--

Grape Fern probably B. dissectum Spreng. var. obliguum

(MUhl.) Clute * CONIFEROPHYTA Cupressaceae

Juniperus horizontalis Moench Creeping Juniper Juniperus L. s.p. Juniper Pinaceac Pints sylvestris L.

Scotch Pine Taxaceae Taxus cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese Yew ANGIOSPERMAE: MONOCOTYLEDONEAE Alismataceae

Alisma subcordatum Raf. American Water-Plantain Araceae

Arisaema tryphyllum (L.) Schott Jack-in-the-Pulpit Cyperaccae

Carex annectens (Bickn.) Bickn. Yellow-Fruit Sedge Carex cristcatella Britt. Crested Sedge Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd.

Limestone-Meadow Sedge Carex hirsutella Mackenzie Fuzzy-Wuzzy Sedge Carex lurida Wahlenb. Sallow Sedge Carex scoparia

Pointed Broom Sedge Schkuhr ex Willd. * Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. Stalk-Grain Sedge Carex swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie Swan's Sedge Carex vulpinoidea Michx.

Common Fox Sedge Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. Bald Spike-Rush Eleocharis rostella (Tort.) Torr. Beaked Spike-Rush

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K.C. Gruel.) Palla

Soft-Stem Club-Rush Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Dark-Green Bulrush Scirpus pendulus Muhl. Rufous Bulrush Iridaceae

Iris L. sp.--sterile * Iris Sisrynchium angustifolium P. Mill. Narrow-Leaf Blue-Eyed-Grass Sisrynchium montanum Greene Strict Blue-Eyed Grass Juncaceae Juncus acuminatus Michx. * Knotty-Leaf Rush Juncus articulatus L. *

Joint-Leaf Rush Juncus dudleyi Wieg. Dudley's Rush Juncus effusus L. * Lamp Rush Juncus gerardii Loisel. Saltmarsh Rush Juncus tenuis Willd.

Poverty Rush Juncus torreyi Coville Torrey's Rush Liliaceae Allium canadense L. Meadow Garlic

Allium vineale L. Crow Garlic Asparagus officinalis L. * Garden Asparagus Erythronium americanusn Ker-Gawl.

American Trout-Lily Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. Orange Day-Lily Muscari armeniacum Leichtl. ex Baker

Armenian Grape-Hyacinth Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Common Daffodil Orchidaceae Spiranthes cernua (L.) White Nodding Ladies'-Tresses L.C. Rich ssp. Cernua Spiranthes cernua (L.)

Nodding Ladies'-Tresses L.C. Rich sense lato Spiranthes lucida Shining Ladies'-Tresses (H.H. Eat.) Ames Poaceae Agrostis gigantea Roth Black Bent Andropogon virginicus L. Broom-Sedge Aristida oligantha Michx.

Prairie Three-Awn Dactylisglomerata L. Orchard Grass Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes Poverty Wild Oat Grass Dichantbelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark vat. fasciculatum (Tort.) Freckmann

Tapered Rosette Grass Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.* Smooth Crab Grass Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

Hairy Crab Grass Ecbinocloa crus galli (L.) Beauv. Large Barnyard Grass Elymus repens (L.) Gould Creeping Wild Rye Eragrostis minor Host Little Love Grass Festuca rubra L.

Red Fescue Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc.

Fowl Manna Grass Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)

S.J. Darhyshire* Tall Rye Grass Lolium perenne L. Perennial Rye Grass Lolium pratense (Hurls.)

S.J. Darbyshire Meadow Rye Grass Panicum capillare L. Common Panic Grass Phalaris arundinacea L.

Reed Canary Grass Phleum pretense L. Common Timothy Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steed.

Common Reed Poa annua L. * Annual Blue Grass Poa compressa L. Flat-Stem Blue Grass Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Blue Grass

Puccinellia tenella (Lang.) Holmb. ssp. langeana (Berlin) Tzvelev * Tundra Alkali Grass Sporobolis composims

Head-Like Dropseed (Poir.) Merr. var. compositus * Smilacaceae Smilax rotundifolia L. Horsebrier Typhaceae

Typha angustifolki L. Narrow-Leaf Cat-Tail Typha latifolia L. Broad-Leaf Cat-Tail ANGIOSPERMAE: DICOTYLEDONEAE Acer accae Acer platanoides L.

