Flora and vegegation of Danau Sentarum: unique lake and swamp forest ecosystem of West Kalimantan.
Swamp habitats in Indonesia
Large areas of non-marine swamp occur in the lowlands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua, extending over a total area of 23-3 5 million hectares (Euroconsult, 1984; Silvius et al., 1987; RePPProT, 1990; IIED, 1994), and form one of the largest areas of tropical swamp world-wide outside of Amazonia (WCMC, 1992; Maltby, 1997). These swamps consist of two main types, namely peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest. The former is characterized by peat soils, which by definition have an organic matter content of at least 65 percent, while the latter occurs on predominantly mineral soils. More than three-quarters of all peat land in Southeast Asia occurs in Indonesia, and with a total area of 17-27 million hectares, it accounts for more than half of the world's total of tropical peat land (Maltby, 1997).
Most of Indonesia's non-marine swamps are near coastal areas and were forested before the advent of large-scale commercial logging in the 1980s and 1990s. Isolated swamps further inland, in the middle or upper basins of larger rivers, are far less common. Papua very extensive swamp forests are broad, inland extensions of coastal freshwater swamp forests, and due to the rugged, mountainous nature of the interior, inland swamps are either absent or consist of medium to high altitude bogs (Paaijmans, 1976; Petocz, 1989). Most swamps of Sumatra follow a similar pattern: peat- and freshwater swamp forests are found along most of the east coast and extend far inland, with wooded medium to high altitude bogs found in the central mountain range (Scholz, 1983; Silvius et al., 1987). Due to a flat topography, lowland swamps have developed far inland on Borneo and are well-developed in the middle-upper reaches of the island's longest rivers, especially along the Mahakam and Kapuas (Silvius et al., 1987). While forested swamps along the Mahakam have largely deteriorated over the past decades, those in the upper Kapuas basin are relatively intact, and a significant area is protected in the Danau (=lake) Sentarum National Park.
Danau Sentarum National Park
The Danau Sentarum National Park (further referred to as DSNP or the Park) covers an area of 132,000 hectares, and is located in the floodplain of the upper Kapuas River in West Kalimantan (see Giesen and Aglionby, 2000). The Park lies between the Kapuas River and the border with Sarawak, and is located between 0[degrees]40'-0[degrees]55' N and 112[degrees]00' - 112[degrees]25' E at an average elevation of 35 meters. DSNP consists of a series of interconnected seasonal lakes, interspersed with swamp forest, peat swamp forest, and dry lowland forest on isolated hills. It was gazetted a Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa) in 1982, and its status was upgraded to National Park (Taman Nasional) in 1999.
Annual rainfall in the Park fluctuates around 3,900 mm per year, while the surrounding hills and mountainous catchment area receive 4,500-6,000 mm. Because of high precipitation levels, most of the low-lying areas in the basin--including Danau Sentarum--are flooded in the wetter months. Water levels of the lakes and streams may rise and fall up to 12 meters during an average year. During about nine months of the year the lake system is flooded, with an average maximum depth of 6.5 meters, though levels may fluctuate substantially. During the remainder of the year (usually late June-early September) waters usually retreat to the deepest channels and the lakes dry out entirely in two out of three years.
Isolated waterholes or kerinan may remain in the swamp forest or otherwise dry lake bed, while deeper parts of otherwise dry streams may remain as pools or lubuk Lakes and stream waters are colored by tannins, ins, very mineral-deficient and acidic, with a pH of 4.55.5. Light penetration in water is about one meter, while conductivity averages at 16 [micro]S (range 9-24 [micro]S). Dissolved oxygen levels are fairly low, averaging at 4.4 mg/l, while surface temperatures are high (30.4[degrees]C). The geology of Danau Sentarum consists largely of recent deposits with some arkosic sandstone outcroppings. Recent deposits consist of illite and kaolin clays in the lake basin, with pockets of shallow to moderately deep topogenic peat occurring locally. Soils on slopes consist mainly of highly weathered and nutrient poor loams and sands, while those on the flat ridge tops consist of fine to moderately fine sands and loamy sands. In general, soils throughout the area have a low to very low nutrient status and are infe rtile. The flat topography is relieved by several isolated hills in the Park, and hill ranges to the west, northeast, and east.
Botanical studies were initially carried out in the area by the author in 1986 (Giesen, 1987). These included the collection of voucher specimens (numbered 1-200), which were deposited at Bogor, Leiden and (partly at) Kew herbariums. During the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Program (UK-ITFMP) project at DSNP (1992-97), further collections were made of both ferns and seed plants. Voucher specimens (numbered Zulkarnain and Giesen 300-580, dated 1993-94) were deposited at and identified by Bogor and Leiden herbariums, with duplicates held at the Park's Bukit Tekenang Field Center. Kew Herbarium provided identifications of collected palm specimens. Local plant names and uses were recorded for each species. Plant specimens were also identified in the field using Flora Malesiana, Tree Flora of Malaya, Airy Shaw (1975), Backer and Poshumus (1939), Bakhuizen van den Brink (1943-45), Corner (1988), Danser (1927-28, 1931, 1936-37, 1940) and Piggott (1988). Whitmore et al. (1990) was used to convert local name s to scientific names; the latter were subsequently cross-referenced by comparing plant material with literature references.
To assess the composition and structure of DSNP vegetation, surveys included transects, whereby vegetation along a discrete line is described. Transects of DSNP swamp forest vegetation were carried out on a stratified random basis (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974), using a 1990 Landsat TM image of the area and 1:50,000 scale base maps created by the UK-ITFMP team, as a basis for site selection. Points were located in the field using a Magellan 5000 Global Positioning System. Each transect measured 10 by 100 meters, within which all plants were recorded, and height/diameter records were made of woody species with a dbh of more than five centimeters. In addition to plant species and location, water depths were measured in the flooded forest, along with soil type and peat depth. In all, 66 transects were carried out between 7 March and 11 June 1994. Ten transects were on peat soil, half of which (transects 24,26,37,43,61) were shallow (< 50 cm deep), while others were up to 4.05 meters deep. Transect data wa s entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed for species presence and relative abundance. Habitat surveys also included: a) short surveys in 27 burnt areas, whereby species occurrence and condition was noted (June 1994); b) a phenology study of 29 plant species occurring along the jetty at Bukit Tekenang (every 1-2 weeks, January 1994-January 1995); and c) a study of the phenology of 40 common plant species at DSNP, every 2-3 weeks (January 1994-January 1995).
Study of the flora of DSNP began with Beccari in 1867, when he collected about 3035 type specimens (Beccari, 1904), which are held by the herbarium of Florence. Subsequent collections were made in the lake area by Teysmann (1875), Hallier (1895), Polak (1949) and Giesen (1987). Altogether, 504 plant species were recorded in the Danau Sentarum area, representing 99 families (see Appendix I), of which 57 percent were identified to species level and 35 percent to genus level. The ten best-represented plant families are Dipterocarpaceae, with 40 species, Euphorbiaceae 36 species, Rubiaceae 35 species, Myrtaceae 26 species, Fabaceae 21 species, Lauraceae 20 species, Melastomataceae 20 species, Guttiferae 19 species, Moraceae 14 species, and Arecaceae 14 species.
Of these 504 species, just over half (262) are found in the Danau Sentarum swamp forests, where plant collecting efforts by the author were concentrated. Most of the remainder are found in dryland habitats such as lowland forest, heath forest and sites of former shifting cultivation. Aquatic herbaceous species are uncommon, probably because of the significant annual fluctuations in water levels, and are generally limited to more permanent bodies of water near the Kapuas River. Almost three-quarters (73%) of the 504 species are trees and shrubs.
The Danau Sentarum area harbors novel and interesting plant species. Dichilanthe borneensis (known locally as berus), was first collected at Danau Sentarum by Beccari in 1867, and has never been collected elsewhere. This unique species represents a link between the Rubiaceae (to which it has been assigned) and the Scrophulariaceae, incorporating characteristics from both families. A new species of Rhodoleia (insang dungan) was collected in 1993 and identified by Vink (Leiden Herbarium). This species belongs to the Hamamelidaceae, a family poorly represented in Asia, with only seven genera occurring in the Malesian realm, each represented by only one species. The only other species of this family found on Borneo is Sycopsis dunnii, which is endemic to Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah (Vink, 1957). The small tree Dicoelia beccariana (belat), the sedge Hypolytrum capitulatum, the stemless palm Eugeissona ambigua (ransa) and the rattan Plectocomiopsis triquetra (rotan udang) are rare species that are locally common at DSNP (A iry-Shaw, 1975; Kern, 1972; Dransfield, pers. comm. 1986 and 1994).
Endemics/restricted range species
In the basence of comparable floristic data from much of Borneo, the number of plant species with a restricted range or endemic to Danau Sentarum can only be approximated. Many of the 35 species collected by Beccari in the Danau Sentarum area in 1867 (Beccari, 1904) are likely to have a restricted range, as he focused on novel species, and had already been active in neighboring Sarawak for many years before visiting the Kapuas lakes. Species that are endemic to DSNP or at least have a restricted range number 30-40, and include the new Rhodoleja species, Dichilanthe borneensis and Eugeissona ambigua mentioned above. Danau Sentarum is the type locality for all three species. Seven other species likely to be restricted to the Danau Sentarum area are new species collected by Giesen (1987) and Zulkarnain and Giesen (Giesen, 1996). These include Casaeria sp. nov. (Flacourtiaceae; limut), Croton cf. ensifolius (Euphorbiaceae; melayak), Helicia cf. petiolaris (Proteaceae; putat rimba), Korthalsella cf. germinans (Lor anthaceae; paha buntak), Microcos cf. stylocarpus (Tiliaceae; tengkurung asam), Ternstroemia cf. toguian (Theaceae), and Vatica cf. Umbronata (Dipterocarpaceae; menungau).
