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Flora y vegetacion de los ecosistemas costeros de Sterea Ellas y del este de la Grecia continental.

Flora and vegetation of some coastal ecosystems of Sterea Ellas and eastern continental Greece

INTRODUCTION

Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive and the most heavily used and threatened natural systems globally. Their deterioration due to human activities is intense and increasing. Nevertheless, they support a broad range of habitat types that contain a wealth of species and genetic diversity, they store and cycle nutrients, filter pollutants from inland freshwater systems, and help to protect shorelines from erosion and storms. Coastal regions include a wide array of near shore-terrestrial (dunes and sandy shores), and intertidal (estuaries, deltas, lagoons) environments, each of which provides its own distinct bundle of goods and services and faces somewhat different pressures.

In these ecosystems, the distribution pattern of plant communities is related to substrate properties such as soil salinity and moisture--both widely recognised as the most important factors that are controlled by temporary salt-water flooding. These properties determine the occurrence of two main types of coastal vegetation: plant communities in dune and sandy shore environments, and plant communities in maritime wetlands which are essentially able to grow on flooded and saline soils (Rivas-Martinez & al., 1980). The latter are arranged along a hygro-halophilous gradient. The muddy zones that are flooded or are directly influenced by seawater (mudflats, salt marshes), are vegetated by annual or perennial species with fleshy leaves or stems, able to withstand inundation and intense evaporation. The influence of tides on coastal vegetation depends on the relative duration of submergence and exposure, and the duration of this period is critical to the establishment of plant from seed, especially for annual plants such as Salicornia (Cutini & al., 2010). Further inland, the vegetation of salt meadows and brackish reed beds is usually more diverse and composed of various communities characterised by rushes and tall helophytes (MOLINA, 1994, 1996; CURCO, 2001; MOLINA & al., 2003). Coastal wetlands are regarded as transitional ecosystems regulating fluxes of materials and energy between the land and the sea. They are increasingly becoming the last remaining coastal biodiversity hot spots worldwide, as refuges for wildlife faced with the human squeeze (DE LAS HERAS & al., 2009; PERILLO & al., 2009).

The Greek coastal ecosystems have attracted the interest of botanists during past decades, and several publications concerning their vascular flora and vegetation are available. The most recent related research projects were carried out in Macedonia (BABALONAS & PAPASTERGIADOU, 1993; KARAGIANNAKIDOU & al., 2000; VASILIOU & al., 2000), Thrace (Drossos, 1992), Thessaly (DROSSOS & al., 1996; ELEFTHERIADOU & al., 1995), western Greece (GEORGIADIS & al., 1990, 1997; KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI, 1991, 2005; Raabe & KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI, 2000; SARIKA & al., 2005; CHRISTIA & PAPASTERGIADOU, 2007; KARAGIANNI & al., 2008; CHRISTIA & al., 2011) and Peloponnese (KORAKIS & GERASIMIDIS, 2006). Data on Northern Aegean coastal habitats (PAPASTERGIADOU & BABALONAS, 1996) as well as some reviews of the Greek coastal flora and vegetation have also been published (LAVRENTIADES, 1993; BABALONAS & al., 1995; SYKORA & al., 2003).

The flora and vegetation of near shore-terrestrial and wetland environments encountered in four coastal ecosystems in the eastern part of central Greece and of Sterea Ellas are the subject of this study. The investigated regions involve (1) a coastal ecosystem near the village of Sourpi (Pagasitikos Gulf, Magnissia Prefecture) called Elos Sourpis, (2) the Spercheios River Delta near the city of Lamia (Maliakos Gulf, Phthiotida Prefecture), (3) coastal area near the village of Scala Atalantis (Northern Evoikos Gulf, Phthiotida Prefecture) called Vourlias wetland, and (4) coastal area in the northern part of the Attiki Prefecture between Chalkutsi and Oropos villages (Southern Evoikos Gulf). Apart from some species reported from the coastal wetlands of Oropos (KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI & VALLIA-NATOU, 1994; KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI, 1995), there are no floristic or phytosociological reports from these regions.

This paper aims to provide the first inventory of the flora, vegetation and habitat types encountered in the abovementioned natural ecosystems and regions.

STUDY AREA

LOCATIONS AND GEOLOGY

The wetland Elos Sourpis is a coastal ecosystem (28 ha) of eastern continental Greece located between Platanos and Sourpi villages in the Pagasitikos Gulf (E 22[degrees]50'0" N 39[degrees]10'0") (Figure 1). it mainly consists of seasonally inundated mudflats, salt meadows, reed beds and Tamarix sp. A stream with intermittent flow crossing the area and a spring close to its upland border supply the wetland with fresh water. Seawater flows into the marsh, making the water brackish to saline. Middle Triassic to Jurassic marble forms the alpine geological substratum, outcropping on the southern part of the Sourpi Bay. Eastward of these formations appears the late Cretaceous flysch, namely phyllites and sandstones, with grey limestone intercalations. Quaternary alluvial clastic sediments, derived from the continental erosion and re-deposition of the above deposits, cover the alpine formations on the north-northwestern part of Sourpi, and are also found in coastal marine deposition of silts, sands and conglomerates (MARINOS & al., 1962).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The Spercheios River meets the sea at the eastern part of central Greece, in the southwest corner of the Maliakos Gulf (E 22[degrees]34'32" N 38[degrees]50'26") (Figure 1), where it forms an extensive outfall area that comprises floodplains, mudflats, salt marshes, reed beds and inlets of particular importance for many birds. This coastal estuarine system is included in the Special Protection Areas for avifauna and the Sites of Community Importance, as defined in directives 79/409/EEC and 92/43/EEC respectively. The core of the estuary covers 3966,38 ha while the wider area is close to 10000 ha. Most of the area outside the core is intensively cultivated--mainly as rice fields. The land around the estuary is occupied mainly by dry cropland and grasslands, while a small portion is covered by olive trees. Quaternary fluvial deposits cover the entire area of the Spercheios River Delta, in addition to coastal marine conglomerates. Erosion material (marls, silts, sandstones, conglomerates) originating from Neogene deposits lies to the west and southwest of the area. The Neogene deposits, with lignite horizons, contain lake invertebrate fossils, such as Limnaea, Pianorbis, Melanopsis, and Vivapara. Coastal marine Neogene sediments also outcrop in the area and contain fossil bivalves, such as Ostrea and Cardium (MARINOS & al., 1963).

The Atalanti or Vourlias wetland is located near to the village of Scala Atalantis in the Northern Evoikos Gulf (E 23[degrees]5'0" N 38[degrees]35'0") (Figure 1). it comprises a narrow coastal zone with mudflats, salt marshes, degraded wetland vegetation, agricultural land, and shallow inlets. The geological setting of the area consists of Quaternary clastic deposits (clays, sands, gravel, talus). These are mainly continental deposits originating from erosion and deposition of the substratum, which is exposed on the topographic highs further to west. Coastal conglomerate deposits have developed occasionally. Limestone formations appear mainly to the south (MARATOS, 1965).

The wetland area lying in the northern part of the Attiki Prefecture between the villages of Chalkutsi and Scala of Oropos (E 23[degrees]44'0"N 38[degrees]20'0") (Figure 1) is delimited on its western side by the Asopos River estuary and covers 420 ha. its eastern boundaries are designated by a complex system of sand and mudflats seasonally inundated by seawater, forming lagoons and changing the landscape of sea-inlets. its central part was a salt marsh formation that has recently been departmentalised by buildings and roads. The deltaic geological deposits that cover the wetland area of Oropos consist of alluvial sands and silts, with a few conglomerates and red silts. These were deposited in old-river valleys, across a lowland area open to the sea. The coasts of the area expose sand and silty lacustrine and riverine deposits, and beach rocks. During the most recent geological times, these Holocene deposits represent the evolution of the Asopos Delta, as the river transported and deposited sedimentary material further seawards, extending the coastal area towards the sea (KATSIKATSOS, 2000; PARGINOS & al., 2007).

The ecosystems we investigated are important sites for the maintenance of local and regional biodiversity. They hold various types of habitat and vegetation, offering ideal environments for many species of avifauna. They are intermediate resting stations for migrating and wintering birds and they also sustain endemic or protected species such as Barbus cyclolepis cholorematicus Stephanidis, a fish endemic to the Cholorema stream that flows near the upland border of the Elos Sourpis wetland. Likewise, the temporary or permanent shallow brackish waters encountered in many habitat types of these ecosystems represent natural parks for the reproduction of fish and the development of their juveniles.

CLIMATE

According to the xerothermic index (x) (BAGNOULS & GAUSSEN, 1953), and based on climatic data from the meteorological stations of volos (alt. 14.62 m, period 1956-1997), Lamia (alt. 143.4 m, period 1970-1997) and Tanagra (139 m, period 1958-2010), the climate of the regions can be characterised as meso-Mediterranean, intensely so in Tanagra (late April to early September, 68.69 biologically dry days) and weakly in the districts of Volos (late April to August, 48.45 biologically dry days) and Lamia (May to August, 45.53 biologically dry days). The xerothermic index reflects the intensity of dry period in a given region and represents the total number of biologically dry days of the dry months which are defined by the ombrothermic diagram of this region. For calculation of biologically dry days of each dry month a mathematical formula is used taking into account 1) the total number of days per dry month 2) the total number of rainy days per dry monh 3) the total number with dew per dry month and 4) the relative humidity coefficient. Based on EMBERGER'S (1955, 1959) and SAUVAGE'S (1963) climatic classifications, the meteorological station of Lamia belongs to the sub-humid bioclimatic zone, the meteorological station of Volos to the semi-arid bioclimatic zone, and the meteorological station of Tanagra to the arid bioclimatic zone.

DATA AND METHODS

The floristic and habitat records are based on data collected by the author during the spring and summer of 1999-2001, partly within the framework of the Natura 2000 Vegetation and Habitat Identification and Mapping project. For the study of the flora, 476 plant specimens were collected and identified in the Laboratory of Systematic Botany, University of Athens (ATHU). The nomenclature of taxa follows mainly GREUTER & al. (1984, 1986, 1989, 2008), TUTIN & al. (19681980, 1993) and STRID & KIT TAN (1997, 2002). Life-form classification followed RAUNKIAER'S (1934) system improved by ELLENBERG and MUELLER-DOMBOIS (1967) and was based on the works of GARCKE & VON WEIHE (1972), PIGNATTI (1982) and OBERDORFER (1990). For the chorological types, PIGNATTI'S (1982) classification was used in combination with that of TUTIN & al. (1968-1980, 1993).

For the identification and description of the prevailing vegetation types, 141 releves (vegetation sample plots) were analysed in the field according to the BRAUN-BLANQUET method (WESTHOFF & VAN DER MAAREL 1980; KENT & COKER, 1992). The cover-abundance degree was estimated using the extended (9-point) BRAUN-BLANQUET scale (BARKMAN & al., 1964). The collection of vegetation samples was followed by a synthetic phase, leading to the distinction of the community types and their final classification into higher syntaxonomic units. At this stage the releves were clustered into a "primary" or "raw" table in which the species were listed after their degree of presence. The primary table was rearranged several times, according to the table technique elaboration proposed by Knapp (1958) and Ellenberg (1956), in order to establish groupings of releves by rearrangment of columns as well as to group taxa with similar distributions in the table by rearrangement of rows. The result of the first rearrangement of the primary table was the "presence table" in which became apparent, whether the releves vary irregularly, or certain combinations of species prefer some releves. Such groups of species were more or less mutually exclusive and were used as groups of differential species (provisional sets of diagnostic species) for further rearrangement of the presence table (Tables 2-10). in a next stage the differentiating species were grouped on the left hand side of the paper, the rows were arranged in their corresponding groups and the releves were rearranged to show a diagonal order of species from the left to the right of the table. After a complete elaboration this table is a "differentiated table" in which the groups of differentiating species that correspond to the phytocoena included in the table appear clearly. The next step comprises the replacement of each releve group (phytocoenon) distinguished on the basis of a specific group of differential species, by a column in which for each participating species the presence degree is indicated as a constancy class value. The table derived from this step of elaboration is called "synoptic table' (Tables 11, 12) and after its comparison with tables from other types of vegetation of the same or adjacent regions an idea was formed about the local diagnostic species groups (character-species, differential species, constant companions). With those species the vegetation units (phytocoena) were then identified. Afterwards the synoptic tables were compared with literature and with tables with similar vegetation types from other regions. Character-taxa were found and a syntaxonomic interpretation was attempted. Vegetation units were delimited based on an assessment of species fidelity and are given in phytosociological tables (Tables 2-10). Syntaxonomic nomenclature is mainly based on PHILIPPI (1992), BALATOVA-OULACKOVA & al. (1993), MUCINA (1997), RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al. (2001), SYKORA & al. (2003), and DIEZ-GARRETAS & al. (2003).

The delimitation and classification of habitats were achieved through the assessment of the dominant vegetation types and their characteristic and diagnostic species, as described in LAVRENTIADES (1964, 1971), HORVAT & al. (1974), BABALONAS (1979), DIMOPOULOS & al. (1995), and SYKORA & al. (2003). The coding of the discernible habitats follows DAFIS & al. (1999, 2001) and the INTERPRETATION MANUAL OF EU HABITAT TYPES (2003).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

FLORA

The vascular flora of the investigated coastal ecosystems includes 217 taxa (181 species, 36 subspecies) of 135 genera and 42 families. Apart from a few species already recorded from the Oropos coastal wetland area (KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI & VALLIANATOU, 1994; KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI, 1995) the remainder are new for the investigated habitats. Among the families identified Graminae were the most diverse in species (53 taxa), followed by Compositae (19 taxa), Leguminosae (17 taxa), Chenopodiaceae (13 taxa) and Cyperaceae (13 taxa). Of the plant species found in the areas of study only one is pteridophyte while the rest are all Spermatophytes (Dicotyledons 130 taxa, Monocotyledons 86 taxa). From all the plant taxa encountered we wish to emphasize the presence of Althenia filiformis and Bolanthus thymifolius.

Althenia filiformis is a Mediterranean element that prefers brackish water. It usually colonizes sites with direct or indirect contact with the sea, but is also encountered in inland salt lakes. It usually grows in water up to 50 cm deep, but in our case it was mostly found in <10 cm of water at the edge of a small lagoon that lies at the southern end of the Oropos wetland area. It was either the only phanerophyte in the water or shared the habitat with Ruppia maritima. KOUMPLI-SOVANTZI (1995) reported A. filiformis from a vernal pool in the neighbourhood of the village of Oropos and from coastal aquatic habitats of Naxos island. These are the only records of this species from Greece.

The Greek endemic species Bolanthus thymifolius was found on sandy soil at the mouth of Spercheios River. This species is scattered from Strerea Ellas and Evvia to NE Greece, in rocky places, usually on limestone (STRID & KIT TAN, 1997). According to TRIGAS (2003) it is mainly distributed in eastern Sterea Ellas and eastern Thessaly, sporadically occurring in Evvia and in northern Greece.

The life form spectrum in Figure 2 shows that in the investigated areas the proportion of Therophytes (101 taxa) is higher than that of other life forms. Hemicryptophytes (62 taxa) and Geophytes (23 taxa) are also quite well represented, whereas Chamaephytes (12 taxa), Phanerophytes (9 taxa) and Hydrophytes (11 taxa) occur in lower percentages. According to data in the literature Therophytes almost always predominate in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems (GARCIA & al., 1993), while a significant percentage of hemicryptophytes is usually observed when maritime wetlands are present in these ecosystems, due to the humid conditions that prevail in such habitats (BABALONAS, 1979; GEORGIADIS & al. 1997; KORAKIS & GERASIMIDIS, 2006). The chorological spectrum (Fig. 2) reveals a definite predominance of the Mediterranean element (60%) that represent the largest group, including 132 taxa of which 74 (34%) are Mediterranean (Medit., StenoMedit, Medit.-Atl., Medit.-Turan.) and 57 (26%) Euro-Mediterranean. The group of widespread taxa, although comprising a greater number of geoelements (Paleotemperate, Subcosmopolitan, Cosmopolitan, European, Eurasiatic, Circumboreal, Paleosubtropical, Subtropical, Eurosiberian and Thermo-cosmopolitan), is in second place and is represented by just 86 taxa (39%). Finally the Greek endemic element, makes up only a small percentage (0,45%, 1 taxon) of the chorological spectrum of the ecosystems studied.

The number of taxa found in the areas of study is rather low, if we take into account data concerning other coastal areas of Greece (GEORGIADIS & al., 1997; SARIKA & al., 2005), but it is widely accepted that in coastal wetlands a negative relationship exists between plant species richness and salinity. In fact, there is evidence in the literature to confirm that only relatively few plant species are able to tolerate a high salt concentration in the soil solution (GARCIA & al., 1993; MEDINSKI, 2007; PERELMAN & al., 2007). In the wetlands of Oropos we recorded 78 taxa; in the Atalanti wetland 71 taxa; in Elos Sourpis 80 taxa and in the Spercheios River Delta 111 taxa (see Appendix 1).

VEGETATION AND HABITAT TYPES

From the elaboration of data collected during the vegetation analysis in the field, a total of 6 associations, 2 subassociations and 13 communities not assigned formal rank were recognised (see symtaxonomical scheme). Classification of the distinguished vegetation units into habitat types according to directive 92/43/EU revealed nine habitat types that are strictly related to the soil humidity, salinity and texture (Table 1). A mosaic of plant communities, alternately distributed, was observed in all the investigated ecosystems, but the dominant vegetation units varied substantially among them. Thus, in the Spercheios River Delta, the communities of sandy soils, mudflats, salt meadows and reed beds are dominating the vegetation physiognomy. In the Elos Sourpis and in Atalanti wetlands the salt meadow and reed bed communities outweight the rest, whereas communities of Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic halophilous scrubs dominate in the Oropos wetland area (Table 1).

Annual vegetation of drift lines (habitat code: 1210)

The salt-resistant shout-lived communities of the drift line (a narrow habitat strip at the high tidal mark characterized by accumulation of debris) are grouped within the Cakiletea maritimae. The Cakiletea communities form an ecotone between the beach and the adjacent dune ecosystem. This habitat type of drift-line communities was encountered as a fragmented zone along the bay of Atalanti and in the coastal area of the Spercheios River Delta. The vegetation observed in this zone was exclusively represented by scattered stands of Cakile maritima and Salsola kali. The floristic composition of these stands allows their classification within the Cakiletea maritimae as the Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae (Table 2).

Embryonic shifting dunes (habitat code: 2110)

Embryonic shifting dunes are the first stage of dune development and their vegetation colonises areas of incipient dune formation. The vegetation of this habitat type was represented by a discernible plant community composed of several psammophytes, all character and diagnostic species of the Ammophiletea. The pioneer species of the embryonic shifting dunes, Elytrigia juncea, along with Eryngium maritimum and Sporobolus virginicus, constitute a typical association of this habitat type--the Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici, which was encountered in the Spercheios River Delta and in the bay of Atalanti (Table 2). The Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici usually grows in places that are temporarily inundated by the sea. It is the most halophytic of the dune communities and shows a greater resistance to inundation than the vegetation on other sand dunes (Sykora & al., 2003).

Malcolmietalia dune grasslands (habitat code: 2230)

Matthiola tricuspidata, Anthemis tomentosa, Medicago littoralis, and Silene colorata all diagnostic species of the class Thero-Brachypodietea (Diez-Garretas & al., 2003), are the inhabitants of this habitat type which occurs in the Spercheios River Delta and in the coastal wetlands near the village of Oropos (Table 3). They have developed at extended patches in which were abundant and constantly present. The above-mentioned stands of the Thero-Brachypodietea belong to the Cutandietalia maritimae the Alkanno tinctoriae-Maresion nanae. These syntaxa, which have Mediterranean distribution comprise ephemeral plant communities found on coastal sands and dunes with salt spray.