Norway Maple Acer rubrum L. Red Maple Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple Anacardiaccae Rhus typhina L.

Stag-Horn Sumac Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Eastern Poison-Ivy Annonaceae Asimina trtiloba (L.) Dunal Common Pawpaw Apiaceae Aegopodimn podagraria L. Bishop's Goutweed Conimn maculatum L.

Poison-Hemlock Daucus carota L. forma epurpuratus Farw.

Queen Anne's-Lace Daucus carota L.--typical forma

Queen Anne's-Lace Apocynaceae Apocynum cannabinum L.

Indian-Hemp Vinca minor L. Lesser Periwinkle Aquifoliaceae Ilex crenata Thunb. Japanese Holly

Ilex opaca Ait. American Holly Araliaceae Hedera helix L. English-Ivy Asclepiadaccae Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp Milkweed Asclepias syriaca L.

Common Milkweed Asclepias tuberosa L.

Butterfly Milkweed Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L.

Common Yarrow Ambrosia artemisiijolia L. Annual Ragweed

Antennaria parlinii Fern. ssp. fallax (Greene) Bayer & Stebbins * Parlin's Pusytoes Antennaria Gaertn. sp.--possibly

Pussytoes A. neglecta Greene * Arctium lappa L.

Greater Burrdock Arctium minus Bernh. Lesser Burrdock Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. forma pallidum Farw.

Common Burdock Bellis perennis L. Lawndaisy Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. Bearded Beggarticks

Bidens frondosa L. Devil's-Pitchfork Cichorium intybus L. Chicory Cirsium anvense (L.) Scop.

Canadian Thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Bull Thistle Conyzca canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. canadensis

Canadian Horseweed Erichtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. * American Burnweed Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.

Eastern Daisy Fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus L.

Philadelphia Fleabane Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. * Prairie Fleabane Eupatorium altissimum L.

Tall Thoroughwort Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Boneset forma purpureum Britt. * Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Flat-Top Goldentop

Greene var. graminifolia Hieracium aurentiacum L. Devil's-Paintbrush Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. * Meadow Hawkweed

Hieracium X flagellare Willd. (pro sp.) Hawkweed

Hieracium piloselloides Vill. Tall Hawkweed Lapsana communis L. * Common Nipplewort Leontodon taraxacoides (Vill.) Merat Lesser Hawkbit Leucanthemum X superbum (J.W. Ingram) Berg. ex Kent Ox-Eye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Ox-Eye Daisy Liatris pycnostachya Michx.

Cat-tail Gayfeather Liatris pycnostachya Michx. X Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. * Blazing-star Prenanthes altissima L.

Tall Rattlesnake-Root Rudbeckia.fulgida Ait. var. fulgida Orange Coneflower Rudbeckia hirta L.

Black-Eyed-Susan Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farw. Black-Eyed-Susan Rudbeckia triloba L.

Brown-Eyed-Susan Solidago altissima L. Tall Goldenrod Solidago juncea Ait. Early Goldenrod

Solidago nemorahs Ait. Gray Goldenrod Solidago rugosa P. Mill. Wrinkle-Leaf Goldenrod Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Spiny-Leaf Sow-Thistle Sonchus caper (L.) Hill forma inermis (Birch.) G. Beck * Spiny-leaved Sowthistle

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom ssp., ssp. lanceolatum var. lanceolatum White Panicled American-Aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. & D. Love var. lateriflorum

Farewell-Summer Symphyotrichum novae- angliae (L.) Nesom New England American-Aster Symphyotricbum pilosum

(Willd.) Nesom var. pilosum * White Oldfield American-Aster

Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers Common Dandelion Tussilago farfara L. Colt's-Foot Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel. ssp. Gigantea Giant Ironweed Berberidaceae Berberis tbunbergii DC. Japanese Barberry

Mahonia aquifohum (Pursh) Nutt. Holly-Leaf Oregon-Grape Podophyllum peltatum L. May-Apple Betulaceae Betula pendida Roth

European Weeping Birch Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch Eastern Hop-Hornbeam Brassicaceae Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Garlic-Mustard

Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. var. arcuata (Opiz.) Fries Yellow-Rocket

Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. var. vulgaris Garden Yellow-Rocket Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw.

