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Floristic analysis of Marmoucha's plant diversity (Middle Atlas, Morocco)/Analisis floristico de la diversidad vegetal de Marmoucha (Atlas Medio, Marruecos).


Like many countries of the world, Morocco's mountains are centers of plant-diversity and endemism. Studies confirm that mountains are undoubtedly a reservoir of biodiversity and that the main areas for endemism in Morocco are located in the Rif and Atlas mountains, especially at high altitudes and peaks (FENNANE 1987; BENABID & FENNANE, 1994; FENNANE, 2004; FOUGRACH & al., 2007). Mountains are also considered favorable environments for rare plants.

Located in the mountainous part of the Boulemane province, the Marmoucha region exemplifies the typical physical and bioclimatic characteristics of the structural entity generally referred to as the Folded Middle Atlas. These include altitudes of more than 1500 m and a subhumid Mediterranean climate with very cold winters. The region is also characterized by the presence of quite diverse ecosystems including oak, cedar and juniper forests, alfa steppes and high altitudes pastures where xerophytes predominate.

While working with goat farmers in the Ait Bazza community (NASSIF & EL AMIRI, 2011), it was necessary to study pasture plants. As we were trying to learn about prevailing ecosystems and plants, we become fascinated by the plant diversity in such a limited territorial area. Conducting bibliographical research to increase our understanding of the study area, we were surprised by the lack of information at all levels. In the process, our concerns with issues of mountain biodiversity conservation, documentation, and preservation of local knowledge systems led us to start an ethnobotanical exploration in 2008. Since then, fieldwork was intensified and the territorial basis of Ait Bazza was extended to include the neighboring communities making up the Marmoucha area. Most importantly, one of the objectives was to identify the plants present in the Marmoucha territory and to assess the plant diversity in that area. This paper presents the floristic analysis of plants collected in Marmoucha.


Several methods and research techniques have been used. They include questionnaire surveys, working with key informants, and transects across the Marmoucha territory. Since 2008, several fieldwork activities of varying duration were conducted in the study area. The last fieldwork took place during May of 2012. The main goal was to generate significant primary data. Most important techniques used with relevance to this paper are:

--A survey of 70 goat farmers at Ait Bazza. Although the survey questionnaire focused on goat production, there were questions on pasture ecosystems and vegetation.

--A series of interviews to men and women, which are from the four rural communities of Marmoucha.

--A series of direct observations on the basis of pre-determined transects across the study area (forests, steppes, mountains, along the oueds, near the springs) to ensure adequate coverage of relatively different ecosystems. Unidentified plants were collected for subsequent identification.

In addition, several personal communications were conducted with researchers and academics from various national and international institutions working on plants.

The botanical nomenclature adopted is based on the most relevant documents on Morocco's flora in order to find and verify plant names and their synonyms and to avoid controversial sources of information. Frequently used references are the five volumes of the synonymic index of North Africa plants (DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN, 2010-2013) and the two volumes of the vascular flora of Morocco (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005; Ibn TATTOU & FENNANE, 2009). Additional references include the two volumes of "Flore Pratique du Maroc" (FENNANE & al., 1999-2007) and the 16 volumes of the "Flore de l'Afrique du Nord" (MAIRE, 1952-1987).



Administratively, the Marmoucha area refers to the territorial entity covering the municipality of Imouzzer Marmoucha and the following four rural communes: Ait Bazza, Ait Elmane, Almis Marmoucha, and Talzemt. This entity is part of the Cercle of Boulemane, Boulemane province.

Geographically, the study area is located in the structural entity indicated in the literature as the Folded Middle Atlas. Boutayeb stated that this part of the Middle Atlas consists of five rows of plain synclines separated from each other by four anticlinal axes. The whole entity is fashioned in limestone and marno-limestone, mainly jurassic series (BOUTAYEB, 1996).

Located in a highly mountainous area, the Marmoucha territory is not uniform in terms of altitude. In fact, altitude levels vary between 1400 m to over 3000 m. The municipality of Imouzzer Marmoucha, which is the urban center of the region, is located at 1650 m (PEYRE, 1976; RAHOU, 1996). High altitudes cover most of the study area. More precisely, with the exception of Almis Marmoucha where the altitude amounts to 1600 m and the mountainous terrain covers 60% of the commune, mountain topography covers between 75% and 86% for Talzemt and Ait Bazza. The rest of the territory consists of basins and valleys near the oueds.

The study area is entirely subject to a Mediterranean climate. It has different bioclimatic and vegetation stages. The main bioclimates are:

--Mesomediterranean (1400 to 1800 m)

--Supramediterranean (1800 to 2200 m)

--Montanomediterranean (2200 to 2700 m)

Precise climate data on different altitudinal gradients in the area are rare or they do not exist. on average, annual rainfall varies from less than 200 mm in the east to 800 mm in the west (BOUTAYEB, 1996). Based on the meteorological station at Imouzzer Marmoucha, Peyre (1976) gives an average of 438 mm. To explain the low value of rainfall despite the altitude, Peyre wrote, "Despite its altitude and its apparent position in the wind, the station of Imouzzer Marmoucha is not watered because it is partially protected by Tichoukt (2400-2700 m), which blocks much of what remains of moist air masses that have crossed the mountains dominating Azrou and Ifrane" (PEYRE, 1976). Two decades later, RAHOU (1996) reported for Imouzzer Marmoucha an average annual rainfall of 450.9 mm during the period of 1933-1955. The exact amounts of snow are not known, but it is noted that the mountain peaks receive snow between November and May.

With respect to soils, BERKAT AND TAZI (2006) report that brown soils and rendzinas are dominant in the Middle Atlas with lithosols and regosols on steep slopes. As part of the folded part of the Middle Atlas, the study area is characterized by the predominance of clay and limestone soils (BOUTAYEB, 1996), followed by loam and sandy soils. The study area is also characterized by a great diversity of natural ecosystems including green oak and cedar forests, alfa steppes, and high altitude pasture ecosystems.


First, it must be pointed out that the inventory of plant species established in the Marmoucha area is far from exhaustive, but it is very likely that the species recorded represent the majority of the local flora. The number of spontaneous and cultivated species recorded is of 508 (Appendix 1) representing 13% of Morocco's vascular flora which counts 3913 species according to the latest statistics (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2012). Recorded species belong to 83 families and 325 genera representing 54% and 33% respectively of total national families and genera.

Table 1 and Figure 2 list the families according to the number of species inventoried. Of the 83 families identified, 10 families have more than 10 species and 40 families are represented by a single species. Asteraceae is the richest family in the local flora of Marmoucha. With 92 species, this family constitutes 18% of the total reported. In second and third places, the two richest families are respectively the Poaceae and Fabaceae.

Representation and matching local flora and national flora

As indicated in Figure 1, there are eight families with more than one hundred species in Morocco's flora. With 550 species (Table 2), Asteraceae ranks first, followed by Fabaceae and Poaceae in second and third places with 424 and 355 species, respectively. The Brassicaceae, Caryophy llaceae and Lamiaceae count 212, 204 and 202 species, respectively. Occupying the 7th and 8th ranks, Apiaceae and Scrophulariaceae count 153 and 134 species respectively.