Flowering and fruiting
A number of plant species tend to flower and set fruit intermittently throughout the year, without any apparent cue by either rainfall or water depth. These species include Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang), Fagraea fragrans (tembesu), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (tengkurung). If these five species are omitted from the phenology study of 29 species, there is a good correlation between flowering/fruiting and flooding regime. Of the 24 species that display seasonality, only 3 flower/fruit in the dry months of April to August, while the remainder flower or set fruit throughout the October-March wet season (with 6-18 flowering/fruiting at any given time in this period).
Relatively few exotic plant species have been introduced to DSNP; these include Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia alata, Eichhornia crassipes, Hyptis brevipes, Ludwigia hyssopifolia, Mimosa pigra and Passiflora foetida. All are from tropical South America except for H. brevipes, which originates from Mexico. Waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra are highly invasive noxious weed species (Miller et al., 1981; Soerjani et al., 1987; Finlayson, 1998), but fortunately for the Park, both remain uncommon at DSNP (see below).
Vegetation and habitats
Major habitat types at DSNP are indicated in Table 1 and a map is provided in Figure 1. Based on physiognomy, three major types of swamp forest can be identified: tall, stunted, and dwarf swamp forest, which have average canopy heights of 22-30, 8-15(-22) and 5-8 meters, respectively. Dwarf swamp forest develops in deeply flooded areas that may be flooded with 4-5.5 meters of water for 8-12 months per year. Tall swamp forest is flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water, and some areas are characterized by peat soils with a depth of 0.5-4 meters. Stunted swamp forest is intermediate between tall- and dwarf swamp forest in terms of flooding depth and duration, and does not have any peat. Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests are prone to fires (see below, and Dennis et al., 2000). Heath forests are characterized by uniform, fairly small statured trees (average up to 20-25 meters), an open canopy, large numbers of myrmecophytes, and usually occur on very poor, leached sandy soils. In the DSNP area heath forests occur on the top of sandstone ridges. Lowland forest is found on the low hills and ridges around the lake basin, and consists of tall to very tall tree, with emergents attaining 35-45(-55) meters.
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation is rare at DSNP. The extreme annual fluctuation of water levels limits the growth of many species, and both submerged and emergent aquatic herbs are usually absent. Incoming floodwaters bring floating mats of waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, but these do not proliferate. Most waterhyacinth remain small, gradually turning brown and withering, except in villages and in waters near the Kapuas River. Other free-floating species such as Nile Cabbage Pistia stratiotes are rare, and occur only near villages and streams near the Kapuas River. When the lakes dry out--which occurs in two out of three years--dry lake bottoms are rapidly colonized by a carpet of small annual herbs, dominated by grasses such as Isachne globosa, sedges such as Fimbristylis dipsacea, F. miliacea, and diminutive herbs such as Lindnera species.
Emergent herbs--especially sedges--are found in swamp forests, but rarely occur as discrete vegetation types. An exception to this general pattern is formed by floating mats of herbaceous vegetation called kumpai, which occurs locally in the southern part of DSNP, especially at several oxbow lakes near the Kapuas River, and along the Mbaloh Leboyan River. Kumpai consists of thick mats of mainly perennial herbs, dominated by grasses such as Digitaria species, Echinochloa colonum, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Panicum conjugatum, P. repens, Phragmites karka and Saccharum spontaneum, along with the climbers Aniseia martinicensis and Merremia hederacea, and the large herbs Polygonum barbatum and Polygonum celebicum.
Swamp forest vegetation
Three swamp forest vegetation types can be recognized at DSNP, namely dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest and tall swamp forest. Tall swamp forest is found in areas that are shallowly flooded for shorter periods, and is locally called hutan pepah. Depending on the locally common species, an appropriate suffix is added, for example hutan pepah kelansau or hutan pepah emang. Stunted swamp forest is termed hutan rawa or gelgah, and similarly, one may for example have gelgah menungau, gelgah kamsia or gelgah kenarin depending on local conditions and dominant tree species. Dwarf forest of any type is called rampak, and dwarf swamp forest is called rampak gelgah. A fourth type that is very similar to stunted swamp forest is riparian forest, which occurs on levees of larger rivers in the Park.
Dwarf swamp forest is characterized by trees and shrubs 5-8 meters tall, and may be flooded more than 11 months per year (average 9.5 months). At times this vegetation is almost entirely submerged, as waters may be 5.5 meters deep. Common species are Barringtonia acutangula (putat), Carallia bracteata (kayu tahun), Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Garcinia borneensis (empanak), Gardenia tentaculata (landak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis), Pternandra teysmanniana (gelagan), Memecylon edule (kebesi), Syzygium claviflora (masung) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit). Some species may be locally dominant, to the virtual exclusion of all other species.
Stunted swamp forest is charcterized by small to medium-sized trees 8-15(-22) meters tall. It is flooded 4-8 months annually (average 6 months), with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep. This habitat is highly fire-prone and subjected to regular burning in the dry season. It is estimated that about a quarter of this habitat has been burnt over the past decades. Based on species composition, two main stunted swamp forest vegetation types may be recognized, namely Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia vegetation, and Kawi-Kamsia vegetation.
Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is probably the most widespread, and is characterized by Diospyros coriacea (kenarin), Vatica cf. umbronata (menungau) and Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia), along with many other species including Cleistanthus sumatranus (kertik), Crudia teysmannii (timba tawang), Fordia splendissima (limau antu), Garcinia bancana (sikup), Homalium caryophyllaceum (pekeras), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Microcos cf. stylocarpa (tengkurung asam) and Xanthophyllum affine (merbemban).
Kawi-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is characterized by the same species as the previous type, but includes the dipterocarp Shorea balangeran (kawi), which may dominate locally. Occasionally kawi trees may attain a height of over 30 meters, but on average they are usually 15-22 meters and are often gnarled. This vegetation type is possibly derived from the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia type by the influence of fire, as Shorea balangeran apppears to be a relatively fire-tolerant species (see below; Mackinnon et al., 1983; Giesen, 1987; Dennis et al., 2000).
Climbers such as various rattans Calamus schistoacanthus (duri antu), Calamus tapa (duri tapah), Ceratolobus hallierianus, (duri pelanduk), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Fagraea cf. ceilanica (akar seraya) and akar tulang salai (Annonaceae) are also common to locally very common in the stunted swamp forest (for rattans, see Peters and Giesen, 2000).
Tall swamp forest is dominated by the occurrence of tall (25-30(-35) meter) straight stemmed trees, in areas that are flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water. Peat, with depths of up to four meters may occur locally, but is often absent. Two main vegetation types may be recognized, namely the Kelansau-Emang-Melaban type and the Ramin-Mentangur Kunyit vegetation type.
Kelansau-Emang-Melaban tall swamp forest, characterized by the occurrence of Dryobalanops abnormis (kelansau), Hopea mengerawan (emang) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban) is the most common type of tall swamp forest. Additional species found in this habitat include Calophyllum species (mentangur), Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Gluta pubescens (kebaca), Gluta walichii (rengas manuk), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Teysmanniodendron sarawakanum (mutun) and Vatica ressak (resak).
Ramin-Mentangur kunyit tall swamp forest may formerly have been more widespread, but as Gonystylus bancanus (ramin) is much sought after by commercial timber companies; it is now uncommon and occurs only very locally. It is characterized by a very open canopy, and an undergrowth characterized by the tall sedge Tetraria borneensis (lembang). Dominant tree species are Ramin and Calophyllum sclerophyllum (mentangur) kunyit), along with Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Garcinia rostrata (sikup rimba), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Syzygium durifolium (ubah) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban).
Riparian forest in much of the area appears to have many of the same species as the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest, but is characterized by the presence of typical riparian species such as Gluta renghas (rengas) and Lagerstroemia speciosa (bungur), along with Antidesma stipulare (engkunik), Artocarpus teysmannii (cempedak air), Dillenia excelsa (ringin), Elaeocarpus cf. sphaerocarpa (menyawai), Excoecaria indica (kebuau), Ficus microcarpa (jabai), Hopea dasyrrhachis (tekam air), Mallotus sumatranus (belantik), and Pternandra galeata (kelusuk bujang). This vegetation type occurs on levees of the larger rivers in the Park (e.g. Tawang, Belitung, Empanang), and has a flooding regime similar to that of the stunted swamp forest.
Dryland habitats at DSNP occur on the isolated hills scattered throughout the area (Pegah, Semanggit, Sempadan, Semujan, Tekenang), and the low ranges to the west, northeast, and east of the Park. Because this habitat formed only a minor element in the original 80,000 hectare reserve, it has not received much emphasis in the habitat studies to date. Based on physiognomy, two main dryland primary vegetation types can be recognized, namely hill forest and heath forest. In addition, various secondary vegetation types occur, mainly as a result of clearing and burning of these primary vegetation types.