Cut-Leaf Toothwort Lepidium virginicum L. Poorman's-Pepperwort Buxaceae Pachysandra terminalis Sieb. & Zucc. Japanese Mountain-Spurge Cannabinaceae Cannibis sativa L. * Hemp Caprifoliaceae Lonicera X bella Zabel Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Thunb. * Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder * Amur Honeysuckle Lonicera ruprechtiana Regel Manchurian Honeysuckle Lonicera L. sp.--not L. maackii *

Honeysuckle Viburnum dentatum L. Southern Arrow-Wood Viburnum lantaua L. Wayfaring-Tree Viburnum lentago L.* Nanny-Berry Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus Highbush-Cranberry Viburnum prunifolium L. *

Smooth Blackhaw Viburnum recognitum Fern. * Smooth Arrow-Wood Caryophyllaccae Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Common Mouse-Ear Chickweed Spergularia maritima (All.) Choiv.

Satin-Flower Chenopodiaceae Atriplax hastata L.*

Orache Atriplex patula L.* Halberd-Leaf Orache Atriplex L. sp. Orache Chenopodium album L. Lamb's-Quarters Chenopodium glaucum L. *

Oak-Leaf Goosefoot Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum L.

Common St. John's-Wort Hypericum prolificum L.

Shrubby St. John's-Wort Convolvulaceae Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. Sepium Hedge False Bindweed Cornaceae

Cornus amomum P. Mill. Silky Dogwood Cornus florida L. Flowering Dogwood Comas racemosa Lam. *

Gray Dogwood Cornus sericea L. ssp. Sericea Redosier Dipsacaceac Dipsacus fullonum L. Fuller's Teasel Elacagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Autumn-Olive Euphorhiaccae

Chamaesyce maculates (L) Small Spotted Sandmat Fabaceae Coronilla varia L. Purple Crown-Vetch Lotus tennis Waldst.

& Kitt. ex Willd. Narrow-Leaf Bird's-Foot Trefoil

Medicago bapulina L. Black Medick Melilotus alba Desr. White Sweet-Clover Melilotus olficinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow Sweet-Clover Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Black Locust Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover

Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover Trifoliuna repens L. White Clover Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.

American Beech Quercus palustris Muenchh. Pin Oak Quercus rubra L. var. ambigua (Gray) Fern.

Northern Red Oak Geraniaceae Geranium sp. L.--sterile *

Cranesbill Hippocastanaceae Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Horse-Chestnut Juglandaceae Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch Bitter-Nut Hickory Lamiaceae Ajuga reptans L. Carpet Bugle Glechoma bederacea L. var. micrantha Moric. Groundivy Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pets American False Pennyroyal Leonurus cardiaca L.

Motherwort Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W. Bart.

Cut-Leaf Water-Horehound Lycopus virginicus L. *

Virginia Water-Horehound Melissa officinalis L. *

Lemonbalm Mentha spicata L. * Spearmint

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. Obedient-Plant

Physostegia virginiana Benth. var. alba Hort. Obedient-Plant

Prunella vulgaris L. Common Selfheal Pycnanthemum tenufolium Schrad. Narrow-Leaf Mountain-Mint Lythraccae Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosestrife Malvacaeae Malva alcea L. Vervain Mallow Myricaceae Morella pensylvanica (Mirhel) Kartesz Northern Bayberry Oleaceae Chionanthus virginicus L. White Fringetree Fraxinus americana L. var. americana White Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash Marsh. var. subintegerrima (Vahl.) Fern. Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. Border Privet Ligustrum vulgare L.

European Privet Syringa vulgaris L.

Common Lilac Onagraceae Circaea lutetiana L. Broad-Leaf Enchanter's-Nightshade Epilobium coloratuzn Biehler * Purple-Leaf Willowherb Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. Small-Flower Hairy Willowherb Oenothera biennis L. King's-Cureall Oenothera fruticosa L. Narrow-Leaf Evening-Primrose Oenothera perennis L. * Small Evening-Primrose Orobanchaceae

Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart. Beechdrops Oxalidaceae Oxalis stricta L. Upright Yellow Wood-Sorrel Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. American Pokeweed Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain

Plantago major L. Great Plantain Polygonaceae

Polygonum aviculare L. Yard Knotweed Polygonum pensylvanicum L. * Pinkweed Polygonum punctatum Ell. * Dotted Smartweed Polygonum persicaria L. Lady's-Thumb Polygonumn virginianum L. Jumpseed Rumex acetosilla L.

