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Flame retardants: product lines reviewed.

FLAME RETARDANTS PRODUCT LINES REVIEWED

ACCURATE COLOR INC.

Offers flame-retardant concentrates. Formulations can be tailored to customer requirements.

ACETO CORP.

Offers phosphate flame retardants for flexible and rigid polyurethanes: Tris-(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate and Tris-(beta-chloropropyl) phosphate.

ADELL PLASTICS INC.

Flame-retardant thermoplastic concentrates and compounds are produced on a custom and proprietary basis by this supplier, which specializes in engineered applications. Concentrates of other additives and multifunctional concentrates are also available.

AKRON CHEMICAL CO.

Supplies alumina trihydrates, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonates, and oxides.

AKZO CHEMICALS INC.

Offers a line of halogenated phosphate esters known as Fyrol flame retardants for both flexible and rigid urethane applications. A comprehensive technical service department and fire laboratory provide customers with baseline data for comparison and insight into flame-retardant mechanisms. Fyrol flame retardants, which meet numerous industry and governmental standards, reportedly allow urethane foam producers to cost-effectively produce the foam.

ALBRIGHT & WILSON AMERICAS

Phosphorus- and chlorophosphorus-based organic flame retardants are offered for use in rigid and flexible polyurethane foams, textiles, rigid-RIM, unsaturated polyesters, epoxy- and phenolic-based laminates, and epoxy resins. Coated red phosphorus, ammonium polyphosphates and a complete range of phosphate ester flame-retardant plasticizers are also available for use in PVC, urea/formaldehyde, elastomers, engineering plastics, polyolefins, and epoxy resins.

ALCAN CHEMICALS

Supplies alumina hydrates for use as flame-retardant and smoke-suppressant fillers in rubber and plastics. Various grades are available, including low-viscosity and coated products.

Also supplies Flamtard H and Flamtard S, inorganic flame-retardant additives intended for use in conjunction with chlorine or bromine, either as a part of the polymer backbone or in additive form. Features of Flamtard H and S include low smoke and carbon monoxide evolution.

ALLIED PRODUCTS CORP.

See Coz Chemical Div.

ALUCHEM INC.

Offers a complete line of hydrated alumina flame-retardant/smoke-suppressant fillers for plastics. Twenty-one standard grades are offered in particle-size distributions ranging from 65% to 100% minus 325 mesh, with median particle sizes of 4-30 microns. Specialty superfine ground aluminas with a median particle size of 1.5 microns and a top size of less than 10 microns are readily available.

Also offered are 12 grades of cost-effective hydrated alumina/calcium carbonate blends.

ALUMINUM CO. OF AMERICA

Offers a complete series of ground hydrated alumina fire-retardant/smoke-suppressant in a range of particle sizes. Typical applications are in polyester spray-up and molding compounds, epoxy, phenolic, flexible PVC, urethane foam, and some rigid urethanes. Also offered are two extremely fine precipitated aluminas, Hydral 710 and 705, with median particle sizes of 1.1 micron and 0.5 micron, respectively. These ultrafine grades are said to be particularly beneficial in applications where finished product flexibility is critical. Another product is Lubral 710, an ultrafine surface-coated ATH for thermoplastic resins such as PP and PE.

AMERIBROM, INC. SUB OF DEAD SEA BROMINE GROUP

Carries its parent's full line of brominated flame retardants in local stocks. This includes the full line of brominated diphenyl oxides (deca-, octa-, penta-), dibromoneopentyl glycol and tribromoneopentyl alcohol (reactives used in urethanes and unsaturated polyesters), hexabromocyclododecane (for specialty styrenics and coatings), tetrabromobisphenol-A (reactive used in epoxies and unsaturated polyesters), and tribromophenyl allyl ether (for foams).

For engineering polymers, in addition to decabromodiphenyl oxide, company offers a white, melt-blendable brominated acrylic polymeric flame retardant (FR-1025) said to have excellent uv stability, permanence, improved flow and flame-retardant efficiency. Several new products emerging from commercial development can be applied with engineering resins, such as tribromophenyl maleimide (FR-1033) for styrenic resins and grafting on olefins, and an aromatic brominated monomer.

AMERICAN CYANAMID CO. POLYMER PRODUCTS DIV.

Has experimental, nonhalogenated, phosphorus-based products for polyolefins and specialty polymers. No commercial products are currently available.