Hill forests are dominated by dipterocarp species such as Anisoptera grossivenia (penyau), Dipterocarpus gracilis (tempurau), Shorea leprosula (rup) and S. seminis (kerintak). These trees are tall to very tall, with emergents attaining 35-45 meters. Hill forests occur on the slopes of isolated hills and along ranges, where soils are moister and less sandy (i.e. with significant clay content). In some areas, for example at Bukit Semanggit, Dayak forest gardens (tembawang) occur where certain dipterocarps such as tempurau are nurtured for the periodic harvesting of the oil-containing nuts. Heath forest--also known as kerangas--is a stunted forest with trees of (20)22-26 meters. The canopy is open, while the trees have slender trunks and are pole-like. This vegetation type occurs on sandy soils west of the Park, on top of Bukit Semujan and on the flat tops of hills in the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park. Small areas of a wetter type of heath forest known as kerapah occurs on leached, sandy soil at t he base of hills to the west of the Park. Common heath forest species include Baeckia frutescens, Koompassia malaccensis (menggeris), Lithocarpus species (kempilik), Lycopodium cernuum, Nepenthes ampullaria, N. mirabilis, Shorea laevis (masang), S. seminis (kerintak), Syzygium species, Tristaniopsis obovata and Vatica cinerea (resak padi). Secondary scrub occurs on abandoned former sites of shifting cultivation (ladang) and areas formerly cleared for settlements. These patches are small and constitute only a minor element, as these infertile hills have generally not been cultivated. Secondary scrub vegetation is characterized by a profusion of ferns (esp. Pteridium aquilinum), shrublets Melastoma malabathricum and Rhodomyrtus tormentosa, various Macaranga species and a hill variety of Fagraea fragrans (tembesu).
Fire is an all-important factor controlling vegetation patterns at DSNP. From studies of remote sensing imagery, combined with ground truthing, it is apparent that 18 percent of the 80,000 hectare reserve (= 24.8% of reserve forests) have been affected by fire over the past decades (see Dennis et al., 2000). Vegetation studies of 27 formerly forested areas that had been burnt during the past decade showed that the species that most often survive a fire are: Shorea balangeran (kawi; in 80% of fires), Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang; 65%), Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia; 51%) and Syzygium sp. 120 (tengelam; 51%). This does not mean that many trees survive a fire: for a given fire survival may vary between 0-25 percent of all trees. On average, however, about 1-3 percent of all trees appear to survive a typical fire. Survival is important for recruitment, and relatively fire-tolerant species such as the aforementioned four are most likely to form an important element in the recovering vegetation. Of these four specie s, kawi survives in the greatest numbers. A second important element in areas recovering from fires are the pioneer species; i.e. those species that newly establish themselves from propagules (seeds, fruit). The most important pioneer species observed at burnt sites at DSNP are shrubs Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit), and the herbs Polygonum spp. lembung and kumpai (various grasses).
Dwarf swamp forests are very low in plant diversity, having an average of only 10 species per transect of 10 by 100 meters (0.1 ha), and a maximum of 15 species. Stunted swamp forest is somewhat richer, with an average of 17-18 species per transect and a total of 60 species. Most diverse among the wetland habitats is tall swamp forest, with an average of 20-29 species and a total of 127 species. Riparian forests are of intermediate diversity, having about 20 species on average, and a total of 35 species. Plant diversity in the various wetland habitat types is low compared to Malesian lowland forest, where 120-180 species may be found in a one hectare plot (Whitmore, 1984). It is comparable to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests such as in Peninsular Malaysia, where tree species diversity of 0.4-1.0 hectare plots may range from 54 (Shamsudin and Chong, 1992) to 132 (Ibrahim, 1997), and more than 150 plant species have been recorded by Latiff (1997). Peat swamp forests of Sarawak appear to be more diverse, and A nderson (1963) recorded 242 tree species alone in this habitat. The variety of habitat types in the Danau Sentarum area contributes to overall diversity. The total of 262 plant species recorded in the swamp forests of Danau Sentarum is almost identical to that of the swamp forests of Berbak National Park in Jambi, Sumatra, where Giesen (1991) recorded a total of 261 plant species. At DSNP 73 percent are trees and shrubs, while at Berbak this figure is 67 percent. This figure for DSNP (191) is intermediate between Pensinsular Malaysia and Sarawak.
Endert (1927) describes similar forests from the lake district of the Mahakam River in East Kalimantan, but these forests have now largely disappeared, and the Mahakam lakes have subsequently become choked with floating aquatic weeds, especially waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (pers. comm. Head of Provincial Planning Bureau, "Bappeda," East Kalimantan, 1993). In addition, formerly forested areas around the Mahakam lakes have become infested with the exotic Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra. Swamp forests along the east coast of Sumatra are taller and of a quite different species composition, perhaps owing to the higher nutrient levels of waters. Lakes and swamp forests along the Siak Kecil River in Riau, Sumatra, occur on deep to very deep peat, and few species are shared with DSNP (Giesen and van Balen, 1992).
Plant species shared between Danau Sentarum and a number of key freshwater wetlands in South and Southeast Asia are summarized in Figure 2. Floristically, DSNP is most similar to the swamp forests of Berbak (Jambi, Sumatra), Sungai Negara (South Kalimantan) and Tasek Bera (Peninsular Malaysia), with which it shares 42, 46 and 48 species, respectively. If easily dispersed (and often "weedy") herbaceous species and exotics are excluded, Danau Sentarum is most similar to Berbak, with which it shares 31 trees and shrubs. 13 tree and shrub species are shared with the Ogan Komering lebaks in South Sumatra; this low figure is probably due to the long history of logging and burning, which has impoverished the woody vegetation in this part of South Sumatra. Only 3-4 non-exotic tree and shrub species are shared with Tonle Sap (Cambodia) and Tanguar Haor (Bangladesh), namely Barringtonia acutangula, Crateva religiosa, Ficus heterophylla and Melastoma malabathricum. Forests around Tonle Sap are highly disturbed and few m ature stands remain. Barringtonia-dominated swamp forest vegetation occurs westward up to Afghanistan and India (Heyne, 1950), but these forests are invariably greatly disturbed and poor in species. In Bangladesh last vestiges of depleted swamp forest remain in the haor region in the northeastern part of the country (Giesen and Rashid, 1997).
Although once very similar to Danau Sentarum, the Mahakam lakes have changed significantly, as most of the forests have disappeared or are greatly disturbed, lake waters are choked with waterhyacinth, and fisheries have declined dramatically (Dunn and Otte, 1983; Bappeda, pers. comm. 1993). As waterhyacinth was already present in the Mahakam in 1925, the more recent proliferation of this weed species in the lakes is probably due to changes in nutrient status of the waters. This appears to be linked with changes in the catchment, as Dunn and Otte (1983) show that the decline in Mahakam lakes fisheries (from late 1960s onwards) coincided with increased logging in the Mahakam River basin. At Danau Sentarum, water acidity and nutrient status appear to be limiting waterhyacinth growth. According to Oki et at. (1978) and Carlander (1980), the threshold level of [Ca.sup.2+] for waterhyacinth growth is 120 [micro]Mol/liter (= 4.8 mg/l), which is 4.5-24 times the average [Ca.sup.+2] concentration found in the Kapuas l akes (Giesen, 1987). This also explains why waterhyacinth survives in village waters and near the Kapuas River, as nutrient levels are higher in these locations.
Flooding and habitat types
The single most important factor governing the distribution of the different vegetation types is depth and duration of flooding, and structurally, the stunted swamp forest of Danau Sentarum is very similar to the Varzea swamp forests of Amazonia (Richards, 1972), where similar flooding regimes occur. Dwarf swamp forest is flooded on average for a period of 9.5 months per year, by water depths with an average maximum of 5.5 meters. During some years, such as 1995, flooding is year-round, and this vegetation may be (partly-) submerged for up to 21 months at a time. Stunted swamp forest is flooded for an average of 6 months per year, with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep, while for tall swamp forest these figures are 2-3 months and 1-2.5 meters. The flooding regime appears to have a greater effect on vegetation structure (dwarf, stunted, tall forest) than on floristic composition, as there is no apparent correlation with the latter. All tree species examined in Danau Sentarum's swamp forests appear to have growth rings. These may be associated with the flooding regime, as annual floods lead to a period of relative dormancy, and the drier period is a time of growth.
Flowering and fruiting of trees and shrubs at Danau Sentarum show a degree of synchronicity linked with flooding. Although there are always a number of trees and shrubs that flower or bear fruit, there is a marked increase as floodwaters rise. This has not gone unnoticed, as local fishermen are well aware that the arrival of the migratory bees (Apis dorsata) that form the basis of the local honey industry (Rouquette, 1995), occurs simultaneously with the rise of the floodwaters. There is an ecological advantage for flowering and fruiting in the wet season, as the fruits of many species float and are dispersed by flood waters. An interesting characteristic is that many local swamp forest fruits are sour, even when fully ripe, probably due to high levels of citric and ascorbic acids (Vitamin C). This is possibly parallel to the situation in Amazonia, where many fruits are dispersed by fish that are attracted by sour fruit. This response is selected upon, as fish are unable to produce these essential compounds ( pers. comm. C. Peters, 1994).