The most comprehensive work on rare, threatened, and endemic species in Morocco is produced by Fennane and Ibn Tattou in 1998. An update is included in the two volumes of the Vascular Flora of Morocco (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005; IBN TATTOU & FENNANE, 2009). According to the latest statistics on the current inventory of the vascular flora of Morocco, FENNANE & IBN TATTOU (2012) indicates that the number of strict endemics amounts to 640 species, which is 16.3% of the national inventory. The number of subspecies exclusively Moroccan amounts to 280. In addition, Morocco shares an additional 607 endemic species with neighboring areas, with a clear predominance of Iberian-Moroccan endemics (210), Moroccan-Algerian (208), and Ibero-Moroccan-Algerian endemics (130). With a rate of 40%, the Lamiaceae occupies the first place for the most endemics. The genus Teucrium ranks first (with 50%) for species that are strictly Moroccan, followed by the following four genera Silene, Centaurea, Ononis, and Astragalus with rates between 22 and 33% (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2012).

Table 3 presents the classification of the eight richest families of the local flora in relation to their position in the national flora. It indicates a clear correspondence between the positions of the richest families in the local and Moroccan flora with slight ranking differences except in the case of the Rosaceae. In other words, the Rosaceae comes in seventh position in the local flora of Marmoucha while it occupies the 13th place in the national flora. This correspondence is not surprising given the diversity of ecosystems in Marmoucha's territory, ranging from forests of cedar or oak to mountain pastures of xerophytes. The Rosaceae's visible difference can be explained by the mountainous character of the study area being extremely favorable to the growth of Rosaceae in both spontaneous and cultivated forms.

In Marmoucha, the local flora is characterized by the presence of numerous strictly Moroccan, Moroccan-Algerian, or Moroccan-Iberian endemics. Table 4 provides an indicative list of these species using the following categories: E: endemic strictly of Morocco, I: endemic of Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, A: endemic of Morocco and Algeria, IA: Ibero-Moroccan-Algerian (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2012) and AT: endemic of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.

Based on Table 4, two important remarks seem necessary. First, the number of endemics in the study area is significant. It amounts to 43 species and subspecies belonging to 14 families. The Asteraceae count 10 endemics. Second, the numbers of Moroccan-Algerian and strictly Moroccan endemics compared to other categories of endemics are rather significant. In Morocco, endemics, especially those strictly Moroccan, are still plagued with serious shortcomings. In general, they are the least-studied and least-known species of the national flora. Based on our modest experience with bibliographic searches both in the literature and in the databases available in the Internet, it was noted that when the species was a strictly Moroccan endemic, information, photos and references become scarce. Available information is preserved in specialized institutes and centers where the species specimen is kept.

The importance and need for botanical and ethnobotanical research on strictly Moroccan endemics in particular are justified in more than one respect (HSEINI & KAHOUADJI, 2007; HSEINI & al., 2007; SALHI & al., 2010). Endemics shared with neighboring countries are relatively well studied compared to exclusively Moroccan endemics. Until now, information on the latter is rare. It is paradoxical that there is a lack of information on native plants, while these plants need to be better understood to be protected, valued, and preserved, at least theoretically. Moroccan endemics deserve more attention and special efforts to know and to preserve them and, by the same token contribute to the universal knowledge of plants and biodiversity conservation.


In Morocco, the floristic diversity both nationally and locally is exposed to the pressures and threats caused primarily by direct and indirect human activities. BERRAHO & al. (2006) report that the impact of various human activities goes against biodiversity preservation and sustainable management of natural resources. According to these authors, "in extreme cases the negative impact of these activities led to the irreparable loss of animal and plant species and irreversible damage to some ecosystems" (BERRAHO & al., 2006).

As noted earlier, the first catalog for rare, threatened, or endemic plants in Morocco's vascular flora is that published by FENNANE and IBN TATTOU in 1998. This catalog inventories 126 families, 2185 species and 634 subspecies. Two volumes on the vascular flora of Morocco (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005; IBN TATTOU & FENNANE, 2009) update the 1998 catalog and include new rare or threatened taxa. Until today, these two volumes prove to be the most comprehensive sources and most updated information on rare and endangered plants in Morocco. Thus, these references are widely used to identify reported rare and endangered plants that are inventoried in the Marmoucha local flora (Table 5). Degrees of rarity and vulnerability are those used in the catalogs FENNANE & IBN TATTOU (1998), IBN FENNANE & TATTOU (2005) and IBN TATTOU & FENNANE (2009). The six categories are:

--RR: very rare, number of known localities [less than or equal to] 5.

--RR?: suspected very rare.

--R: rare

--R?: suspected rare

--V: vulnerable (or appears to be), could become rare in the short term.

Inventoried plants in Marmoucha considered rare or threatened comprise 37 species and subspecies belonging to 16 families. With 9 species, the Asteraceae is the family containing the most rare and endangered species, followed distantly by the remaining families.


Beyond the immediate uses and services that the Marmoucha people derive from their floristic resources, the most important value of this heritage lies in plant genetic resources and its contribution to national plant diversity. For these reasons, the preservation and conservation of these resources are of outmost importance.

In other words, in the case of Aegilops for example, its highest value is not in its use as feed but in its potential use as a breeding parent and the possibility of extracting disease resistance genes or other interesting traits. In fact, many wild species are used in breeding programs. Scientists, particularly breeders and genetic resource specialists, are unanimous on the importance of wild species for plant improvement activities and the development of new varieties of cereals, fodder or food legumes. If we take the example of cereals, Aegilops, which is abundant in these mountains, is actually used in crosses of hard and soft wheat to improve their resistance to disease.

Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) in 1992 and the Conference of Parties to the present, the issue of biodiversity conservation has taken a new dimension. Morocco ratified the Convention in August 1995 and therefore is called to comply with the CBD and COP decisions. For example, Morocco is called to undertake activities towards the achievement of the 16 targets of the updated Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) 2011-2020.

In his article on floristic research in Morocco, FENNANE (2008) explicitly described the situation in Morocco in relation to the initial GSPC 2002-2010. As pointed out by the author, the strategy aimed at the achievement of 16 targets by 2010. For Morocco the task is non-achievable under prevailing conditions. The author looks at five targets as examples to support his assertion. Selected targets are the following:

--Target 1: A widely-accessible working list of known plants, as a step towards a complete world flora.

--Target 2: A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species at national, regional and international levels.

--Target 5: Protection of 50% of the most important areas for plant diversity assured.

--Target 7: 60% of the world's threatened species conserved in situ.

--Target 15: The number of trained people working with appropriate facilities in plant conservation increased, according to national needs, to achieve the targets of this Strategy.

In Fennane's words, targets 1 and 15 can be achieved if there is the will, but the other three targets had no chance to be achieved by 2010 (FENNANE, 2008). According to this author, "In fact, before conservation and protection, one must know targeted species or environments. But so far, our knowledge in these areas is imprecise, fragmentary, and non-updated" (FENNANE, 2008). It must be pointed out that the updated GSPC 2011-2020 is more demanding and presents even greater challenges for Morocco.

Until today, Morocco's flora still experiences serious flaws. In their recent article on the latest statistics concerning Morocco' vascular flora, FENNANE & IBN TATTOU (2012) shed explicit doubts on the presence of 157 species and 28 subspecies in Morocco. Besides, according to these authors, there are numerous plant species of which distribution areas are poorly known or ill-known. To bring about solutions to all these problems, it is necessary to conduct field work. The problems are more acute in the case of rare and threatened plants. Most importantly, the authors point out that unfortunately, Morocco does not yet have an 'official' red list that meets the criteria of the International union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The establishment of this list remains a priority for the country. Its consensual nature requires a real voluntary contribution of all actors, including managers and scientists (FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2012).

The Marmoucha area is an example of the many local mountainous areas where plant diversity is substantial, where endemics are important and where rare and threatened species need further work. It is thus urgent to pay greater attention to the changing dynamics of local and regional flora in Morocco. Some regions are more exposed to exploitation and pressure than others. Scientists and concerned actors in diversity conservation are unanimous regarding the need and the urgency to know, protect, and preserve the national floristic heritage and its local and regional variants.