Common Sheep Sorrel Rumex czispus L. Curly Dock Rumex obtusifolius L. Bitter Dock Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L. Little Hogweed Primulaceae Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet Pimpernel Lysbnachia ciliates L. Fringed Yellow-Loosestrife Lysimachia nummularia L. Creeping Jenny Ranunculaceae Aquilegia vulgaris L.

European Columbine Ranunculus acris L.

Tall Buttercup Rhamnaceae Frangula alnus P. Mill.

Glossy False Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica L. European Buckthorn Rhanmus frangula L. var. asplenifolia Dipp.

Buckthorn Rosaceae Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Tall Hairy Grooveburr Agiimonia parvtfora Ait. * Harvestlice

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. Downy Service-Berry Cotoneaster divaricatus Rehd. & Wilson

Spreading Cotoneaster Crataegus moths Scheele

Downy Hawthorn Crataegus ntonogyna facq. English Hawthorn Crataegus pedicillata Sarg. Scarlet Hawthorn Crataegus pit nctata Jacq. Dotted Hawthorn Fragaria virginiana Duchesne * Virginia Strawberry Geum canadense Jacq.

White Averts Gemn laciniatum Murr. Rough Avens Malus pumila P. Mill. * Cultivated Apple Potentilla recta L. Sulphur Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex Michx.

Oldfield Cinquefoil Prunus avium (L.) L. *

Sweet Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Black Cherry

Primus virginiana L. Choke Cherry Pyracantha coccinea M. Roemer Scarlet Firethorn Rosa canina L.

Dog Rose Rosa ntultifora Thunb. ex Murr. Rambler Rose

Rosa setigera Michx. Climbing Rose Rosa L. sp.--cultivated hybrid Rose Rubus occidentalis L. * Black Raspheny

Rubus pensilvanicus Poir. Pennsylvania Blackberry Sorbus aucuparia L. European Mountain-Ash Salicaceae Populus alba L. White Poplar Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. Eastern Cottonwood Populus grandidentata Michx. Big-Tooth Aspen Salix alba L.

White Willow Salix atrocinerea Brot. Smooth-Twig Gray Willow Salix caprea L. Goat Willow Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow Salix eriocephala Michx.

Missouri Willow Salix purpurea L. Purple Willow Salix X rubens Schrank. (pro sp.) *

Hybrid Crack Willow Salix X sepulcralis Simonkai

Willow Scrophulariaceae Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims

Foxglove Beardtongue Verbascum thapsus L.

Great Mullein Veronica chamaedrys L. Germander Speedwell Veronica filiformis Sm. Thread-Stalk Speedwell Veronica officinalis L. Common Gypsyweed Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-Leaf Speedwell Solanaceae

Solanum dulcamara L. Climbing Nightshade Tiliaceae

Tilia americana L. American Basswood var. americana Ulmaceae Ulmus amoricuna L. * American Elm Verbenaceae

Verbena bastata L. Simpler's-Joy Verbena urticifolia L. White Vervain Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefoha (L.) Planch. Virginia-Creeper Vitis aestivalis Michx. var. aestivalis Summer Grape Vitis aestivalis Michx.

var. bicolor Deam Summer Grape Vitis labruscana Bailey Grape Vitis riparia Michx. River-Bank Grape </pre> <p>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Dr. George Argus, Mr. James Bissell, and Mr. Charles Tubesing for assisting with species identifications; Dr. Barbara Andreas for providing C of C values; Mr. Brian Gilbert for assistance with databases and maps; Ms. Martha McCombs for assistance in the field and with identifying specimens; Mr. Dennis Magee for assisting with interpreting aerial photographs; and Mr. Karl Smith for helping to gather site information. We also thank Cleveland State University for financial support and the City of Beachwood for granting access to the site.

LITERATURE CITED

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(1) Manuscript received 22 September 2003 and in revised form 30 January 2005 (#03-14).