Soils and habitat types
Differences between soil types appear to be less important in determining vegetation patterns than the flooding regime. Tall swamp forest occurs both on peat and mineral soil, but the two types of tall swamp forest recognized, Kelansau-Emang-Melaban and Ramin-Mentangur, are not strongly linked with either soil type. The distinction between hill forest and heath forest is strongly determined by soil type and geomorphology. Hill forest at DSNP occurs on slopes where the soil has a large fraction of clay minerals and where soil moisture is higher, whereas heath forest occurs on areas with leached, dry, sandy soils.
Clearing and logging
Both the Malay and Dayak ethnic groups of the region traditionally practice swidden or ladang. Dayak generally practice ladang in dryland areas, while Malay cultivate the levees of larger rivers. As most of the hills in and immediately adjacent the Park have highly infertile soils, there are few Dayak ladang and their impact is small. Dayak ladang are significant only on the hills near Lanjak, around Gunung Kenepai south-west of the Park, and in the Lempai range west of DSNP. Ladang practices of the Malay probably have a greater effect on DSNP, as it leads to direct loss of riparian habitat. This habitat is small in area, and it is estimated that already more than half of the Park's riparian forests had been lost to shifting cultivation by 1994, especially along the Tawang, Tengkidap and Belitung/Ketam rivers. Where fields have been abandoned for a long time, a secondary vegetation type appears dominated mainly by a few shrubby species rather than taller trees characteristic of the original vegetation. The cl earing of sites for settlements has a very localized direct effect, and only a small area (35 ha) has been cleared to date for this purpose. However, as settlements are located on the levees of the major streams, this contributes to pressures on vulnerable riparian habitat.
Commercial logging commenced in the Danau Sentarum area south of the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park in 1978. In the 1980s, four logging concessions bordered on the Park and concentrated on selective logging of tall swamp forest. By the mid-1990s these companies had stopped or were on the verge of closing down, as most tall swamp forests in and around the Park had been logged. There is evidence that (illegal) logging has commenced again since 1997 (Wadley et al., 2000). Logging occurred in a number of tall swamp forest areas within the 80,000-hectare reserve prior to gazettal in 1982, including 200 hectares at Danau Pemera and 150 hectares south of Bukit Pegah. Most of these selectively logged forests are regenerating well, and are expected to have retained most plant species. Fast growing tree species such as Calophyllum Mentangur species tend to dominate these regenerating swamp forests. The lack of commercially interesting timber in the dwarf and stunted swamp forests of Danau Sentarum protect ed these areas from logging. A more insidious type of logging is the small scale felling of trees that takes place within the Park by local inhabitants. Much of this concentrates on timber for local use, and specifically targets Shorea balangeran and Fagraea fragrans, and large specimens of the latter are becoming rare (Peters, 1994).
Reports of forest fires in the Danau Sentarum area date back to the last century. Ida Pfeiffer (1856) observed extensive areas of burnt stumps, while Gerlach (1881) reports of extensive fires in the forests in the northwestern part of the current park, near Pulau Majang. Molengraaff (1900) records fisherfolk igniting the forest during the dry season, but Polak (1949) could not find traces of burnt forest in spite of specifically looking for them. Vaas (1952) suggested that the latter may be explained by a lack of fishing during the Second World War. Studies carried out by UK-ITFMP show that the incidence of burning has increased significantly since 1990, but causes remain speculative (see Dennis et at., 2000).
Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests at Danau Sentarum are prone to fires, possibly due to the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the wet months, in combination with desiccation in the dry season. As van Steenis (1957) pointed out, "Fire is one of the greatest enemies of the swamp forest ... this type of forest is definitely flammable and is attacked by fishermen." Most fires are caused by human activities, and the more pronounced a dry season, the higher the number of fires and extent of burning (Aglionby, 1997). Studies of pioneer and surviving plant species in burnt areas at DSNP strongly suggest that forests subjected to (infrequent) fires are characterized by fire-tolerant surviving species such as kawi, kamsia, timba tawang and tengelam. This indicates that Shorea balangeran-dominated stunted swamp forest may be derived from the more diverse Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest by irregular burning. This supports the hypothesis by MacKinnon (1983) about the origin of Shorea balan geran-dominated forests in the Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan.
Areas that are more frequently burnt are likely to be dominated by rapidly colonizing, shrubby pioneer species such as kerminit, melayak and mentangis shrubs, which are dominant species of the dwarf swamp forest. Large areas of this dwarf swamp forest occur in the northern and northwestern part of the Park, in areas where stunted swamp forest is to be expected on the basis of flooding depth and duration. While this habitat appears to be linked with deep and prolonged flooding, it is apparently also connected with repeated burning. A similar pattern was found by Giesen (1989) in the Sungai Negara swamp forests of South Kalimantan, where infrequent fires lead to domination by Shorea balangeran and Combretocarpus rotundifolius, while more frequently burnt areas were dominated by Melaleuca cajuputi (gelam).
APPENDIX I PLANTS OF DANAU SENTARUM NATIONAL PARK # Family Species 1 Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum sp. 2 Amaranthaceae Alternanthera sessilis 3 Anacardiaceae Campnosperma auriculata 4 Gluta pubescens 5 Gluta renghas 6 Gluta wallichii 7 Gluta sp. 8 Mangifera sp. 9 Semecarpus glaucus 10 Swintonia sp. 11 ? 12 Annonaceae Polyalthia sp. 13 Xylopia sp. 14 15 Apocynaceae Dyera? polyphylla 16 Tabernaemontana sp. 17 ? 18 Aquifoliaceae Ilex cymosa 19 Araceae Aglaeonema minus 20 Aglaeonema simplex 21 Pistia stratiotes 22 Araliaceae Schefflera avensis (Miq.) Harms 23 Schefflera sp. 24 Arecaceae Calamus myriacanthus Becc. 25 Calamus schistoacanthus Bl. 26 Calamus zonatus Becc. 27 Calamus sp. 28 Calamus tapa Becc. 29 Calamus sp. 30 Ceratolobus hallierianus Dransfield 31 Daemonorops hystrix (Griff.) Mart. Var. exulans Becc. 32 Eugeissonia ambigua 33 Korthalsia sp. 34 Licuala sp. 35 Oncosperma horrida Scheff. 36 Plectocomiopsis triquetra (Blecc.) J.Dransf. 37 ? 38 Asclepiadaceae Dischidia nummularia 39 Dischidia sp. 40 Hoya macrophylla Bl. 41 Asteraceae Ageratum conyzoides L. 42 Vernonia arborea Buch.- Ham. 43 Bambusoideae ? 