Throughout this article, it is clear that Marmoucha's geographical, ecological, and cultural specificities are accompanied by high plant diversity. until today, the Marmoucha people, whose main economic activity is small ruminant production, continue to draw their livelihoods from available plant resources. Because of natural as well as human factors, the fragility and vulnerability of this mountainous environment are increasing and the plant resources are at risk of degradation and erosion. Under such conditions, the people's vulnerability is also increasing. Sustainability necessitates a balance between production of goods and services, their use by the people and the preservation of the resource base unique to this environment.

To a certain extent, Marmoucha can be considered representative of other fragile, underdeveloped mountain communities with high poverty and vulnerability rates. In these situations, it would be neither wise nor fair to these areas and their people to establish large protected areas or select species for reforestation on exclusively ecological criteria without any consideration of the people's needs. The challenge is not in the choice of technical solutions and their implementation but in their reconciliation with the socioeconomic conditions of these communities and the sustainable use and management of available resources.

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2013.v34.n1.40753

List of spontaneous and cultivated plants recorded in Marmoucha
(Middle Atlas, Morocco)

For every species the following information is added: Record number
(N.): if the species is cultivated (*), or if the local name has
not been collected (#)

N.        Species                               Local name (s)

1         Acer monspessulanum L. Agavaceae      qiqeb
2         Agave americana L. Alliaceae          sabra
3 (*)     Allium cepa L.                        bsal
4 (*)     Allium sativum L.                     tichert
5         Allium sp.                            tichert lekhla
          Amaranthaceae (incl.
6         Amaranthus albus L.                   blitou
7         Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson        blitou
8         Amaranthus retroflexus L.             blitou
9 (*)     Atriplex nummularia Lindl.            armaz
10        Atriplex patula L.                    tibidas
11        Atriplex rosea L.                     #
12        Beta macrocarpa Guss.                 tibidas
13 (*)    Beta vulgaris L.                      barba
14        Blitum exsuccum C. Loscos             blitou
            (incl. Chenopodiumfoliosum var.
            minus (Vahl) Asch.)
15        Chenopodium album L.                  blitou
16        Chenopodium ambrosioides L.           mkhinza
17        Chenopodium murale L.                 blitou
18        Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad.       blitou
19        Chenopodium vulvaria L.               blitou
20        Polycnemum fontanesii Durieu & Moq.   zour lhasran
21        Narcissus sp.                         abehlellou
22        Pistacia lentiscus L.                 tidecht, fadis
23        Pistacia terebinthus L. Apiaceae      adil n-ouchen
24        Ammi majus L.                         tawsna
25 (*)    Apium graveolens L.                   krafes
26        Bifora testiculata (L.) Spreng.       qozber aghioul
27        Bunium fontanesii (Pers.) Maire       aytar, achtar
            (incl. B. bulbocastanum auct.
            Afr. N.)
28        Bupleurum atlanticum Murb.            tizleft
29        Bupleurum spinosum Gouan              ayrbaz, aguerbaz
30 (*)    Coriandrum sativum L.                 qozber
31        Daucus carota L.                      khizzou
32 (*)    Daucus carota var. sativa             khizzou
33        Eryngium campestre L.                 aqerchal
34        Eryngium triquetrum Vahl              tlatert n-ouchen
35        Ferula communis L.                    ouffal
36        Foeniculum vulgare Mill.              irden wamsa
37        Helosciadium nodiflorum (L.)          tithjamine
            W. D. J. Koch
38        Hohenackeria exscapa (Steven)         (#)
39        Orlaya platycarpos W. D. J. Koch      fetchras
40 (*)    Pastinaca sativa L.                   tiaabouzine
41 (*)    Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss     maadnous
42        Ridolfia segetum (Guss.) Moris        (#)
43        Scandix pecten-veneris L.             temchat
44        Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertn.           khizzou n-qnine
45        Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.        fetchras
46        Visnaga daucoides Gaertn.             bechnikha
            (incl. Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam.)
47        Nerium oleander L.                    alili
48        Hedera helix L.                       anesfal, tanesfalt
          Arecaceae (Palmae)
49        Chamaerops humilis L.                 tizdemt, tizden
50        Aristolochia paucinervis Pomel        berrezdem
51        Asparagus acutifolius L.              mezzr-izm
52        Asphodelus acaulis Desf.              aberway
53        Asphodelus ramosus L.                 aberway
            (incl. A. microcarpus Viv.)
54        Achillea leptophylla M. Bieb.         chih lekhrissi
55        Anacyclus homogamos (Maire)           ghadou mlal
56        Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link         tindazt, tawanzawiyis
57        Arctium atlanticum (Pomel) H.         mezzr-izm
58 (*)    Artemisia arborescens (Vaill.) L.     chiba
59        Artemisia campestris L.               izri
60        Artemisia herba-alba Asso             izri
61        Atractylis caespitosa Desf.           achennoud
62        Atractylis cancellata L.              ticennanine insi
63        Bellis annua L.                       (#)
64        Bombycilaena discolor (Pers.) M.      (#)
65        Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L.        (#)
66        Carduus ballii Hook. f.               assennan
            (incl. C. nutans L. subsp.
            subacaulis J. Arenes)
67        Carduus chevallieri Barratte          sart aghioul