The Aeluropus littoralis dominated stands observed in the wetlands of Oropos, in the Spercheios River Delta and in the wetland Elos Sourpis were constantly associated with species of Cutandietalia maritimae such as Anthemis tomentosa and Matthiola tricuspitada (Table 3). Aeluropus littoralis is widespread mostly in the coastal territories of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea Coasts and according to Mucina (1997) it is listed as a diagnostic species of the Juncetea maritimi (at least in the Mediterranean). There are several communities dominated by A. littoralis described from Spain and Italy (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2001; CAZZIN & al., 2009) as well as from the Black Sea coast of Romania (THEURILLAT & Moravec 1998; Fagaras & al., 2003) and of Goksu Delta-Turkey (KARAOMERLIOGLOU, 2007) included in the Juncetea maritimi. In my opinion, the floristic composition of the A. littoralis stands found in the study areas does not allow their classification within the Juncetea maritimi. With the exception of Triglochin bulbosa subsp. barrelieri and Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus, no Juncetea maritimi species have been recorded in these stands. On the contrary, character species of the Thero-Brachypodietea, Saginetea maritimae and Stellarietea mediae were generally frequent (Table 3). The Aeluropetum littoralis, reported from northern Greece (BABALONAS, 1979; VASILIOU & al., 2000), resembles several associations described from Bulgaria (TZONEV & al., 2008), Romania (KRAUSH, 1965; SERBANESCU, 1965; GEHU & al., 1994; Pop, 2002) and Ukraine (DUBYNA & NEUHAUSLOVA, 2000). The stands of A. littoralis in the investigated areas differ floristically to a great extent from all these communities, in that they consist exclusively of character and diagnostic species belonging to the Salicocornietea fruticosae (BABALONAS, 1979; VASILIOU & al., 2000) or the Festuco-Puccinellietea (TZONEV & al., 2008).

Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand (habitat code: Thero-Salicornietea, 1310)

The phanerogamic communities occuping the uppermost zones of the tidal mudflats are poor in species and are classified within the Thero-Salicornietea. These flood-dependent communities consist of annual succulent halophytes (Chenopodiaceae), and are confined to extreme habitats with low oxygen content in the soil. In the Mediterranean region this vegetation is mostly represented by Salicornia or Suaeda dominated phytocoenoses. These genera are taxonomically intricate encompassing many microspecies difficult to identify. According to STRID & KIT TAN (1997) the genus Salicornia in Greece is solely represented by the species S. EUROPAEA. In our study areas the zone of tidal mudflats was thinly vegetated either by S. europaea-Spergularia salina (Elos Sourpis and Atalanti wetland) or by Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens co-dominated stands (Spercheios River Delta) (Table 4). Spergularia salina is an annual nitro-halophilous species of coastal and continental marshes that is usually reported as a character and diagnostic species of the Juncetea maritimi (MUCINA, 1997; COSTA & al., 2009) or of the Saginetea maritimae (CURCO, 2000). GONZALEZ (2009) reported from Spain a community dominated by Salicornia europaea and Spergularia marina as the Spergulario marinae-Salicornietum europeae. He classified this association within the Thero-Salicornietea, as suggested also by RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al. (2001). Likewise PEINADO & al. (1995) reported S. marina as a therophyte that thrives in gaps within the upper salt marsh associations of the Salicornietea fruticosae, (Arthrocnemion glauci) or in the associations of the Thero-Salicornietea dominated by Suaeda (Thero-Suaedion). We suggest that our releves with Salicornia europaea and Spergularia salina resemble the association Spergulario marinae-Salicornietum europeae.

Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic halophilous scrub (habitat code: Salicornietea fruticosae, 1420)

In the zonation, the pioneer vegetation of the Thero-Salicornietea is usually replaced by communities of semi-woody shrubs and perennial halophytes that occur on waterlogged saline and muddy substrates and are classified as the Salicornietea fruticosae. This vegetation is not limited to the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, but extends also to North Africa and Middle East (KALIGARIC & SKORNIK, 2007). It is tolerant to long floods that occur during the winter, whereas in the summer it appears on dry, salt and crusty soils. In our study areas five fairly discernible communities of the halophilous scrub were encountered.

The Arthrocnemum macrostachyum stands were recorded in coastal marshy plains near the village of Oropos and in the Spercheios River Delta. Sarcocornia fruticosa and Halimione portulacoides were always present along with A. macrostachyum in the phytocoenoses of Oropos, and Halocnemum strobilaceum was found in the phytocoenoses of the Spercheios River Delta (Table 5). WOLFF (1968) reported from Mesolonghi a more diverse community with a similar structure as the Arthrocnemo glauci-Halocnemetum strobilacei association. Arthrocnemetum glauci and Halimiono-Arthrocnemetum glauci, reported from eastern Turkey (ISTANBULLUOGLU, 2004), have also similarities with the Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-dominated stands found in area.

Distinct patches of Sarcocornia fruticosa and Halocnemum strobilaceum, constantly associated with Parapholis incurva, were observed only in the marshy plains of Oropos (Table 5). They obviously represent a community that strongly resembles the Arthrocnemo-Halocnemetum strobilacei reported from the Goksu Delta-Turkey (KARAOMERLIOGLU, 2007) and the Halocnemetum strobilacei reported from the Evros River Delta (BABALONAS, 1979).

In the study areas the most frequent and well represented phytocoenoses of this habitat type were Sarcocornia perennis--Halimione portulacoides stands, the majority of which were characterised by the constant and abundant presence of Puccinellia festuciformis (Table 6). WOLFF (1968) and BABALONAS (1979) reported similar but more diverse communities from Mesolonghi and Evros as the Salicornietum radicantis. A community dominated by Sarcocornia perennis and Halimione portulacoides, reported from the Yumortalik Lagoon, Turkey (ALTINOZLU, 2004) seems most similar to our community.

Two releves with Limonium gmelinii were recorded[right arrow] in the Spercheios River Delta and three with L. virgatum, on the marshy plains of the Sourpi bay (Table 5). These probably represent communities of the Limonietalia, rich in perennial, rosette-forming Limonium spp., which in Mediterranean coastal regions occupy soils temporarily permeated (though not inundated) by saline water and are subject to extreme summer drying by formations of salt inflorescences. Similar formations are known from several coastal areas of Greece (Babalonas, 1979).

Mediterranean salt meadows (habitat code: 1410)

Communities dominated by tall rushes, such as Juncus maritimus, J. acutus and J. subulatus, create impressive dense grasslands on subsaline soils saturated with surface or underground water and have usually been assigned to the Juncetea maritimi. These communities form a more or less continuous fringe on the transitional zone between the upper salt marsh zone and the upland vegetation, growing on sites where salt and fresh phreatic waters mix (Rivas-Martinez & al., 1980).

Stands dominated by J. maritimus or J. acutus, or both, are occasionally treated in the literature as representative segments of the Juncetum maritimo-acuti (GANIATSAS, 1936; HORVATIC, 1934; BABALONAS, 1979; GEORGIADIS & al., 1997; FRONDONI & IBERITE, 2002; KALIGARIC & SKORNIK, 2006), whereas in some cases they have been considered either as the Juncetum maritimi or as the Juncetum acuti (LAVRENTIADES, 1963; BABALONAS, 1979; KORAKIS & GERASIMIDIS, 2006; KARAGIANNI & al., 2008). In our study areas seven releves were dominated by J. maritimus, three by J. maritimus along with J. acutus, whereas in five releves J. acutus was always combined with Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus (Table 7). We propose that all these stands should be considered as belonging to Juncetum maritimo-acuti, which was represented by its typical form and a phase with Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus.

Two more discernible plant communities, one dominated by Juncus subulatus and one by Juncus heldreichianus, were encountered in the salt meadows of the study area (Table 8). Phytocoenoses dominated by these species are reported less frequently in the literature. KARAGIANNI & al. (2008) mentioned a J. subulatus community from several rivers of Western Greece, and pointed out several species, such as J. acutus, Bolboschoenus maritimus, Aeluropus littoralis, Sarcocornia fruticosa, Tamarix parviflora, as coexistent in its structure. GRADSTEIN & SMITTENBERG (1977), who described the Juncetum subulato-maritimi noted that this vegetation was characterised by dense and floristically rather poor mats of J. maritimus and J. subulatus mixed with larger tufts of J. heldreichianus. Similar in structure, but without J. heldreichianus, is the Scirpo-Juncetum subulati reported from north-eastern Sardinia (BIONDI & al., 2004) and from Lazio, Italy (FRONDONI & IBERITE, 2002). In our case J. subulatus formed monospecific stands, significantly resembling those of the Scirpo-Juncetum subulati from Lazio (Table 8).

Finally, three Carex divisa-Carex distans dominated releves (Table 7) from subsaline grasslands of the Atalanti wetland should be probably assigned to the Juncetea maritimi (e. g ADAM, 1977). LAVRENTIADES (1964) reported similar but more diverse plant communities from the coasts of the western Peloponnese, stating that they resembled those described by BRAUN-BLANQUET & al. (1952) in the Mediterranean coasts of France under the Caricetum divisae. Carex divisa is typically found in damp brackish pastures near the sea (WATTS & VILAR, 1997).

Reed beds (habitat code: 72A0)

Reed beds dominated by Phragmites australis, are an important type of vegetation in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Communities of common reed (Phragmites australis) or of reed-like tall helophytes (Typha and Scirpus), classified within the Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea, were found in all the investigated areas. These communities show a vigorous development, expanding as continuous girdles along the Asopos River mouth and in the Spercheios River Delta. In the rest of the sites studied they were represented by spot-like stands occurring through the subsaline grasslands of the Juncetea maritimi, or in muddy brackish flats amongst the perennial halophytes of Salicornietea fruticosae. This type of vegetation, which is also developed at the edges of the subsaline habitats, towards to the uplands and along ditches, mainly consisted either of Phragmites australis or of Bolboschoenus maritimus dominated stands.

Bolboschoenus maritimus stands of the Bolboschoenetum maritimi were mainly found in sites directly connected with the sea (estuaries) or in sites flooded periodically by salt water (Table 9). According to literature data (WOLFF 1968; GRADSTEIN & SMITTENBERG 1977; BABALONAS 1979; LASTRUCCI & al., 2010) they usually achieve their optimum in the vicinity of lagoons, where salt and fresh waters mix, but they can also grow successfully in shallow waters of lakesides, ditches and rivers.

Phragmites australis stands represent the Phragmitetum communis (Table 10). The stands of this association usually thrive in fresh water habitats, but its occurrence in coastal wetlands, (BABALONAS 1979; CASSAR & al., 2008; FAGARAS, 2008; TINNER & al., 2009), suggest that are well adapted to such environments as well. It is well known that Phragmites australis, the essential and many times the sole species of this community, develops equally well in costal salt marshes and in fresh water wetlands lying at higher elevation. In the wetlands of the study area the typical form of this community (Table 10, rels. 1-5) was detected in slightly brackish inland sites, where soil saturation or inundation was induced mainly by fresh water. At these sites, the community included pure and very species-poor stands in which P. australis was the sole constituent (Elos Sourpis, Atalanti wetland and Spercheios River Delta).

On plains closer to the sea and more or less affected by salt water, two rather more halophytic variants of the community were observed: one with Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus (Table 10, rels. 7-16) and the other with Juncus subulatus (Table 10, rels.18-22). Each variant was characterised by the constant presence of the corresponding differential species, and we propose that both should be considered as sub-units within the Phragmitetum communis.

Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani (Table 9) was the most restrict element of reed-bed vegetation found in the area as its stands of Scirpus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani and some locally prominent dominant species (Typha domingensis and Bolboschoenus maritimus) were encountered in Elos Sourpis solely. IRIMIA & DANU (2010) reported similar plant community from vaslui river basin, Romania. According to literature (FAGARAS, 2007; LASTRUCCI & al., 2010) communities dominated by Scirpus lacustris subsp. Tabernaemontani thrive both on brackish and freshwater habitats.

Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition-type vegetation (habitat code: 3150)

In the upland border of the wetland Elos Sourpis fresh water springs and shallow depressions fill up with standing water, providing ideal conditions to support a community consisting of Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum (Table 9). At the height of the growing season an increase in biomass induces a spectacular development of species that cover large areas. Communities of similar structure are reported in the literature either as the Myriophyllo-Potametum (Polic & al., 2008) or more frequently as the Potamo pectinati-Myriophylletum spicati (MOLINA & SARDINERO, 1998; NINOT & al., 2000; IMERI & al., 2010). Both species are very phenoplastic. They usually occur in inland freshwaters, but can grow equally well in slightly brackish water where the salinity does not exceed 6%c (VAN WIJK & al., 1988; VAN WIJCK & al., 1994). The mechanisms by which supra-optimal salinity affects the distribution of higher plants that occur mainly in freshwater are not known, but as SCULTHORPE (1967) pointed out, they are probably varied and complex. As was demonstrated by VAN WIJK & al. (1988) species with a wide ecological range, such as P. pectinatus and M. spicatum, develop into genetically different populations that are adapted to local habitat characteristics.

Thermo-Mediterranean riparian galleries (habitat code:92D0)

Tamarix scrub was encountered in the wetland Elos Sourpis. During our visits to the area no flowering individuals of the dominant tamarisk shrubs were found and no precise identification into species was possible. Thus, the exact syntaxonomical position of this type of vegetation is difficult to define. However the general floristic composition of stands allows their classification within the Nerio-Tamaricetea. Many taxa such as Bromus hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus, Hordeum leporinum, Hordeum geniculatum, Torilis nodosa, Poa trivialis subsp. trivialis, Cynosurus echinatus and Halimione portulacoides were constantly associated with these phytocoenoses, which formed vigorous thickets in the southern part of the wetland towards its upland borders.

The halophytic vegetation found in the areas of study is highly diverse, as shown by the presence of 21 different vegetation types assigned to 12 alliances, 10 orders and 8 phytosociological classes (see syntaxonomomical scheme). The vegetation units are presented in two synoptic tables of species constancy, in which the number of releves and the average number of species of each plant community are given (Tables 11, 12). Species diversity of the vegetation units identified is rather diminished, as their average numbers of species did not exceed 8.6 taxa. Species poorness is a common feature of many similar vegetation units, both within Greece (LAVRENTIADES, 1964; WOLFF, 1968; BABALONAS, 1979) and in geographically more distant areas (ALCARAZ & al., 1986; FILIGHEDDU & al., 2000; FRONDONI & IBERITE, 2002; BIONDI & al., 2004; KALIGARIC & SKORNIK, 2007; MARTIS & SERRI, 2009).

The most diverse identified plant communities on the basis of their complexity (expressed as species diversity) were the following: Matthiola tricuspidata-Anthemis tomentosa community (average number of species 8.6), Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea community (average number of species 8.1), Carex divisa-Carex acuta community (average number of species 8), Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici (average number of species 7.5) and Aeluropus littoralis community (average number of species 7.2).
APPENDIX 1

List of taxa found in the investigated coastal regions.
Abbreviations are: Sp (Spercheios River Delta), Sr (Elos
Sourpis), At (Atalanti wetland), and Or (Oropos wetlands).

                                                  Life form

Pteridophyta
Equisetaceae
Equisetum arvense L.                              G rhiz
Angiospermae Dicotyledones
Apocynaceae
Nerium oleander L.                                P caesp
Asclepiadaceae
Cynanchum acutum L.                               P lian
Boraginaceae
Echium arenarium Guss.                            H bienn
Capparaceae
Capparis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa                np
Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria leptoclados (Reichenb.) Guss.            T scap
Bolanthus thymifolius (Sm.) Phitos                Ch suffr
Petrorhagia dubia (Rafin.) G. Lopez & Romo        T scap
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill                       T scap
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.                   T scap
Silene colorata Poiret                            T scap
Silene fabaria (L.) Sm. subsp. fabaria            H scap
Silene sedoides Poiret                            T scap
Spergularia salina J. Presl & C. Presl            T scap
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                        T rept
Chenopodiaceae
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) K. Koch       Ch succH
Atriplexprostrata Bouch. ex DC.                   T scap
Atriplex tatarica L.                              T scap

Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.        H scap
Halimione portulacoides L.                        Ch frut
Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pallas) M. Bieb.         Ch succ
Salicornia europaea L.                            T scap
Salsola kali L.                                   T scap
Salsola soda L.                                   T scap

Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott            Ch succ
Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A. J. Scott         Ch succ
Suaeda splendens (Pourret) Gren. & Gordon         T scap
Suaeda maritima (L) Dumort.                       T scap
Compositae
Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers.                  T scap
Anthemis tomentosa L.                             T scap
Artemisia sp.
Atractylis cancellata L.                          T scap
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L.                    T scap
Cichorium intibus L.                              H scap
Cirsium creticum (Lam.) D'Urv. subsp. creticum    H bienn
Cota tinctoria (L.) Gay                           H bienn

Crepis setosa Haller fil.                         T scap
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter                   H scap
Hypochoeris achyrophorus L.                       T scap
Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort.                 Ch suffr
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.                 H scap
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth                    H scap
Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.                T scap
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) N. Kilian & Greuter         G bulb
Sonchus oleraceus L.                              T scap
Tragopogon dubius Scop.                           H bienn
Trifoliumpannonicum subsp. Tripolium              H bienn
  (L.) Greuter
Xanthium strumarium L.                            T scap
Convolvulaceae
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.                     H scand
Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roemer & Schultes      G rhiz
Cruciferae
Brassica geniculata (Desf.) Snogerup &            H scap
  B. Snogerup
Cakile maritima Scop.                             T scap
Hymenolobus procumbens (L.)                       T scap
  Nutt. subsp. procumbens
Lepidium draba l.                                 G rhiz
Malcolmia flexuosa (Sm.) Sm.                      T scap
Matthiola tricuspidata (L.) R. Br.                T scap
Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.                       T scap
Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba                       T scap
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia helioscopia L.                          T scap
Euphorbia parallias L.                            Ch frut
Euphorbia peplis L.                               T rept
Fumariaceae
Fumaria kraliki Jordan                            T scap
Gentianaceae
Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch                  T scap
Centaurium tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. & Link)        T scap
  Fritsch subsp. tenuiflorum
Geraniaceae
Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Her.                      T scap
Geranium molle subsp. Brutium                     H scap
  (Gasparr.) Graebner
Geranium dissectum L.                             T scap
Geranium rotundifolium L.                         T scap
Haloracaceae
Myriophyllum spicatum L.                          Hyd
Labiatae
Lycopus europaeus L.                              H scap
Marrubium peregrinum L                            H scap
Satureja vulgaris subsp. arundana (Boiss.)        H scap
  Greuter & Burdet
Vitex agnus-castus L.                             P caesp
Leguminosae
Lotus corniculatus L.                             H scap
Lotus cytisoides L.                               Ch suffr
Lotus palustris Willd.                            H scap
Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson                      T scap
Medicago littoralis Loisel                        T scap
Medicago marina L.                                Ch rept
Medicago polymorpha L.                            T scap
Medicago scutellata (L.) Miller                   T scap
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.                       T scap
Melilotus segetalis (Brot.) Ser.                  T scap
Trifolium angustifolium L.                        T scap
Trifolium campestre Schreber                      T scap
Trifolium fragiferum L.                           H rept
Trifolium ligusticum Loisel.                      T scap
Trifolium scabrum L.                              T rept
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh.              T scap
Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa                 T scap
Linaceae
Linum bienne Miller                               H bienn
Orobanchaceae
Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel                 T scap
Papaveraceae
Papaver rhoeas L.                                 T scap
Plantaginaceae
Linaria micrantha (Cav.) Hoffmanns & Link         T scap
Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus            H scap
Plantago crassifolia Forsskal                     H ros
Plantago lagopus L.                               T scap
Plantago lanceolata L.                            H ros
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.                    H scap
Veronica anagalloides Guss.                       T scap
Platanaceae
Platanus orientalis L.                            P scap
Plumbaginaceae
Limonium bellidifolium (Gouan) Dumort             H ros
Limonium graecum (Poiret) Rech. fil.              Ch suffr

Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) O. Kuntze              H ros
Limonium narbonense Miller                        H ros
Limonium sinuatum (L.) Miller                     H scap
Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr.                 H ros
Polygonaceae
Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray                     T scap
Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.                T rept
Rumex conglomeratus Murray                        H scap
Rumex patientia L.                                H scap
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis L.                             T rept
Samolus valerandi L.                              H scap
Ranunculaceae
Nigella damascena L.                              T scap
Ranunculus muricatus L.                           T scap
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L.                                 T scap
Galium spurium L.                                 T scap
Salicaceae
Salix alba L.                                     P scap
Salix fragilis L.                                 P caesp
Tamaricaceae
Tamarixparviflora DC.                             P caesp
Tamarix tetrandra Pallas ex M. Bieb.              P caesp
Tamarix sp.                                       P caesp
Umbelliferae
Apium graveolens L.                               H scap
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.                        H scap
Bupleurum tenuissimum L.                          T scap
Crithmum maritimum L.                             Ch suffr
Daucus carota L.                                  H bienn
Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm.                      T scap
Eryngium maritimum L.                             G rhiz
Malabaila aurea (Sibth. & Sm.) Boiss.             H scap
Oenanthe silaifolia M. Bieb.                      H scap
Smyrnium rotundifolium Miller                     H bienn
Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner                      T scap
Urticaceae
Parietaria cretica L.                             T rept
Angiospermae--Monocotyledones
Cyperaceae
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla                Hyd
Carex distans L.                                  H caesp
Carex divisa Hudson                               G rhiz
Carex extensa Good.                               H caesp
Carex hispida Willd.                              G rhiz
Carex pendula Hudson                              H caesp
Carex spicata Hudson                              H caesp
Cyperus glaber L.                                 T scap
Cyperus laevigatus subsp. distachyos (All.)       G rhiz
  Maire & Weiller
Cyperus longus L.                                 G rhiz
Scirpus cernuus vahl                              T scap
Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak                G rhiz
Scirpus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani          Hyd
  (C.C. Gmelin) Syme
Gramineae
Aegilops triuncialis L.                           T scap
Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.                G rhiz
Alopecuros myosuroides Hudson                     T scap
Anisantha diandra (Roth) Tutin ex Tzvelev         T scap
Anisantha madritensis subsp. delilei (Boiss.)     T scap
  Bracchi, Banfi & Galasso
Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski                      T scap
Avena barbata Pott ex Link subsp. barbata         T scap
Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana (Durieu)        T scap
  Gillet & MaMagne
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson)                  H caesp
  P. Beauv. subsp. sylvaticum
Bromus alopecuros Poiret subsp. alopecuros        T scap
Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus            T scap
Bromus intermedius Guss.                          T scap
Bromus lanceolatus Roth                           T scap
Bromus scoparius L.                               T scap
Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb.                T scap
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                       G rhiz
Cynosurus echinatus L.                            T scap
Dactylis glomerata L.                             H caesp
Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark                  H caesp
  subsp. elongatus
Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus                  H caesp
  (Podp.) Melderis
Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens            G rhiz
Elytrigia juncea (L.) Nevski                      G rhiz
Elytrigia scirpea (C. Presl) Holub                H caesp
Hordeum bulbosum L.                               H caesp
Hordeum geniculatum All.                          T scap
Hordeum marinum Hudson                            T scap
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum                  T scap
  (Link) Arcang.
Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatus                   T scap
Lolium multiflorum Lam.                           T scap
Lolium rigidum Gaudin subsp. rigidum              T scap
Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata                  H caesp
Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) W. Greuter            T scap
Parapholis filiformis (Roth) C.E. Hubbard         T scap
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard              T scap
Parapholis marginata Runemark                     T caesp
Paspalum distichum L.                             G rhiz
Phalaris minor Retz.                              T scap
Phalaris paradoxa L.                              T scap
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel      Hyd
Piptatherum coerulescens (Desf.) P. Beauv.        H caesp
Piptatherum miliaceum (L.)                        H caesp
Cosson subsp. miliaceum
Poa trivialis L. subsp. trivialis                 H caesp
Polypogon maritimus Willd. subsp. maritimus       T caesp
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.                T scap
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.                H caesp
Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl.                 H caesp
  subsp. Distans
Puccinellia distans subsp. limosa (Schur) Jav.    H caesp
Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Parl.            H caesp
Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev                   T caesp
Tripidium ravennae (L.) H. Scholz                 H caesp
Sphenopus divaricatus (Gouan) Reichenb.           T scap
Sporobolus virginicus (L) Kunth                   G rhiz
Vulpia fasciculata (Forskal) Samp.                T caesp
Iridaceae
Morea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.                 G rhiz
Juncaceae
Juncus acutus L. subsp. acutus                    H caesp
Juncus articulatus L.                             G rhiz
Juncus bufonius L.                                T caesp
Juncus gerardi Loisel subsp. gerardi              G rhiz
Juncus heldreichianus Marsson ex Parl.            H caesp
Juncus hybridus Brot.                             T caesp
Juncus inflexus L.                                H caesp
Juncus littoralis C.A. Mayer                      H caesp
Juncus maritimus Lam.                             G rhiz
Juncus subulatus Forsskal                         G rhiz
Juncaginaceae
Trigloghin bulbosa subsp. barrelieri              G bulb
  (Loisel.) Rouy
Orchidaceae
Ophrys fusca Link                                 G bulb
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton pectinatus L.                         Hyd
Potamogeton pusillus L.                           Hyd
Ruppiaceae
Ruppia maritima L.                                Hyd
Sparganiaceae
Sparganium erectum subsp. neglectum               Hyd
  (Beeby) Schinz & Thell.
Typhaceae
Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steudel                 Hyd
Typha latifolia L.                                Hyd
Zannichelliaceae
Althenia filiformis Petit                         Hyd

                                                  Chorological type

Pteridophyta
Equisetaceae
Equisetum arvense L.                              Circumbor
Angiospermae Dicotyledones
Apocynaceae
Nerium oleander L.                                S-Steno-Medit
Asclepiadaceae
Cynanchum acutum L.                               Paleosubtrop
Boraginaceae
Echium arenarium Guss.                            Steno-Medit
Capparaceae
Capparis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa                Eurasiat (Subtrop)
Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria leptoclados (Reichenb.) Guss.            Paleotemp
Bolanthus thymifolius (Sm.) Phitos                Endem
Petrorhagia dubia (Rafin.) G. Lopez & Romo        S-Medit
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill                       Euro-Medit
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.                   Euro-Medit
Silene colorata Poiret                            Steno-Medit
Silene fabaria (L.) Sm. subsp. fabaria            E-Medit
Silene sedoides Poiret                            Steno-Medit
Spergularia salina J. Presl & C. Presl            Subcosmop
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                        Cosmop
Chenopodiaceae
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) K. Koch       Medit.- Macar
Atriplexprostrata Bouch. ex DC.                   Circumbor
Atriplex tatarica L.                              Centroas.
                                                    -Euro-Medit
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.        Euro-Medit
Halimione portulacoides L.                        Circumbor
Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pallas) M. Bieb.         S-Medit
Salicornia europaea L.                            W-Europ.
Salsola kali L.                                   Paleotemp
Salsola soda L.                                   Paleotemp
Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott            Euro-Medit
Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A. J. Scott         Euro-Medit
Suaeda splendens (Pourret) Gren. & Gordon         Centroas.-N-Medit
Suaeda maritima (L) Dumort.                       Cosmop
Compositae
Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers.                  Steno-Medit
Anthemis tomentosa L.                             NE-Medit
Artemisia sp.
Atractylis cancellata L.                          S-Medit
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L.                    Euro-Medit
Cichorium intibus L.                              Cosmop
Cirsium creticum (Lam.) D'Urv. subsp. creticum    NE-Medit
Cota tinctoria (L.) Gay                           Centro-Europ.
                                                    -Pontica Sp
Crepis setosa Haller fil.                         Euro-Medit.-Orient
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter                   Euro-Medit
Hypochoeris achyrophorus L.                       Steno-Medit
Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort.                 SW-Europ.
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.                 Euro-Medit
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth                    Steno-Medit
Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.                Euro-Medit
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) N. Kilian & Greuter         Steno-Medit
Sonchus oleraceus L.                              Eurasiat
Tragopogon dubius Scop.                           S-Europ.-Caucas
Trifoliumpannonicum subsp. Tripolium              Eurasiat
  (L.) Greuter
Xanthium strumarium L.                            Cosmop
Convolvulaceae
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.                     Paleotemp
Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roemer & Schultes      Cosmop
Cruciferae
Brassica geniculata (Desf.) Snogerup &            Medit.-Macar
  B. Snogerup
Cakile maritima Scop.                             Medit.-Atl
Hymenolobus procumbens (L.)                       Subcosmop
  Nutt. subsp. procumbens
Lepidium draba l.                                 Medit.-Turan
Malcolmia flexuosa (Sm.) Sm.                      SE-Europ.
Matthiola tricuspidata (L.) R. Br.                Steno-Medit
Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.                       Euro-Medit
Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba                       E-Medit
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia helioscopia L.                          Cosmop
Euphorbia parallias L.                            Euromedit.-Atl
Euphorbia peplis L.                               Euro-Medit
Fumariaceae
Fumaria kraliki Jordan                            S-Europ.-Sudsib
Gentianaceae
Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch                  Euro-Medit
Centaurium tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. & Link)        Paleotemp
  Fritsch subsp. tenuiflorum
Geraniaceae
Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Her.                      Euro-Medit.-Pontico
Geranium molle subsp. Brutium                     NE-Medit
  (Gasparr.) Graebner
Geranium dissectum L.                             Subcosmop
Geranium rotundifolium L.                         Paleotemp
Haloracaceae
Myriophyllum spicatum L.                          Subcosmop.-Temper
Labiatae
Lycopus europaeus L.                              Paleotemp
Marrubium peregrinum L                            SE-Europ.
Satureja vulgaris subsp. arundana (Boiss.)        Circumbor
  Greuter & Burdet
Vitex agnus-castus L.                             Steno-Medit.-Turan
Leguminosae
Lotus corniculatus L.                             Paleotemp
Lotus cytisoides L.                               Steno-Medit
Lotus palustris Willd.                            Steno-Medit
Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson                      Euro-Medit
Medicago littoralis Loisel                        Euro-Medit
Medicago marina L.                                Euro-Medit
Medicago polymorpha L.                            Euro-Medit
Medicago scutellata (L.) Miller                   Euro-Medit
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.                       Medit.-Turan
Melilotus segetalis (Brot.) Ser.                  S-Medit
Trifolium angustifolium L.                        Euro-Medit
Trifolium campestre Schreber                      W-Paleotemp
Trifolium fragiferum L.                           Paleotemp
Trifolium ligusticum Loisel.                      Steno-Medit
Trifolium scabrum L.                              Euro-Medit
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh.              Medit.-Turan
Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa                 Euro-Medit
Linaceae
Linum bienne Miller                               Euromedit.-Subatl
Orobanchaceae
Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel                 Medit.-Atl
Papaveraceae
Papaver rhoeas L.                                 E-Medit
Plantaginaceae
Linaria micrantha (Cav.) Hoffmanns & Link         Steno-Medit
Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus            Euro-Medit
Plantago crassifolia Forsskal                     Steno-Medit
Plantago lagopus L.                               Steno-Medit
Plantago lanceolata L.                            Eurasiat
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.                    Cosmop
Veronica anagalloides Guss.                       Euro-Medit
Platanaceae
Platanus orientalis L.                            SE-Europ.
Plumbaginaceae
Limonium bellidifolium (Gouan) Dumort             Medit.-Turan
Limonium graecum (Poiret) Rech. fil.              Steno-Medit.
                                                    -Centrooccic
Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) O. Kuntze              Steno-Medit
Limonium narbonense Miller                        Euro-Medit
Limonium sinuatum (L.) Miller                     S-Medit
Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr.                 Euro-Medit
Polygonaceae
Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray                     Subcosmop
Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.                SE-Europ.-Centroas
Rumex conglomeratus Murray                        Eurasiat
Rumex patientia L.                                E-Europ.-Turan
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis L.                             Euro-Medit
Samolus valerandi L.                              Subcosmop
Ranunculaceae
Nigella damascena L.                              Euro-Medit
Ranunculus muricatus L.                           Euro-Medit
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L.                                 Eurasiat
Galium spurium L.                                 Eurasiat
Salicaceae
Salix alba L.                                     Paleotemp
Salix fragilis L.                                 Eurosib
Tamaricaceae
Tamarixparviflora DC.                             E-Medit
Tamarix tetrandra Pallas ex M. Bieb.              Medit.-Turan
Tamarix sp.
Umbelliferae
Apium graveolens L.                               Paleotemp
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.                        Euro-Medit
Bupleurum tenuissimum L.                          Euro-Medit
Crithmum maritimum L.                             Euro-Medit
Daucus carota L.                                  Paleotemp
Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm.                      E-Medit
Eryngium maritimum L.                             Medit.-Atl
Malabaila aurea (Sibth. & Sm.) Boiss.             E-Steno-Medit
Oenanthe silaifolia M. Bieb.                      Medit.-Atl
Smyrnium rotundifolium Miller                     S-Medit
Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner                      Euro-Medit.-Turan
Urticaceae
Parietaria cretica L.                             Steno-Medit.-Orient
Angiospermae--Monocotyledones
Cyperaceae
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla                Euro-Medit
Carex distans L.                                  Euro-Medit
Carex divisa Hudson                               Euro-Medit
Carex extensa Good.                               Medit.-Atl
Carex hispida Willd.                              Steno-Medit
Carex pendula Hudson                              Eurasiat
Carex spicata Hudson                              Eurasiat
Cyperus glaber L.                                 Paleotemp
Cyperus laevigatus subsp. distachyos (All.)       Subcosmop
  Maire & Weiller
Cyperus longus L.                                 Paleotemp
Scirpus cernuus vahl                              Subcosmop
Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak                Euro-Medit
Scirpus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani          Eurosib
  (C.C. Gmelin) Syme
Gramineae
Aegilops triuncialis L.                           Euro-Medit
Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.                N-Medit.-Turan
Alopecuros myosuroides Hudson                     Paleotemp
Anisantha diandra (Roth) Tutin ex Tzvelev         Euro-Medit
Anisantha madritensis subsp. delilei (Boiss.)     Euro-Medit
  Bracchi, Banfi & Galasso
Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski                      S-Medit.-Turan
Avena barbata Pott ex Link subsp. barbata         Euro-Medit.-Turan
Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana (Durieu)        Euro-Medit
  Gillet & MaMagne
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson)                  Paleotemp
  P. Beauv. subsp. sylvaticum
Bromus alopecuros Poiret subsp. alopecuros        Steno-Medit
Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus            Subcosmop
Bromus intermedius Guss.                          Euro-Medit
Bromus lanceolatus Roth                           Paleotemp
Bromus scoparius L.                               Steno-Medit
Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb.                Euro-Medit
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                       Termo-Cosmop
Cynosurus echinatus L.                            Euro-Medit
Dactylis glomerata L.                             Paleotemp
Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark                  Euro-Medit
  subsp. elongatus
Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus                  Euro-Medit
  (Podp.) Melderis
Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens            Circumbor
Elytrigia juncea (L.) Nevski                      Euro-Medit
Elytrigia scirpea (C. Presl) Holub                E-Medit
Hordeum bulbosum L.                               Paleosubtrop
Hordeum geniculatum All.                          Steno-Medit
Hordeum marinum Hudson                            Euro-Medit.-Occid
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum                  Euro-Medit
  (Link) Arcang.
Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatus                   Euro-Medit
Lolium multiflorum Lam.                           Euro-Medit
Lolium rigidum Gaudin subsp. rigidum              Paleosubtrop
Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata                  Euro-Medit.-Turan
Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) W. Greuter            Euro-Medit
Parapholis filiformis (Roth) C.E. Hubbard         Medit.-Atl
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard              Medit.-Atl
Parapholis marginata Runemark                     E-Medit
Paspalum distichum L.                             Subcosmop
Phalaris minor Retz.                              Paleosubtrop
Phalaris paradoxa L.                              Steno-Medit
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel      Subcosmop
Piptatherum coerulescens (Desf.) P. Beauv.        Steno-Medit
Piptatherum miliaceum (L.)                        Medit.-Turan
Cosson subsp. miliaceum
Poa trivialis L. subsp. trivialis                 Eurasiat
Polypogon maritimus Willd. subsp. maritimus       Steno-Medit.-Macar
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.                Paleosubtrop
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.                Paleosubtrop
Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl.                 Paleotemp
  subsp. Distans
Puccinellia distans subsp. limosa (Schur) Jav.    SE-Europ.
Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Parl.            Steno-Medit
Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev                   Paleotemp
Tripidium ravennae (L.) H. Scholz                 Medit.-Turan
Sphenopus divaricatus (Gouan) Reichenb.           Medit.-Turan
Sporobolus virginicus (L) Kunth                   Subtrop
Vulpia fasciculata (Forskal) Samp.                Medit.-Atl
Iridaceae
Morea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.                 Steno-Medit
Juncaceae
Juncus acutus L. subsp. acutus                    Euro-Medit
Juncus articulatus L.                             Circumbor
Juncus bufonius L.                                Cosmop
Juncus gerardi Loisel subsp. gerardi              Circumbor
Juncus heldreichianus Marsson ex Parl.            E-Medit
Juncus hybridus Brot.                             Medit.-Atl
Juncus inflexus L.                                Paleotemp
Juncus littoralis C.A. Mayer                      Medit.-Turan
Juncus maritimus Lam.                             Subcosmop
Juncus subulatus Forsskal                         S-Medit
Juncaginaceae
Trigloghin bulbosa subsp. barrelieri              Steno-Medit
  (Loisel.) Rouy
Orchidaceae
Ophrys fusca Link                                 Steno-Medit
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton pectinatus L.                         Subcosmop
Potamogeton pusillus L.                           Subcosmop
Ruppiaceae
Ruppia maritima L.                                Cosmop
Sparganiaceae
Sparganium erectum subsp. neglectum               Eurasiat
  (Beeby) Schinz & Thell.
Typhaceae
Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steudel                 E-Medit
Typha latifolia L.                                Cosmop
Zannichelliaceae
Althenia filiformis Petit                         Steno-Medit.-Occid