AMERICHEM, INC.

Flame-retardant concentrates are available either custom-made or from the company's own formulations. Products are available for use in most thermoplastics in pellets, cubes and powders. Concentrates can incorporate color and /or other additives.

AMPACET CORP.

Flame-retardant concentrate number 11341 is used in polyolefin film extrusion and injection molding. The product reportedly meets ASTM test D-635.

Concentrate FR 11371 reportedly can be processed at 600 F without adverse side effects. It is suitable for HDPE, LDPE, and their copolymers. Applications are said to include extrusion coating of scrims for canvas replacement, construction paper and films, disposable clothing, and oil-can stock.

Concentrate FR 40173 has a maximum operating temperature of 520 F and is aimed primarily at unfilled PP. Its ability to disperse thoroughly and uniformly throughout the polymer, the supplier says, makes it suitable for mono- and multifilament extrusion. Other applications are carpet backing, face yarn, rope, injection molded chairs, pipe fittings, and extruded film, sheet, and profiles.

AMSPEC CHEMICAL CORP.

Antimony trioxide is offered in high-tint, low-tint, and high-purity grades. Flame retardant concentrates are available in various carriers.

ANZON INC.

Supplies a variety of grades of antimony oxide in powders, concentrated dispersions, and strands, and a series of proprietary, inorganic synergists, some of which contain lower amounts of antimony than regular antimony oxide, yet reportedly provide good flame retardancy. Oncor 75RA offers lower tinting strength, lower specific gravity, and is nonabrasive. Ongard 2 is a non-antimony flame retardant and smoke suppressant that is lower in specific gravity, tinting strength, and cost than antimony oxide. Used together with antimony in PVC, it is said to reduce smoke generation significantly, according to tests on a variety of vinyl compounds.

ARGUS DIV.

See Witco Corp.

ASARCO INC.

Four grades of antimony oxide include low-tint, high-tint, very-high-tint, and ultra-pure types. The odorless, fine white crystalline powder is produced in 30,000-lb lots, which means fewer lots per truckload for more consistent processing in the customer's plant. Products are packaged in 50-lb multiwalled bags, pelletized, and stretch-wrapped for easy handling.

ATOCHEM NORTH AMERICA, INC.

(Formerly M&T Chemicals, Inc.; Pennwalt Corp.) Thermoguard series of antimony-based products includes Thermoguard S high-tinting antimony oxide, Thermoguard L low-tinting grade, Thermoguard S-800 nondusting antimony oxide, and Thermoguard FR antimonate for engineering plastics. Thermoguard CPA is a proprietary flame retardant designed specifically as a low-cost replacement for antimony oxide. Concentrates of antimony oxide and decabromobiphenyl ether, as well as custom concentrates are available.

Company also supplies Thermoguard 200 series of brominated epoxies, which are miscible and reactive with engineering thermoplastics as well as thermosets. These high-molecular-weight products are nonblooming, nonmigratory and noncorrosive.

Pyronil 45, a 45%-aromatic bromine liquid, is recommended for use in everything from PVC to HIPS, ABS, PC, PBT and modified PPO, as well as epoxy, urethane and unsaturated polyester. Said to have very low levels of acute or cumulative toxicity, it is marketed both as a replacement for phosphate esters used in flexible PVC because of its high heat stability and low effect on product color, and as a full or partial replacement for other brominated flame retardants in other thermoplastics.

BUCKMAN LABORATORIES, INC.

Company's Busan 11-M1, modified barium metaborate, is used as a synergist in most plastics. As with antimony trioxide, halogens are usually required for the additive to function. Levels of 5-10 phr are recommended for evaluation in new products; levels as low as 2 phr reportedly have worked in some PVC formulations. According to the company, Busan 11-M1 can be used as an extender or replacement for antimony trioxide.

The product is also said to be an afterglow suppressant and to help reduce the amount of toxic fumes and/or smoke during combustion, and to impart uv stabilization to films, coatings, and plastics. It is also a registered biocide for long-term control of fungal growth.

BURNS & RUSSELL CO. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS DIV.

Offers S/G (registered) 84 T-34, and additive that effectively suppresses smoke when used in a variety of polymer systems, including polyester, PVC, epoxy- and urethane-based, and others. S/GT-34 is effective in both halogenated and non-halogenated systems.

CLIMAX PERFORMANCE MATERIALS SUB. OF CLIMAX METAL CORP.