44 Begoniaceae Begonia sp. 45 Bombaceae Durio kutejensis 46 Durio sp. (?excelsus) 47 Durio sp. 48 Burmanniaceae Burmannia lutescens 49 Bursearaceae Dacryoides laxa 50 Dacryoides rostrata (Bl.) H.J.L. f. rostrata 51 Santiria ? griffithii 52 Capparaceae Crateva religiosa Forst. F. 53 Casuarinaceae Gymnostoma sumatrana (Jungh. Ex de Vriese) L.J. 54 Coniferae Dacrydium beccari 55 Connaraceae Connarus monocarpus L. ssp. Malayana Leenh. 56 Connarus villosus Jack. 57 Convolvulaceae Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy 58 Merremia hederacea 59 Cyperaceae Cyperus brevifolia (Rottb.)Hassk 60 Cyperus trialatus (Boeck.) Kern 61 Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.)Vahl 62 Fimbristylis dipsacea 63 Fimbristylis miliacea (L.)Vahl 64 Hypolytrum capitulatum Valck. Sur. Ex Clarke 65 Hypolytrum nemorum 66 Mapania cuspidata var. cuspidata 67 Rhynchospora aurea 68 Scleria ciliaris 69 Scleria purpurescens 70 Scleria sumatrensis 71 Tetraria borneensis 72 Thoracostachyum bancanum 73 Datiscaceae Octomele sumatrana 74 Dilleniaceae Dillenia beccariana 75 Dillenia excelsa 76 Dillenia sp. 77 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea sp. 78 Dipterocar-pacea Anisoptera grossivenia 79 Cotylelobium burkii 80 Dipterocarpus crinitus 81 Dipterocarpus gracilis 82 Dipterocarpus nudus 83 Dipterocarpus tempehes 84 Dipterocarpus validus Bl. 85 Dryobalanops abnormis Gaertn.f. 86 Dryobalanops rappa Becc. 87 Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer 88 Hopea dasyrrhachis Ashton 89 Hopea mengerawan Miq. 90 Hopea rudiformis 91 Parashorea? sp. 92 Shorea balangeran (Korth.) Burck 93 Shorea? beccariana 94 Shorea laevis 95 Shorea leprosula 96 Shorea multiflora 97 Shoreapachyphylla 98 Shorea palembanica 99 Shorea pauciflora 100 Shorea guadrinervis 101 Shorea seminis 102 Shorea smithiana Sym. 103 Shorea uliginosa 104 Shorea sp. 105 Shorea sp. 106 Shorea sp. 107 Vatica cinerea 108 Vatica Micrantha Hook. 109 Vatica cf. umbronata 110 Vatica venulosa 111 Vatica sp. 112 ? 113 ? 114 ? 115 ? 116 ? 117 ? 118 Ebenaceae Diospyros coriacea Hiern. 119 Diospyros maritima Bl. 120 Diospyros sp. 121 Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus mastersii King 122 Elaeocarpus sphaerocarpa 123 Elaeocarpus submonoceras Miq. 124 Elaeocarpus sp. 125 Ericaceae Rhododendron longiflorum 126 Vaccinium bigibbum JJS 127 Vaccinium clementis Merr. 128 Vaccinium sp. 129 Vaccinium sp. 130 Euphorbiaceae Antidesma bunius 131 Antidesma stipulare 132 Antidesma venenosum F.Mey ex Tul. 133 Antidesma sp. 134 Aporosa confusa Gage. 135 Aporosa lunata (Miq)Kurz 136 Aporosa sp. 137 Baccaurea bracteata MA 138 Baccaurea javanica (Bl.) M.A. 139 Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. Ex. Bl.)Muell.Arg 140 Baccaurea reticulata (Ptychopyxix javanica (JJS) Croizet) 141 Breynia microphylla (Kurz. Ex. T&B)M.A. 142 Cheilosa malayana 143 Cleistanthus sumartranus (Miq) M.A. 144 Cleistanthus sp. 145 Cleistanthus sp. 146 Croton cf. ensifolius 147 Dicoelia beccariana 148 Excoecaria indica (Sapium indicum) 149 Galeria fulva 150 Glochidion borneene (M.A.) Boerl. 151 Glochidion sp. 152 Glochidion sp. 153 Glochidion sp. 154 Homalanthus populneus (Geisel) Pax 155 Macaranga denticulata 156 Macaranga gigantosa 157 Macaranga triloba f. cornuta 158 Macaranga sp. 159 Macaranga sp. 160 Macaranga sp. 161 Macaranga sp. 162 Macaranga sp. 163 Mallotus sumatranus 164 Neoscoretchinia sp. 165 Sapium discolor 166 Fabaceae Bauchinia sp. 167 Cassia alata 168 Crudia teysmannii 169 Desmodium capitatum (Burm.f.)DC. 170 Dialium sp. 171 Dialium sp. 172 Erythrina sp. 173 Fordia splendissima 174 Intsia ? palembanica 175 Kingiodendron sp. 176 Koompassia malaccensis 177 Mimosa pigra 178 Mucuna sp. 179 ?Ormosia sp. 180 Phanera sp. 181 Pterocarpus sp. 182 Sindora leiocarpa 183 Sindora sp. 184 Sindora sp. 185 ? 186 ? 187 Fagaceae Castanopsis sp. 188 Lithocarpus curtisii (King Hk.f.)A. Camus 189 Lithocarpus sp. 190 Lithocarpus sp. 191 Lithocarpus sp. 192 Lithocarpus sp. 193 Flacourtiaceae Casearia sp. nov. 194 Flacourtia rukam Z&M 195 ?Flacourtia sp. 196 Homalium caryophyllaceum 197 Homalium sp. 198 Hydnocarpus polypetala 199 Flagellariaceae Flagellaria indica L. 200 Hanguana malayana 201 Gesneriaceae Aeschynanthes sp. 202 Cyrtandra oblongifolia 203 Didymocarpus sp. 204 Didymocarpus sp. 205 Gnetaceae Gnetum ?neglecta 206 Guttiferae Calophyllum macrocarpum 207 Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque 208 Calophyllum sp. 209 Calophyllum sp. 210 Calophyllum sp. 211 Calophyllum sp. 212 Calophyllum sp. 213 Calophyllum sp. 214 Garcinia bancana 215 Garcinia borneensis Pierre. 216 Garcinia parvifolia Miq. 217 Garcinia rostrata (Hassk)Miq 218 Garcinia sp. 219 Garcinia sp. 220 Garcinia sp. 221 Garcinia sp. 222 Mesua congestiflora P. V. Stevens 223 Mesua hexapetalum (Hook.f.)P.F.S. 224 Mesua sp. 225 Hamameli- Rhodoleia sp. nov. daceac 226 Hypericaceac Cratoxylon arborescens 227 Cratoxylon glaucum Korth. 228 Lamiaceae Hyptis brevipes Poit. 229 Lauraceae Actinodaphne sp. 230 Cassytha filiformis 231 Cinnamomum sp. 232 Cinnamomum sp. 233 Cinnamomum sp. 234 Litsea sp. 235 Litsea sp. 236 Litsea sp. 237 ? 238 ? 239 ? 240 ? 241 ? 242 ? 243 ? 244 ? 245 ? 246 ? 247 ? 248 ? 249 Lecythidaceae Barringtonia acutangula ssp. Acutangula 250 Barringtonia reticulata (Bl.) Miq. 251 Barringtonia sp. 252 Leeaceae Leea indica 253 Loganiaceae Fagraea ceilanica 254 Fagraea cf. ceilanica 255 Fagraea elliptica Roxb. 256 Fagraea fragrans Roxb. 257 Fragraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. 258 Loranthaceae Amyema sp. 259 Dendrophthoe falcata 260 Dendrophthoe pentandra (L) Miq. 261 Elytranthe sp. 262 Helixanthera sp. 263 Korthalsella cf. 264 Lepeostegeres sp. 265 Lepidaria forbesii 266 Lepidaria sp. 267 Macrosolen cohin- chinensis (Lour.) Tiegh. 268 Macrosolen sp. 269 Scurrula fusca (Bl)GDon 270 Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC 271 Lythraceae Lagerstroemia speciosa 272 Malvaccae Hibiscus tiliaceus 273 Marantaceae Donax canaeformis 274 Melastomaceae Bellucia axinanthera 275 Blastus sp. 276 Diplectria sp. 277 Medinilla motleyi Hook.f.ex Triana 278 Medinilla sp. 279 Medinilla sp. 280 Melastoma affine D.Don. 281 Melastoma malabathricum L. 282 Memecylon edule Roxb. 283 Memecylon laurinum Bl. 284 Memecylon sp. 285 Oxyspora sp. 286 Pachycentria constricta Bl. 287 Pachycentria sp. 288 Pogonanthera pulverulantha 289 Pternandra coerulescens Jack. var. jackiana C.B.C. 290 Pternandra galeata 291 Pternandra teysmanniana (Cogn.) Ohwi 292 Pternandra sp. 293 ? 294 Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima 295 Aglaia sp. 296 Chisocheton patens Bl. 297 Dysoxylum sp. 298 Dysoxylum sp. 299 Dysoxylum sp. 300 Sandoricum emarginatum 301 Moraceae Artocarpus kemando 302 Artocarpus teysmannii 303 Ficus consociata Bl. Var. murtoni King 304 Ficus deltoidea Jack 305 Ficus grossivenis Miq. 306 Ficus grossularioids Burm.f 307 Ficus heterophylla L.f. 308 Ficus microcarpa 309 Ficus obscura var. Borneensis (Miq.) Corner 310 Ficus punctata Thunb. 311 Ficus sp. 312 Ficus sp. 313 Ficus sp. 314 Ficus sp. 315 Myristicaceae Myristica giabra Bl. 316 ? 