                                                  Distibution

Pteridophyta
Equisetaceae
Equisetum arvense L.                              Sp
Angiospermae Dicotyledones
Apocynaceae
Nerium oleander L.                                Sp
Asclepiadaceae
Cynanchum acutum L.                               Sp, Sr
Boraginaceae
Echium arenarium Guss.                            Or
Capparaceae
Capparis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa
Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria leptoclados (Reichenb.) Guss.            Sp, Or
Bolanthus thymifolius (Sm.) Phitos                Sp
Petrorhagia dubia (Rafin.) G. Lopez & Romo        Sp
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill                       Or
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.                   Sp, Or
Silene colorata Poiret                            Sp, Or
Silene fabaria (L.) Sm. subsp. fabaria            Sr
Silene sedoides Poiret                            At
Spergularia salina J. Presl & C. Presl            Sp, Sr, At, Or
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                        Or
Chenopodiaceae
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) K. Koch       Sp, Or
Atriplexprostrata Bouch. ex DC.                   Sp, At
Atriplex tatarica L.                              Sp
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.        Sp
Halimione portulacoides L.                        Sp, Sr, At, Or
Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pallas) M. Bieb.         Sp, Or
Salicornia europaea L.                            Sp, Sr, At
Salsola kali L.                                   Sp
Salsola soda L.                                   Or
Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott            Or
Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A. J. Scott         Sp, Sr, At, Or
Suaeda splendens (Pourret) Gren. & Gordon         Sp
Suaeda maritima (L) Dumort.                       Sp, Sr, Or
Compositae
Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers.                  Or
Anthemis tomentosa L.                             Sp, Sr, At, Or
Artemisia sp.                                     Sr
Atractylis cancellata L.                          Sp
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L.                    Or
Cichorium intibus L.                              Sp
Cirsium creticum (Lam.) D'Urv. subsp. creticum    Sp, Sr
Cota tinctoria (L.) Gay
Crepis setosa Haller fil.                         Sr
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter                   At
Hypochoeris achyrophorus L.                       Sp
Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort.                 Sp, Sr
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.                 At
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth                    At
Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.                Sr
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) N. Kilian & Greuter         Or
Sonchus oleraceus L.                              Or
Tragopogon dubius Scop.                           Sr
Trifoliumpannonicum subsp. Tripolium              Sp, Sr
  (L.) Greuter
Xanthium strumarium L.                            Sp
Convolvulaceae
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.                     Sp, Sr
Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roemer & Schultes      Sp
Cruciferae
Brassica geniculata (Desf.) Snogerup &            Sp, At
  B. Snogerup
Cakile maritima Scop.                             Sp, At, Or
Hymenolobus procumbens (L.)                       Or
  Nutt. subsp. procumbens
Lepidium draba l.                                 Or
Malcolmia flexuosa (Sm.) Sm.                      At
Matthiola tricuspidata (L.) R. Br.                Sp, At, Or
Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.                       Sp
Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba                       Or
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia helioscopia L.                          Or
Euphorbia parallias L.                            Sp, At
Euphorbia peplis L.                               Or
Fumariaceae
Fumaria kraliki Jordan                            Or
Gentianaceae
Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch                  Sr
Centaurium tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. & Link)        Sp, Sr, Or
  Fritsch subsp. tenuiflorum
Geraniaceae
Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Her.                      Or
Geranium molle subsp. Brutium                     Or
  (Gasparr.) Graebner
Geranium dissectum L.                             Or
Geranium rotundifolium L.                         Sr
Haloracaceae
Myriophyllum spicatum L.                          Sr
Labiatae
Lycopus europaeus L.                              Sp
Marrubium peregrinum L                            At
Satureja vulgaris subsp. arundana (Boiss.)        Sp
  Greuter & Burdet
Vitex agnus-castus L.                             Sp
Leguminosae
Lotus corniculatus L.                             Sr, At
Lotus cytisoides L.                               At, Or
Lotus palustris Willd.                            Sp
Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson                      Sr
Medicago littoralis Loisel                        Sp, At Or
Medicago marina L.                                At
Medicago polymorpha L.                            Sr
Medicago scutellata (L.) Miller                   Or
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.                       Sp, Sr, At, Or
Melilotus segetalis (Brot.) Ser.                  At
Trifolium angustifolium L.                        Sp
Trifolium campestre Schreber                      Sp
Trifolium fragiferum L.                           Sr
Trifolium ligusticum Loisel.                      Or
Trifolium scabrum L.                              Sp
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh.              Or
Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa                 At
Linaceae
Linum bienne Miller                               Sp
Orobanchaceae
Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel                 At
Papaveraceae
Papaver rhoeas L.                                 Or
Plantaginaceae
Linaria micrantha (Cav.) Hoffmanns & Link         Or
Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus            Sp, Sr, At, Or
Plantago crassifolia Forsskal                     Sr
Plantago lagopus L.                               Or
Plantago lanceolata L.                            Sp
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.                    Sp
Veronica anagalloides Guss.                       Sr
Platanaceae
Platanus orientalis L.                            Sp
Plumbaginaceae
Limonium bellidifolium (Gouan) Dumort             Sp, Sr, At, Or
Limonium graecum (Poiret) Rech. fil.              Sp, Or
Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) O. Kuntze              Sp
Limonium narbonense Miller                        Sr, At
Limonium sinuatum (L.) Miller                     At
Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr.                 Sr
Polygonaceae
Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray                     Sp
Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.                Sp
Rumex conglomeratus Murray                        Sp, At
Rumex patientia L.                                Sp
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis L.                             Or
Samolus valerandi L.                              Sr
Ranunculaceae
Nigella damascena L.                              Sr
Ranunculus muricatus L.                           Or
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L.                                 Or
Galium spurium L.                                 At
Salicaceae
Salix alba L.                                     Sp
Salix fragilis L.                                 Sp
Tamaricaceae
Tamarixparviflora DC.                             Sp
Tamarix tetrandra Pallas ex M. Bieb.              Sp
Tamarix sp.                                       Sr
Umbelliferae
Apium graveolens L.                               Sr
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.                        Sr
Bupleurum tenuissimum L.                          Sr
Crithmum maritimum L.                             Sp, At
Daucus carota L.                                  Sp, At
Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm.                      Sp, Sr
Eryngium maritimum L.                             Sp, At
Malabaila aurea (Sibth. & Sm.) Boiss.             Sp
Oenanthe silaifolia M. Bieb.                      At
Smyrnium rotundifolium Miller                     At
Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner                      Sr, At, Or
Urticaceae
Parietaria cretica L.                             At
Angiospermae--Monocotyledones
Cyperaceae
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla                Sp, Sr, At
Carex distans L.                                  Sp, At
Carex divisa Hudson                               Sr, At, Or
Carex extensa Good.                               Sp, Sr
Carex hispida Willd.                              Sr, At, Or
Carex pendula Hudson                              Sp
Carex spicata Hudson                              Sp
Cyperus glaber L.                                 Sp
Cyperus laevigatus subsp. distachyos (All.)       Sr
  Maire & Weiller
Cyperus longus L.                                 Sp
Scirpus cernuus vahl                              Or
Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak                Sp
Scirpus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani          Sr
  (C.C. Gmelin) Syme
Gramineae
Aegilops triuncialis L.                           Sp
Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.                Sp, Sr, At, Or
Alopecuros myosuroides Hudson                     At
Anisantha diandra (Roth) Tutin ex Tzvelev         Sp, Or
Anisantha madritensis subsp. delilei (Boiss.)     Sr, Or
  Bracchi, Banfi & Galasso
Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski                      At
Avena barbata Pott ex Link subsp. barbata         Sp, Sr, At, Or
Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana (Durieu)        Or
  Gillet & MaMagne
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson)                  Sp
  P. Beauv. subsp. sylvaticum
Bromus alopecuros Poiret subsp. alopecuros        Sr
Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus            Sr, At
Bromus intermedius Guss.                          At
Bromus lanceolatus Roth                           Or
Bromus scoparius L.                               Sr
Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb.                Sp
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                       Sp, Sr, Or
Cynosurus echinatus L.                            Sp, Sr, Or
Dactylis glomerata L.                             Sp, Sr
Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark                  Sp
  subsp. elongatus
Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus                  Sp, Sr, Or
  (Podp.) Melderis
Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens            Sp
Elytrigia juncea (L.) Nevski                      Sp, At
Elytrigia scirpea (C. Presl) Holub                Sr, At, Or
Hordeum bulbosum L.                               Sp
Hordeum geniculatum All.                          Sr, At
Hordeum marinum Hudson                            Sp, Sr, At, Or
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum                  Sr, At, Or
  (Link) Arcang.
Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatus                   Sp, Sr, At, Or
Lolium multiflorum Lam.                           Or
Lolium rigidum Gaudin subsp. rigidum              Sp, Or
Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata                  Sr, At
Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) W. Greuter            Sr, At
Parapholis filiformis (Roth) C.E. Hubbard         Or
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard              Sp, Sr, At, Or
Parapholis marginata Runemark                     Sr
Paspalum distichum L.                             Sp
Phalaris minor Retz.                              Sr, Or
Phalaris paradoxa L.                              Or
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel      Sp, Sr, At, Or
Piptatherum coerulescens (Desf.) P. Beauv.        At
Piptatherum miliaceum (L.)                        Sp, Or
Cosson subsp. miliaceum
Poa trivialis L. subsp. trivialis                 Sr, At
Polypogon maritimus Willd. subsp. maritimus       Sp, Sr
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.                Sp, Sr, At, Or
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.                Sp
Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl.                 Sp, Sr, At
  subsp. Distans
Puccinellia distans subsp. limosa (Schur) Jav.    Sp
Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Parl.            Sp, Sr, At
Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev                   Sp, Sr, Or
Tripidium ravennae (L.) H. Scholz                 Sp
Sphenopus divaricatus (Gouan) Reichenb.           Or
Sporobolus virginicus (L) Kunth                   Sp, At
Vulpia fasciculata (Forskal) Samp.                Sp
Iridaceae
Morea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.                 Or
Juncaceae
Juncus acutus L. subsp. acutus                    Sp, Sr, At, Or
Juncus articulatus L.                             Sp, At
Juncus bufonius L.                                Sr, At, Or
Juncus gerardi Loisel subsp. gerardi              Sr
Juncus heldreichianus Marsson ex Parl.            Sr, At
Juncus hybridus Brot.                             Sp, At
Juncus inflexus L.                                At
Juncus littoralis C.A. Mayer                      At
Juncus maritimus Lam.                             Sp, Sr, Or
Juncus subulatus Forsskal                         Sp, Sr, At
Juncaginaceae
Trigloghin bulbosa subsp. barrelieri              Or
  (Loisel.) Rouy
Orchidaceae
Ophrys fusca Link                                 Or
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton pectinatus L.                         Sr
Potamogeton pusillus L.                           Sr
Ruppiaceae
Ruppia maritima L.                                Or
Sparganiaceae
Sparganium erectum subsp. neglectum               Sp
  (Beeby) Schinz & Thell.
Typhaceae
Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steudel                 Sp, Sr, At
Typha latifolia L.                                Sp
Zannichelliaceae
Althenia filiformis Petit                         Or


APPENDIX 2

Complete list of the syntaxa quoted in the text.

Aeluropetum littoralis (Prodan 1939) s.erbanescu 1965

Alkanno tinctoriae-Maresion nanae Rivas Goday ex Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martinez 1963 corr. Diez-Garretas, Asensi & Rivas-Martinez 2001

Ammophiletea Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Westhoff et al. 1946

Arthrocnemion glauci Rivas-Martinez & Costa 1984

Arthrocnemo glauci-Halocnemetum strobilacei Oberdorfer 1952

Arthrocnemetum glauci Br.-Bl. 1933

Arthrocnemo-Halocnemetum strobilacei Oberdorfer 1952

Bolboschoenetum maritimi Eggler 1933

Cakiletea maritimae Tx. et Preising ex Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1952

Caricetum divisae Br.-Bl. 1931

Cutandietalia maritimae Rivas-Martinez, Diez-Garretas & Asensi in Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002 Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici Gehu et Uslu 1989

Festuco-Puccinellietea Soo 1968

Halimiono-Arthrocnemetum glauci Istanbullouglou 2004

Halocnemetum strobilacei Oberdorfer 1952 em. Gehu 1994

Juncetum acuti Molinier & Talon 1969

Juncetea maritimi R. Tx. et Oberd. 1958

Juncetum maritimi (Rubel 1930) Pignatti 1953

Juncetum maritimo-acuti Horvatic 1934

Juncetum subulato-maritimi Gradstein & Smittenberg 1977

Limonietalia Br.-Bl. & O. de Bolos 1958

Myriophyllo-Potametum Soo 1943

Nerio-Tamaricetea Br.-Bl. et O. de Bolos 1958

Phragmitetum communis Schmale 1939

Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea Klika in Klika et Novak 1941

Potamo pectinati-Myriophylletum spicati Rivas Goday 1964 corr. Conesa 1990

Saginetea maritimae Westhoff & al. 1962

Salicornietea fruticosae Br.-Bl. et R. Tx. ex A. et O. de Bolos 1950

Salicornietum radicantis Br.-Bl. 1933

Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae Costa et Mansanet 1981 corr. Rivas-Martinez, Costa & Loidi 1992

Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani Soo 1947

Scirpo-Juncetum subulati Gehu, Biondi, Gehu-Frank & Costa 1992

Spergulario marinae-Salicornietum europeae Bueno & F. Prieto in Bueno 1997 corr. Bueno 1997

Stellarietea mediae R.Tx. & al. ex von Rochow 1951

Thero-Brachypodietea Br.-Bl. ex A. de Bolos y Vayreda 1950

Thero-Salicornietea (S. Pignatti 1953) R. Tx. in R. Tx. et Oberd. 1958

Thero-Suaedion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Negre 1952

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2012.v33.40281

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I warmly thank Prof. L. Mucina (Curtin University) for the detailed proof of manuscript and for his critical suggestions which improved the paper substantially. I also thank the anonymous reviewer for his valuable comments. Thanks are also due to Prof. V. Karakitsios (Athens University), Dr. K. Agiadi (Athens University) and Dr. D. Theocharis (Athens University) for giving us geological information of the studied ecosystems as well as to Dr. I. Bazos (Athens University) and Dr. V. Kouvelis (Athens University) for their kind assistance in the final editing of figures and tables.

SYNTAXONOMICAL SCHEME OF THE STUDIED VEGETATION UNITS

CAKILETEA MARITIMAE Tx. et Preising ex Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1952

Euphorbietalia peplis Tx. ex. Oberd. 1949

Euphorbionpeplis Tx. ex. Oberd. 1952

Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae Costa et Mansanet 1981 corr. Rivas-Martinez, Costa & Loidi 1992

AMMOPHILETEA Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Westhoff et al. 1946

Ammophiletalia Br.-Bl. 1933

Agropyrion juncei Pignatti 1953

Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici Gehu et Uslu 1989

THERO-BRACHYPODIETEA Br.-Bl. ex A. de Bolos y Vayreda 1950

Cutandietalia maritimae Rivas-Martinez, Diez-Garretas & Asensi in Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002

Alkanno tinctoriae-Maresion nanae Rivas Goday ex Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martinez 1963 corr.

Diez-Garretas, Asensi & Rivas-Martinez 2001

Matthiola tricuspidata-Anthemis tomentosa community

Aeluropus littoralis community

THERO-SALICORNIETEA (S. Pignatti 1953) R. Tx. in R. Tx. et Oberd. 1958

Thero-Salicornietalia Tuxen in Tuxen & Oberdorfer ex Gehu & Gehu-Franck 1984

Salicornion europaeo-ramosissimae Gehu & Gehu-Franck 1984

Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea community

Thero-Suaedion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Negre 1952

Suaeda splendens-Spergularia salina community

SALICORNIETEA FRUCTICOSAE Br.-Bl. et R. Tx. ex A. et O. de Bolos 1950

Salicornietalia fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933

Arthrocnemion perennis Rivas-Martinez in Rivas-Martinez & Costa 1984

Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides community

Arthrocnemion glauci Rivas-Martinez & Costa 1984

Arthrocnemum macrostachyum community

Salicornion fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933

Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum community

Limonietalia Br.-Bl. & O. de Bolos 1958

Limonium gmelinii community

Limonium virgatum community

JUNCETEA MARITIMI R. Tx. et Oberd. 1958

Juncetalia maritimi Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934

Juncion maritimi Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934

Juncetum maritimo-acuti Horvatic 1934

Juncus subulatus community

Juncus heldreichianus community

Carex divisa-Carex distans community

PHRAGMITO-MAGNO-CARICETEA Klika in Klika et Novak 1941

Phragmitetalia W. Koch 1926

Phragmition communis W. Koch 1926

Phragmitetum communis Schmale 1939 typicum

Phragmitetum communis Schmale 1939 elymetosum elongati

Phragmitetum communis Schmale 1939 juncetosum subulati

Bolboschoenetalia maritimi Hejny in Holub et al. 1964

Cirsio brachycephali-Bolboschoenion (Passarge 1978) Mucina in Bal.-Tul. et al. 1993

Bolboschoenetum maritimi Eggler 1933

Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani Soo 1947

POTAMETEA Klika in Klika & Novak 1941

Potametalia Koch 1926

Potamion (Koch 1926) Libbert 1931

Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophyllum spicatum community

NERIO-TAMARICETEA Br.-Bl. et O. de Bolos 1958

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Recibido 20 abril 2012

Aceptado 1 octubre 2012

Maria Sarika (*)

* Institute of Systematic Botany, Section of Ecology and Systematics. Department of Biology. University of Athens. GR- 15784 Athens, Greece. E-mail: msarika@biol.uoa.gr
Table 1

Classification of the distinguished vegetation
units into habitat types according to directive
92/443/EU. Abbreviations are: Sp (Spercheios
River Delta), Sr (Elos Sourpis), At (Atalanti
wetland), and Or (Oropos wetlands)

Habitat types and               Sp   Sr   At   Or
vegetation units

Annual vegetation
  of drift lines (1210)
Salsolo kali-                   +         +
  Cakiletum maritimae
Embryonic shifting
  dunes (2110)
Eryngio-                        +         +
  Sporoboletum virginici
Malcolmietalia
  dune grasslands (2230)
Aeluropus                       +    +         +
  littoralis community
Matthiola tricuspidata-         +              +
  Anthemis tomentosa
  community
Salicornia and other
  annuals colonising
  mud and sand
  (Thero-Salicornietea,
  1310)
Spergularia salina-             +    +    +
  Salicornia europaea
  community
Spergularia salina-             +
  Suaeda splendens community
Mediterranean and
  thermo-Atlantic
  halophilous scrubs
  (Salicornietea
  fruticosae, 1420)
Sarcocornia perennis-           +    +    +    +
  Halimione
  portulacoides community
Arthrocnemum                    +              +
  macrostachyum community
Sarcocornia fruticosa-                         +
  Halocnemum
  strobilaceum community
Limonium gmelinii               +
  community
Limonium virgatum               +    +
  community
Mediterranean salt
  meadows (1410)
Juncetum maritimo-acuti         +    +    +    +
Juncus subulatus community      +    +    +
Juncus heldreichianus                +    +
  community
Carex divisa-Carex                        +
 distans community
Reed beds (72A0)
Phragmitetum                    +    +    +
  communis typicum
Phragmitetum communis           +    +         +
  elymetosum elongati
Phragmitetum communis           +    +    +
  juncetosum subulati
Bolboschoenetum maritimi        +    +    +
Schoenoplectetum
  tabernaemontani
Natural eutrophic lakes
  with Magnopotamion
  or Hydrocharition-
  type vegetation (3150)
Potamogeton pectinatus-              +
  Myriophyllum
  spicatum community
Thermo-Mediterranean                 +
  riparian galleries (92D0)

Table 2

Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae Costa et Mansanet 1981
corr. Rivas-Martinez, Costa & Loidi 1992 (1-5)
(Euphorbion peplis, Euphorbietalia pepli, Cakiletea
maritimae) Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici Gehu & Uslu
1989 (6-14) (Agropyrion juncei, Ammophiletalia, Ammophiletea)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     10   5    10   10
species N.                7    5    6    5
Releve N.                 1    2    3    4   5

Characteristics

Cakile maritima           2a   2a   1    .   IV
Salsola kali              .    .    .    2m  II
Elytrigia juncea          .    .    .    .
Eryngium maritimum        .    .    .    .
Sporobolus virginicus     .    .    .    .
Euphorbia parallias       .    .    .    .
Lotus cytisoides          2b   1    .    .   III
Medicago marina           .    .    .    .
Companions                .    .    .    .
Matthiola tricuspidata    .    .    3    .   II
Parapholis incurva        .    .    .    r   II
Anthemis tomentosa        .    .    .    .
Anisantha rubens          .    .    .    .
Lagurus ovatus            .    .    2b   .   II
Halimione portulacoides   .    .    .    .
Xanthium strumarium       r    .    .    .   .
Polypogon monspeliensis   .    .    .    r   II
Limonium bellidifolium    4    .    .    .   II
Crithmum maritimum        2m   4    .    .   III
Reichardia picroides      +    1    .    .   .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20   20   15   18   20
species N.                5    7    9    9    9
Releve N.                 6    7    8    9    10

Characteristics

Cakile maritima           .    r    .    r    2m
Salsola kali              .    .    .    .    .
Elytrigia juncea          5    1    1    4    3
Eryngium maritimum        .    .    2b   r    4
Sporobolus virginicus     .    .    .    .    2b
Euphorbia parallias       .    4    2m   4    r
Lotus cytisoides          .    .    .    .    .
Medicago marina           .    .    .    .    3
Companions                .    .    .    .    .
Matthiola tricuspidata    +    1    .    .    2m
Parapholis incurva        .    +    2m   3    .
Anthemis tomentosa        .    .    .    .    +
Anisantha rubens          .    .    .    .    1
Lagurus ovatus            .    .    .    r    .
Halimione portulacoides   2m   .    .    2a   .
Xanthium strumarium       .    .    r    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis   .    .    r    .    .
Limonium bellidifolium    .    .    r    .    .
Crithmum maritimum        .    .    .    .    .
Reichardia picroides      .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20   18   15
species N.                7    6    8
Releve N.                 11   12   13   14

Characteristics

Cakile maritima           .    .    .    II
Salsola kali              .    .    .
Elytrigia juncea          5    r    2a   V
Eryngium maritimum        2b   2m   4    IV
Sporobolus virginicus     2a   3    4    III
Euphorbia parallias       .    .    .    III
Lotus cytisoides          .    .    .    .
Medicago marina           .    .    .    I
Companions                .    .    .
Matthiola tricuspidata    2m   +    2m   IV
Parapholis incurva        3    .    2b   IV
Anthemis tomentosa        1    5    1    III
Anisantha rubens          3    .    2a   II
Lagurus ovatus            .    +    .    II
Halimione portulacoides   .    .    .    II
Xanthium strumarium       .    .    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis   .    .    .    I
Limonium bellidifolium    .    .    .    I
Crithmum maritimum        .    .    .    .
Reichardia picroides      .    .    .    .