68        Carduus pycnocephalus L.              ouchen-taddela
69        Carlina brachylepis (Batt.)           ghijghij
            Meusel & Kastner (incl. C.
            involucrate auct. Afr. N.)
70        Carlina hispanica Lam.                ghijghij
71        Carlina macrophylla (Desf.) DC.
72        Carthamus caeruleus L.                assennan
73        Carthamus lanatus L.                  assennan
74        Carthamus pinnatus Desf.              ikhef n-skour
75        Carthamus pomelianus (Batt.) Prain    tit tfounast
76        Carthamus rhaponticoides (Pomel)
77        Catananche caerulea L.                aaban ifigher
78        Centaurea boissieri DC.               assennan
79        Centaurea calcitrapa L.               chouch mghil,
                                                  assennan amellal
80        Centaurea diluta Aiton (incl. C.      assennan
            elongata Schousb.)
81        Centaurea eriophora L.                (#)
82        Centaurea melitensis L.               assennan
83        Centaurea nana Desf.                  (#)
84        Centaurea pullata L.                  assennan
85        Centaurea sphaerocephala L.           assennan
86        Centaurea sulphurea Willd.            assennan
87        Chondrilla juncea L.                  tighmas n-oulli
88        Cichorium pumilum Jacq.               tizodia
89        Cirsium echinatum (Desf.) DC.         assennan
90        Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (incl.    assennan tifghit
            C. lanceolatum (L.) Scop.)
91        Cynara baetica (Spreng.) Pau subsp.
92 (*)    wiklund                               kherchef
93        Cynara scolymus L. Dittrichia         tirrehla
            graveolens (L.)
94        Greuter Dittrichia viscosa (L.)       tirrehla
95        Echinops spinosissimus Turra          taskra
            (incl. E. spinosus L.)
96        Erigeron bonariensis L.               tirrehla
97        Evacidium discolor (DC.) Maire        (#)
98        Filago pygmaea L.                     techroun
99        Filago pyramidata L                   asselghagh izman, aalk
100       Galactites tomentosus Moench          (#)
101       Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach        ghadou mlal
102       Hedypnois rhagadioloides (L.) F.W.    aicha
            Schmidt (incl. H. cretica (L.)
            Dum. Cours.)
103 (*)   Helianthus annuus L.                  tebbaa chems, baiaa
104 (*)   Helianthus tuberosus L.               btata qasbia
105       Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub   (#)
106       Hypochaeris radicata L.               (#)
            (incl. H. atlantica Sennen &
107       Jacobaea gigantea (Desf.) Pelser      touya n-oughi
108       Jurinea humilis (Desf.) DC.           (#)
109       Lactuca saligna L.                    tifaf
110 (*)   Lactuca sativa L.                     khos
111       Lactuca serriola L. incl. L.          tifaf n-sem
            scariola L.
112       Lactuca tenerrima Pourr.              tifaf
113       Launaea fragilis (Asso) Pau (incl.    tighmas n-oulli
            L. resedifolia auct. Afr. N.)
114       Launaea lanifera Pau                  tighmas n-oulli,
            (incl. L. spinosa subsp.              tifsit
            acanthoclada Maire)
115       Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f.      tighmas n-oulli
116       Leontodon saxatilis Lam.              tizodia
            (incl. L. taraxacoides auct. Afr.
117       Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort.     tirrehla
118       Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. &    tazemourt
119       Micropus supinus L.                   (#)
120       Onopordum acaulon L.                  ifris
121       Onopordum macracanthum Schousb.       ifris
122       Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.            assennan amellal
123       Picris hispanica (Willd.) P.D. Sell   tachefa't
124       Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC.       talma
125       Ptilostemon dyricola (Maire)          (#)
126       Pulicaria arabica (L.) Cass.          (#)
127       Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.    becher n-yazad
128       Rhaponticum acaule (L.) DC.           tifeghouine
129       Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr.     tayrart
130       Scolymus hispanicus L.                taghediwt
131       Scolymys maculatus L.                 taghediwt
132       Scorzonera caespitosa Pomel           tighmas n-oulli
            (incl. S. pseudopygmaea Lipsch.,
            incl. S. pygmaea auct. Afr. N.)
133       Scorzonera hispanica L.               talma
134       Senecio vulgaris L.                   touya n-oughi
135       Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.         abeaou ntifyout
136       Sonchus asper (L.) Hill               tifaf
137       Sonchus oleraceus L.                  tifaf
138       Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.)    (#)
            G.L. Nesom
139       Taraxacum obovatum (Willd.) DC.       iwjdam
140       Taraxacum sp.                         tachiria
141       Tragopogon porrifolius L.             alamen, aliam ouyiis
142       Urospermumpicroides (L.) Scop. Ex     babghoro
            F.W. Schmidt
143       Xanthium spinosum L.                  assennan
144       Xanthium strumarium L.                mzzer izm
          (incl. X. brasilicum Vell.)
145       Xeranthemum inapertum (L.) Mill.      (#)
146       Berberis hispanica Boiss. & Reuter    irghis
147       Anchusa italica Retz.                 illes oufounas
148       Borago officinalis L.                 illes oufounas
149       Echium flavum Desf.                   (#)
150       Echium humile Desf. subsp.            (#)
            pycnanthum (Pomel)
          Greuter & Burdet
151       Echium plantagineum L.                illes oufounas
152       Lappula barbata (M. Bieb.) Gurke      lhenni imisawn
153       Neatostema apulum (L.) I. M.          (#)
154       Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L.            (#)
155       Alyssum atlanticum Desf.              (#)
156       Alyssum serpyllifolium Desf.          (#)
157 (*)   Brassica oleracea L.                  azegzaw
158 (*)   Brassica oleracea L. var botrytis     chiflor
159 (*)   Brassica oleracea L. var capitata     kronb
160 (*)   Brassica rapa L.                      deft, left
161       Capparis spinosa L.                   taylolout
162       Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.   laihiyane
163       Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex.      oud doukhan
164       Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp.      harfi
            sativa (Mill.) Thell.
165       Erysimum grandiflorum Desf.           (#)
166       Erysimum incanum Kunze                (#)
167       Erysimum sp.                          (#)
168       Hirschfeldia incana (L.)              (#)
169       Hormatophylla spinosa (L.) Kupfer     ifssi
170       Hornungia petraea (L.) Rchb.          (#)
171       Isatis tinctoria L.                   lachren
172       Lepidium draba L.                     (#)
173       Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.         ades oujdad
174       Matthiola fruticulosa (Lcefl. Ex      tachgarga
            L.) Maire
175       Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC.          (#)
176       Neslia apiculata Fisch., C. A.        (#)
            Mey. & Ave- Lall.
177 (*)   Raphanus sativus L.                   fjel
178       Rhaphanus raphanistrum L.             bouhamou labiad
179       Rorippa africana (Br.-Bl.) Maire      bouaffar
180       Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.)     aguernouj
            Hayek (incl. Nasturtium
            officinale R. Br.)
181       Sinapis alba L.                       bouhamou
182       Sinapis arvensis L.                   bouhamou
183       Sisymbrium irio L.                    bouhamou
184       Sisymbrium runcinatum Lag. ex. DC.    harfi aouragh,
185       Vella pseudocytisus L.                aznou, qazdir
186       Buxus balearica Lam.                  baqs
187 (*)   Opuntia maxima Mill.                  tazart roumian, hendia
188       Campanula filicaulis Durieu           (#)
189       Trachelium caeruleum L. Cannabaceae   (#)
190       Celtis australis L. Caprifoliaceae    teghzaz
191       Lonicera pyrenaica L.                 (#)
192       Arenaria armerina Bory                (#)
193       Bufonia mauritanica Murb.             (#)
194       Cerastium brachypetalum Desportes     (#)
            ex. Pers.
195       Cerastium gibraltaricum Boiss.        (#)
196       Dianthus sylvestris Wulfen            (#)
197       Gymnocarpos sclerocephalus            (#)
            (Decne.) Ahlgren & Thulin
198       Herniaria cinerea DC.                 herres lehjer
199       Herniaria glabra L.                   herres lehjer
200       Herniaria pujosii Sauvage & Vindt     (#)
201       Minuartia hamata (Hausskn. &          (#)
            Bornm.) Mattf. incl. Queria
            hispanica L.)
202       Paronychia argentea Lam.              tasettait
203       Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke       tighighit
204       Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.)            wawghiyi
            Rauschert (incl. V. pyramidata
205       Cistus creticus L.                    innaqrouch
206       Cistus laurifolius L.                 ouchtobou
207       Cistus salviifolius L.                innaqrouch
208       Helianthemum cinereum (Cav.) Pers.    ighes n-terfas
209       Helianthemum croceum (Desf.) Pers.    ighes n-terfas
