Flame retardants: product lines reviewed.
Offers flame-retardant concentrates. Formulations can be tailored to customer requirements.
Offers phosphate flame retardants for flexible and rigid polyurethanes: tris-(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate and tris-(beta-chloropropyl) phosphate.
ADELL PLASTICS, INC.
Flame-retardant thermoplastic concentrates are produced on a custom and proprietary basis by this supplier, which specializes in engineered applications. Concentrates of other additives and multifunctional concentrates are also available.
Supplies alumina trihydrates, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonates, and chlorinated paraffins.
AKZO CHEMICALS INC.
Offers a line of halogenated phosphate esters known as Fyrol flame retardants for both flexible and rigid urethane applications. A comprehensive technical service department and fire laboratory provide customers with baseline data for comparison and insight into flame-retardant mechanisms. Fyrol flame retardants, which meet numerous industry and governmental standards, reportedly allow urethane foam producers to produce FR foams cost-effectively.
ALBRIGHT & WILSON AMERICAS
Phosphorus- and chlorophosphorus-based organic flame retardants are offered for use in rigid and flexible polyurethane foams, textiles, rigid RIM, unsaturated polyesters, epoxy- and phenolic-based laminates, and epoxy resins. Coated red phosphorus, ammonium polyphosphates and a complete range of phosphate ester flame-retardant plasticizers are also available for use in PVC, urea/formaldehyde, elastomers, engineering plastics, polyolefins, and epoxy resins.
Supplies alumina trihydrates for use as flame-retardant and smoke-suppressant fillers in rubber and plastics. Various grades are available, including low-viscosity and coated products.
Also supplies Flamtard H and Flamtard S, inorganic flame-retardant additives intended for use in conjunction with chlorine or bromine, either as a part of the polymer backbone or in additive form. Features of Flamtard H and S include low smoke and carbon monoxide evolution, and low toxicity.
ALLIED CUSTOM GYPSUM
Supplies Valu-Fil brand gypsum, a filler that acts as a flame retardant by releasing bound water at temperatures above 230 F. Unlike alumina trihydrate, it's nonabrasive and much less expensive. Median particle size is 16.8 microns. Typical applications are in unsaturated polyester spray-up.
ALLIED PRODUCTS CORP. See Coz Div.
Offers a complete line of hydrated alumina flame-retardant/smoke-suppressant fillers for plastics. Twenty-one standard grades are offered in particle-size distributions ranging from 65% to 100% minus 325 mesh, with median particle sizes of 4-30 microns. Specialty superfine ground aluminas with a median particle size of 1.5 microns and a top size of less than 10 microns are readily available.
Also offered are 12 grades of cost-effective hydrated alumina/calcium carbonate blends.
ALUMINUM CO. OF AMERICA (ALCOA)
Offers a series of ground white hydrated alumina fire retardants/smoke suppressants in a range of particle sizes. Typical applications are in polyester spray-up and molding compounds, epoxy, phenolic, flexible PVC, urethane foam, and some rigid urethanes. Also offered are two extremely fine precipitated white aluminas, Hydral 710 and 705, with median particle sizes of 1.0 micron and 0.5 micron, respectively. These ultrafine grades are said to be particularly beneficial where finished product flexibility is critical.
AMERIBROM, INC. SUB. OF DEAD SEA BROMINE GROUP
Carries its parent's line of brominated flame retardants in local stocks, which includes the full line of decabromodiphenyl oxide, dibromoneopentyl glycol and tribromoneopentyl alcohol (reactives used in urethanes and unsaturated polyesters), hexabromocyclododecane (for specialty styrenics and coatings), tetrabromobisphenol-A (reactive used in epoxies and unsaturated polyesters), and tribromophenyl allyl ether (for foams). A line of brominated epoxy resins, the F-2000 series, is now available in molecular weights of 700 to 45,000.
For engineering polymers, in addition to decabromodiphenyl oxide, company offers a white, melt-blendable brominated acrylic polymeric flame retardant (FR-1025) said to have excellent uv stability, permanence, improved flow and flame-retardant efficiency. The monomer pentabromobenzylmonoacrylate (FR-1025M) is also available. Several new products emerging from commercial development can be applied with engineering resins, such as tribromophenyl maleimide (FR-1033) for styrenic resins and grafting on olefins, and a tribromostyrene (FR-803) for use in styrenic-based systems. The latter three products are suitable not only for standard reaction systems, but as stable powders at ambient temperatures, they allow reaction extrusion.