Other species: Capparis spinosa 3, Silene sedoides
r in 1; Parietaria cretica r in 2; Brassica geniculata
and Phragmites australis 2a, Avena barbata + in 3;
Atriplex prostrata and Cynodon dactylon 1 in 4; Limonium
graecum r in 6; Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum 2m, Atriplex
prostrata + in 7; Spergularia salina and Lolium rigidum subsp.
rigidum 2m, Juncus acutus r in 8, Melilotus segetalis 2,
Sarcocornia perennis 1 in 9; Medicago littoralis 2m in 13.
Localities: 1-3, 7, 9-11, 13: Atalanti wetland; 4, 6, 8, 12:
Spercheios River Delta.

Table 3

Aeluropus littoralis comm. (1-11)
Mathiola tricuspidata-Anthemis tomentosa comm.
(12-18) (Alkano tinctoriae-Maresion nanae,
Cutandietalia maritimae, Thero-Brachypodietea)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     10   15   15   20
species N.                6    6    7    6
Releve N.                 1    2    3    4

Characteristics

Aeluropus littoralis      5    5    5    2b
Anthemis tomentosa        4    2b   2m   3
Matthiola tricuspidata    1    r    +    +
Medicago littoralis       .    .    .    .
Silene colorata           2a   .    .    .
Lagurus ovatus            2b   .    .    .
Plantago lagopus          .    .    .    .
Echium arenarium          .    .    .    .
Trifolium scabrum         .    .    .    .
Vulpia fasciculata        .    .    .    .
Companions
Lotus cytisoides          +    +    .    .
Melilotus indicus         .    .    r    .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum   .    .    .    .
Hordeum murinum           .    .    .    .
  subsp. leporinum
Avena barbata             .    .    .    .
Plantago coronopus        .    .    .    .
  subsp. coronopus
Parapholis incurva        .    .    4    .
Hordeum marinum           .    .    .    .
Phalaris minor            .    .    .    .
Rostraria cristata        .    .    .    .
Cakile maritima           .    +    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20   10   10   20
species N.                6    6    5    12
Releve N.                 5    6    7    8

Characteristics

Aeluropus littoralis      4    5    5    4
Anthemis tomentosa        1    4    1    .
Matthiola tricuspidata    1    .    .    2m
Medicago littoralis       .    .    .    .
Silene colorata           .    .    .    2a
Lagurus ovatus            .    2b   2m   .
Plantago lagopus          .    .    .    .
Echium arenarium          .    .    .    .
Trifolium scabrum         .    .    .    .
Vulpia fasciculata        .    .    .    .
Companions
Lotus cytisoides          .    .    .    .
Melilotus indicus         .    2m   .    2m
Polycarpon tetraphyllum   .    .    .    2m
Hordeum murinum           .    .    .    .
  subsp. leporinum
Avena barbata             .    .    .    .
Plantago coronopus        .    .    .    .
  subsp. coronopus
Parapholis incurva        .    .    .    .
Hordeum marinum           .    .    .    .
Phalaris minor            .    .    .    .
Rostraria cristata        +    .    .    .
Cakile maritima           .    .    .    1

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20   20         20
species N.                7    11         8
Releve N.                 9    10   11    12

Characteristics

Aeluropus littoralis      5    2b   V     2m
Anthemis tomentosa        .    .    IV    3
Matthiola tricuspidata    .    .    III   +
Medicago littoralis       .    .    .     2m
Silene colorata           .    .    I     2m
Lagurus ovatus            .    .    II    1
Plantago lagopus          .    .    .     .
Echium arenarium          .    .    .     .
Trifolium scabrum         .    .    .     1
Vulpia fasciculata        .    .    .     .
Companions
Lotus cytisoides          .    .    I     .
Melilotus indicus         .    .    II    .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum   .    .    I     .
Hordeum murinum           .    .    .     .
  subsp. leporinum
Avena barbata             +    .    I     .
Plantago coronopus        .    2m   I     .
  subsp. coronopus
Parapholis incurva        .    .    I     .
Hordeum marinum           2m   2m   I     .
Phalaris minor            r    1    I     .
Rostraria cristata        2a   .    I     .
Cakile maritima           .    .    I     .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20   20  20  20
species N.                10   10  9   8
Releve N.                 13   14  15  16

Characteristics

Aeluropus littoralis      1    .   .   .
Anthemis tomentosa        3    2m  2a  +
Matthiola tricuspidata    2b   .   2a  3
Medicago littoralis       2m   4   2b  2b
Silene colorata           2a   1   3   4
Lagurus ovatus            r    .   1   .
Plantago lagopus          2b   .   4   3
Echium arenarium          1    .   +   2m
Trifolium scabrum         .    1   .   .
Vulpia fasciculata        .    2b  .   .
Companions
Lotus cytisoides          2b   .   .   .
Melilotus indicus         .    .   .   .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum   .    .   .   .
Hordeum murinum           r    .   .   +
  subsp. leporinum
Avena barbata             .    .   r   .
Plantago coronopus        .    r   .   .
  subsp. coronopus
Parapholis incurva        .    2b  .   .
Hordeum marinum           .    .   .   .
Phalaris minor            .    .   .   .
Rostraria cristata        .    .   .   .
Cakile maritima           .    .   .   .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     20
species N.                7
Releve N.                 17  18

Characteristics

Aeluropus littoralis      .   II
Anthemis tomentosa        1   v
Matthiola tricuspidata    3   v
Medicago littoralis       2m  v
Silene colorata           .   v
Lagurus ovatus            .   III
Plantago lagopus          4   IV
Echium arenarium          +   IV
Trifolium scabrum         .   II
Vulpia fasciculata        .   I
Companions
Lotus cytisoides          .   I
Melilotus indicus         .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum   +   I
Hordeum murinum           .
  subsp. leporinum            I
Avena barbata             .   I
Plantago coronopus        .
  subsp. coronopus            I
Parapholis incurva        .   I
Hordeum marinum           .
Phalaris minor            .
Rostraria cristata        .
Cakile maritima           .

Other species: Limonium graecum + in 2; Medicago
marina + in 3, Calystegia soldanella 1 in 4; Polygonum
arenarium 2a in 5; Papaver rhoeas 2a, Limonium sp. 2b
and Linaria micrantha + in 8; Lolium rigidum 5,
Puccinellia sp. and Parapholis filiformis 3,
Phalarisparadoxa 2a in 10; Eryngium maritimum
2b in 12; Anisantha matridensis subsp. delilei
+ in 15. Localities: 1-3, 8, 10, 13, 15-17: Oropos
wetland area; 4-7, 9, 12, 14: Spercheios River
Delta; 9: Elos Sourpis.

Table 4

Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm. (1-7)
Spergularia salina-Suaeda spledens comm. (8-11)
(Thero-Salicornietalia, Thero-Salicornietea)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])     10   10   10   10   10   10
species N.                9    8    12   5    7    8
Releve N.                 1    2    3    4    5    6

Characteristics

Salicornia                2b   2b   3    1    2a   4
  europaea agg
Spergularia salina        5    4    2a   5    4    r
Suaeda splendens          .    .    .    .    .    2a

Companions

Hordeum marinum           2m   1    3    2m   .    1
Parapholis incurva        1    .    2m   3    .    .
Plantago coronopus        .    2b   3    .    3    .
  subsp. coronopus
Polypogon                 r    .    .    .    .    1
  monspeliensis
Puccinelia distans        3    2a   .    .    2m   .
  subsp. distans
Tripolium pannonicum      .    .    .    .    .    r
  subsp. tripolium
Juncus bufonius           4    .    4    .    4    .
Halimione portulacoides   2a   .    +    2a   .    .
Melilotus indicus         1    +    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])           5    5    8
species N.                      6    6    7
Releve N.                 7     8    9    10   11

Characteristics

Salicornia                V     .    .    .    .
  europaea agg
Spergularia salina        V     3    2m   5    v
Suaeda splendens          I     3    5    1    v

Companions

Hordeum marinum           V     1    1    .    III
Parapholis incurva        III   .    1    .    II
Plantago coronopus        III   .    .    .    .
  subsp. coronopus
Polypogon                 II    2b   +    2m   V
  monspeliensis
Puccinelia distans        III   2m   2m   .    III
  subsp. distans
Tripolium pannonicum      I     .    .    +    II
  subsp. tripolium
Juncus bufonius           III   .    .    2b   II
Halimione portulacoides   III   .    .    .    .
Melilotus indicus         II    .    .    .    .

Other species: Juncus hybridus 4, Carex divisa 1 in 2;
Aeluropous littoralis 2a, Centaurium tenuiflorum 2b,
Bupleurum tenuissimum and Polypogon maritimus 1, Medicago
polymorpha + in 3; Limonium narbonense r in 5; Bolboschoenus
maritimus 2m, Phragmites australis + in 6; Euphorbia sp.2b
in 8; Puccinellia festuciformis 2m, Atriplexprostrata 1 in
10.

Localities: 1, 2: Atalanti wetland; 3-5: Elos Sourpis;
6-10: Spercheios River Delta.

Table 5

Arthrocnemum macrostachyum comm. (1-7)
(Arthrocnemion glauci, Salicornietalia fruticosae,
Salicornietea fruticosae)
Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm. (8-13)
(Salicornion fruticosae, Salicornietalia fruticosae,
Salicornietea fruticosae)
Limonium virgatum comm. (14-17) Limonium gmelinii comm. (18-20)
(Limonietalia, Salicornietea fruticosae)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])       20   20   20   20   15   15         20
species N.                  4    4    4    2    16   8          9
Releve N.                   1    2    3    4    5    6    7     8

Characteristics

Arthrocnemum                5    5    4    2a   3    2a   V     .
  macrostachyum
Sarcocornia fruticosa       .    .    .    .    4    4    II    4
Halocnemum strobilaceum     .    .    .    5    .    .    I     2b
Limonium virgatum           .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .
Limonium gmelinii           .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .

Companions

Halimione portulacoides     1    1    2m   .    2a   4    V     .
Limonium bellidifolium      2b   3    +    .    .    .    III   .
Puccinelia festuciformis    .    .    3    .    .    .    I     .
Parapholis incurva          .    .    .    .    .    .    .     2a
Plantago coronopus subsp.   .    .    .    .    .    3    1     2a
  coronopus
Melilotus indicus           .    .    .    .    +    r    II    .
Limbarda crithmoides        .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .
Sphenopus divaricatus       .    .    .    .    .    .    .     +
Spergularia salina          .    .    .    .    .    .    .     +
Sarcocornia perennis        .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .
Centaurium tenuiflorum      .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .
Triglochin bulbosa          .    1    .    .    .    .    I     2a
  subsp. barrelieri
Elymus elongatus            .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .
Avena sterilis              .    .    .    .    3    .    I     .
  subsp. ludoviciana
Lolium rigidum              .    .    .    .    .    3    I     .
  subsp. rigidum
Sonchus oleraceus           .    .    .    .    +    1    II    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])       20   20   20   20         20    20    20
species N.                  5    4    5    8          4     10    6
Releve N.                   9    10   11   12   13    14    15    16

Characteristics

Arthrocnemum                .    .    .    .    .     .     .     .
  macrostachyum
Sarcocornia fruticosa       4    3    3    3    V     .     .     .
Halocnemum strobilaceum     4    3    3    .    IV    .     .     .
Limonium virgatum           .    .    .    .          4     4     4
Limonium gmelinii           .    .    .    .    .     .     .     .

Companions

Halimione portulacoides     .    .    .    5    I     2b    1     4
Limonium bellidifolium      .    .    .    .          .     .     .
Puccinelia festuciformis    .    .    .    .          1     .     .
Parapholis incurva          2a   2a   2m   .    IV    .     .     .
Plantago coronopus subsp.   .    .    .    .    I     .     +     .
  coronopus
Melilotus indicus           .    .    .    2a   I     .     .     +
Limbarda crithmoides        .    .    .    .    .     2a    1     r
Sphenopus divaricatus       1    .    2a   .    III   .     .     .
Spergularia salina          1    2b   .    .    III   .     .     .
Sarcocornia perennis        .    .    .    .          .     .     .
Centaurium tenuiflorum      .    .    .    1    I     .     2b    .
Triglochin bulbosa          .    .    .         I     .     .     .
  subsp. barrelieri
Elymus elongatus            .    .    .    .    .     .     r     .
Avena sterilis              .    .    .    +    I     .     .     .
  subsp. ludoviciana
Lolium rigidum              .    .    .    2m   I     .     .     .
  subsp. rigidum
Sonchus oleraceus           .    .    .    .    .     .     .     .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])             20    20
species N.                        7     4
Releve N.                   17    18    19    20

Characteristics

Arthrocnemum                .     .     .     .
  macrostachyum
Sarcocornia fruticosa       .     .     .     .
Halocnemum strobilaceum     .     .     .     .
Limonium virgatum           v     .     .     .
Limonium gmelinii           .     5     5     V

Companions

Halimione portulacoides     V     1     2m    V
Limonium bellidifolium      .     .     .     .
Puccinelia festuciformis    II    .     +     III
Parapholis incurva          .     .     .     .
Plantago coronopus subsp.   .     .     .     .
  coronopus
Melilotus indicus           II    .     .     .
Limbarda crithmoides        v     .     .     .
Sphenopus divaricatus       .     .     .     .
Spergularia salina          .     .     .     .
Sarcocornia perennis        .     2m    2b    v
Centaurium tenuiflorum      II    .     .     .
Triglochin bulbosa          .     .     .     .
  subsp. barrelieri
Elymus elongatus            III   +     .     III
Avena sterilis              .     .     .     .
  subsp. ludoviciana
Lolium rigidum              .     .     .     .
  subsp. rigidum
Sonchus oleraceus           .     .     .     .

Other species: Juncus maritimus 3 in 1; Piptatherum
miliaceum 2a, Medicago scutellata 2b, Phalaris minor Lolium
multiflorum 2m in 5; Polypogon maritimus + in 7; Parapholis
marginata 2m in 8; Limonium narbonense 2b en 14.
Localities: 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9-12: Oropos wetland area; 3, 4,
14, 18, 19: Spercheios River Delta; 15, 16: Elos Sourpis.

Table 6

Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.
(Arthrocnemion perennis, Salicornietalia fruticosae,
Salicornietea fruticosae)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])      30   30   25   30   30   25   25   30
Species N.                 3    6    4    3    2    5    4    4
Releve N.                  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8

Characteristics

Sarcocornia perennis       2a   2b   4    3    5    5    5    4
Halimione portulacoides    .    +    5    2a   2a   1    3    5
Puccinelia festuciformis   .    .    .    .    .    2m   2m   2a
Limonium narbonense        .    .    3    4    .    .    .    +
Limonium bellidifolium     .    .    .    .    .    r    +    .
Limonium gmelinii          .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium virgatum          .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Companions

Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    2b   .    .    .    .    .
Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Phragmites australis       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus acutus              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Hordeum marinum            .    5    .    .    .    .    .    .
Parapholis incurva         2a   2a   .    .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])      30   20   30   30   30   25   25   30
Species N.                 7    5    4    4    5    6    3    4
Releve N.                  9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16

Characteristics

Sarcocornia perennis       4    3    4    5    5    3    2b   2m
Halimione portulacoides    2b   4    2a   2b   2b   2b   +    3
Puccinelia festuciformis   +    2m   4    2m   2a   5    5    4
Limonium narbonense        .    2a   +    1    3    .    .    .
Limonium bellidifolium     2m   .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium gmelinii          .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium virgatum          1    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Companions

Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    .    .    3    .    .    .
Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .    1    .    .
Phragmites australis       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus acutus              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Hordeum marinum            .    2m   .    .    .    .    .    .
Parapholis incurva         .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])      30   30   30   20   30   30
Species N.                 5    3    2    6    5    5
Releve N.                  17   18   19   20   21   22   23

Characteristics

Sarcocornia perennis       5    5    4    3    5    3    V
Halimione portulacoides    .    .    .    .    .    .    IV
Puccinelia festuciformis   1    2m   4    5    +    2m   IV
Limonium narbonense        r    .    .    .    .    .    II
Limonium bellidifolium     .    .    .    .    .    4    I
Limonium gmelinii          .    +    .    .    1    r    I
Limonium virgatum          .    .    .    .    .    .    I

Companions

Juncus heldreichianus      2a   .    .    .    .    .    I
Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    2b   +    .    I
Phragmites australis       .    .    .    +         r    I
Juncus acutus              .    .    .    r    +         I
Hordeum marinum            .    .    .    .    .    .    I
Parapholis incurva         .    .    .    .    .    .    I

Other species: Triglochin bulbosa ssp. barrelieri 4 in 1;
Plantago coronopus subsp. coronopus 3, Centaurium
tenuiflorum + in 2; Polypogon monspeliensis in 6; Juncus
maritimus 4, Limbarda crithmoides 1 in 9; Elymus elongatus
+, Matthiola tricuspidata r in 14; Aeluropus littoralis 1 in
16; Bolboschoenus maritimus 2m in 17; Tripolium pannonicum
subsp. tripolium 2m in 20.

Localities: 1: Oropos wetland area; 2, 3, 6-11: Elos
Sourpis; 4, 5, 13, 17: Atalanti wetland; 14-16, 18-22:
Spercheios River Delta.