210       Helianthemum pergamaceum Pomel        aichout
211       Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp.       ighes n-terfas
            (incl. Helianthemum tuberaria
            (L.) Mill.)
          Convolvulaceae (incl. Cuscutaceae)
212       Convolvulus arvensis L.               asser-remram
213       Convolvulus lineatus L.               louwaya
214       Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L.             achekous n-temghart
215       Cuscuta planiflora Ten.               achekous n-temghart
216 (*)   Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.             btata hlouwa
217       Sedum sp.                             tifednine n-temghart
218 (*)   Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum.    dellah
            & Nakai
219 (*)   Cucumis melo L.                       bettikh
220 (*)   Cucumis sativus L.                    khiar
221 (*)   Cucurbita maxima L.                   takhssait
222 (*)   Cucurbita pepo L.                     takhssait
223 (*)   Lagenaria leucantha var. longissima   slawi
224 (*)   Cupressus sempervirens L.             aaraar roumi
225       Juniperus oxycedrus L.                taqa
226       Juniperus phoenicea L.                aaraar
227       Juniperus thurifera L.                awal, tawalt
228       Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.   aaraar, aaraar lhor
229       Cynomorium coccineum L.               hemzellou
230       Bolboschoenus glaucus (Lam.) S. G.    azlaf
            Sm. (incl. Scirpus maritimus
            auct. Afr. N.)
231       Carex halleriana Asso                 (#)
232       Cyperus fuscus L.                     azlaf
233       Lomelosia stellata (L.) Raf.          (#)
234       Ephedra major Host.                   tiziad
235       Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.          (#)
236       Arbutus unedo L.                      sasnou
237       Euphorbia chamaesyce L.               tinougha, tineqout
238       Euphorbia helioscopia L.              tinougha, tineqout
239       Euphorbia hirsuta L.                  (#)
          (incl. E. pubescens Vahl)
240       Euphorbia nicaeensis All. Fabaceae    tinougha, tineqout
241       Astragalus alopecuroides L.           (#)
242       Astragalus armatus Willd.             assennan oufounas
243       Astragalus bourgaeanus Coss.          tinifine oujdad
244       Astragalus caprinus L.                ibawn ighatan
245       Astragalus granatensis Lam.           tighardemt
          (incl. A. boissieri Fisch.)
246       Astragalus hamosus L.                 ibawn lekhla
247       Astragalus sesameus L.                tinifine oujdad
248 (*)   Cicer arietinum L.                    hammes
249       Coronilla repanda (Poir.) Guss.       #
250       Coronilla scorpioides (L.) W. D.      ibawn lekhla
            J. Koch
251       Cytisus balansae (Boiss.) Ball        bourssoud
252       Erinacea anthyllis Link               bounehar
253       Genista quadriflora Munby             ilouki
254       Hedysarum coronarium L.               (#)
255       Hippocrepis monticola Lassen          (#)
          (incl. H. scabra DC.)
256       Hippocrepis neglecta Lassen           (#)
257 (*)   Lens culinaris Medik.                 ades
258       Lotus arenarius Brot.                 becher n-yazad
259       Medicago doliata Carmign.             fessa
260       Medicago minima (L.) L.               fessa oujdad
261       Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartal.     fessa
262       Medicago polymorpha L.                fessa
263 (*)   Medicago sativa L.                    fessa
264       Medicago suffruticosa DC.             fessa oujdad
265       Medicago truncatula Gaertn.           fessa oujdad
266       Melilotus indicus (L.) All.           wawbhir
267       Melilotus sulcatus Desf.              wawbhir, fessa
268       Onobrychis humilis (L.) G. Lopez      saboun immissawn
269       Ononis hispida Desf.                  akchoud
270       Ononis pseudoserotina Batt. & Pit.    henna
271       Ononis spinosa L.                     bouqsib
272       Ononis thomsonii Oliv.                akchoud, asghar
273 (*)   Phaseolus vulgaris L.                 loubia
274 (*)   Pisum sativum L.                      jelbana, tinifine
275       Scorpiurus muricatus L.               tamazought n-tighsi
276       Scorpiurus vermiculatus L.            tamazought n-tighsi
277       Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot.          fessa oughioul
278       Trifolium resupinatum L.              fessa oughioul
279 (*)   Trigonella foenum-graecum L.          helba
280       Trigonella monspeliaca L.             fessa
281       Trigonella polyceratia L.             fessa
282 (*)   Vicia faba L.                         ibawn
283       Vicia lutea L.                        kersenna
284       Vicia monantha Retz.                  tinifine, tinifine
285 (*)   Vicia sativa L.                       tinifine, kersenna
286       Quercus coccifera L.                  akerrouch ilef
287       Quercus faginea Lam.                  tachta
288       Quercus rotundifolia Lam.             kerrouch
289       Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce     (#)
290       Erodium guttatum (Desf.) Willd.       tisennaf n-temghart
291       Erodium malacoides (L.) l'Her.        tisennaf n-temghart
292       Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Her.         tisennaf n-temghart
293       Ribes uva-crispa L.                   qars moumou
294       Heliotropium europaeum L.             (#)
295       Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn           bsel-ilef, bsel
296       Muscari comosum (L.) Mill.            bsel n-iqzine
297       Ornithogalum narbonense L.            bsel n-iqzine
298       Gladiolus italicus Mill.              tafrout n-ouchen
          (incl. G. segetum Ker-Gawl.)
299 (*)   Juglans regia L.                      guergaa
300       Juncus acutus L.                      azlaf
301       Juncus inflexus L.                    azlaf
302       Juncus maritimus Lam.                 azlaf
303       Triglochin palustris L.               (#)
304       Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb.        timchouzzatine
305       Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.                timchouzzatine
306       Lamium amplexicaule L.                naanaa lma
307 (*)   Lavandula angustifolia Mill.          khzama
308       Lavandula stoechas L.                 ahelhal
309       Marrubium alysson L.                  timersat
310       Marrubium vulgare L.                  timersate timerriwine
311       Mentha longifolia (L.) L.             timersat
312       Mentha pulegium L.                    flyou dial lma, flyou
313 (*)   Mentha spicata L.                     naanaa, liqama
          (incl. M. viridis (L.) L.)
314       Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.               timersat n-waman
            (incl. M. rotundifolia auct.
            Afr. N.)
315 (*)   Mentha x piperita L.                  naanaa meskaoui
316       Nepeta nepetella L. subsp.            timersat tibouriyine
            amethystina (Poir.) Briq.
317 (*)   Ocimum basilicum L.                   hbaq
318       Origanum elongatum (Bonnet) Emb.      istahdar, saater
            & Maire
319       Rosmarinus officinalis L.             azir
320       Salvia argentea L.                    aferghous n'ariou
321       Salvia officinalis L.                 belghabou, belghanbou
322       Salvia phlomoides Asso                if tfounast
323       Salvia verbenaca L.                   tiltit n-tmessi,
                                                  laarf n-yazad
324       Sideritis hirsuta L.                  menta
325       Teucrium chamaedrys L.                (#)
326       Teucrium fruticans L.                 azzou
327       Teucrium polium L.                    tayrart, tayrirt
328       Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut.     marad
329       Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut.       zouchen
330       Thymus zygis L.                       zouchen
331       Ziziphora hispanica L.                flyou abouri
332       Tulipa sylvestris L.                  (#)
333       Lythrum junceum Banks & Sol.          (#)
334 (*)   Punica granatum L.                    romman
335 (*)   Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench    mloukhia
336       Althaea longiflora Boiss. & Reut.     tibbi
337       Hibiscus trionum L.                   (#)
338       Malva neglecta Wallr.                 tibbi
339       Malva parviflora L.                   tibbi
340       Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr.       tawsarghint
341 (*)   Ficus carica L.                       tazart
342 (*)   Morus alba L.                         tout labiad
343 (*)   Morus nigra L.                        tout lekhal
344       Peganum harmala L.                    harmel
345       Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl            aderdar
346       Fraxinus dimorpha Coss. & Durieu      touzzelt
            (incl. F. xanthoxyloides auct.
            Afr. N.)
347 (*)   Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea      azemour, zitoun
348       Phillyrea angustifolia L.             inouktal
349       Epilobium hirsutum L.                 (#)
350       Orobanche crenata Forssk.             hemzellou
351       Fumaria agraria Lag.                  tifsit n-oujdad, chiba
352       Fumaria parviflora Lam.               tifsit n-oujdad, chiba
353       Glaucium corniculatum (L.) H.         benaamam ifigher
354       Hypecoum pendulum L.                  tabellaamant