317 Myrsinaceae Ardisga colorata Roxb. (?Ardisia biumei) 318 Labisia pumilis (Bl.) F. Viii 319 Maesa ramentacea (Roxb.) Wall. 320 Rapanea porteriana Wail. ex A.DC. 321 Rapanea umbeilulala 322 Myrtaceae Baeckia fruiescens 323 Eugenia bankanensis Backer 324 Eugenia ?densiflora 325 Eugenia costulata Elmer 326 Eugema sp. 327 Rhodomyrtus tormentosa (W.Ait) Hassk. 328 Syzygium clavlflora Roxb. 329 Syzygium durifolium Merr. & Perry 373, 378 330 Syzygium sp. 331 Syzygium sp. 332 Syzygium sp. 333 Syzygium sp. 334 Syzygium sp. 335 Syzygium sp. 336 Syzygium sp. 337 Syzygium sp. 338 Syzygium sp. 339 Tristaniopsis obovat 340 Tristaniopsis sp. 341 ? 342 ? 343 ? 344 ? 345 ? 346 ? 347 ? 348 Nepenthaceae Nepenthes ampullaria 349 Nepenthes gracilis Korth. 350 Nepenthes cf. gracilis Ridl. 351 Nepenthes mirabilis 352 Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack. 353 Ochnaceae Brackenridgea palustris 354 Brackenridgea serrulata 355 Euthemis minor Jack. 356 Olacaceae Scorodocarpus borneensis 357 Oleaceae Chionanthus laxiflorus Bl. 358 Onagraceae Ludwigia hyssopifolia 359 Orchidaceae Apostaria sp. 360 Appendicula sp. 361 Bromheadla finlaysoniana (Lindl.) Rehb.f. 362 Dendrobium crumenatum Swartz. 363 Dendrobium lamellatum 364 Dendrobium sp. 365 Dendrobium sp. 366 Dendrobium sp. 367 Eria sp. 368 Grammatophyllum speciosum Bl. 369 Macrostylis sp. 370 Taeniophyllum obtusum 371 Pandanaceae Freycinetia sp. 372 Pandanus helicopus 373 Pandanus sp. 374 Pandanus sp. 375 Pandanus sp. 376 Pandanus sp. 377 Passifloraceae Passiflora foetida 378 Piperaceae Piper sp. 379 Poaceae Digitaria sp. 380 Echinochloa colonum 381 Ischaemum intermedium 382 Leersia hexandra 383 Leptochloa chinensis 384 Ottochloa sp. 385 Panicum repens 386 Paspalum conjugatum 387 Phragmites karka 388 Saccharum spontaneum 389 Sorghum oropinquium 390 Podocarpaceae Dacrydium beccariii 391 Polygalaceae Xanthophyllum affine Miq. 392 Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb. 393 Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Bl.) Dietr. 394 Xanthophyllum sp. 395 Polygonaceae Polygonum barbatum 396 Polygonum celebicum 397 Pontederiaceae Eichhornia crassipes 398 Proteaceae Helicia cf. petiolaris 399 Rhizophoraceae Carallia bracteata (Lour.) Merr. 400 Combretocarpus rotundifolius 401 Pellacalyx sp. 402 Rosaceae Prunus arborea (Bl.) Kalkman 403 Rubiaceae Dichilanthe borneensis Baill. 404 Gaertnera vaginans (DC) Merr. 405 Gaertnera vaginata var. junghuhniana (DC) Merr. 406 Gaertnera sp. 407 Gardenia tentaculata 408 Gardenia tubifera 409 Gardenia sp. 410 Gardenia sp. 411 Hydnophytum formicarium 412 lxora ithyoides Brem. 413 lxora paludosa (Bl.) Kurz. 414 lxora mentangis 415 Ixora salicifolia 416 lxora sp. 417 Mitragyna speciosa 418 Morinda sp. 419 Myrmecodia tuberosum 420 Nauclea purpurea Roxb. 421 Nauclea subdita 422 Psychotria montensis Moore 423 Psychotria sp. 424 Timonius flavescents (Jack) Baker 425 Timonius salticifolius 426 Timonius stipulosus (Scheff) Boerl. 427 Timonius timon (Spreng) Merr. 428 Timonius sp. 429 Timonius sp. 430 Uncaria sclerophylla (Hunter) Roxb. 431 Uncaria sp. 432 Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw. Ex Bl.) Korth. 433 Urophyllum hirsutum Hook.f. 434 Urophyllum macrophyllum 435 Uvaria sp. 436 ? 437 ? 438 Sapindeceae Guioa sp. 439 Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk.) Leenh. 440 Lepisanthes alata (Bl.) Bl. Leenh. 441 Nephelium ? cuspidatum 442 Nephelium sp. 443 Nephelium sp. 444 Xerospermum noronhianum (Bl.) Bl. 445 Sapotaceae Palaquium sp. 446 Palaquium sp. 447 Palaquium sp. 448 Palaquium sp. 449 Planchonella obovata (R.Br.) Pierre 450 Scrophulari- Limnophila erecta aceae 451 Lindnera sp. 452 ? 453 Sterculiaceae Leptonichya heteroclita Kurz. 454 Melochia corchorifolia L. 455 Pterospermum sp. 456 Sterculia sp. 457 Symplocaceae Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.)Moore ssp. Laurina (Relz.)Noot. var. laurina 458 Symplocos sp. 459 Theaceae Euryc sp. 460 Ploiarium alternifolium 461 Ternslroemia cf. togutan 462 Ternstroemia sp. 463 Ternstroemia sp. 464 Thymelaeaceae Gonystylus bancanus 465 Gonyslylus velulinus 466 Tiliaceae Microcos ?stylocarpa 467 Urticaceae Poikilospermum microstachys 468 Poikilospermum sp. 469 Poikilospermum sp. 470 Villebrunea rubescens 471 Verbenaceae Clerodendrum sp. 472 Premna foetida Reinw. 473 Teysmanniodendron sarawakanum 474 Vitex pinnata L. 475 Vitaceae Cayratia sp. 476 Cissus sp. 477 Cissus sp. 478 Cissus sp. 479 Zingiberaceae ? 480 ? FERNS AND FERN ALLIES 481 Aspidiaceae Tectaria sp. 482 Aspelniaceae Asplenium nidus 483 Athyriaceae Diplazium sp. 484 Blechnaceae Blechnum finlaysonianum 485 Stenochlaena palustris 486 Gleicheniaceac Dicranopteris linearis 487 Hypolepidaceae Pteridium aquilinum 488 Lindsaeaceae Lindsaea walkerae Hook. 489 Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium cernuum 490 Oleandraceae Oleandra sp. 491 Ophioglosaceae Helminthostachys zeylanica Hook. 492 Polypodiaceae Dipteris conjugata 493 Drynaria quercifolia 494 Microsorum sarawakensis 495 Platycerium coronarium 496 Polypodium verrucosum 497 Schizaceae Lygodium flexuosum 498 Lygodium microphyllum 499 Schizaea dichotoma 500 Selaginellaceae Selaginella sp. 501 Taenitidaceae Taenitis sp. A 502 Taenitis sp. B 503 Vittariaceae Antrophyum reticulatum 504 Vittaria sp. # Number Identification Local Habitat name(s) 1 520 Bogor ? C 2 --- WoR Lembu D seluang 3 --- WTM Beringin Ci 4 --- FM Kebacar Ci 5 40 Leiden Rengas D 6 --- FM Rengas Ci manuk 7 393 --- Rengas Ci manuk 8 377 Bogor Rabu Bi 9 56 Leiden Temelak Ci 10 --- FM Kerintah, C(E) Kerintak 11 --- --- Ubal F 12 137 Leiden Lada F 13 --- WTM Jankar/ Ci Jangkang 14 489 --- Akar tulang D salai 15 --- WTM Jelutung Cii 16 135a Leiden Lada (Iban) F 17 72 --- ? E 18 444/012 Bogor, Telur B, Ci Leiden 19 565 Bogor Keladi E rimba 20 76 Leiden Rumput E ilung 21 --- --- Rumpur lake tempu-rung penuh 22 541 Bogor ? E 23 130 Leiden ? Bii 24 111 Drans-field Rotan Ci, E makup 25 449 Dransfield Rotan duri B, C antu 26 134 Dransfield Rotan duri F antu kerangas 27 --- --- Rotan duri E maram 28 --- Dransfield Rotan tapah B, Ci, E 29 --- --- Rotan Ci, E tunggal 30 --- Dransfield Rotan B,C, pelanduk (E) 31 359 Dransfield Rotan duri E seni 32 --- Beccari, Ransa E Polak 33 --- --- Rotan tikus C 34 --- --- Gernis C 35 --- Polak ? E 36 135b Dransfield Rotan (C), F udang 37 --- --- Rotan C, E telian 38 --- --- Akar B, C kancing 39 504 --- ? Ci 40 465 Bogor Litap B, C 41 327 Bogor ? H 42 322 Bogor Bungkang E, H 43 --- --- Bambu E, H 44 566 Bogor ? E 45 --- WTM Empe-kung E 46 --- WTM Durian E bukit 47 --- --- Durian E burung 48 --- FM ? E 49 78 --- Tulang E salai 50 369 Bogor Kema-yau Bii, Ci, D 51 --- FM Bunyau C 52 350/19 Bogor Punggu A, D 53 47 Bogor Embun Cii 54 --- WTM Embun E 55 490 Bogor Akar libang Ci, D 56 506 Bogor Tunjuk C maias 57 473 Bogor Akar ginta G, H 58 --- FM Akar D,G,H kermibit 59 333 Bogor Rumput G,H terisit 60 334 Bogor Rumput G,H terisit 61 326/125 Bogor Rumput D,G,H purum 62 --- FM Semperai, A,B Padi hantu 63 --- Bogor Rumput B terisit 64 330/126 Bogor, Rumput B,C Leiden musi 65 105/110 Leiden Rumput B,C musi 66 --- FM ? Ci 67 --- Polak ? B,C 68 104/109 Bogor Rumput B,C terisit 69 --- FM Terisit B.C 70 --- FM Lembang C 71 485 FM Lembang