Table 7

Juncetum maritimo-acuti Horvatic 1934 (1-14)
Carex divisa-Carex distans comm. (15-18)
(Juncion maritimi, Juncetalia maritimi, Juncetea maritimi)

Plot size ([m.sup.2])       30   30   30   30   30   30
species N.                  3    6    4    3    3    5
Releve N.                   1    2    3    4    5    6

Characteristics

Juncus maritimus            5    5    5    5    5    5
Juncus acutus               .    .    .    .    .    .
Elymus elongatus            .    .    .    .    .    1
Carex divisa                .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex distans               .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus subulatus            .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus       .    .    .    .    .    r
Elytrigia scirpea           .    .    .    .    .    .
Tripolium pannonicum        .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa          .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. barrelieri

Companions

Sarcocornia fruticosa       .    .    2b   .    .    .
Arthrocnemum                .    2b   3    4    .    .
  macrostachyum
Limonium bellidifolium      .    .    2a   .    .    +
Puccinellia festuciformis   .    .    .    .    .    .
Sarcocornia perennis        .    .    .    .    +    .
Halimione portulacoides     +    .    .    .    .    2a
Phragmites australis        .    .    .    .    2m   .
Daucus carota               .    .    .    .    .    .
Lotus corniculatus          .    .    .    .    .    .
Geranium dissectum          .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium graecum            .    3    .    +    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis     1    .    .    .    .    .
Melilotus indicus           .    .    .    .    .    .
Hordeum murinum             .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. leporinum
Marrubium peregrinum        .    .    .    .    .    .
Oenanthe silaifolia         .    .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])       30   30   30   30   30   30
species N.                  9    8    10   3    5    12
Releve N.                   7    8    9    10   11   12

Characteristics

Juncus maritimus            2b   5    .    .    .    .
Juncus acutus               3    2b   3    2b   2a   2b
Elymus elongatus            .    .    4    4    5    4
Carex divisa                .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex distans               .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus subulatus            .    .    2b   3    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus       .    .    .    .    .    .
Elytrigia scirpea           4    .    .    .    .    .
Tripolium pannonicum        .    +    1    .    .    .
  subsp. tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa          3    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. barrelieri

Companions

Sarcocornia fruticosa       1    .    .    .    .    .
Arthrocnemum                1    .    .    .    .    .
  macrostachyum
Limonium bellidifolium      .    .    .    .    .    .
Puccinellia festuciformis   .    .    1    .    .    .
Sarcocornia perennis        .    .    2m   .    1    1
Halimione portulacoides     1    +    +    .    .    .
Phragmites australis        +    +    1    .    1    .
Daucus carota               .    .    .    .    .    .
Lotus corniculatus          .    .    .    .    .    .
Geranium dissectum          .    .    .    .    r    1
Limonium graecum            2a   .    .    .    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis     .    +    .    .    .    .
Melilotus indicus           .    .    .    .    .    .
Hordeum murinum             .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. leporinum
Marrubium peregrinum        .    .    .    .    .    .
Oenanthe silaifolia         .    .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2])       25         10   15   15
species N.                  11         9    10   5
Releve N.                   13   14    15   16   17   18

Characteristics

Juncus maritimus            .    IV    .    .    .    .
Juncus acutus               4    III   .    .    .    .
Elymus elongatus            .    II    .    .    .    .
Carex divisa                .    .     3    4    5    V
Carex distans               r    I     4    2a   .    IV
Juncus subulatus            .    I     .    .    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus       .    I     .    .    .    .
Elytrigia scirpea           .    I     .    .    .    .
Tripolium pannonicum        .    I     .    .    .    .
  subsp. tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa          .    I     .    2m   .    II
  subsp. barrelieri

Companions

Sarcocornia fruticosa       .    I     .    .    .    .
Arthrocnemum                .    II    .    .    .    .
  macrostachyum
Limonium bellidifolium      .    I     .    .    .    .
Puccinellia festuciformis   r    I     .    .    .    .
Sarcocornia perennis        .    II    +    .    .    II
Halimione portulacoides     .    II    .    .    .    .
Phragmites australis        .    II    .    .    .    .
Daucus carota               +    I     +    .    .    II
Lotus corniculatus          2a   I     1    2m   .    IV
Geranium dissectum          .    I     .    .    .    .
Limonium graecum            .    II    .    .    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis     .    I     2a   .    .    II
Melilotus indicus           1    I     .    .    2m   II
Hordeum murinum             .    .     3    .    3    IV
  subsp. leporinum
Marrubium peregrinum        .    .     .    r    +    IV
Oenanthe silaifolia         .    .     2m   2m   .    IV

other species: Parapholis filiformis 4, Juncus bufonius 2a,
Centaurium tenuiflorum 1 in 2; Lotus palustris s.l. 1,
Limonium gmelinii + in 8; Bolboschoenus maritimus 1 in 9;
Anagallis arvensis, Galium aparine, Picris sp. and Taraxacum
sp. 1, Torilis nodosa and Ornithogalum sp. +, Vicia sativa
subsp. nigra and Ophrys fusca r in 12; Dittrichia viscosa 3,
Elytrigia juncea 2b, Bromus hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus 2m,
Limonium sinuatum +in 13; Juncus inflexus 1 in 15; Hordeum
geniculatum 3, Juncus hybridus 1, Monerma cylindrica and
Pulicaria dysenterica r in 16; Juncus articulatus 1 in 17.

Localities:1, 6: Elos Sourpis; 2-4, 7, 11-12: Oropos wetland
area; 5, 8-10: Spercheios River Delta; 13, 15-17: Atalanti
wetland.

Table 8

Juncus subulatus comm. (1-6) Juncus heldrichianus comm. (8-14)
(Juncion maritimi, Juncetalia maritimi, Juncetea maritimi)

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):      20   20   15   25   20   20        30
species N.                  6    3    4    3    5    6         14
Releve N.                   1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8

Characteristics

Juncus subulatus            5    5    5    5    5    5    V    .
Juncus heldreichianus       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    4
Juncus maritimus            .    .    .    .    .    .    .    3
Elymus elongatus            .    .    .    .    .    .    .    4
Juncus acutus               .    .    .    .    .    +    I    2a
Puccinellia distans         4    .    .    .    .    .    I    1
  subsp. distans
Tripolium pannonicum        .    1    .    .    1    .    I    .
  subsp. tripolium
Juncus litoralis            .    .    .    +    .    .    I    .
Carex distans               .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex divisa                .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex extensa               .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus gerardi              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    2b
  subsp. gerardi
Plantago crassifolia        .    .    .    .    .    .    .    +

Companions

Halimione portulacoides     2b   2b   .    .    .    .    II   1
Sarcocornia perennis        2m   .    .    .    2m   .    II   .
Phragmites australis        .    .    .    .    1    .    I    .
Limonium narbonense         2a   .    .    .    .    .    I    +
Limonium bellidifolium      +    .    .    .    .    .    I    2m
Puccinellia festuciformis   .    .    .    .    2b   2a   II   .
Bolboschoenus maritimus     .    .    .    2b   .    3    II   .
Melica ciliata              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. ciliata
Torilis nodosa              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    1

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):      30   30   25   25   30   30
species N.                  6    5    5    1    3    9
Releve N.                   9    10   11   12   13   14

Characteristics

Juncus subulatus            .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus       5    4    5    5    5    4    V
Juncus maritimus            2m   3    .    .    .    .    III
Elymus elongatus            3    .    .    .    .    2a   III
Juncus acutus               .    .    .    .    .    .    I
Puccinellia distans         .    .    .    .    .    .    I
  subsp. distans
Tripolium pannonicum        .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. tripolium
Juncus litoralis            .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex distans               .    .    .    .    .    r    I
Carex divisa                .    .    3    .    .    .    I
Carex extensa               2m   .    .    .    .    .    I
Juncus gerardi              .    .    .    .    .    .    I
  subsp. gerardi
Plantago crassifolia        .    .    .    .    .    .    I

Companions

Halimione portulacoides     .    .    .    .    .    .    I
Sarcocornia perennis        +    .    .    .    .    .    I
Phragmites australis        .    1    .    .    1    .    II
Limonium narbonense         r    .    .    .    .    .    II
Limonium bellidifolium      .    .    .    .    +    .    II
Puccinellia festuciformis   .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Bolboschoenus maritimus     .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Melica ciliata              .    .    +    .    .    +    II
  subsp. ciliata
Torilis nodosa                                       r    I

Other species: Oenanthe silaifolia 2m, Rumex conglomeratus 1
and Melilotus segetalis + in 3; Parapholis incurva 2b,
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum + in 6; Lotus corniculatus,
Cynanchum acutum and Centaurium tenuiflorum + in 8; Cyperus
laevigatus subsp. distachyos 2b in 10; Elytrigia juncea 2m,
Dittrichia viscosa r in 11; Daucus guttatus and Rostraria
cristata 1, Hordeum bulbosum in 14.

Localities: 1, 8-10, 13, 14: Elos Sourpis; 2 and 5:
Spercheios River Delta; 3-4, 6, 11, 12: Atalanti wetland.

Table 9

Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani Soo 1947 (1-3) Bolboschoenetum
maritimi Eggler 1933 (5-12) (Cirsio brachycephali-Bolboschoenion,
Bolboschoenetalia, Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea) Potamogeton
pectinatus-Myriophyllum spicatum comm. (14-17) (Potamion,
Potametalia, Potametea)

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):     30   30   30        30   30   30
Species number:            4    5    10        1    4    10
Releve N.                  1    2    3    4    5    6    7

Characteristics

Scirpus lacustris subsp.   2a   3    2a   V    .    .    .
  tabernaemontani
Bolboschoenus maritimus    .    .    2a   II   5    3    5
Myriophyllum spicatum      .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Potamogeton pectinatus     .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Phragmites australis       5    5    5    V    .    .    +
Typha domingensis          .    .    2a   II   .    .    3

Companions

Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .    .    3
Juncus heldreichianus      2b   .    .    II   .    .    .
Juncus maritimus           .    3    .    II   .    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis    2m   2b   2a   V    .    .    .
Spergularia salina         .    1    .    II   .    .    .
Samolus valerandi          .    .    +    II   .    .    .
Rumex conglomeratus        .    .    .    .    .    2a   2m
Atriplex prostrata         .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Oenanthe silaifolia        .    .    .    .    .    1    4
Trifolium fragiferum       .    .    1    II   .    .    .
Apium nodiflorum           .    .    1    II   .    .    .
Arthrocnemum               .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  macrostachyum

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):     30   30   30   30   30
Species number:            5    7    5    7    4
Releve N.                  8    9    10   11   12   13

Characteristics

Scirpus lacustris subsp.   .    .    .    .    .    .
  tabernaemontani
Bolboschoenus maritimus    4    3    5    5    4    V
Myriophyllum spicatum      .    .    .    .    .    .
Potamogeton pectinatus     .    .    .    .    .    .
Phragmites australis       .    +    1    1    .    III
Typha domingensis          3    .    .    .    .    II

Companions

Juncus subulatus           .    .    3    .    .    II
Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    4    .    .    I
Juncus maritimus           .    .    .    .    3    I
Polypogon monspeliensis    .    .    .    2b   1    II
Spergularia salina         .    .    .    +    .    I
Samolus valerandi          .    .    .    .    .    .
Rumex conglomeratus        .    .    .    .    .    II
Atriplex prostrata         .    2b   .    r    .    II
Oenanthe silaifolia        .    .    .    .    .    II
Trifolium fragiferum       .    .    .    .    .    .
Apium nodiflorum           .    .    .    .    .    .
Arthrocnemum               .    .    .    2m   .    I
  macrostachyum

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):     30   30   30   30
Species number:            3    3    3    5
Releve N.                  14   15   16   17   18

Characteristics

Scirpus lacustris subsp.   .    .    .    .    .
  tabernaemontani
Bolboschoenus maritimus    .    .    .    .    .
Myriophyllum spicatum      4    3    5    1    V
Potamogeton pectinatus     3    4    2m   5    V
Phragmites australis       2a   2b   +    +    V
Typha domingensis          .    .    .    .    .

Companions

Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    .    .    .
Juncus maritimus           .    .    .    .    .
Polypogon monspeliensis    .    .    .    .    .
Spergularia salina         .    .    .    .    .
Samolus valerandi          .    .    .    .    .
Rumex conglomeratus        .    .    .    .    .
Atriplex prostrata         .    .    .    .    .
Oenanthe silaifolia        .    .    .    .    .
Trifolium fragiferum       .    .    .    .    .
Apium nodiflorum           .    .    .    .    .
Arthrocnemum               .    .    .    +    I
  macrostachyum

Other species: Cirsium creticum 2a, Calystegia sepium 2m in 3;
Carex divisa 5 in 6; Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum and Poa
trivialis subsp. trivialis 2a, Alopecurus myosuroides 2b,
Melica ciliata subsp. ciliata 1 in 7; Cyperus longus 3,
Scirpoides holoschoenus 2b, Salix alba 1 in 8; Polypogon
viridis 4, Lolium rigidum subsp. rigidum 2m, Rapistrum rugosum
and Tamarix tetrandra + in 9; Matthiola tricuspidata + in 10;
Suaeda splendens 1 in 11; Juncus acutus 2a in 12; Plantago
crassifolia + in 17.

Localities: 1-3, 8, 9,12, 14-17: Elos Sourpis; 5-7, 10: Atalanti
wetland; 11; Spercheios River Delta.

Table 10

Phragmitetum communis Schmalle 1939 typicum (rels. 1-6),
elymetosum elongati (rels. 7-17), juncetosum subulati (rels. 18-23)
(Phragmition communis, Phragmitetalia, Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea)

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):     30   30   30   30   30        30   30
Species number:            3    6    2    1    1         10   8
Releve N.                  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8

Characteristics

Phragmites australis       5    5    5    5    5    V    5    5
Lotus palustris s.l.       .    .    .    .    .    .    +    +
Bolboschoenus maritimus    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Differentials of subass.

Elymus elongatus           .    .    .    .    .    .    1    1
Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Companions

Juncus acutus              .    .    .    .    .    .    +    .
Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    1    .    .    I    .    .
Carex divisa               .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex extensa              .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Tripolium pannonicum       .    .    .    .    .    .    2m   .
  subsp. tripolium
Polypogon monspeliensis    .    .    .    .    .    .    +    .
Sarcocornia fruticosa      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium gmelinii          .    .    .    .    .    .    +    .
Halimione portulacoides    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Calystegia sepium          2b   2m   .    .    .    II   .    2m
Rumex conglomeratus        .    .    .    .    .    .    1    .
Atriplex prostrata         .    .    .    .    .    .    r    .
Beta vulgaris subsp.       .    1    .    .    .    I    .    1
  maritima
Cynanchum acutum           +    .    .    .    .    I    .    .
Apium graveolens           .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Lotus corniculatus         .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):     30   30   30   30   30   30   30   30
Species number:            7    7    6    8    4    2    8    5
Releve N.                  9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16

Characteristics

Phragmites australis       5    3    5    4    4    5    4    4
Lotus palustris s.l.       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Bolboschoenus maritimus    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Differentials of subass.

Elymus elongatus           2m   5    3    3    5    4    5    5
Juncus subulatus           .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

Companions

Juncus acutus              1    .    .    .    .    .    .    1
Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex divisa               .    .    .    2a   1    .    .    .
Carex extensa              .    2b   .    2a   .    .    .    .
Tripolium pannonicum       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  subsp. tripolium
Polypogon monspeliensis    .    2m   2b   1    .    .    .    .
Sarcocornia fruticosa      .    .    .    .    +    .    3    2b
Limonium gmelinii          +    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Halimione portulacoides    .    .    .    .    .    .    1    1
Calystegia sepium          .    .    1    .    .    .    .    .
Rumex conglomeratus        .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Atriplex prostrata         .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Beta vulgaris subsp.       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  maritima
Cynanchum acutum           2m   .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Apium graveolens           .    1    2a   .    .    .    .    .
Lotus corniculatus         .    +    1    +    .    .    .    .

Plot size ([m.sup.2]):          30   30   30   30   30
Species number:                 5    3    5    6    5
Releve N.                  17   18   19   20   21   22   23

Characteristics

Phragmites australis       V    5    5    5    5    5    V
Lotus palustris s.l.       I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Bolboschoenus maritimus    .    .    .    1    1    1    III

Differentials of subass.

Elymus elongatus           V    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus subulatus           .    2b   4    3    .    +    IV

Companions

Juncus acutus              I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Juncus heldreichianus      .    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex divisa               I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Carex extensa              I
Tripolium pannonicum       I    2m   .    .    .    .    I
  subsp. tripolium
Polypogon monspeliensis    II   .    .    .    .    .    .
Sarcocornia fruticosa      II   .    .    .    .    .    .
Limonium gmelinii          I    1    .    .    .    .    I
Halimione portulacoides    I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Calystegia sepium          I    .    .    .    2b   .    I
Rumex conglomeratus        I    .    1    .    .    1    II
Atriplex prostrata         I    1    .    .    .    .    I
Beta vulgaris subsp.       I    .    .    .    .    .    .
  maritima
Cynanchum acutum           I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Apium graveolens           I    .    .    .    .    .    .
Lotus corniculatus         II   .    .    2m   .    .    I

other species: Cichorium intybus 2m and Daucus carota s.l. +
in 2; Puccinellia festuciformis + in 7; Plantago lanceolata
1, Rumex patientia + in 8; Limbarda crithmoides 1 in 9;
Puccinellia distans subsp. distans + in 10; Juncus gerardi
subsp. gerardi and Carex hispida 2b in 12; Sonchus bulbosus
and Limonium sp. 2a, Parapholis filiformis 2b, Centaurium
tenuiflorum r in 15; Oenanthe silaifolia + in 19; Veronica
anagalloides 2m in 20; Parentucellia viscosa 2m, Galium
spurium, Vicia villosa subsp. villosa 1 in 21; Melilotus
segetalis 1 in 22.

Localities: 1, 12 and 20: Elos Sourpis; 2, 7-11 and 18:
Spercheios River Delta; 3-5, 19 and 21-22: Atalanti wetland;
13-16: oropos wetland area.

Table 11

Synoptic table of species constancy of studied plant communities
Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae (1) Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici
(2) Aeluropus littoralis comm. (3), Matthiola tricuspidata-Anthemis
tomentosa comm. (4) Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea (5),
Spergulariasalina-Suaeda splendens comm. (6) Arthrocnemum
macrostachyum comm. (7), Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum
strobilaceum comm. (8), Limoniumvirgatum comm. (9), Limonium
gmelinii comm. (10), Sarcocorniaperennis-Halimione portulacoides
comm. (11). Quotation used (combination of the constancy class value
and cover-abundance degree -amplitude- of species) are according with
Westhoff & Van der Maarel (1980).

N. releves:                       4                8
Average N. species:               5                7
Association N.                    1                2

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      [II.sup.2m]      .
Cakile maritima                   [IV.sup.1-2a]    [II.sup.r-2m]

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .                [V.sup.r-5]
Eryngium maritimum                .                [IV.sup.r-4]
Aeluropus littoralis              .                .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              .                .
Characteristics of                .                .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .                .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            [II.sup.3]       [IV.sup.+-2m]
Anthemis tomentosa                                 [III.sup.+-5]

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          .                .
Spergularia salina                .                [I.sup.2m]

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             .                .
Halocnemum strobilaceum           .                .
Limonium virgatum comm.           .                .
Limonium virgatum                 .                .
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .                .
Limonium gmelinii                 .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              .                .
Halimione portulacoides           .                [II.sup.2a-2m]

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              [I.sup.2a]       .
Bolboschoenus maritimus           .                .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            [II.sup.4]       [I.sup.r]
Puccinelia festuciformis          .                .
Limonium narbonense               .                .
Limbarda crithmoides              .                .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 .                .
Avena barbata                     [II.sup.+]       .
Lolium rigidum                    .                [I.sup.2m]
Anisantha matridensis subsp.                       .
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .                [I.sup.2m]
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .                [II.sup.1-2a]
Linaria micrantha                 .                .
Phalaris minor                    .                .
Rostraria cristata                .                .
Papaver rhoeas                    .                .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  [III.sup.1-2b]   .
Euphorbia parallias               .                [III.sup.r-4]
Sporobolus virginicus             .                [III.sup.2a-4]
Medicago marina                   .                [I.sup.3]
Calystegia soldanella             .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                [II.sup.r]       [IV.sup.+-3]
Plantago coronopus subsp.         .                .
  coronopus
Polypogon monspeliensis           [II.sup.r]       [II.sup.r]
Centaurium tenuiflorum            .                .
Hordeum marinum                   .                .
Sphenopus divaricatus             .                .
Parapholis filiformis             .                .
Parapholis marginata              .                .
Polypogon maritimus               .                .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    [II.sup.2b]      [II.sup.r-+]
Medicago littoralis               .                [I.sup.2m]
Silene colorata                   .                .
Plantago lagopus                  .                .
Echium arenarium                  .                .
Trifolium scabrum                 .                .
Vulpia fasciculata                .                .

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                [III.sup.2m-4]   .
Capparis spinosa                  [II.sup.3]       .
Limonium graecum                  .                [I.sup.r]

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  .                .
Puccinelia distans subsp.         .                .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       .                .
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  .                .
Juncus heldreichianus             .                .
Juncus maritimus                  .                .
Juncus acutus                     .                [I.sup.r]
Carex divisa                      .                .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   .                .
Juncus hybridus                   .                .
Companion species                 .                .
Atriplex prostrata                [II.sup.1]       .
Cynodon dactylon                  [II.sup.1]       .
Melilotus segetalis               .                .
Brassica geniculata               [II.sup.2a]      .
Limonium sp.                      .                .
Polygonum arenarium               .                .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           .                .
Phalaris paradoxa                 .                .
Puccinellia sp.                   .                .
Euphorbia sp.                     .                .
Bupleurum tenuissimum             .                .
Medicago polymorpha               .                .
Medicago scutellata               .                .
Avena sterilis subsp.             .                .
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .                .
Piptatherum miliaceum             .                .
Lolium multiflorum                .                .
Sonchus oleraceus                 .                .