355       Papaver rhoeas L.                     benaamam
356       Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC.             tabellaamant
357       Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carriere     idil
358       Pinus halepensis Mill.                tayda
359       Pinus pinaster Aiton                  tayda
360       Antirrhinum majus L.                  (#)
361       Chaenorrhinum villosum (L.) Lange     (#)
362       Globularia alypum L.                  tasselgha
363       Globularia nainii Batt.               siwrigh
364       Plantago albicans L.                  almzeimer
365       Plantago coronopus L.                 messassa, talamine
366       Plantago major L.                     messassa
367       Plantago mauritanica Boiss. & Reut.   (#)
368       Plantago rhizoxylon Emb.              (#)
369       Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.        aguernouj
370       Veronica rosea Desf.                  (#)
371       Aegilops geniculata Roth              harziz
372       Aegilops triuncialis L.               harziz
373       Agrostis gigantea Roth                (#)
374       Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir.         (#)
375       Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.)     adles
            Dur. & Schinz
376       Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski     bahma
377       Anisantha rigida (Roth) Hyl.          bahma
378       Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski          bahma
379       Anisantha tectorum (L.) Nevski        bahma
380       Anthoxanthum odoratum L.              ajdir tbadart
381       Arundo donax L.                       aghanim, ghanim
382 (*)   Avena sativa L.                       tamensikht
383       Avena sterilis L.                     tamensikht
384       Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) P.       oubbal
385       Bromus hordeaceus L.                  oubbal saguia
386       Ctenopsis pectinella (Delile) De      (#)
387       Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.           njem
388       Dactylis glomerata L.                 tachaboubt
389       Dasypyrum breviaristatum (H.          (#)
            Lindb.) Fred. (incl. D.
            hordeaceum (Coss. & Dur.) P.
390       Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.      (#)
391       Echinaria capitata (L.) Desf.         ticennanine ou-mouch
392       Echinochloa colona (L.) Link          (#)
393       Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. Ex        njem
394       Eragrostis sp.                        #
395       Hordeum murinum L.                    taghardait
396 (*)   Hordeum vulgare L.                    tomzine
397       Koeleria splendens C. Presl           aghesmir
398       Lolium multiflorum Lam.               taghesmirt, medhouna
399       Lolium rigidum Gaud.                  taghesmirt, medhouna
400       Lygeum spartum L.                     tasennaght
401       Macrochloa arenaria (Brot.) Kunth     tadaft
402       Macrochloa tenacissima (L.) Kunth     ary, algdim
403       Melica cupanii Guss.                  (#)
404       Paspalum distichum L.                 (#)
405       Phalaris minor Retz.                  acheboub
406       Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.    tnala, ghanim, aghanim
            (incl. Ph. communis Trin.)
407       Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.    (#)
408       Schedonorus arundinaceus (Shreb.)     (#)
409       Schismus barbatus (Lcefl. ex L.)      (#)
410 (*)   Secale cereale L.                     tasehdit
411       Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv.   memaach
412 (*)   Sorghum bicolor (L.) Mcnch            abaali
413       Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.          tatkhant
414       Stipa lagascae Roem. & Schult.        anezd ou-winnouz
415       Trachynia distachya (L.) Link         taghardait
416 (*)   Triticum aestivum L.                  farina
417 (*)   Triticum durum Desf.                  irden
418 (*)   Zea mays L. Polygonaceae              dra
419       Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.              tasemount
420       Polygonum aviculare L.                asseremram
421       Rumex bucephalophorus L.              tasemount
422       Rumex conglomeratus Murray            (#)
423       Rumex crispus L.                      imejan aghioul,
424       Rumex pulcher L.                      tasemount
425       Rumex roseus L. Portulacaceae         (#)
426       Portulaca oleracea L.                 timeqsine, rejla
427       Androsace maxima L.                   (#)
428       Coris monspeliensis L.                (#)
429       Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns     alellou alellou
            & Anderb.
430       Lysimachia fcemina (Mill.) U. Manns
            & Anderb. Ranunculaceae
431       Adonis aestivalis L.                  tit n-teskourt
432       Adonis microcarpa DC.                 tit n-teskourt
433       Consolida orientalis (J. Gay)         azbibi
434       Delphinium obcordatum DC.             (#)
435       Ranunculus arvensis L.                fetchras
436       Ranunculus trilobus Desf.             touya n-bouzelloum
437       Reseda alba L.                        tajellalt izimer,
                                                  ajellal n-tghat
438       Reseda lanceolata Lag.                tajellalt izimer
439       Reseda lutea L.                       tajellalt izimer
440       Reseda luteola L.                     tajellalt izimer
441       Reseda phyteuma L. Rhamnaceae         tajellalt izimer
442       Rhamnus alaternus L. Rosaceae         amliles
443       Amelanchier ovalis Medik.             tazart imisawn
444       Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss.        ameqsou admam
445       Crataegus laciniata Ucria
446       Crataegus monogyna Jacq.              admam
447 (*)   Cydonia oblonga Mill.                 sferjel mzah
448 (*)   Eriobothrya japonica (Thunb.)
449 (*)   Fragaria vesca L.                     fraize
450 (*)   Malus pumila Mill.                    teffah tiliban taria
451       Potentilla reptans L.
452 (*)   Prunus armeniaca L.                   mechmach
453 (*)   Prunus avium (L.) L.                  hab lemlouk
454 (*)   Prunus cerasus L.                     hab lemlouk
455 (*)   Prunus domestica L.                   berqouq
456 (*)   Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb       louz
457 (*)   Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.           khoukh
458       Prunus prostrata Labill.              aberqouq imisawn
459 (*)   Pyrus communis L.                     tfirast, bouaouid
460       Rosa canina L.                        tabgha
461 (*)   Rosa sp.                              ward beldi
462       Rubus ulmifolius Schott               tatchelt
463       Sanguisorba minor Scop.               touya n-ifigher
464       Asperula arvensis L.                  menned
465       Asperula hirsuta Desf.                menned
466       Galium aparine L.                     menned
467       Galium mollugo L.                     menned menned
468       Galium tricornutum Dandy
469       Galium verrucosum Huds.               fetchras
470       Rubia peregrina L. Rutaceae           taroubia
471       Ruta montana (L.) L.                  iwermi
472       Populus alba L.                       asefsaf
473       Populus nigra L.                      asefsaf
474       Salix alba L.                         afssas, tafssaft
475       Salix atrocinerea Brot.               afssas roumi
476       Salix babylonica L.                   swalef ai'cha
477       Salix purpurea L.                     afssas
478       Viscum cruciatum Boiss.               mejbar
479       Scrophularia auriculata L.            saboun taria, saboun
480       Scrophularia canina L.                chtaba, ilzwine
481       Scrophularia macrorrhyncha            chtaba, ilzwine
            (Humbert, Litard. & Maire) Ibn
482       Verbascum dentifolium Delile          aferghous n-ariou
483       Smilax aspera L.                      anesfal, tanesfalt
484       Atropa belladonna L.                  chaoulou, adil
485       Capsicum annuum L.                    ifelfel
486       Datura stramonium L.                  taborzizt
487       Hyoscyamus albus L.                   inyad
488       Hyoscyamus niger L.                   guinguet
489       Lycium europaeum L.                   awej, aadlouj
490 (*)   Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.         maticha
491       Solanum melongena L.                  denjal
492       Solanum nigrum L.                     adil n-ouchen
493 (*)   Solanum tuberosum L.                  btata
494       Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst.        hadba
495       Tamarix canariensis Willd.            tamimait
496       Taxus baccata L.                      dakhch
497       Daphne gnidum L.                      alzaz
498       Daphne laureola L.                    #
499       Thymelaea tartonraira (L.) All.       talzazt
500       Thymelaea virgata (Desf.) Endl.       tasra
501       Terfzia sp.                           tirfas tizougaghine
502       Tirmania sp.                          tirfas timellaline
503       Typha angustifolia L.                 tabouda
504       Urtica urens L.                       tiqzinine, taqzinte
505 (*)   Aloysia citrodora Palau               louiza
506       Verbena officinalis L.                #
507       Vitis vinifera L.                     adil
508 (*)   Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile      tmar-tork, tmar