AMERICAN CYANAMID CO. CHEMICALS GROUP
Has experimental, nonhalogenated, phosphorus-based products for polyolefins and specialty polymers. No commercial products are currently available.
Flame-retardant concentrates are available either custom-made or from the company's own formulations. Products are available for use in most thermoplastics in pellets, cubes and powders. Concentrates can incorporate color and/or other additives.
Flamer-retardant concentrate No. 11341 is used in polyolefin film extrusion and injection molding. Product reportedly meets ASTM test D-635.
Concentrate FR 11371 reportedly can be processed at 600 F without adverse side effects. It is suitable for HDPE, LDPE and their copolymers. Applications are said to include extrusion coating of scrims for canvas replacement, construction paper and films, disposable clothing, and oil-can stock.
Concentrate FR 40173 has a maximum operating temperature of 520 F and is aimed primarily at unfilled PP. Its ability to disperse thoroughly and uniformly throughout the polymer reportedly makes it suitable for mono- and multifilament extrusion. Other applications are carpet backing, face yarn, rope, injection molded chairs, pipe fittings, and extruded film, sheet, and profiles.
AMSPEC CHEMICAL CORP.
Antimony trioxide is offered in high-tint, low-tint, and high-purity grades. Flame-retardant concentrates are available in various carriers.
Supplies a variety of grades of antimony oxide which include its high-tint TMS, low-tint Trutint, and submicron Microfine. Grades are available as dry powders; damped with oils, water or plasticizers; as dispersions in oils, water or plasticizers; or predispersed in nondusting forms under the tradenames of Fyrebloc for pellet concentrates and Envirostrand for a high-loading patented strand product.
Fyrebloc and Envirostrand product range can also incorporate other flame retardants, such as halogens, in addition to antimony, and can be tailored to suit customer or application requirements. A range of standard products are available to suit most polymer applications.
Other antimony flame-retardant products include Oncor, which has a silicate core to give lower tint strength, specific gravity and costs, with easier dispersion than antimony oxide alone; and SAP products designed primarily for PET and very low-tint applications.
Company also has available a range of smoke suppressants and inorganic flame-retardant synergists under the tradename of Smokebloc. These products are primarily designed for PVC, but have found application in other polymer areas. Products include Ongard 2, a magnesium/zinc complex with strong smoke suppressancy and flame retardant synergism, the AZ range of products, incorporating both antimony and zinc chemistry, and Smokebloc Eleven and Twelve, which incorporate antimony and molybdenum chemistry.
In addition, company distributes Ultracarb, a nonhalogenated flame-retardant smoke suppressant manufactured by a British company.
ARGUS DIV. See Witco Corp.
Four grades of antimony oxide include low-tint, high-tint, very-high-tint, and ultra-pure types. The odorless, fine white crystalline powder is produced in 30,000-lb lots, which means fewer lots per truckload for more consistent processing. Products are packaged in 50-lb multiwalled bags, palletized, and stretch-wrapped for easy handling.
ATOCHEM NORTH AMERICA INC. See Elf Atochem North America Inc.
BUCKMAN LABORATORIES, INC.
Company's Busan 11-M1 modified barium metaborate is used as a synergist in most plastics. As with antimony trioxide, halogens are usually required for the additive to function. Levels of 8-12 phr are recommended for evaluation in new products; levels as low as 2 phr reportedly have worked in some PVC formulations. According to the company, Busan 11-M1 can be used as an extender or replacement for antimony trioxide.
The product is also said to be an afterglow suppressant and to help reduce the amount of toxic fumes and/or smoke during combustion, and to impart uv stabilization to films, coatings, and plastics. It is also a registered biocide for long-term control of fungal growth.
BURNS & RUSSELL CO.
Offers S/G 84 T-34, an additive that effectively suppresses smoke when used in a variety of polymer systems, including polyester, PVC, epoxy urethane, and others. S/G T-34 is effective in both halogenated and nonhalogenated systems.
CLIMAX PERFORMANCE MATERIALS SUB. OF CLIMAX METAL CORP.
Offers molybdenum trioxide, ammonium octamolybdate and a range of zinc borates as smoke suppressants and flame retardants in both rigid and flexible PVC and halogenated polyesters. Recommended usage levels are in the 1-4 phr range.
Selection of zinc borates depends on the maximum processing temperature and specific formulation. Applications include plastisols and coatings, as well as compounded thermoplastics and elastomers. Recommended use levels are in the 2-6 phr range.
Molybdenum compounds and zinc borates reportedly are effective in some systems as the sole synergists and may be combined with antimony oxide, phosphates, alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide. Primary applications are in transportation and construction.