C 72 105 Leiden Rumput B,C musi 73 --- --- Benuang B,D kunit 74 6 Bogor Ringin, D Juin(g) 75 --- WTM Ringin, C,D Juin(g) 76 --- --- Juing rimba C 77 --- Polak ? G 78 --- FM Penyau E 79 --- FM Pukul kawi E 80 --- --- Resak E (k)emperas, r. empelas 81 --- FM Tempurau Ci,E 82 --- FM Tenkabang Ci tikus 83 --- FM Ran E 84 --- Polak Tempurau Ci,E 85 --- Teysmann Kelansau, Ci Keladan 86 --- FM Kelansau, C Kemerauan 87 --- FM Kelansau E bukit 88 --- Bogor Tekam air Ci,D 89 --- De Mol Emang Ci 90 --- FM Emang Cii bahau 91 --- FM Resak E barah 92 141 Leiden Kawi Bii,Ci 93 --- FM Tengkawang C rambai 94 --- --- Masang F 95 --- --- Rup. Ci,E,F Pengerawan lampung 96 --- --- Barit E 97 --- --- Tegelung Ci,E 98 --- --- Majau E 99 --- --- Balik F 100 --- --- Tengka- F wang tikus 101 422/390 Bogor Kerintak Ci,D,E 102 357 Bogor Teng- E kawang 103 --- --- Penge- E rawan buaya 104 --- --- Emang Ci melapi 105 --- --- Kerintak E patung 106 --- --- Meranti E bunga, M. timbul, Keme- rauan 107 --- --- Resak padi F 108 356 Bogor ? D,E 109 450, 416, FM, Bogor Menu-ngau B 340 110 --- FM Resak B,Ci seluang 111 --- --- Meng-gung E resak 112 --- --- Resak bukit E,H 113 --- --- Resak C danau 114 --- --- Resak jabai C 115 --- --- Resak labu C 116 --- --- Tekam C beruk 117 --- --- Tekam C tembaga 118 445, Leiden, Kenarin, B 342, 66 Bogor Mengku 119 535 Bogor ? Ci 120 --- --- Malam C,E 121 560 Bogor Ensubal E 122 330 --- Menyawai (B),D 123 303 Bogor Menyawai (B),D 124 565 Bogor Ensubal E 125 410 Argent ? E 126 042n Bogor ? B,C 127 549 Bogor ? E 128 065 Leiden ? D 129 425 --- ? D 130 354 Bogor Bunia Bi 131 55/38 Leiden Engkunik D 132 368 Bogor Berenai D 133 --- --- Engkunik E bukit 134 362 Bogor Jangit E 135 365 Bogor ? E 136 518/ Bogor Keranjik C 518B tikus 137 557 Bogor ? E 138 341 Bogor Engkunik Bi 139 019n Bogor Engkunik Bi 140 --- Airy Shaw Suluh, B (de Mol) Menu- ngan, Engkupa 141 325 Bogor Tarum D buaya 142 --- --- Gurak F 143 435, Bogor Keretih B,D 315, 344 144 --- --- Keretih E bukit 145 397 --- Punan D 146 81, 314 Bogor Melayak A 147 71, 378 Leiden Kemelat, A,B Belat 148 --- WTM Kebuau D 149 97 Leiden Manyam Ci rimba 150 499 Bogor Manyam Ci 151 487 --- Manyam Bi,Ci 152 400 --- ? D,H 153 --- --- Rambai D 154 364 Bogor ? E,H 155 012 --- Ketali E,H 156 --- WTM Merku- E,H bung 157 --- WTM Garong E,H 158 --- WTM Merpuah E 159 364 --- Purang E,H 160 --- --- Purang E,H bukit 161 073 --- Purang E,H garong 162 099 --- Purang E,H tikus 163 087, 392, Bogor, Belantik (B)D 433 Leiden 164 147 Leiden Teluk E 165 --- --- Sengka- E,F yang 166 131 Leiden Akar F entalang 167 --- --- Serugan D,H 168 064, 306 Bogor, Timba B,D Leiden tawang 169 332 Bogor ? (E),H 170 375, 434 Bogor Keranjik madu E 171 --- --- Keranjik tikus E 172 --- --- Dadap hutan C 173 446 Bogor Limau antu B 174 --- WTM Senah C 175 --- --- Sempetir E 176 --- WTM Menggeris E 177 --- --- Putri malu D,H 178 048 Leiden Akar limbai D 179 396 --- Telempi, B,D 180 131 Leiden Entalang F 181 --- WTM Senah E,F 182 --- WTM Sindur Ci 183 --- WTM Sempetir Ci 184 --- WTM Tampar hantu E 185 --- --- Kacang pelanduk C 186 571 --- Leceng B,D 187 567 FM ? E 188 544, 546 Bogor (K)empelik (-babi) E,F 189 401, 402 FM Kempilik E,F 190 --- --- Kempilik babi E,F 191 --- --- Kempilik batu E,F 192 394 --- Kenual babi D 193 Coll. FM Limut B,C,D 194 367 Bogor Rukam D 195 --- --- Mandin D 196 115,309,431 Leiden Perkeras, Empalinas B,Ci 197 --- --- Perkeras bukit E 198 088 FM Cugut (B),D 199 --- WG, Polak Rotan tikus D,E 200 --- Ross ? Lake 201 523 --- ? Ci 202 084 Leiden Kumis kucing G,H 203 525 Bogor ? E 204 070 --- Rumput ilung E 205 108 Leiden Akar Ci 206 --- --- Bunan F 207 537 Bogor Mentangur kunyit C 208 --- WTM Bereng- Ci kajang 209 --- WTM Kacam C 210 --- --- Mentangur Ci,E batu 211 --- --- Mentangur E bukit 212 --- --- Mentangur C umut 213 491 --- Timbung Ci 214 339 Bogor Sikup B,C 215 374 Bogor Empanak A,B 216 338, 358 Bogor Kandis, E,H Kundong 217 024, Bogor Sikup C 480, 533 rimba (Tulang ular) 218 --- --- Kerat dila Ci 219 513 --- Kerin timah C 220 --- --- Ransi, Dila D berkatak, Krupuk, Merkunyit 221 --- --- Sikup ruai F 222 517 Bogor Kamsia Ci rawa 223 139, Bogor Kamsia B 345, 386, 452 224 --- De Mol Melanyan C,F 225 381 Vink, Isang B,D Leiden dungan 226 --- --- Temau C 227 550 Bogor Temau E 228 329 Bogor ? G,H 229 --- Polak ? E 230 496 Leiden ? A 231 --- WTM Cendana C 232 --- --- Kulit Ci lawang 233 --- Teysmann Sinduk, C,E Sientok 234 576 Bogor Lilin B,D 235 --- --- Medang E bukit 236 --- --- Medang C danau 237 --- --- Medang C burung 238 --- --- Medang C kalab 239 --- --- Medang C keladi 240 --- --- Medang C kerapah 241 --- --- Medang C kumbang 242 --- --- Medang C lampung 243 --- --- Medang C lebar daun 244 --- --- Medang C libas 245 --- --- Medang C meningkat 246 --- --- Medang C patung 247 --- --- Medang C perawas 248 --- --- Medang C seluang 249 011, 129 Leiden Putat A,D 250 471 Bogor Putat rimba Ci 251 360 Bogor Karut E,H 252 050 Leiden Temali D 253 124 Leiden ? D 254 418,438 Leiden Akar seraya Bi 255 335 Bogor Tembesu E,H 256 148,301, Bogor, Tembesu, B 306 Leiden Tembesu lilin, Tembesu rebung 257 085,361 Bogor Tapak labi D,E 258 138 Leiden Akar B serang 259 122a Leiden Akar B bentak 260 573 Bogor Akar A,B bentak 261 122b Leiden Akar B bentak 262 004,441 Leiden Akar Bi,D serang 263 10b, 474 Leiden Paha A buntak 264 132 Leiden Akar F serang 265 --- WG. Akar C Danser serang 266 090 Leiden Akar D serang 267 469 Bogor Akar A,B serang 268 555 Bogor Akar B serang 269 459 Bogor Akar A,B serang 270 554 Bogor Akar B serang 271 366 WTM Bungur D 272 --- WTM Waru D,H 273 044 Leiden Akar D,H bemban 274 015 Leiden Jembu E,H pestor 275 075a Leiden Akar E tebentak 276 069 Leiden Kelemun- E ting bukit 277 492 Bogor ? D 278 100 Leiden ? Ci 279 547 Bogor ? E 280 320 Bogor Kelemun- E,H ting 281 336 Bogor Kelemun- E,H ting 282 004,351, Bogor (Ke)besi A,B 352 283 020 Bogor ? B 284 --- --- Besi danau Ci 285 077 --- Akar E kelempi 286 451 Bogor Akar A,B,C serang 287 075b, Leiden Akar E 096 tebentak 288 468 Bogor Asam riang B,C 289 353, 502 Bogor Kebesi B, Ci rimba, Sang 290 118 Leiden Kelusuk B,C,D bujang, Piuluk, Engklusuk 291 009, 458 Bogor Gelagan A, (D) 292 --- --- Kelukuk E bukit 293 --- --- Sebalpau C 294 061 Leiden Pasak D 295 527, 528 Bogor Pinanga E kenyala 296 531 Bogor ? C 297 --- --- Ensunut F 298 --- --- Mengungan F lemah 299 --- --- ? Cii 300 --- --- Kapas E 301 --- WTM Puduk Ci 302 443 WTM Cempedak D air 303 346 Bogor Ara nasi B 304 z015 Bogor ? B 305 312 Bogor Lengkan E,H besar 306 113,313 Bogor Lengkan E,H keeil 307 324 Bogor Luwak B,D 308 083 Leiden Jabai, D Beringin 309 363 --- Karak E,H 310 529 Bogor ? C 311 387 --- Ara A 312 074 Leiden Ara E 313 --- --- Ara kiarak B burung 314 --- --- Ara nakit B 315 534 Bogor Kumpang Ci 316 --- --- Kumpang F kiong 317 051, Bogor Sabar bubu, B 080, Tampoh 317,376 bubu 318 503 Bogor ? C 319 466 Bogor Cii 320 540 Bogor ? Cii 321 484 Bogor ? Cii 322 403 WTM ? E,F 323 478 Bogor Embun, C Engkerabu 324 420 WTM Jembu air D 325 481,510 Bogor Ensubal Cii babi, ubah rimba 326 558 Bogor ? E 327 319,337 Bogor Kelemuntin E,H g jawa 328 304,442 Bogor Masung A,(B) 329 305, Bogor Ubah B 330 476 --- Mata siluk A,Bi 331 