Offers molybdenum trioxide, ammonium octamolybdate and a range of zinc borates as smoke suppressants and flame retardants in both rigid and flexible PVC and halogenated polyesters. Recommended usage levels are in the 1-4 phr-range.

Selection of zinc borates depends on the maximum processing temperature and the specific formulation being flame retarded. Applications include plastisols and coatings as well as compounded thermoplastics and elastomers. Recommended usage levels are in the 2-6 phr-range.

Molybdenum compounds and zinc borates reportedly are effective in some systems as the sole synergists and may be combined with antimony oxide, phosphates, alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide. Primary applications are in transportation and construction.

COOKSON PERFORMANCE PLASTICS

Offers flame-retardant concentrates for use with high-impact PS, PP, and PET.

COZ CHEMICAL DIV. ALLIED PRODUCTS CORP.

Flame-retardant concentrates in PS, ABS, and polyolefin bases can be supplied for varying letdown ratios.

CUSTOM GRINDERS SALES, INC.

All standard grades of alumina trihydrate between 5% minus 325 mesh (average particle size about 55 microns) and 100% passing 325 mesh (average size about 1.5 microns) are offered. All grades are available in 50-lb bags, bulk bags, and in bulk truckloads. Both white and Bayer are available. Company also offers custom grinds and blends to meet specific customer requirements.

D.J. ENTERPRISES

Offers a flame-retardant filler blend of alumina and silica, called Sillum PL-200. Another product offered is an organo metallocene compound, named Ferro-Char B-44M, for smoke suppression. Product can be used with other flame retardants and is recommended for use in urethane and PVC compounds.

DEAD SEA BROMINE GROUP

See AmeriBrom, Inc.

DIAMOND SHAMROCK CHEMICALS

See Occidental Chemical Corp.

DOVER CHEMICAL CORP.

Complete line of chlorinated paraffins includes Chlorez resin grades (70% chlorine and Paroil and Chloroflo liquid grades (20-70% chlorine). Liquid grades serve dual function as plasticizer and flame retardant in plastics and elastomers. Resin grades serve as low-cost flame-retardant extenders for chlorinated rubber, epoxies, etc. Their high halogen content offers maximum flame retardancy in polyolefins, urethanes, and unsaturated polyesters. Also offered is Chlorez 760, a 74% chlorine resin with ultra-high melt point of 320 F (160 C). It is recommended for polyolefins and styrenics.

ETHYL CORP. CHEMICALS GROUP

Saytex is company's trademark for the broad line of brominated additives and reactives for plastics and elastomers offered by the bromine chemicals division. Saytex 120 tetradecabromodiphenoxy benzene is said to offer outstanding heat stability in engineering thermoplastics. Other products include the following:

* Saytex RB-100 tetrabromo-bisphenol-A for epoxy.

* Saytex 111 octabromodiphenyloxide, a low-cost, melt-blending flame retardant for ABS, PS, and nylons.

* Saytex RB-79 and RB-34 brominated polyols for rigid urethane foam.

* Saytex 102 decabromodiphenyloxide for engineering plastics.

* Saytex BCL-462 and Saytex HBCD for EPS and foamed polystyrene.

* Saytex 105, and Saytex RB-49 tetrabromophthalic anhydride for unsaturated polyester.

* Saytex BN-451 for UL 94V-2 polypropylene at low cost.

* Saytex BT-93 ethylene-bis (tetrabromophthalimide) for PS, polyolefins, and polyesters.

* Saytex VBR vinyl bromide, a reactive monomer for low-cost bromine addition.

In addition, there are several developmental liquid flame retardants containing both phosphorus and bromine designed specifically for urethane foams.

FMC CORP.

Kronitex triaryl phosphate esters are flame-retardant plasticizers for PVC, cellulosics, and other thermoplastics. Kronitex 50 and 100 are reportedly less expensive to use than TCP and TXP and the mixed alkyl-aryl phosphate esters. They reportedly offer rapid fluxing in calendering compounds, as well as good viscosity, stability and rapid fusion in plastisols.

Company offers three new flame retardants:

* FR-D phosphorus-containing compound said to differ from conventional phosphorus-containing polyols in its good thermal and hydrolytic stability and its ability to promote char formation. FR-D is a clear liquid with 12,000 cp viscosity, containing 14% phosphorus and has been used in both rigid urethane and modified isocyanurate foams without affecting friability. Tunnel-test data suggest that FR-D alone is capable of achieving Class II ratings in a halogen-free system. When combined with halogenated polyols, like Great Lakes' PHT4-Diol, a Class I rating reportedly can be attained.