Company has added alumina trihydrates and magnesium hydroxides (called Hydramax) to its broad line of ultrafine flame retardants and smoke suppressants. The small particle sizes of Hydramax, which can be as small as 1 micron in diameter, provide protection at lower loading levels and have less of a deleterious effect on the physical properties of the polymer in which they are used. The MgOH grades are for use in polymers (nylon, PBT, PP) processed at temperatures above 480 F. The ATH grades are for materials (polyethylene) processed at lower temperatures; wire and cable is a major market area. Both provide endothermic fire-retardant action. All ultrafine products can be supplied with special surface treatments that avoid agglomeration and promote dispersion.
COZ DIV. ALLIED PRODUCTS CORP.
Flame-retardant concentrates in PS, ABS, and polyolefin bases can be supplied for varying letdown ratios.
CUSTOM GRINDERS SALES, INC.
All standard grades of alumina trihydrate between 5% minus 325 mesh (average particle size about 55 microns) and 100% passing 325 mesh (average size about 1.5 microns) are offered. All grades are available in 50-lb bags, bulk bags, and in bulk truckloads. Both white and Bayer hydrates are available. Company also offers custom grinds and blends of hydrate and calcium carbonate and/or calcium sulfate to meet specific customer requirements.
Offers a flame-retardant filler blend of alumina and silica called Sillum PL-200 (SPL-200). Another product offered is an organo metallocene compound, named Ferro-Char B-44M, for smoke suppression. Product can be used with other flame retardants and is recommended for use in thermoplastics, PVC, urethane and other polymeric materials such as adhesives, epoxies and rubber compounds.
DEAD SEA BROMINE GROUP
See AmeriBrom, Inc.
DOVER CHEMICAL CORP.
Complete line of chlorinated paraffins includes Chlorez resin grades (70% chlorine) and Paroil and Chloroflo liquid grades (20-70% chlorine). Liquid grades serve the dual function of plasticizer and flame retardant in plastics and elastomers. Resin grades serve as low-cost flame-retardant extenders for chlorinated rubber, epoxies, etc. Their high halogen content offers maximum flame retardancy in polyolefins, urethanes, and unsaturated polyesters. Also offered is Chlorez 760, a 74% chlorine resin with ultra-high melt point of 320 F. It is recommended for polyolefins and styrenics.
ELF ATOCHEM NORTH AMERICA INC.
Included in the Thermoguard series of antimony-based products are Thermoguard S high-tinting antimony oxide, Thermoguard L low-tinting grade, Thermoguard S-800 nondusting antimony oxide, and Thermoguard FR antimonate for engineering plastics. Thermoguard CPA is a proprietary flame retardant designed specifically as a low-cost replacement for antimony oxide. Concentrates of antimony oxide and decabromobiphenyl ether, as well as custom concentrates are available.
The Thermoguard 200 series of brominated epoxies is miscible and reactive with engineering thermoplastics, as well as thermosets. These high-molecular-weight products are nonblooming, nonmigratory and noncorrosive.
Pyronil 45, a 45%-aromatic bromine liquid, is recommended for use in everything from PVC to HIPS, ABS, PC, PBT and modified PPO, as well as epoxy, urethane and unsaturated polyester. Said to have very low levels of acute or cumulative toxicity, it is marketed both as a replacement for phosphate esters used in flexible PVC because of its high heat stability and low effect on product color, and as a full or partial replacement for other brominated flame retardants in other thermoplastics.
ETHYL CORP. CHEMICALS GROUP
Offers the Saytex line of flame-retardant brominated additives and reactives for plastics and elastomers. Saytex 120 tetradecabromodiphenoxy benzene is said to offer outstanding heat stability in engineering thermoplastics. Additional flame-retardant products include:
* Saytex RB-100 tetrabromo-bisphenol-A for epoxy.
* Saytex 111 octabromodiphenyloxide, a low-cost, melt-blending flame retardant for ABS, PS, and nylons.
* Saytex RB-79 and RB-34 brominated polyols for rigid urethane foam.
* Saytex 102 decabromodiphenyl oxide for engineering plastics.
* Saytex BCL-462 and Saytex HBCD for EPS and foamed PS.
* Saytex 105 and Saytex RB-49 tetrabromophthalic anhydride for unsaturated polyester.
* Saytex BN-451 for low-cost UL 94V-2 PP.
* Saytex BT-93 ethylene-bis (tetrabromophthalimide) for PS, polyolefins, and polyesters.