002, --- Ramut, A,B,D 383,384 Jijap 332 372 --- Samak B 333 --- --- Samak C Pepah 334 120,308 --- Tengelam A,B 335 018 --- Ubah putih B 336 493 --- Ubah D bornean 337 --- --- Ubah D Ketingan 338 349 Bogor ? Bi 339 --- WTM Melaban C,F 340 382 --- Adau B,C 341 --- --- Ubah C jambu 342 --- --- Ubah C Kelumuh 343 --- --- Ubah lilin C 344 --- --- Ubah C merah 345 --- --- Ubah paya C 346 --- --- Ubah ribu C 347 --- --- Ubah C temilas, ubah sempilas 348 --- Danser Entuyuk Cii,F 349 509,539 Bogor Entuyuk C 350 543 Bogor Entuyuk E 351 136 Leiden Entuyuk C,E,F, H 352 562 Bogor Entuyuk E 353 092 Leiden ? Cii 354 --- Beccari ? C 355 482,548 Bogor Jinta Cii,E 356 --- FM Kesinduk E 357 559 Bogor Ensubal E 358 328 WoR ? G,H 359 --- Polak Anggrek E 360 063 Leiden Anggrek B 361 536 Bogor Anggrek C 362 574 Bogor Anggrek B,C 363 067 Leiden Anggrek B,D 364 119 Leiden Anggrek D 365 455 --- Anggrek Bi 366 551 Bogor Anggrek E 367 --- Polak Anggrek E 368 --- Teysmann, Anggrek B,D Polak 369 --- Polak 370 460 --- Anggrek A,B 371 --- --- ? C 372 --- --- Rasau D 373 477, Bogor Kulan Cii 515,545 374 428 --- Kulan bukit E 375 --- --- Mengkuang B,C,D 376 --- --- Ngerin C 377 --- FM Akar selasi G,H dani 378 --- --- ? (E)H 379 --- WoR Sepit udang D,G,H 380 --- WoR Padi hantu, D,G,H Padi 381 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 382 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 383 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 384 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 385 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H berbulu 386 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H sepit udang 387 --- WoR Keberuk D,G,H 388 --- WoR Keberuk, D,G,H Tebu air 389 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 390 --- FM ? E,F 391 021, Bogor Merbemban B 079, 436, 440 392 371, Bogor Tengkurun B 453, 472 g jelawat 393 z022 Bogor Lilin B,D 394 --- --- Rinja B,D 395 127 Danser Rumput G,H lembu seluang 396 091 Danser Rumput G,H lembu 397 --- --- Rumput G piambang 398 432 FM Putat rimba Bi 399 007, Bogor Tahun A,B,C 031, (Tulang 310, 512 ular) 400 --- FM Maripat, Cii Engkersit 401 --- --- Tulang ular C 402 542 Bogor Suluh E rimba 403 093, 483 Leiden Berus C 404 507 Bogor Mula asu, C Mula anjing 405 500, 505 Bogor Sabar bubu Ci rimba 406 095 Leiden ? C 407 086 Leiden Landak D kecil 408 001, 462 Leiden Landak D angkis 409 429 --- Landak A 410 399, 457 --- Landak D besar 411 --- --- Empukung B,C 412 501 Bogor ? Ci 413 311 Bogor Mentangis A,(B) 414 021, Leiden Mentangis A,(B) 121, 385 415 049 Leiden ? D 416 511 Bogor ? C 417 --- --- Purik rawa C 418 521 Bogor Keretih E bukit 419 --- --- Empekung B.C 420 379 Bogor Bengkal Bi,D 421 --- --- Bengkal D 422 098, Bogor Akar A,B,D 106, 323 engke- rabang 423 524 --- ? Ci 424 316 Bogor Temirit, A Kermirit 425 010a, Leiden Temirit, A 380 Kerminit 426 507b Bogor Mula asu, C Mula anjing 427 561 Bogor ? E 428 112 Leiden Tembesu C sungai 429 561 --- ? E 430 114, 454 Bogor Akar kelait B,C,H 431 --- --- Akar kelait E,H bukit 432 516 Bogor ? C 433 107, 456 Bogor Kebesi Ci rimba 434 089 Leiden Lilin D 435 --- Teysmann ? D 436 461 --- Serang Bi 437 --- --- Merambang C 438 508 Bogor ? C 439 057, Bogor Kelensuak, D 370, 398 (K)ensuak 440 355 Bogor Kelili E,H 441 --- WTM Sibau Ci,E 442 --- --- Nipis kulit Ci,E 443 --- --- Paregi Cii 444 518 Bogor Keranjik C tikus 445 --- --- Nyatuh, Ci (Sebalpau) 446 --- --- Nyatuh E durian 447 --- --- Nyatuh E nangka 448 --- --- Pudu Cii 449 348, 486 Bogor Libang Bi 450 --- WoR ? lake 451 --- WoR ? lake 452 388 --- Bunga rup (E)H 453 575 Bogor ? C 454 --- WoR Rumput D jelumpang 455 --- --- Banyur Ci hutan 456 134 Leiden ? F 457 147, 467 Bogor Tekuluk Bi 458 470, --- ? Bii 497, 498 459 --- --- Jirak F 460 --- WTM Jengil E,F 461 519, 530 Bogor (Nyatoh) C 462 --- De Mol Arang- B arang 463 023 --- ? D 464 007 Leiden Ramin Cii 465 --- FM Medang E semat 466 016, 307 Leiden Tengku- B rung (- asam) 467 062 Leiden ? D 468 046 Leiden ? D 469 101 Leiden ? Ci 470 318 Bogor Karniong (E),H 471 133 Leiden Rumput F semut 472 321 Bogor Buas-buas D,H 473 117, 123 Leiden Mutun (B),D 474 302 Bogor Leban(g) D 475 128 Bogor Akar E lelembai 476 047 Bogor Akar gundi D 477 068 Bogor Akar E sempiruk 478 060 Bogor ? D 479 522 --- Lemas Ci rimba 480 532 --- Liak hantu Ci 481 --- Paku Polak B,C,D, E 482 --- --- Paku rajang B,C,D, E 483 082 Leiden Paku E 484 033 Leiden Paku kijang (E),H 485 037 Leiden Paku (E),H lemedin 486 034 Leiden Resam (E),H 487 --- --- Paku (E),H bedegak 488 --- Polak ? E 489 --- --- Enkabut E,F 490 --- Polak ? B,C,D 491 --- Polak ? E 492 --- Piggott Paku E 493 --- --- Paku B,C,D, E 494 --- --- Paku B,C,E 495 --- --- Paku B,C,D, E 496 032 Leiden Paku kubuk B,C,D 497 036 Leiden Paku belit D,E,G, H 498 035 Leiden Paku belit D,E,G, H 499 --- Piggott Rumput B,C,D empangil 500 --- --- Paku E 501 --- WG, Polak Paku B,C,D, E 502 --- WG, Polak Paku B,C,D, E 503 052 Leiden ? D 504 --- Polak Paku D,E NOTES: * Collection number, as by Giesen (1-200), and Zulkarnain and Giesen (201-600) ** Identification: Airy Shaw: Airy Shaw, H.K. (1975) Argent: pers. comm. G. Argent, Edinburgh Herbar (1993) Beccari: Beccari (1904) Bogor: Bogor Herbarium Danser: Danser(1927, 1931) de Mol de Mol (1933-34) Dransfield: pers. comm. J. Dransfield, Kew Herbarium (1986, 1993) FM: Flora Malesiana FMal: Flora of Malaya Leiden: Leiden Herbarium Piggott: Piggott (1988) Polak: Polak (1949) Ross: Ross et at. (1996) Vink: pers. comm. Vink, Leiden Herbarium (1994) Teysmann: Teysmann (1875) WoR: Soerjani, M., A.J.G.H.Kostermans and G. Tjitrosoepomo (1987) WTM: Corner (1952) *** Habitat types: A: Dwarf swamp forest Bi: Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia Bii: Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kawi-Kamsia Ci: Tall swamp forest, dominated by Kelansau-Emang-Melaban Cii: Tall swamp forest, dominated by Ramin-mentangur kunyit D: Riparian forest E: Hill forest F: Heath forest (kerangas) G: Disturbed vegetation in former swamp forest habitat H: Disturbed vegetation in former dryland forest hab
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Table 1 Habitat types of Danau Sentarum. Habitat type 80,000 ha Wildlife Reserve e (gazetted 1982) Area (ha) % Lowland forest (on hills) 102 0.13 Heath forest 0 0 Tall swamp forest 8,962 11.00 Stunted swamp forest 30,824 38.19 Dwarf swamp forest 2,170 2.69 Regenerated after fire(s) 10,952 13.57 Recently burnt 3,680 4.56 Clearings/shifting cultivation 1,848 2.29 Settlements 27 0.03 Open water (lakes and rivers) 21,728 26.92 Floating grass mats 0 0 Habitat type 132,000 ha National Park (gazetted 1999) Area (ha) % Lowland forest (on hills) 6,767 5.17 Heath forest 201 0.15 Tall swamp forest 21,915 16.76 Stunted swamp forest 39,469 30.18 Dwarf swamp forest 2,362 1.81 Regenerated after fire(s) 16,930 12.95 Recently burnt 6,154 4.71 Clearings/shifting cultivation 4,603 3.52 Settlements 32 0.02 Open water (lakes and rivers) 30,095 23.01 Floating grass mats 257 0.20 Note: Data obtained from the ODA/PHPA Remote Sensing/GIS Unit; based on Landsat TM (1990), airborne radar imagery and 1994 aerial photographs.
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