The authors extend their special thanks to Mohamed Ibn Tattou, Abdelkader Taleb, Errol Vela, Jean Paul Peltier, and Guy-Georges Guittonneau for their assistance with the identification of some species. The authors are very grateful to anonymous reviewers and to the people of Marmoucha for their time and help with the local names.

Received: 27 November 2012

Accepted: 21 June 2013


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Peyre, C.--1976--Contribution a l'etude de la vegetation du Moyen-Atlas oriental, le versant sud du massif du Bou Iblane et sa bordure meridionale. Elements de climatologie--Bull. Inst. Sci. Rabat 1: 173-197.

Rahou, A.--1996--Apercu sur le climat et la vegetation de Bou Nacer (Moyen-Atlas oriental, Maroc)--Bull. Inst. Sci. Rabat 20 : 113-122.

Salhi, S., Fadli, M., Zidane, L. & Douira, A.--2010--Etudes floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales de la ville de Kenitra (Maroc)--Lazaroa 31: 133-146.

Taleb, M.S. & Fennane, M.--2008--Diversite floristique du parc national du Haut Atlas Oriental et des massifs Ayachi et Maasker (Maroc)--Acta Bot. Malacitana 33: 125-145.

Valdes, B., Rejdali, M., Achhal El Kadmiri, A., Jury, J.L. & Montserrat, JM. (Eds.)--2002--Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Nord du Maroc, incluant des cles d'identification, 2 volumes--C.S.I.C., Madrid.

Fatima Nassif & Abbes Tanji (*)

(*) National Institute for Agronomic Research. CRRA-Settat, Morocco. E-mail:
Table 1
Observed plant families in Marmoucha

Plant family                          N. species

Asteraceae                                92
Poaceae                                   48
Fabaceae                                  45
Brassicaceae                              32
Lamiaceae                                 28
Apiaceae                                  23
Rosaceae                                  21
Amaranthaceae                             15
Caryophyllaceae                           13
Plantaginaceae                            11
Solanaceae                                10
Boraginaceae                               7
Cistaceae                                  7
Polygonaceae                               7
Rubiaceae                                  7
Ranunculaceae                              6
Cucurbitaceae                              6
Papaveraceae                               6
Salicaceae                                 6
Convolvulaceae (incl. Cuscutaceae)         5
Cupressaceae                               5
Malvaceae                                  5
Oleaceae                                   5
Resedaceae                                 5
Euphorbiaceae                              4
Primulaceae                                4
Scrophulariaceae                           4
Thymelaeaceae                              4
Alliaceae                                  3
Cyperaceae                                 3
Fagaceae                                   3
Geraniaceae                                3
Hyacinthaceae                              3
Juncaceae                                  3
Moraceae                                   3
Pinaceae                                   3
Anacardiaceae                              2
Asphodelaceae                              2
Campanulaceae                              2
Lythraceae                                 2
Tamaricaceae                               2
Tuberaceae                                 2
Verbenaceae                                2
Aceraceae                                  1
Agavaceae                                  1
Amaryllidaceae                             1
Apocynaceae                                1
Araliaceae                                 1
Arecaceae                                  1
Aristolochiaceae                           1
Asparagaceae                               1
Berberidaceae                              1
Buxaceae                                   1
Cactaceae                                  1
Cannabaceae                                1
Caprifoliaceae                             1
Crassulaceae                               1
Cynomoriaceae                              1
Dipsacaceae                                1
Ephedraceae                                1
Equisetaceae                               1
Ericaceae                                  1
Gentianaceae                               1
Grossulariaceae                            1
Heliotropaceae                             1
Iridaceae                                  1
Juglandaceae                               1
Juncaginaceae                              1
Liliaceae                                  1
Molluginaceae                              1
Nitrariaceae                               1
Onagraceae                                 1
Orobanchaceae                              1
Portulacaceae                              1
Rhamnaceae                                 1
Rutaceae                                   1
Santalaceae                                1
Smilacaceae                                1
Taxaceae                                   1
Typhaceae                                  1
Urticaceae                                 1
Vitaceae                                   1
Zygophyllaceae                             1

Table 2
Number of species in the Marmoucha flora compared with the
distribution of the eight first plant families of the vascular flora
of Morocco (families with more than one hundred species)

Plant family           Number of            Number of
                      spontaneous        spontaneous and
                       species in       cultivated species   n/N*100
                   Morocco's vascular     inventoried in
                       flora (N)        Marmoucha's flora

Asteraceae                550                   92             16.7
Fabaceae                  424                   45             10.6
Poaceae                   355                   48             13.5
Brassicaceae              212                   32             15.1
Caryophyllaceae           204                   13              6.4
Lamiaceae                 202                   28             13.9
Apiaceae                  153                   23             15.0
Scrophulariaceae          134                    4              3.0
Sub-total                2234                  285             12.8
other families           1679                  224             13.3
Total                    3913                  509             13.0

Table 3
Ranking of the first eight richest plant families in the flora of
Marmoucha compared with their rank in the natio-nal flora. For every
family the number of species in the Marmoucha area (N. Marmoucha), the
rank in the local flora (Local Rank) and the Rank in the National
flora (Nat. Rank; number of species, n.) is detailed.

Plant family                N. Marmoucha   Local Rank   Nat. Rank (n.)

Asteraceae                       92            1           1 (550)
Poaceae                          48            2           3 (355)
Fabaceae                         45            3           2 (424)
Brassicaceae                     32            4           4 (212)
Lamiaceae                        28            5           6 (202)
Apiaceae                         23            6            7(173)
Rosaceae                         21            7           13 ( 62)
Amaranthaceae (incl.             15            8            8 (79)

Table 4
Marmoucha endemic plants reported in the literature.
(Endemism type: E, Morocco strictly endemic; A, Morocco-Algeria
endemic; AT, Morocco-Algeria-Tunisia endemic).

Family / species               Endemism   Reference
Bupleurum atlanticum Murb.        E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; FENNANE & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                            AL., 2007;
Eryngium triquetrum Vahl                  DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
  subsp. Xauense                            2011
(Pau) Jovet & Sauvage             E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  Asteraceae                                1998; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Achillea leptophylla M.           A       BELLAKHDAR, 1997;
  Bieb.                                     DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.)          A       BELLAKHDAR, 1997;
  Link.                                     DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Carduus ballii Hook. f.           E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  (incl. Carduus nutans                     1998; IBN TATTOU &
L. subsp. subacaulis J.                   FENNANE, 2009; DOBIGNARD &
  Arenes)                                   CHATELAIN, 2011
Carthamuspomelianus               A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  (Batt.) Prain                             1998; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Centaurea boissieri DC.           E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; IBN TATTOU &
                                            FENNANE, 2009; TALEB &
                                            FENNANE, 2009; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Centaurea diluta Aiton            A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  subsp. algeriensis (Coss.&                1998; DOBIGNARD &
  Durieu) Maire                             CHATELAIN, 2011
Centaurea nana Desf.              A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Cynara baetica (Spreng.)          E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  Pau subsp. maroccana                      1998; IBN TATTOU &
  Wiklund                                   FENNANE, 2009; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Hypochaeris radicata L.           AT      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  subsp. platylepis (Boiss.)                1998; DOBIGNARD &
  Jahand. & Maire                           CHATELAIN, 2011
Leontodon saxatilis Lam.          E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  subsp. mesorhyncus (Maire)                1998; IBN TATTOU &
  Maire                                     FENNANE, 2009; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Ptilostemon dyricola              E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  (Maire) Greuter                           1998; IBN TATTOU &
                                            FENNANE, 2009; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011