* Saytex VBR vinyl bromide, a reactive monomer for low-cost bromine addition.
* Saytex 8010 flame retardant for HIPS and ABS applications, especially in electronic housings.
In addition, there are several developmental liquid flame retardants containing both phosphorus and bromine designed specifically for urethane foams.
Kronitex triaryl phosphate esters are flame-retardant plasticizers for PVC, cellulosics, and other thermoplastics. Kronitex 50 and 100 are reportedly less expensive to use than TCP and TXP and the mixed alkyl-aryl phosphate esters. They reportedly offer rapid fluxing in calendering compounds, as well as good viscosity, stability and rapid fusion in plastisols.
Kronitex 3600, a mixed alkyl-aryl phosphate, offers reportedly excellent low-temperature plasticizer efficiency in vinyl. Product also produces less than one-half the volume of smoke upon combustion than typical triaryl phosphates and finds use in wire and cable jackets, vinyl-covered fabric, and vinyl and rubber general-purpose compounds requiring low-smoke and good flame resistance.
PB-460, a solid brominated aromatic phosphate ester, is aimed at PBT, PET, polycarbonate, PPO alloys and engineering resin alloys of polyesters and polycarbonate. Uses include computer and business machines, electronic components, printed circuit boards and fibers. Key characteristics are said to include melt-blendable processing (melting point at 230 F); thermal stability, retaining its transparent colorless appearance to 575 F; and high flame-retardant efficiency, allowing the compounder to reduce or eliminate use of antimony oxide or other flame-retardant additives. PB-460 has also found application in epoxy paper-based laminates, polyester fiber required to meet flame-retardant specifications, and clear polycarbonate sheet and film.
PB-370, a solid brominated aliphatic phosphate ester, is melt blendable at 355 F and has primary applications in PP, molding and fiber grades, and as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl oxide. PB-400 has a high bromine and phosphorous content, and its good thermal properties offer color stability or clear colorless compounds. It also finds use in styrenic compounds such as high-impact polystyrene.
FERRO CORP. BEDFORD CHEMICAL DIV.
Offers thermally-stable, brominated, polymeric additives for use in engineering thermoplastics and styrenics. The line includes Pyro-Chek 68PB, Pyro-Chek 60PB, Pyro-Chek HF 10 and 20, and Pyro-Chek CM flame retardants, all of which are based on brominated polystyrene. Also available are a series of bromo-chlorinated, aliphatic compounds called Bromoklor, which are effective as high-halogen plasticizers.
FOCUS CHEMICAL CORP.
Markets a range of halogen/phosphorus compounds, both reactive and additive, for use primarily in polyurethane and polyester formulations. Products include dimethylmethyl phosphonate, triethylphosphate, and trischloroethyl phosphate. Company also supplies zinc borate.
FRANKLIN INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
High-purity alumina trihydrates are offered in a range of particle sizes for use in latex, urethane foams, PVC, and polyester SMC, BMC, and spray-up.
Also available are grades of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), as well as calcium carbonate/gypsum blends for spray-up applications.
Company's SFR 100 is a high-viscosity silicone fluid, which may be used as a flame retardant in polyolefins and requires no antimony oxide when compounded properly with a Group 11A metal organic salt and other ingredients, depending on the degree of flame retardance required. Product will improve impact resistance of olefins, especially at low temperatures. It also results in easier mold fill and lower-temperature processing. When properly formulated, the flame-retarded plastic can meet UL 94V-0/V5 flammability criteria.
GENERAL COLOR CO.
Aluminum phosphohydrate is said to contain a substantial percentage of moisture and may be used as a flame retardant. It is said to mix readily with powders or pellets prior to fabrication.
GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL CORP.
Brominated flame retardants are supplied for use in thermoplastic and thermoset resins. Additive types include decabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-83R), bistribromophenoxyethane (FF-680), octabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-79), pentabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-71), dibromopolyphenylene oxide (PO-64P), a nitrogen/phosphorus-based additive (Char-Guard 329) and two carbonate oligomers of tetrabromobisphenol A (BC-52 and BC-58), which are compounded into thermoplastics such as HIPS, ABS, PP, PE, nylon, and polyester. These products are also used for LDPE and EPDM wire and cable insulation. Tetrabromophthalate ester (DP-45) is suggested for flexible PVC.