* Xyrex diallyl tetrabromophthlate acts as both a high-bromine (about 60%) flame retardant and multifunctional crosslinking agent. DATBP is intended to be blended with general-purpose polyester resin by the RP fabricator and crosslinks with the matrix and styrene or other reactive monomer during cure. The crosslinking action provides permanent flame retardance and maintains or enhances physical properties. Xyrex RFR can be used in SMC, BMC, pultrusion, open molding or other processes. E-84 Class I flame spread has been attained with 15-20 phr DATBP. Other advantage reportedly include good wetout, surface smoothness and gloss, and improved corrosion resistance.

* PB-460, a solid brominated aromatic phosphate ester, is aimed primarily at PBT, PET, polycarbonate and PPO alloys in such uses as computer and business-machine housings and construction sheet, as well as in flexible urethane foams for transportation seating. Key characteristics are said to include thermal stability, retaining its transparent colorless appearance to 575 F; ease of processability in compounding on single- and twin-screw extruders; and the opportunity it offers to greatly reduce or eliminate the levels of antimony oxide used in otherwise unfilled resins.

FERRO CORP. FLAME RETARDANT DIV.

Offers thermally-stable, brominated, polymeric additives for use in engineering thermoplastics and styrenics. The line includes Pyro-Chek (registered) 68PB, Pyro-Chek 60PB, Pyro-Chek HF 10 and 20, and Pyro-Chek CM flame retardants, all of which are based on brominated polystyrene. Also available are a series of bromo-chlorinated, aliphatic compounds called Bromoklor, which are effective as high halogen plasticizers.

FERRO CORP. LEGLO COLOR DIV.

A full line of flame-retardant concentrates can be tailored to customer specifications.

FOCUS CHEMICAL CORP.

Markets a range of halogen/phosphorus compounds, both reactive and additive, for use primarily in polyurethane and polyester formulations. Products include dimethylmethyl phosphonate, triethylphosphate, and trischloroethyl phosphate. Also sells zinc borate.

FORMULATED RESINS, INC.

Offers brominated flame retardants. RS-9100 is a low-cost, low-viscosity, transparent nonreactive flame-retardant liquid for use in a wide range of resins, including epoxies, polyesters, phenolics, urethanes, ABS, and PVC. It is 73% bromine.

Company's RS-9300 has a melting point of 599 F, comes in powder form, and is recommended for thermoplastics and thermosets.

GE SILICONES GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

Company's SFR 100 is a high-viscosity silicone fluid, which may be used as a flame retardant in polyolefins and requires no antimony oxide when compounded properly with a Group 11A metal organic salt and other ingredients, depending on the degree of flame retardance required. Product will improve impact resistance of olefins, especially at low temperatures. It also results in easier mold fill and lower-temperature processing. When properly formulated, the flame retarded plastic can meet UL V0-V5 flammability criteria.

GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL CORP.

Brominated flame retardants are supplied for use in thermoplastic and thermoset resins. Additive types include decabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-83R), bistribromophenoxyethane (FF-680), octabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-79), pentabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-71), dibromopolyphenylene oxide (PO-G4P), a nitrogen/phosphorus-based additive (CharGuard 329) and two carbonate oligomers of tetrabromobisphenol A (BC-52 and BC-58), which are compounded into thermoplastics such as high-impact PS, ABS, PP, PE, nylon, and polyester. These products are also used for LDPE and EPDM wire and cable insulation. Tetrabromophthalate ester (DP-45) is suggested for flexible PVC.

Reactive brominated flame retardants are tetrabromobisphenol A, bishydroxyethyl ether of TBBA (BA-50P), and tetrabromophthalic anhydride (PHT-4) for epoxies and unsaturated polyesters. For rigid urethanes, a diol of tetrabromophthalic anhydride (PHT-4 DIOL) is used as a reactive flame retardant, while pentabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-60F Special) may be used as an additive system for flexible urethane foam. For expanded polystyrene foam, hexabromocyclododecane (CD-75P) and tetrabromobisphenol A-bis allyl ester (BE-5l) are recommended.

Flame retardants are available in liquids or solids, and with a wide range of organic bromine content, melt points, and organic solubilities.