N. releves:                       10               6
Average N. species:               7                8
Association N.                    3                4

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      .                .
Cakile maritima                   [I.sup.+-1]      .

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .                .
Eryngium maritimum                [I.sup.2b]       .
Aeluropus littoralis              .                .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              [V.sup.2b-5]     [II.sup.1-2m]
Characteristics of                .                .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .                .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            [III.sup.r-2m]   [V.sup.+-3]
Anthemis tomentosa                [IV.sup.1-4]     [V.sup.+-3]

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          Ir               .
Spergularia salina                .                .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             .                .
Halocnemum strobilaceum           .                .
Limonium virgatum comm.           .                .
Limonium virgatum                 .                .
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .                .
Limonium gmelinii                 .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              .                .
Halimione portulacoides           .                .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              .                .
Bolboschoenus maritimus           .                .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            .                .
Puccinelia festuciformis          .                .
Limonium narbonense               .                .
Limbarda crithmoides              .                .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 [II.sup.r-2m]    .
Avena barbata                     [I.sup.+]        [I.sup.r]
Lolium rigidum                    [I.sup.5]        .
Anisantha matridensis subsp.      .                [I.sup.+]
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .                [I.sup.r-+]
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .                .
Linaria micrantha                 [I.sup.+]        .
Phalaris minor                    [I.sup.r-1]      .
Rostraria cristata                [I.sup.+-2a]     .
Papaver rhoeas                    [I.sup.2a]       .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  [I.sup.+]        [I.sup.2b]
Euphorbia parallias               .                .
Sporobolus virginicus             .                .
Medicago marina                   [I.sup.+]        .
Calystegia soldanella             [I.sup.1]        .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                [I.sup.4]        [I.sup.2b]
Plantago coronopus subsp.         [I.sup.2m]       [I.sup.r]
  coronopus                       .                .
Polypogon monspeliensis           .                .
Centaurium tenuiflorum            .                .
Hordeum marinum                   [I.sup.2m]       .
Sphenopus divaricatus             .                .
Parapholis filiformis             [I.sup.3]        .
Parapholis marginata              .                .
Polypogon maritimus               .                .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    [II.sup.2b-2m]   [III.sup.r-1]
Medicago littoralis               .                [V.sup.2b-4]
Silene colorata                   [I.sup.2a]       [V.sup.1-4]
Plantago lagopus                  .                [IV.sup.2b-4]
Echium arenarium                  .                [IV.sup.+-2m]
Trifolium scabrum                 .                [II.sup.1]
Vulpia fasciculata                .                [I.sup.2b]

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                .                .
Capparis spinosa                  .                .
Limonium graecum                  .                .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  .                .
Puccinelia distans subsp.         .                .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       .                .
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  .                .
Juncus heldreichianus             .                .
Juncus maritimus                  .                .
Juncus acutus                     .                .
Carex divisa                      .                .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   .                .
Juncus hybridus                   .                .
Companion species                 .                .
Atriplex prostrata                .                .
Cynodon dactylon                  .                .
Melilotus segetalis               .                .
Brassica geniculata               .                .
Limonium sp.                      [I.sup.2b]       .
Polygonum arenarium               [I.sup.2a]       .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           [I.sup.2m]       .
Phalaris paradoxa                 [I.sup.2a]       .
Puccinellia sp.                   [I.sup.3]        .
Euphorbia sp.                     .                .
Bupleurum tenuissimum             .                .
Medicago polymorpha               .                .
Medicago scutellata               .                .
Avena sterilis subsp.             .                .
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .                .
Piptatherum miliaceum             .                .
Lolium multiflorum                .                .
Sonchus oleraceus                 .                .

N. releves:                       6                3
Average N. species:               8                6
Association N.                    5                6

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      .                .
Cakile maritima                   .                .

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .                .
Eryngium maritimum                .                .
Aeluropus littoralis              .                .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              [I.sup.2a]       .
Characteristics of                .                .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .                .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            .                .
Anthemis tomentosa                .                .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          [V.sup.1-4]      .
Spergularia salina                [V.sup.r-5]      [IV.sup.2m-5]

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  [I.sup.2a]       [V.sup.1-5]
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             .                .
Halocnemum strobilaceum           .                .
Limonium virgatum comm.           .                .
Limonium virgatum                 .                .
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .                .
Limonium gmelinii                 .                .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              .                .
Halimione portulacoides           [III.sup.+-2a]   .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              [I.sup.+]        .
Bolboschoenus maritimus           [I.sup.2m]       .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            .                .
Puccinelia festuciformis          .                [II.sup.2m]
Limonium narbonense               [I.sup.r]        .
Limbarda crithmoides              .                .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 .                .
Avena barbata                     .                .
Lolium rigidum                    .                .
Anisantha matridensis subsp.      .                .
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .                .
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .                .
Linaria micrantha                 .                .
Phalaris minor                    .                .
Rostraria cristata                .                .
Papaver rhoeas                    .                .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  .                .
Euphorbia parallias               .                .
Sporobolus virginicus             .                .
Medicago marina                   .                .
Calystegia soldanella             .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                [III.sup.1-3]    [II.sup.1]
Plantago coronopus subsp.         [III.sup.2b-3]   .
  coronopus                       .                .
Polypogon monspeliensis           [II.sup.r-1]     [V.sup.+-2m]
Centaurium tenuiflorum            [I.sup.2b]       .
Hordeum marinum                   [V.sup.1-3]      [III.sup.1]
Sphenopus divaricatus             .                .
Parapholis filiformis             .                .
Parapholis marginata              .                .
Polypogon maritimus               [I.sup.1]        .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    .                .
Medicago littoralis               .                .
Silene colorata                   .                .
Plantago lagopus                  .                .
Echium arenarium                  .                .
Trifolium scabrum                 .                .
Vulpia fasciculata                .                .

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                .                .
Capparis spinosa                  .                .
Limonium graecum                  .                .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  .                .
Puccinelia distans subsp.         [III.sup.2a-3]   [III.sup.2m]
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       [I.sup.r]        [II.sup.+]
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  .                .
Juncus heldreichianus             .                .
Juncus maritimus                  .                .
Juncus acutus                     .                .
Carex divisa                      [I.sup.1]        .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   [III.sup.4]      [II.sup.2b]
Juncus hybridus                   [I.sup.4]        .
Companion species                 .                .
Atriplex prostrata                .                .
Cynodon dactylon                  .                .
Melilotus segetalis               .                .
Brassica geniculata               .                .
Limonium sp.                      .                .
Polygonum arenarium               .                .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           .                .
Phalaris paradoxa                 .                .
Puccinellia sp.                   .                .
Euphorbia sp.                     .                [II.sup.2b]
Bupleurum tenuissimum             [I.sup.1]        .
Medicago polymorpha               [I.sup.+]        .
Medicago scutellata               .                .
Avena sterilis subsp.             .                .
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .                .
Piptatherum miliaceum             .                .
Lolium multiflorum                .                .
Sonchus oleraceus                 .                .

N. releves:                       6               5
Average N. species:               6               6
Association N.                    7               8

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      .               .
Cakile maritima                   .               .

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .               .
Eryngium maritimum                .               .
Aeluropus littoralis              .               .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              .               .
Characteristics of                .               .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .               .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            .               .
Anthemis tomentosa                .               .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          .               .
Spergularia salina                .               [III.sup.+-2b]

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  .               .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .               .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        [V.sup.2a-5]    .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             [II.sup.4]      [V.sup.3-4]
Halocnemum strobilaceum           [I.sup.5]       [IV.sup.2b-4]
Limonium virgatum comm.           .               .
Limonium virgatum                 .               .
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .               .
Limonium gmelinii                 .               .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              .               .
Halimione portulacoides           [V.sup.1-4]     [I.sup.5]

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              .               .
Bolboschoenus maritimus           .               .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            [III.sup.+-3]   .
Puccinelia festuciformis          [I.sup.3]       .
Limonium narbonense               .               .
Limbarda crithmoides              .               .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 [II.sup.r-+]    [II.sup.2a]
Avena barbata                     .               .
Lolium rigidum                    [I.sup.3]       [I.sup.2m]
Anisantha matridensis subsp.      .               .
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .               .
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .               .
Linaria micrantha                 .               .
Phalaris minor                    [I.sup.2m]      .
Rostraria cristata                .               .
Papaver rhoeas                    .               .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  .               .
Euphorbia parallias               .               .
Sporobolus virginicus             .               .
Medicago marina                   .               .
Calystegia soldanella             .               .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                .               [IV.sup.2a-2i]
Plantago coronopus subsp.         [I.sup.3]       [I.sup.2a]
  coronopus                       .               .
Polypogon monspeliensis           .               .
Centaurium tenuiflorum            .               [I.sup.1]
Hordeum marinum                   .               .
Sphenopus divaricatus             .               [III.sup.+-2a]
Parapholis filiformis             .               .
Parapholis marginata              .               .
Polypogon maritimus               .               .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    .               .
Medicago littoralis               .               .
Silene colorata                   .               .
Plantago lagopus                  .               .
Echium arenarium                  .               .
Trifolium scabrum                 .               .
Vulpia fasciculata                .               .

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                .               .
Capparis spinosa                  .               .
Limonium graecum                  .               .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  .               .
Puccinelia distans subsp.         .               .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       .               .
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         [I.sup.1]       [1.sup.2a]
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  .               .
Juncus heldreichianus             .               .
Juncus maritimus                  [I.sup.3]       .
Juncus acutus                     .               .
Carex divisa                      .               .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   .               .
Juncus hybridus                   .               .
Companion species                 .               .
Atriplex prostrata                .               .
Cynodon dactylon                  .               .
Melilotus segetalis               .               .
Brassica geniculata               .               .
Limonium sp.                      .               .
Polygonum arenarium               .               .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           .               .
Phalaris paradoxa                 .               .
Puccinellia sp.                   .               .
Euphorbia sp.                     .               .
Bupleurum tenuissimum             .               .
Medicago polymorpha               .               .
Medicago scutellata               [I.sup.2B]      .
Avena sterilis subsp.             [I.sup.3]       [1.sup.+]
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .               .
Piptatherum miliaceum             [I.sup.2a]      .
Lolium multiflorum                [I.sup.2m]      .
Sonchus oleraceus                 [II.sup.+-1]    .

N. releves:                       3              2
Average N. species:               6              6
Association N.                    9              10

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      .              .
Cakile maritima                   .              .

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .              .
Eryngium maritimum                .              .
Aeluropus littoralis              .              .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              .              .
Characteristics of                .              .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .              .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            .              .
Anthemis tomentosa                .              .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          .              .
Spergularia salina                .              .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  .              .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .              .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        .              .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             .              .
Halocnemum strobilaceum           .              .
Limonium virgatum comm.           .              .
Limonium virgatum                 [V.sup.4]      .
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .              .
Limonium gmelinii                 .              [V.sup.5]

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              .              [V.sup.2b-2m]
Halimione portulacoides           [V.sup.1-4]    [V.sup.1-2m]

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              .              .
Bolboschoenus maritimus           .              .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            .              .
Puccinelia festuciformis          [II.sup.1]     [III.sup.+]
Limonium narbonense               [II.sup.2b]    .
Limbarda crithmoides              [V.sup.r-2a]   .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 [II.sup.+]     .
Avena barbata                     .              .
Lolium rigidum                    .              .
Anisantha matridensis subsp.      .              .
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .              .
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .              .
Linaria micrantha                 .              .
Phalaris minor                    .              .
Rostraria cristata                .              .
Papaver rhoeas                    .              .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  .              .
Euphorbia parallias               .              .
Sporobolus virginicus             .              .
Medicago marina                   .              .
Calystegia soldanella             .              .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                .              .
Plantago coronopus subsp.         .              .
  coronopus                       .              .
Polypogon monspeliensis           .              .
Centaurium tenuiflorum            [II.sup.2b]    .
Hordeum marinum                   .              .
Sphenopus divaricatus             .              .
Parapholis filiformis             .              .
Parapholis marginata              [II.sup.2m]    .
Polypogon maritimus               [II.sup.+]     .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    .              .
Medicago littoralis               .              .
Silene colorata                   .              .
Plantago lagopus                  .              .
Echium arenarium                  .              .
Trifolium scabrum                 .              .
Vulpia fasciculata                .              .

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                .              .
Capparis spinosa                  .              .
Limonium graecum                  .              .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  [III.sup.r]    [III.sup.+]
Puccinelia distans subsp.         .              .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       .              .
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         .              .
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  .              .
Juncus heldreichianus             .              .
Juncus maritimus                  .              .
Juncus acutus                     .              .
Carex divisa                      .              .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   .              .
Juncus hybridus                   .              .
Companion species                 .              .
Atriplex prostrata                .              .
Cynodon dactylon                  .              .
Melilotus segetalis               .              .
Brassica geniculata               .              .
Limonium sp.                      .              .
Polygonum arenarium               .              .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           .              .
Phalaris paradoxa                 .              .
Puccinellia sp.                   .              .
Euphorbia sp.                     .              .
Bupleurum tenuissimum             .              .
Medicago polymorpha               .              .
Medicago scutellata               .              .
Avena sterilis subsp.             .              .
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .              .
Piptatherum miliaceum             .              .
Lolium multiflorum                .              .
Sonchus oleraceus                 .              .

N. releves:                       22
Average N. species:               4
Association N.                    11

Characteristics of Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae

Salsola kali                      .
Cakile maritima                   .

Characteristics of Eryngio-Sporoboletum virginici.

Elytrigia juncea                  .
Eryngium maritimum                .
Aeluropus littoralis              .
  comm.
Aeluropus littoralis              [I.sup.1]
Characteristics of                .
  Matthiola
tricuspidata-Anthemis             .
  tomentosa comm.
Matthiola tricuspidata            [I.sup.r]
Anthemis tomentosa                .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Salicornia europaea comm.

Salicornia europaea agg.          .
Spergularia salina                .

Characteristics of Spergularia salina-Suaeda splendens comm.

Suaeda splendens                  .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum com    .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum        .

Characteristics of Sarcocornia fruticosa-Halocnemum strobilaceum comm.

Sarcocornia fruticosa             .
Halocnemum strobilaceum           .
Limonium virgatum comm.           .
Limonium virgatum                 [I.sup.1]
Limonium gmelinii comm.           .
Limonium gmelinii                 [I.sup.r-1]

Characteristics of Sarcocornia perennis-Halimione portulacoides comm.

Sarcocornia perennis              [V.sup.2a-5]
Halimione portulacoides           [I.sup.V+-5]

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Phragmites australis              [I.sup.r]
Bolboschoenus maritimus           [I.sup.2m]

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium            [I.sup.r-4]
Puccinelia festuciformis          [IV.sup.+-5]
Limonium narbonense               [II.sup.r-4]
Limbarda crithmoides              [I.sup.1]

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Melilotus indicus                 .
Avena barbata                     .
Lolium rigidum                    .
Anisantha matridensis subsp.      .
  delilei
Hordeum murinum subsp.            .
  leporinum
Anisantha rubens                  .
Linaria micrantha                 .
Phalaris minor                    .
Rostraria cristata                .
Papaver rhoeas                    .

Characteristics of Ammophiletea

Lotus cytisoides                  .
Euphorbia parallias               .
Sporobolus virginicus             .
Medicago marina                   .
Calystegia soldanella             .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Parapholis incurva                [I.sup.2a]
Plantago coronopus subsp.         [I.sup.3]
  coronopus                       .
Polypogon monspeliensis           [I.sup.1]
Centaurium tenuiflorum            [I.sup.+]
Hordeum marinum                   .
Sphenopus divaricatus             .
Parapholis filiformis             .
Parapholis marginata              .
Polypogon maritimus               .

Characteristics of Thero-Brachypodietea

Lagurus ovatus                    .
Medicago littoralis               .
Silene colorata                   .
Plantago lagopus                  .
Echium arenarium                  .
Trifolium scabrum                 .
Vulpia fasciculata                .

Characteristics of Crithmo-Staticetea

Crithmum maritimum                .
Capparis spinosa                  .
Limonium graecum                  .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus                  .
Puccinelia distans subsp.         .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum subsp.       [I.sup.2m]
  tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.         [I.sup.4]
  barrelieri
Juncus subulatus                  [I.sup.+-2b]
Juncus heldreichianus             [I.sup.2a-3]
Juncus maritimus                  [I.sup.4]
Juncus acutus                     [I.sup.r-+]
Carex divisa                      .

Characteristics of Isoeto-NanoJuncetea

Juncus bufonius                   .
Juncus hybridus                   .
Companion species                 .
Atriplex prostrata                .
Cynodon dactylon                  .
Melilotus segetalis               .
Brassica geniculata               .
Limonium sp.                      .
Polygonum arenarium               .
Polycarpon tetraphyllum           .
Phalaris paradoxa                 .
Puccinellia sp.                   .
Euphorbia sp.                     .
Bupleurum tenuissimum             .
Medicago polymorpha               .
Medicago scutellata               .
Avena sterilis subsp.             .
  ludoviciana
Galium spurium                    .
Piptatherum miliaceum             .
Lolium multiflorum                .
Sonchus oleraceus                 .

Other taxa: Silene sedoides and Parietaria cretica IIr and Reichardia
picroides in 1; Atriplex prostrata [I.sup.+] and Xanthium strumarium
[I.sup.1] in 2; Cynodon dactylon, Cynanchum acutum and Atriplex
tatarica [I.sup.1], Bromus scoparius and Limonium narbonense F,
Cynosurus echinatus, Anisantha diandra, Arenaria leptoclados and
Hymenolobus procumbens [I.sup.+] in 3.

Precedence of releves: 1: Table 2, rels. 1-5; 2: Table 2, rels. 5-14;
3: Table 3, rels.1-10; 4: Table 3, rels. 12-17; 5: Table 4, rels.
1-6; 6: Table 4, rels. 8-10; 7: Table 5, rels. 1-6; 8: Table 5, rels.
8-12; 9: Table 5, rels. 14-16; 10: Table 5, rels. 18-19; 11: Table 6,
rels. 1-22

Table 12

Synoptic table of species constancy of studied plant communities
Juncus subulatus comm. (1), Juncus heldreichianus comm. (2),
Juncetum maritimo-acuti (3), Carex divisa-Carex distans comm. (4),
Phragmitetum communis typicum (5a), elymetosum elongati (5b),
juncetosum subulati (5c), Bolboschoenetum maritime (6),
Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani (7) Potamogeton
pectinatus-Myriophyllum spicatum comm. (8) Quotation used
(combination of the constancy class value and cover-abundance
degree--amplitude--of species) are according with Westhoff & Van
der Maarel (1980).

N. releves:                  6                7
Average N. species:          4                6
Association N.               1                2

Characteristics of Juncus subulatus comm.

Juncus subulatus             [V.sup.5]        .

Characteristics of Juncus heldreichianus comm.

Juncus heldreichianus        .                [V.sup.4-5]
Juncetum maritimo-acuti
Juncus maritimus             .                [III.sup.2m-3]
Juncus acutus                [I.sup.+]        [I.sup.2a]

characteristics of Carex divisa-Carex distans comm.

Carex divisa                 .                [I.sup.3]
Carex distans                .                [I.sup.r]

characteristics of Phragmitetum communis

Phragmites australis         [I.sup.1]        [II.sup.1]
Bolboschoenetum maritimi
Bolboschoenus maritimus      [II.sup.2b-3]    .

characteristics of Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani

Scirpus lacustris subsp.     .                .
  tabernaemontani

Characteristics of Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophylleum spicatum comm.