Reactive brominated flame retardants are tetrabromobisphenol A (BA-59P), bishydroxyethyl ether of TBBA (BA-50P), and tetrabromophthalic anhydride (PHT-4) for epoxies and unsaturated polyesters. Dibromostyrene can be reacted into any polymer system to replace styrene monomer. For rigid urethanes, a diol of tetrabromophthalic anhydride (PHT-4 Diol) is used as a reactive flame retardant, while pentabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-60F Special) and Firemaster 642 (a proprietary halogenated phosphate ester) may be used as an additive system for flexible urethane foam. For expanded polystyrene foam, hexabromocyclododecane (CD-75P) and tetrabromobisphenol A-bis allyl ester (BE-51) are recommended.
Flame retardants are available in liquids or solids, and with a wide range of organic bromine content, melt points, and organic solubilities.
GREAT LAKES MINERALS CO.
Company offers a wide selection of alumina trihydrate fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant fillers. There are 21 grades in particle sizes of 1-15 microns, and special products may be produced to specifications. Standard grades are available with silane surface modification. Applications include showers and tubs, latex foam carpet backing, building panels, electrical housings, fuse blocks, switch bases, and insulation.
Product is manufactured in Erie, Mich., and Rogers, Ark. It is packaged in 50- and 100-lb moisture-barrier bags, 1000-lb sling bins, 2000-lb containers, bulk truck, and carloads.
HARWICK CHEMICAL CORP.
Offers a complete line of flame retardants, including antimony oxide, zinc borate, solid and liquid chlorinated paraffins, alumina trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide, and phosphate ester plasticizers. Company's line of Fyraway flame retardants are proprietary blends of various flame-retardant additives designed for ease of handling and lower flame-retardant costs. Custom blends are available upon request.
HOECHST CELANESE CORP. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS GROUP
Offers several grades of ammonium polyphosphate-based flame retardants, trade-named Exolit, for use in polyurethane foams, thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets.
Produces flame-retardant concentrates with additive loadings up to 98% for PE, PP, nylon, HIPS, and other resins.
KENRICH PETROCHEMICALS INC.
Company's line of Ken-React pyrophosphate-derived titanate coupling agents are said to act also as flame retardants. When used with mineral fillers, they reportedly enhance flame resistance without an increase in cost or handling difficulty or loss of physical and rheological properties relative to unfilled or lightly filled compounds. Product is said to prevent splaying or exudation of antimony oxide/halogen-type systems from polymeric binders.
KLOECKNER ALLOYS INC.
Supplies antimony oxide produced by SICA, a French company. All grades are available, including standard high-tint-strength, low-tint, and high-purity grades. Nondusting formulations are available on special order. Material is shipped in 50-lb bags from U.S. warehouse, but custom packing can be arranged.
LAROCHE CHEMICALS, INC.
Offers a line of high-purity hydrated aluminas used as flame retardants/smoke suppressants in thermosets and thermoplastics, such as polyester SMC, BMC, and spray-up. Various particle sizes are available for specific applications.
LAUREL INDUSTRIES INC.
Offers its Ultrafine II antimony oxide, which has an average size of 0.20 to 0.40 microns, and is said to improve physical properties in most thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets.
Two other products, Fireshield L and H grades, in particle sizes of 2.5-3.5 and 1-1.8 microns respectively, are also offered. Fireshield L has lower tint strength and Fireshield H is reportedly less degrading of physical properties.
A high-purity antimony oxide for fiber, ceramic, chemical, electronic, and specialty applications is offered under the trade name HPM. Also available is a proprietary low-smoke, flame-retardant synergist for PVC and other polymers, named LSFR.
See Pluess-Staufer International.
THE R.J. MARSHALL CO.
Offers alumina trihydrate and calcium sulfate, along with other chemicals and minerals. Available separately and in combinations, they reportedly provide controlled flame-retardant properties at competitive prices.
See Pluess-Staufer International.
Supplies antimony oxide for use as a flame-retardant synergist in plastics. Two new concentrates are also available: dustless concentrates of antimony oxide dispersed in a variety of resins, and a special synergistic halogen system.
MELAMINE CHEMICALS, INC.
Company's Superfine melamine crystal is a nontoxic, environmentally safe fire retardant suitable for use in a wide range of plastic foams and other materials. Melamine, a basic monomer (2,4,6-triamino 1,3,5-s-triazine), is 66.6% nitrogen, sublimes at 660 F, and will not ignite. With a mean particle size of 10 microns, the crystal is reportedly the finest grind available.
Disflamoll phosphoric acid esters serve as flame-retardant plasticizers in PVC. The line includes various aryl, alkyl, and alkylaryl esters.
See Miles Inc.
MONMOUTH PLASTICS INC.