(2) Current Address: Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901. Email: delong@siu.edu

MICHAEL K. DELONG (2), SUNEETI K. JOG, JEFFREY R. JOHANSEN, AND GEORGE J. WILDER, Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115; Department of Biology, John Carroll University, University Heights, OH 44118; Division of Ecological Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565
TABLE. 1

Summary of most prevalent species in plots by vegetation subtype.
Percent cover figure is the total percent cover across all plots
in the transect. # = number of plots in the transect in which
the species occurred, % cov. = percent cover.

Vegetation Subtype # % cov.

Wet Meadow--12 plots
 Typha angustifolia 4 10.9
 Frangula alnus--seedlings 10 5.0
 Equisetum arvense 11 4.0

Emergent Marsh--5 plots
 Phragmites australis 5 48.4
 Dipsacus sylvestris 2 7.4
 Cilsilun arvense 5 6.5

Disturbed Shrub Swamp--10 plots
 Shrub Layer
 Frangula alnus 6 8.4
 Malus sp.--small trees 7 5.4
 Pinus sylvestr is 5 2.6
 Herb Layer
 Carex granularis 8 3.9
 Scirpus pendulus 8 1.3
 Fragaria virginiana 2 1.1

Disturbed Wet Forest--14 plots
 Tree Layer
 Ulmus americana 11 19.5
 Malus sp. 9 7.3
 Prunus serotina 6 7.1
 Shrub Layer
 Frangula alnus 13 26.0
 Viburnum dentatum 8 19.3
 Ulmus americana--saplings 3 6.4
 Herb Layer
 Frangula alnus--seedlings 7 8.1
 Rhamnus cathartica--seedlings 3 3.9
 Toxicodendron radicans 1 3.2

Mixed Hardwood Forest--7 plots
 Tree Layer
 Ostrya virginiana 7 22.4
 Fagus grandifolia 4 21.3
 Fraxinus americana 4 11.9
 Shrub Layer
 Fagus grandiJblia--saplings 3 3.1
 Carya cordiformis--saplings 2 2.9
 Ulmus americana--saplings 1 2.9
 Herb Layer
 Toxicodendron radicans 3 20.0
 Podophyllum peltatum 2 2.4
 Potentilla simplex 1 1.4

TABLE 2

List of invasive species present at Shaker Median Park.
invasine species designations are from Windus
and Kroemer 2001.

 Status Occurrence *
Tree Layer
 Elaeagnus umbellata Targeted DWF
Shrub Layer
 Berberis thunbergii Well-Established DWF
 Frangula alnus P. Mill. Targeted DSS, DWF
 Ligustrum obtasifolium Watch List DWF
 Ligustrum vulgare Well-Established DWF
 Lonicera X bella Watch List DWF
 Rhamnus cathartica Targeted DWF
 Rosa canina Watch List DWF
 Rosa multiflora Targeted DSS, DWF
 Viburnum opulus var. opulus Well-Established DWF, MHF

Herb Layer
 Alliaria petiolata Targeted DWF
 Cirsium arvense Well-Established EM, DWF
 Conium maculatum Well-Established MHF
 Coronilla varies Well-Established EM
 Daucus carota Well-Established EM, DSS, DWF
 Dipsacus fullonum L. Well-Established EM, DWF
 Elymus repens Well-Established DWF
 Epilobium pamiflorum Well-Establishedl EM
 Frangula alnus P. Mill. Targeted WM, DSS, DWF, MHF
 Hemerocallis fulva Well-Established DWF
 Lysimachia nummularia Well-Established UR
 Lythrum salicaria Targeted WM, EM, DSS, DWF
 Melilotus alba Well-Established EM
 Melilotus officinalis Well-Established DSS
 Phalaris arundinacea Targeted EM
 Phragmites australis Targeted EM
 Rhamnus cathartica Targeted DWF
 Rosa multifora Targeted DSS, DWF
 Typha aragustifolia Well-Established WM, DSS

 Viburnum opulus var. opulus Well-Established DWF
 Vinca minor Well-Established DWF

* WM = wet meadow, EM = emergent marsh,
DSS = distrubed shrub swamp, DWF = disturbed wet
forest, MHF = mixed hardwood forest,
DR = urban area.
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Date:Dec 1, 2005
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