Myriophyllum spicatum        .                .
Potamogeton pectinatus       .                .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium       [I.sup.+]        [II.sup.+-2m]
Puccinelia festuciformis     [II.sup.2a-2b]   .
Limonium narbonense          [I.sup.2a]       [I.sup.r-+]
Limbarda crithmoides         .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum   .                .
Sarcocornia fruticosa        .                .
Limonium gmelinii            .                .
Sarcocornia perennis         [II.sup.2m]      [I.sup.+]
Halimione portulacoides      [II.sup.2b]      [I.sup.1]

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Lolium rigidum               .                .
Torilis nodosa               .                [I.sup.r-1]
Hordeum murinum subsp.       .                .
  leporinum
Rostraria cristata           .                [I.sup.1]
Geranium dissectum           .                .
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra    .                .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus             .                [III.sup.2a-4]
Puccinelia distans subsp.    [I.sup.4]        [I.sup.1]
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum         [I.sup.1]        .
  subsp. Tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.    .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus littoralis            [I.sup.+]        .
Elytrigia scirpea            .                .
Juncus gerardi               .                .
Plantago crassifolia         .                [I.sup.+]
Carex extensa                .                .
Carex hispida                .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Polypogon monspeliensis      .                .
Centaurium tenuiflorum       .                [I.sup.+]
Hordeum marinum              [I.sup.+]        .
Parapholis incurva           [I.sup.2b]       .
Parapholis filiformis        .                .
Spergularia salina           .                .
Parentucellia viscosa        .                .

Characteristics of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

Lotus corniculatus           .                [I.sup.+]
Oenanthe silaifolia          [I.sup.2m]       .
Daucus carota                .                .
Bromus hordeaceus subsp.     .                .
  hordeaceus
Juncus inflexus              .                .
Pulicaria dysenterica        .                .
Hordeum geniculatum          .                .
Poa trivialis subsp.         .                .
  trivialis

Characteristics of Isoeto-Nano-Juncetea

Juncus articulatus           .                .
Juncus bufonius              .                .
Juncus hybridus              .                .
Samolus valerandi            .                .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Calystegia sepium            .                .
Typha domingensis            .                .
Lotus palustris s.l.         .                .

Companions

Rumex conglomeratus          [I.sup.1]        .
Atriplex prostrata           .                .
Melilotus segetalis          [I.sup.+]        .
Elytrigia juncea             .                [I.sup.2m]
Melilotus indicus            .                .
Cirsium creticum             .                .
Limonium graecum             .                .
Limonium sinuatum            .                .
Anagallis arvensis           .                .
Ornithogalum sp.             .                .
Galium aparine               .                .
Picris sp.                   .                .
Taraxacum sp.                .                .
Ophrys fusca                 .                .
Dittrichia viscosa           .                [I.sup.r]
Rumex patientia              .                .
Cyperus laevigatus subsp.    .                [I.sup.2b]
  distachyos
Daucus guttatus              .                [I.sup.1]
Melica ciliata subsp.        .                [II.sup.+]
  ciliata
Hordeum bulbosum             .                [I.sup.r]
Monerma cylindrica           .                .
Marrubium peregrinum         .                .
Cynanchum acutum             .                [I.sup.+]

N. releves:                  13               3
Average N. species:          6                8
Association N.               3                4

Characteristics of Juncus subulatus comm.

Juncus subulatus             [I.sup.2b-3]     .

Characteristics of Juncus heldreichianus comm.

Juncus heldreichianus        [I.sup.r]        .
Juncetum maritimo-acuti
Juncus maritimus             [IV.sup.2b-5]    .
Juncus acutus                [III.sup.2b-4]   .

characteristics of Carex divisa-Carex distans comm.

Carex divisa                 .                [V.sup.3-5]
Carex distans                [I.sup.r]        [IV.sup.2a-4]

characteristics of Phragmitetum communis

Phragmites australis         [II.sup.+-2m]    .
Bolboschoenetum maritimi
Bolboschoenus maritimus      [I.sup.1]        .

characteristics of Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani

Scirpus lacustris subsp.     .                .
  tabernaemontani

Characteristics of Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophylleum spicatum comm.

Myriophyllum spicatum        .                .
Potamogeton pectinatus       .                .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium       [I.sup.+-2a]     .
Puccinelia festuciformis     [I.sup.r-1]      .
Limonium narbonense          .                .
Limbarda crithmoides         .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum   [I.sup.2b-4]     .
Sarcocornia fruticosa        [I.sup.1-2b]     .
Limonium gmelinii            [I.sup.+]        .
Sarcocornia perennis         [II.sup.+-2m]    [II.sup.+]
Halimione portulacoides      [II.sup.+-2a]    .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Lolium rigidum               .                .
Torilis nodosa               [I.sup.+]        .
Hordeum murinum subsp.       .                [IV.sup.3]
  leporinum
Rostraria cristata           .                .
Geranium dissectum           [I.sup.r-1]      .
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra    [I.sup.r-1]      .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus             [II.sup.1-5]     .
Puccinelia distans subsp.    .                .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum         [I.sup.+-1]      .
  subsp. Tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.    [I.sup.3]        [II.sup.2m]
  barrelieri
Juncus littoralis            .                .
Elytrigia scirpea            [I.sup.4]        .
Juncus gerardi               .                .
Plantago crassifolia         .                .
Carex extensa                .                .
Carex hispida                .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Polypogon monspeliensis      [I.sup.+-1]      [II.sup.2a]
Centaurium tenuiflorum       [I.sup.1]        .
Hordeum marinum              .                .
Parapholis incurva           .                .
Parapholis filiformis        [I.sup.4]        .
Spergularia salina           .                .
Parentucellia viscosa        .                .

Characteristics of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

Lotus corniculatus           [I.sup.2a]       [IV.sup.1-2m]
Oenanthe silaifolia          .                [IV.sup.2m]
Daucus carota                [I.sup.+]        [II.sup.+]
Bromus hordeaceus subsp.     [I.sup.2m]       .
  hordeaceus
Juncus inflexus              .                [II.sup.1]
Pulicaria dysenterica        .                [II.sup.r]
Hordeum geniculatum          .                [II.sup.3]
Poa trivialis subsp.         .                .
  trivialis

Characteristics of Isoeto-Nano-Juncetea

Juncus articulatus           .                [II.sup.1]
Juncus bufonius              [I.sup.2a]       .
Juncus hybridus              .                [II.sup.1]
Samolus valerandi            .                .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Calystegia sepium            .                .
Typha domingensis            .                .
Lotus palustris s.l.         [I.sup.1]        .

Companions

Rumex conglomeratus          .                .
Atriplex prostrata           .                .
Melilotus segetalis          .                .
Elytrigia juncea             [I.sup.2b]       .
Melilotus indicus            [I.sup.1]        [II.sup.2m]
Cirsium creticum             .                .
Limonium graecum             [II.sup.+-3]     .
Limonium sinuatum            .                .
Anagallis arvensis           [I.sup.1]        .
Ornithogalum sp.             [I.sup.+]        .
Galium aparine               [I.sup.1]        .
Picris sp.                   [I.sup.1]        .
Taraxacum sp.                [I.sup.1]        .
Ophrys fusca                 [I.sup.r]        .
Dittrichia viscosa           [I.sup.3]        .
Rumex patientia              .                .
Cyperus laevigatus subsp.    .                .
  distachyos
Daucus guttatus              .                .
Melica ciliata subsp.        .                .
  ciliata
Hordeum bulbosum             .                .
Monerma cylindrica           .                [II.sup.r]
Marrubium peregrinum         .                [r.sup.-+]
Cynanchum acutum             .                .

N. releves:                  8                10
Average N. species:          4                6
Association N.               5a               5b

Characteristics of Juncus subulatus comm.

Juncus subulatus             .                .

Characteristics of Juncus heldreichianus comm.

Juncus heldreichianus        [I.sup.1]        .
Juncetum maritimo-acuti
Juncus maritimus             .                .
Juncus acutus                .                [I.sup.+-1]

characteristics of Carex divisa-Carex distans comm.

Carex divisa                 .                [I.sup.1-2a]
Carex distans                .                .

characteristics of Phragmitetum communis

Phragmites australis         [V.sup.5]        [V.sup.4-5]
Bolboschoenetum maritimi
Bolboschoenus maritimus      .                .

characteristics of Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani

Scirpus lacustris subsp.     .                .
  tabernaemontani

Characteristics of Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophylleum spicatum comm.

Myriophyllum spicatum        .                .
Potamogeton pectinatus       .                .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium       .                .
Puccinelia festuciformis     .                [I.sup.+]
Limonium narbonense          .                .
Limbarda crithmoides         .                [I.sup.1]
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum   .                .
Sarcocornia fruticosa        .                [II.sup.+-3]
Limonium gmelinii            .                [I.sup.+]
Sarcocornia perennis         .                .
Halimione portulacoides      .                [I.sup.1]

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Lolium rigidum               .                .
Torilis nodosa               .                .
Hordeum murinum subsp.       .                .
  leporinum
Rostraria cristata           .                .
Geranium dissectum           .                .
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra    .                .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus             .                [V.sup.1-5]
Puccinelia distans subsp.    .                [I.sup.+]
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum         .                .
  subsp. Tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.    .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus littoralis            .                .
Elytrigia scirpea            .                .
Juncus gerardi               .                [I.sup.2b]
Plantago crassifolia         .                .
Carex extensa                .                [I.sup.2a-2b]
Carex hispida                .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Polypogon monspeliensis      .                [II.sup.1-2m]
Centaurium tenuiflorum       .                Ir
Hordeum marinum              .                .
Parapholis incurva           .                .
Parapholis filiformis        .                [I.sup.2a]
Spergularia salina           .                .
Parentucellia viscosa        .                .

Characteristics of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

Lotus corniculatus           .                [I.sup.+-1]
Oenanthe silaifolia          .                .
Daucus carota                [I.sup.+]        .
Bromus hordeaceus subsp.     .                .
  hordeaceus
Juncus inflexus              .                .
Pulicaria dysenterica        .                .
Hordeum geniculatum          .                .
Poa trivialis subsp.         .                .
  trivialis

Characteristics of Isoeto-Nano-Juncetea

Juncus articulatus           .                .
Juncus bufonius              .                .
Juncus hybridus              .                .
Samolus valerandi            .                .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Calystegia sepium            [II.sup.2b-2m]   [I.sup.1-2m]
Typha domingensis            .                .
Lotus palustris s.l.         .                [I.sup.+]

Companions

Rumex conglomeratus          .                [I.sup.1]
Atriplex prostrata           .                .
Melilotus segetalis          .                .
Elytrigia juncea             .                .
Melilotus indicus            .                .
Cirsium creticum             [I.sup.2b]       [I.sup.2m]
Limonium graecum             .                .
Limonium sinuatum            .                .
Anagallis arvensis           .                .
Ornithogalum sp.             .                .
Galium aparine               .                .
Picris sp.                   .                .
Taraxacum sp.                .                .
Ophrys fusca                 .                .
Dittrichia viscosa           .                .
Rumex patientia              .                [I.sup.+]
Cyperus laevigatus subsp.    .                .
  distachyos
Daucus guttatus              .                .
Melica ciliata subsp.        .                .
  ciliata
Hordeum bulbosum             .                .
Monerma cylindrica           .                .
Marrubium peregrinum         .                .
Cynanchum acutum             [I.sup.+]        [I.sup.2m]

N. releves:                  5              8
Average N. species:          5              5
Association N.               5c             6

Characteristics of Juncus subulatus comm.

Juncus subulatus             [IV.sup.+-4]   [II.sup.3]

Characteristics of Juncus heldreichianus comm.

Juncus heldreichianus        .              [I.sup.4]
Juncetum maritimo-acuti
Juncus maritimus             .              [I.sup.3]
Juncus acutus                .              [I.sup.2a]

characteristics of Carex divisa-Carex distans comm.

Carex divisa                 .              [I.sup.5]
Carex distans                .              .

characteristics of Phragmitetum communis

Phragmites australis         [V.sup.5]      [III.sup.+-1]
Bolboschoenetum maritimi
Bolboschoenus maritimus      [III.sup.1]    [V.sup.3-5]

characteristics of Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani

Scirpus lacustris subsp.     .              .
  tabernaemontani

Characteristics of Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophylleum spicatum comm.

Myriophyllum spicatum        .              .
Potamogeton pectinatus       .              .

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium       .              .
Puccinelia festuciformis     .              .
Limonium narbonense          .              .
Limbarda crithmoides         .              .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum   .              [I.sup.2m]
Sarcocornia fruticosa        .              .
Limonium gmelinii            .              .
Sarcocornia perennis         .              .
Halimione portulacoides      .              .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Lolium rigidum               .              [I.sup.2m]
Torilis nodosa               .              .
Hordeum murinum subsp.       .              [I.sup.2a]
  leporinum
Rostraria cristata           .              .
Geranium dissectum           .              .
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra    .              .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus             .              .
Puccinelia distans subsp.    .              .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum         .              .
  subsp. Tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.    .              .
  barrelieri
Juncus littoralis            .              .
Elytrigia scirpea            .              .
Juncus gerardi               .              .
Plantago crassifolia         .              .
Carex extensa                .              .
Carex hispida                .              .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Polypogon monspeliensis      .              [II.sup.1-2b]
Centaurium tenuiflorum       .              .
Hordeum marinum              .              .
Parapholis incurva           .              .
Parapholis filiformis        .              .
Spergularia salina           .              [I.sup.+]
Parentucellia viscosa        [I.sup.2m]     .

Characteristics of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

Lotus corniculatus           [I.sup.2m]     .
Oenanthe silaifolia          [I.sup.+]      [II.sup.1-4]
Daucus carota                .              .
Bromus hordeaceus subsp.     .              .
  hordeaceus
Juncus inflexus              .              .
Pulicaria dysenterica        .              .
Hordeum geniculatum          .              .
Poa trivialis subsp.         .              .
  trivialis

Characteristics of Isoeto-Nano-Juncetea

Juncus articulatus           .              .
Juncus bufonius              .              .
Juncus hybridus              .              .
Samolus valerandi            .              .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Calystegia sepium            [I.sup.2b]     .
Typha domingensis            .              [II.sup.3]
Lotus palustris s.l.         .              .

Companions

Rumex conglomeratus          [II.sup.1]     [II.sup.2a-2]
Atriplex prostrata           [I.sup.1]      [II.sup.r-2b]
Melilotus segetalis          [I.sup.1]      .
Elytrigia juncea             .              .
Melilotus indicus            .              .
Cirsium creticum             .              .
Limonium graecum             .              .
Limonium sinuatum            .              .
Anagallis arvensis           .              .
Ornithogalum sp.             .              .
Galium aparine               .              .
Picris sp.                   .              .
Taraxacum sp.                .              .
Ophrys fusca                 .              .
Dittrichia viscosa           .              .
Rumex patientia              .              [I.sup.l]
Cyperus laevigatus subsp.    .              .
  distachyos
Daucus guttatus              .              .
Melica ciliata subsp.        .              .
  ciliata
Hordeum bulbosum             .              .
Monerma cylindrica           .              .
Marrubium peregrinum         .              .
Cynanchum acutum             .              .

N. releves:                  3                4
Average N. species:          6                3
Association N.               7                8

Characteristics of Juncus subulatus comm.

Juncus subulatus             .                .

Characteristics of Juncus heldreichianus comm.

Juncus heldreichianus        [II.sup.2b]      .
Juncetum maritimo-acuti
Juncus maritimus             [II.sup.3]       .
Juncus acutus                .                .

characteristics of Carex divisa-Carex distans comm.

Carex divisa                 .                .
Carex distans                .                .

characteristics of Phragmitetum communis

Phragmites australis         [V.sup.5]        .
Bolboschoenetum maritimi
Bolboschoenus maritimus      [II.sup.2a]      .

characteristics of Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani

Scirpus lacustris subsp.     [V.sup.2a-3]     .
  tabernaemontani

Characteristics of Potamogeton pectinatus-Myriophylleum spicatum comm.

Myriophyllum spicatum        .                [V.sup.1-5]
Potamogeton pectinatus       .                [V.sup.2m-5]

Characteristics of Salicornietea fruticosae

Limonium bellidifolium       .                .
Puccinelia festuciformis     .                .
Limonium narbonense          .                .
Limbarda crithmoides         .                .
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum   .                [I.sup.+]
Sarcocornia fruticosa        .                .
Limonium gmelinii            .                .
Sarcocornia perennis         .                .
Halimione portulacoides      .                .

Characteristics of Stellarietea mediae

Lolium rigidum               .                .
Torilis nodosa               .                .
Hordeum murinum subsp.       .                .
  leporinum
Rostraria cristata           .                .
Geranium dissectum           .                .
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra    .                .

Characteristics of Juncetea maritimi

Elymus elongatus             .                .
Puccinelia distans subsp.    .                .
  distans
Tripolium pannonicum         .                .
  subsp. Tripolium
Triglochin bulbosa subsp.    .                .
  barrelieri
Juncus littoralis            .                .
Elytrigia scirpea            .                .
Juncus gerardi               .                .
Plantago crassifolia         .                [I.sup.+]
Carex extensa                .                .
Carex hispida                .                .

Characteristics of Saginetea maritimae

Polypogon monspeliensis      [II.sup.2m-2b]   .
Centaurium tenuiflorum       .                .
Hordeum marinum              .                .
Parapholis incurva           .                .
Parapholis filiformis        .                .
Spergularia salina           [II.sup.1]       .
Parentucellia viscosa        .                .

Characteristics of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

Lotus corniculatus           .                .
Oenanthe silaifolia          .                .
Daucus carota                .                .
Bromus hordeaceus subsp.     .                .
  hordeaceus
Juncus inflexus              .                .
Pulicaria dysenterica        .                .
Hordeum geniculatum          .                .
Poa trivialis subsp.         .                .
  trivialis

Characteristics of Isoeto-Nano-Juncetea

Juncus articulatus           .                .
Juncus bufonius              .                .
Juncus hybridus              .                .
Samolus valerandi            [II.sup.+]       .

Characteristics of Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea

Calystegia sepium            [II.sup.2m]      .
Typha domingensis            [II.sup.2a]      .
Lotus palustris s.l.         .                .

Companions

Rumex conglomeratus          .                .
Atriplex prostrata           .                .
Melilotus segetalis          .                .
Elytrigia juncea             .                .
Melilotus indicus            .                .
Cirsium creticum             [II.sup.2a]      .
Limonium graecum             .                .
Limonium sinuatum            .                .
Anagallis arvensis           .                .
Ornithogalum sp.             .                .
Galium aparine               .                .
Picris sp.                   .                .
Taraxacum sp.                .                .
Ophrys fusca                 .                .
Dittrichia viscosa           .                .
Rumex patientia              .                .
Cyperus laevigatus subsp.    .                .
  distachyos
Daucus guttatus              .                .
Melica ciliata subsp.        .                .
  ciliata
Hordeum bulbosum             .                .
Monerma cylindrica           .                .
Marrubium peregrinum         .                .
Cynanchum acutum             .                .

Other species: Cichorium intybus I2m in 4; Plantago lanceolata,
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Apium graveolens, Limonium sp.
and Sonchus bulbosus [I.sup.1] in 6; Vicia villosa [I.sup.1],
Galium spurium and Veronica anagalloides [I.sub.2m] in 7;
Matthiola tricuspidata and Tamarix tetrandra [I.sup.+], Suaeda
splendens and Salix alba [I.sup.1], Cyperus longus [I.sup.3],
Polypogon viridis and Rapistrum rugosum [I.sup.4], Scirpoides
holoschoenus and Alopecurus myosuroides I2b in 8; Apium nodiflorum
and Trifolium fragiferum [II.sup.1] in 9.

Procedence of releves: 1: Table 8, rels.1-6; 2: Table 8, rels. 8-14;
3: Table 7, rels. 1-13; 4; Table 7, 15-17; 5a: Table 10, rels. 1-5;
5b: Table 10, rels. 7-16; 5c: Table 10, rels. 18-22; 6: Table 9,
rels. 5-12; 7: Table 9, rels. 1-3; 8: Table 9, rels. 14-17.

Figure 2.--Chorological spectrum
(A) and life-form spectrum
(B) of the investigated coastal flora.

A

Euro-Mediterranean   26%
Mediterranean        34%
Endemics             0%
Widely distributed   39%

B

Ph                   4%
Ch                   5%
H                    28%
G                    11%
Th                   47%
Hyd                  5%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Sarika, Maria
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:21368
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