Flame-retardant concentrates are supplied for use in all grades of PE and PP. At proper letdowns, these concentrates meet specifications of UL, NFPA, and SAE.
MONSANTO CO. CHEMICAL GROUP
Santicizer line of nonhalogenated phosphate ester plasticizers and resin modifiers for PVC, rubber, paints and coatings, cellulose acetate, and engineering thermoplastics offers a choice of properties, such as low smoke, low-temperature flexibility, fast fusion, low volatility, FDA acceptability, and improved flowability for glass-filled polymer systems.
Phos-Chek, P/30 and P/40, ammonium polyphosphate-based flame retardants have traditionally been used for intumescent surface coatings. This product family now offers a new series of low-smoke, nonhalogen additives specifically designed for plastics such as PP, PE (LDPE, HDPE, and crosslinked), and polyurethanes. The basic Phos-Chek flame retardants can be used to flame retard adhesives, textiles, and building materials (e.g., wall coverings, ceiling tiles, roofing products, and chip board).
Company also offers Tetrathal, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, a reportedly versatile, permanent, low-cost flame retardant for polyester resins used in construction, transportation, and chemical and food preparation equipment. Tetrathal also is used in production of various organic pigments.
MONTEDISON USA INC.
MF-80, a polymeric flame retardant, imparts an intumescent char-forming action to polyolefins when blended with ammonium polyphosphate. Product is said to provide UL 94V-0 and nonsmoking and nontoxic properties. Available in powder form, the system does not contain halogens or metallic compounds. Typical application is in PP. With higher loading levels, the system can be used in ethylene-propylene copolymers, PE, PS, and polybutylene. Mechanical and physical properties of the base polymer are said to be unaffected because of the low loadings required.
MORTON INTERNATIONAL, INC. INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS/ADDITIVES
Company's Versamag magnesium hydroxide and Elastocarb magnesium carbonate are used in various polymers as flame retardants and smoke suppressants. Versamag Tech powder and Elastocarb Tech Light are used in rigid PVC, polyurethanes, EPDM and latexes in 25-40 phr for smoke suppression. Special grades of Versamag magnesium hydroxide are used in PE and PP at 50-60% loadings to achieve UL 94 V-0 and maintain polymer melt flow and physical properties. Treated grades of Versamag and Elastocarb are also available.
NYCO MINERALS INC.
Produces a broad range of chemically tailored alumina trihydrate products for application in olefins, acrylics, polyesters, epoxies, PVC, urethanes and other polymer systems. ATH Nycoat products are based on a wide selection of ATH substrates: fine-ground ATH with average particle sizes ranging from 8 to 12 microns; superfine-ground ATH with average particle sizes from 3.5 to 6 microns; and precipitated ATH products.
Chemical surface modification generally provides improved wet-out and dispersion by the matrix resin, increased loading levels, and upgraded mechanical and physical properties. Firm's chemical surface modification technology further allows custom tailoring to balance wetting characteristics and resin reactivity while maintaining moisture levels low enough to preclude drying prior to compounding.
OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL CORP. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS DIV.
Dechlorane Plus chlorinated organic flame retardant is nonplasticizing, non-reactive, thermally stable and provides char formation for nondripping flame-retardant formulations. It has applications in many polymer systems, including nylon, PBT, ABS, polyolefins, elastomers and epoxy, and is reportedly well suited to formulations where colorability, hydrolytic stability, electrical properties, and flammability performance are important. The reportedly unique char-forming characteristics of Dechlorane Plus allows for low-smoke formulations. Flame-retardant technology is also available, which provides high CTI values in both nonglass and glass-reinforced nylon formulations. Non-antimony oxide synergist formulations for flame-retardant nylon and epoxy are also available. Dechlorane Plus 35 is available for applications where fine particle size is critical.
Occidental also offers Chlorowax, chlorinated paraffins and alpha olefins in resinous forms.
Specialty concentrates, in solid or liquid form, are available containing fire retardants, colorants, fillers, antioxidants, uv stabilizers, silicones, blowing agents, slip agents, or antistats.
PMS has production and laboratory facilities at 11 locations in the U.S. and Puerto Rico.
PPG INDUSTRIES, INC. CHEMICALS GROUP
Flame-retardant concentrates are offered in pelletized form in nylon, TPE, PE, ABS, PP, SAN, PS, and EVA vehicles at loadings up to 90%. Organic flame-retardant additives offered include:
* Endura FSB-100 for PP applications.
* Endura FSB-113 for PBT, nylon and PE. It is said to be nonblooming and to provide high thermal stability and good ultraviolet stability.