Berberis hispanica Boiss.         A       BELLAKHDAR, 1997; FENNANE
  & Reuter                                  & AL., 1999; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011

Echium flavum Desf.               A       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,

Erysimum grandiflorum Desf.       AT      FENNANE & AL., 1999;
  2011                                      DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Erysimum incanum G. Kunze         AT      FENNANE & AL., 1999;
  2011                                      DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Rorippa africana (Br.-
  Bl.) Maire = Nasturtium         E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  africanum Br.-Bl.                         1998; FENNANE & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2011
Vellapseudocytisus L.             A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                          1998; FENNANE & AL., 1999;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,

Arenaria armerina Bory            E       FENNANE & AL., 1999;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Bufonia mauritanica Murb.         A       FENNANE & AL., 1999;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Cerastium gibraltaricum           A       FENNANE & AL., 1999;
  Boiss.                                    DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Herniaria pujosii Sauvage         A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  & Vindt                                   1998; FENNANE & AL., 1999;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Astragalus bourgeanus             A       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
  Coss.                                     VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Astragalus granatensis            E       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
  Lam.                                      VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Genista quadriflora Munby         A       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            VALDES & al., 2002;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Hippocrepis neglecta              E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  Lassen                                    2005; FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Lotus arenarius Brot.             E       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Ononispseudoserotina              E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  Batt. & Pit.                              1998; Fennane & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                            AL., 2007; VALDES & AL.,
Ononis thomsonii Oliv.            E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; FENNANE & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                            AL., 2007; VALDES & AL.,
                                            2002; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2012

Nepeta nepetella L.
  = Nepeta amethystina            A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  Poiret                                    1998; FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Origanum elongatum                E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  (Bonnet) Emberger & Maire                 2005; FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Teucrium chamaedrys L.            A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  subsp. gracile (Batt.)                    1998; DOBIGNARD &
  Rech. F.                                  CHATELAIN, 2012
Thymus munbyanus Boiss. &         A       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
  Reuter                                    VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Thymus zygis L.                   A       FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Fraxinus dimorpha Coss. &         A       FENNANE & AL., 2007 ;
  Durieu                                    DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Cedrus Atlantica (Endl.)          A       FENNANE & AL., 1999;
  Carriere                                  VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            2005; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2013
Globularia nainii Batt.           E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; FENNANE & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                            AL., 2007; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2013
Plantago mauritanica              A       VALDES & AL., 2002;
  Boiss. & Reut.                            FENNANE & AL., 2007; TALEB
                                            & FENNANE, 2008 ;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Plantago rhizoxylon Emb.          E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; FENNANE & IBN
                                            TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                            AL., 2007; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2013
Veronica rosea Desf.              A       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            1998; VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            2005; DOBIGNARD &
                                            CHATELAIN, 2013
Salix atrocinerea Brot.           AT      VALDES & AL., 2002;
                                            FOUGRACH & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,
Scrophularia macrorrhyncha        E       FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
  (Humbert, Litard. & Maire)              1998; FENNANE & IBN
  Ibn Tattou
Thymelaeaceae                             TATTOU, 2005; FENNANE &
                                          AL., 2007; DOBIGNARD &
                                          CHATELAIN, 2013
Thymelaea virgata (Desf.)         A       VALDES & AL., 2002;
  Endl.                                     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU,
                                            2005; FENNANE & AL., 2007;
                                            DOBIGNARD & CHATELAIN,

Table 5
Rare and endangered species in Marmoucha based on the literature
(For every species the following information is added: Conservation
status: RR, very rare, number of known localities [less than or equal
to] 5; RR?, suspected very rare; R, rare; R?, suspected rare; V,
vulnerable, or appears to)

Family / species                Cons.    LITERATURE
Atriplex rosea L.                 RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
Apiaceae                                   FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Bupleurum atlanticum Murb.        R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  Subsp. atlanticum Murb.
Daucus carota L. subsp.           RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  carota L.
Eryngium triquetrum Vahl          R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  subsp. xauence (Pau) Jovet               FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
  & Sauvage
Carduus ballii Hook. f.           RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
Carthamuspomelianus (Batt.)       R?     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
Centaurea boissieri DC.           R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  subsp. boissieri DC.                     IBN TATTOU & FENNANE, 2009
Centaurea diluta Aiton            RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  subsp. algeriensis (Cosson
  & Durieu) Maire
Centaurea nana Desf.              R?     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           IBN TATTOU & FENNANE, 2009
Hypochaeris radicata L.           RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  subsp. platylepis (Boiss.)
  Jahand. & Maire
Launaea fragilis (Asso) Pau       R?     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
Leontodon saxatilis Lam.          R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  subsp. mesorhynchus (Maire)
Tragopogonporrifolius L.          RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  subsp. macrocephalus
  (Pomel) Batt.

Rorippa Africana (Braun-          R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  Blanq.) Maire
Vella mairei Humbert              R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Dianthus sylvestris Wulfen        R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  subsp. longibracteatus                   FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
  (Maire) Greuter & Burdet
Herniaria pujosii Sauvage &       R?     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  Vindt                                    FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.)        R?     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  Rauschert subsp. hispanica               FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Juniperus thurifera L.            V      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Astragalus caprinus L.            R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
Ononispseudoserotina Batt.        R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  & Pit.                                   FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Ononis thomsonii Oliv.            R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Erodium malacoides (L.)           R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  L'Her. subsp. brevirostre                FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
  (Maire & Sam.) Guitt.

Nepeta nepetella L. subsp.        RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  amethystina Poiret
Origanum elongatum (Bonnet)       V      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  Emb. & Maire                             FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
Teucrium chamaedrys L.            RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  subsp. gracile Batt. Rech.               FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Tulipa sylvestris L.              RR     FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
Plantago major L. subsp.          RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
  intermedia (Gigib.)                      FENNANE &
Lange                                    IBN TATTOU, 2005
Plantago rhizoxylon Emb.          RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Veronica rosea Desf. subsp.       RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  virgata (Emb. & Maire)
  Dobignard & D. Jordan
Hordeum murinum L.                RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005;
                                           FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
Koeleria splendens Presl.         R      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005;
                                           FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
Scrophularia macrorrhyncha        RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
  (Humbert, Litard. & Maire)
  Ibn Tattou

Atropa belladonna L.              RR     FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
                                           FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 2005
Lycium europaeum L.              R ?
Taxus baccata L.                  V      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU, 1998;
Zygophyllaceae                             FOUGRACH ET AL., 2007
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.)         V      FENNANE & IBN TATTOU 1998

Figure 1.--The eight richest plant families in Morocco's
vascular flora.

Scrophulariaceae    134
Apiaceae            153
Lamiaceae           202
Caryophyllaceae     204
Brassicaceae        212
Poaceae             355
Asteraceae          550
Fabaceae            424

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 2.--The eight richest plant families in Marmoucha's
local flora.

Amaranthaceae       15
Rosaceae            21
Apiaceae            23
Lamiceae            28
Brassicaceae        32
Fabaceae            45
Poaceae             92
Asteraceae          48

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Date:Jan 1, 2013
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