* Endura FSB-114 for styrenics, particularly ABS. It is reportedly nonblooming and provides excellent retention of the base resin's key properties such as impact strength and flow.
* Endura FSB-136 for PBT, PET, and SMA. It will melt blend in most resins and is said to have good uv stability.
* Endura FSB-300, a proprietary brominated organic additive. When used with antimony oxide, it imparts flame-resistant characteristics to various thermoplastics, especially HIPS. As a substitute for decabromodiphenyl oxide, it is said to have better flow properties and cost performance, and to provide the finished product with higher impact strength and lower gravity.
THE PQ CORP.
Nyacol colloidal antimony pentoxide is available in liquid dispersion or powder forms for flame-retardant thermoplastic and thermoset resins. An advantage of the pentoxide is its ability to obtain translucent plastics or dark color with minimum colorant (compared with antimony trioxide, which is white and opaque). The fine ultimate particle size of 0.03 microns and low refractive index account for low tinting. Grades include easy-to-handle liquids, which rapidly stir in, unlike dusty pigments that require high shear. Engineering plastics reportedly can be made with high impact and no coloration using colloidal dispersions. Grades include:
* Nyacol APE 1540 for unsaturated polyester laminates.
* Nyacol ZTA for vinyl.
* Nyacol A1588LP and AP50 for epoxies.
* Nyacol ADP480 for ABS or PP.
PLASTIC FILLER SALES, INC.
Produces a flame-retardant line of ground calcium sulfate available in 50-lb bags, bulk bags, and in bulk truckloads. Custom blends of these products and calcium carbonate are available.
Provides magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide flame retardants and smoke suppressants:
* Magnifin, produced by Magnifin GmbH, is an ISO 9002 certified, ultra-high-purity, fine precipitated magnesium hydroxide for applications requiring processing or exposure temperatures up to 645 F. Particle size is typically 1 micron with a surface area of 7 sq m/g (H-7) or 10 sq m/g (H-10). Product is available untreated or surface treated for use in EVA, EPDM, PE, PP, PVC, nylons and a variety of copolymers and blends.
* Martinal, produced by Martinswerk GmbH, is an ISO 9002 certified, fine precipitated alumina trihydrate for applications where temperatures do not exceed 390 F. Product is available in "LE" grades with a very low soluble electrolyte content for demanding electrical requirements and coated grades (stearic acid, vinyl silane) for improved dispersion and physical properties.
POLYCOM HUNTSMAN INC.
Manufactures UL-recognized flame-retardant polystyrene concentrates.
QUANTUM CHEMICAL CORP.
See USI Div.
RM MINERALS, INC.
Offers magnesium hydroxide fillers, which reportedly improve smoke suppression in PVC and PE applications. Two new products have been commercially introduced: Magnum-White and MGH-93, milled to mean particle sizes of 2 microns and 10 microns, respectively.
Magnum-White contains a minimum of 35% magnesium hydroxide and MGH-93 a minimum of 90% (average 93%). Company says end users are reporting significant reduction, or elimination of antimony in their applications.
A. SCHULMAN INC.
Company's line of Polyflam flame-retardant concentrates include:
* Polyflam RS 425C3 for 3:1 letdown in high-heat, high-impact PS to give UL 94V-0.
* Highly stable Polyflam RCP 770 for LDPE and HDPE film. Letdown ratios range from 10:1 to 4:1.
SHERWOOD DIVERSIFIED INC.
Supplies alumina trihydrate and other fillers. See also listing under Fillers.
SOLEM DIV. J.M. HUBER CORP.
Company's product line consists of standard and surface-modified alumina trihydrate and Zerogen flame retardants. ATH is available in particle distributions ranging from 0.8 to 65 microns in average particle diameters. Surface treatments used to improve processing and performance properties of ATH-filled compounds include silanes, stearates, proprietary wetting agents, plasticizers, and titanates. Zerogen is a proprietary flame retardant/smoke suppressor. With processing temperature stability up to 630 F, Zerogen can be processed in PP, TP polyesters and other engineered thermoplastics. Zerogen is available in 1-micron, 2.2-micron and 6-micron average particle sizes.
STANDRIDGE COLOR CORP.
Offers flame retardant concentrates for fibers and film. Products are available in custom or standard formulations. Colorants or other additives can be included in the formulation.
SYNTHETIC PRODUCTS CO. SYNPRO-WARE DISPERSIONS
Dispersions of antimony oxide, zinc borate, and halogenated additives are supplied in phosphate esters or halogenated vehicles. Custom formulations are available.
TEKNOR COLOR CO. SUB. OF TEKNOR APEX CO.
Offers flame-retardant concentrates for PE and PS at 3:1 to 6:1 letdown ratios.
USI DIV. QUANTUM CHEMICAL CORP.
Spectratech CM 11053 is a chlorinated/antimony oxide flame-retardant concentrate formulated for molding and extrusion. It has a maximum processing temperature of 380 F and recommended letdown ratio of 6:1-8:1. Spectratech CM 10768, another halogenated/antimony oxide flame retardant concentrate with a brominated component, also can be used for molding and extrusion. Spectratech FR 10107 is a nonhalogenated, hydrated mineral system flame-retardant concentrate specifically formulated for sheet extrusion.
Other specially formulated Spectratech flame-retardant concentrates are designed for use in the production of disposable draperies and other materials used in hospitals and other areas where combustible materials may be handled.
UNITED STATES BORAX & CHEMICAL CORP.
Company's Firebrake ZB is a fire-retardant synergist that reportedly can be used as a low-cost replacement or extender for antimony oxide in systems containing halogen. It is a white crystalline zinc borate powder with mean particle size of 2-10 microns, crystal density of 2.8 g/cc, and tinting strength much lower than that of antimony oxide, reportedly permitting formulation of translucent flame-retardant compositions. Firebrake ZB reportedly withstands processing temperatures up to 550 F and is virtually insoluble in water below 100 F. Often combined with antimony oxide, it is recommended for resins such as PVC, thermoset polyester, epoxy, polyolefin, nylon, urethane, and rubbers such as SBR and EPDM. Firebrake ZB is a smoke and afterglow suppressant and strong synergist for hydrated alumina to reduce smoke. It also improves anti-tracking and anti-arcing properties of nylon, polyester, and polyolefin.
Firebrake ZB-Fine, a fine grade with a mean particle size of 3 microns, is offered for applications where physical properties of the substrate are vital.
XPI-187, an experimental anhydrous zinc borate, is offered for polymers that are processed at 550 F or higher.
XPI-213 is a zinc borate which can release 30% by weight of water starting at 212 F.
U.S. GYPSUM CO. INDUSTRIAL GYPSUM DIV.
USG LP Filler No. 2 (Leisure Product Filler), the dihydrate form of calcium sulfate, is made by fine grinding select gypsum containing about 17% water of crystallization. Because of the water of crystallization, LP Filler No. 2 can provide fire retardancy in a room-temperature curable system such as unsaturated polyester spray-up. Depending on resin system, LP Filler No. 2 allows over 50-55% loading levels, offering significant cost savings. It is finely divided, non-abrasive, nontoxic, and is said to be an easily dispersable powder. It is available in 2000-lb bulk bags or 50-lb paper bags from Huntingburg, Ind., and Sacramento, Calif.
USG LP Filler No. 1, slightly finer than LP Filler No. 2., is now available from Plaster City, Calif., in 50-lb bags to serve the Southern California market.
VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORP.
Chlorendic anhydride is a solid, reactive flame retardant with a stable bicyclic structure. An acid anhydride with a chloride content of 54.5%, it is used as a flame retardant and corrosion-resistant agent for unsaturated polyester and alkyd resins, and as a crosslinking agent in epoxy. Systems containing chlorendic anhydride can be formulated to obtain a range of responses in the ASTM-E84 tunnel test, as well as the UL 94 tests, and to meet military specifications. Product is available in technical and refined grades and in a free-flowing crystalline form that is reportedly easy and safe to handle.
WHITE CHEMICAL CORP.
Offers brominated organic products for use in PS, SAN, ABS, PVC, nylon, urethane, epoxy, polyester, phenolic, polycarbonate, and polyolefins. Products include decabromodiphenyl oxide (also pentabromo and octabromo versions of the same), hexabromocyclododecane, and Caliban F/R P-45, Caliban F/R P-150 and Caliban F/R P-151.
WITCO CORP. ARGUS DIV.
Flexchlor chlorinated normal paraffins are secondary plasticizers that provide flame retardancy and low-temperature performance. A broad range of viscosities and chlorine contents are available, including special grades designed for compatibility at high levels in PVC.
Fyarestor brominated-chlorinated paraffins are available for applications requiring additional flame-retardancy, and are recommended for fabric coatings, urethanes, PVC, and epoxies.
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|Title Annotation:||plastics industry|
|Article Type:||Buyers Guide|
|Date:||Jul 15, 1992|
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