GREAT LAKES MINERALS CO.

Company offers a wide selection of alumina trihydrate fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant fillers. There are 21 grades in particle sizes from 1-15 microns, and special products may be produced to customer specifications. Standard grades are available with silane surface modification. Applications include showers and tubs, latex-foam carpet backing, building panels, electrical housing, fuse blocks, switch bases, and insulation.

Product is manufactured in Erie, Mich., and Rogers, Ark. It is packaged in 50- and 100-lb moisture-barrier bags, 1000-lb sling bins, 2000-lb containers, bulk truck, and carloads.

HARWICK CHEMICAL CORP.

Offers a complete line of flame-retardants, including antimony oxide, zinc borate, solid and liquid chlorinated paraffins, aluminum trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide, and phosphate ester plasticizers. Company's line of Fyraway flame retardants are proprietary blends of various flame-retardant additives designed for ease of handling and lower flame retardant costs. Custom blends are available upon request.

HOECHST CELANESE CORP. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS GROUP

Offers several grades of ammonium polyphosphate-based flame retardants, tradenamed Exolit, for use in polyurethane foams, thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets.

HOWARD INDUSTRIES

Produces flame-retardant concentrates with additive loadings up to 98% for PE, PP, nylon HIPS, and other resins.

HUMPHREY CHEMICAL CORP.

Company's zinc borates are recommended for use with antimony oxide in compounds containing a source of organic halogen. Products are said to be good low-cost replacements for 25-50% of the antimony normally used, and to have lower specific gravity and tinting strength than antimony oxide. Other properties of the products reportedly include suppression of smoke generation, superior afterglow depression, and promotion of char formation. The line is said to have antimicrobial properties. Products are synthesized from domestic raw materials and reportedly are not subject to erratic price and supply fluctuations.

KENRICH PETROCHEMICALS INC.

Company's line of Ken-React pyrophosphate-derived titanate coupling agents are said to act as flame retardants as well. When used with mineral fillers, they reportedly enhance flame resistance without an increase in cost or handling difficulty or loss of physical and rheological properties relative to unfilled or lightly filled compounds. Product is said to prevent splaying or exudation of antimony oxide/halogen-type systems from polymeric binders.

KLOECKNER ALLOYS INC.

Supplies antimony oxide produced by SICA, a French company. All grades are available, including standard high-tint-strength, low-tint, and high-purity grades. Nondusting formulations are available on special order. Material is shipped in 50-lb bags from U.S. warehouse, but custom packing can be arranged.

H. KOHNSTAMM & CO. INC.

Aluminum phosphohydrate is said to contain a substantial percentage of moisture and may be used as a flame retardant. It is said to mix readily with powders or pellets prior to fabrication.

LAROCHE CHEMICALS, INC.

Offers a line of high-purity hydrated aluminas used as flame retardants/smoke suppressants in thermosets and thermoplastics, such as polyester SMC, BMC, and sprayup. Various particle sizes are available for specific applications.

LAUREL INDUSTRIES INC.

Specializes in antimony oxide, trademarked Ultrafine II. Product has an average size of 0.20 to 0.40 microns, and is said to improve physical properties in most thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets.

Two other products, Fireshield "L" and "H" grades, in particle sizes of 2.5-3.5 and 1-1.8 microns respectively, are also offered. The former has lower tint strength and the latter is reportedly less degrading on physical properties.

A high-purity antimony oxide for fiber, ceramic, chemical, electronic, and specialty applications is offered under the trade name HPM. Also available is a proprietary low-smoke, flame-retardant synergist for PVC and other polymers, named LSFR.

LEGLO COLOR DIV.

See Ferro Corp.

M&T CHEMICALS INC.

See Atochem North America, Inc.

THE R.J. MARSHALL CO.

Offers alumina trihydrate and calcium sulfate, along with other chemicals and minerals. Available separately and in combinations, they reportedly provide controlled flame-retardant properties at competitive prices.

McGEAN-ROHCO INC.

Supplies antimony oxide for use as a flame-retardant synergist in plastics. Two new concentrates are also available: dustless concentrates of antimony oxide dispersed in a variety of resins, and a special synergistic halogen system.

MERECO TECHNOLOGIES METACHEM RESINS CORP.

Metagel 166FR, Mereco XLN-429FR, and Mereco 4823 FR epoxy-based resin additives are fire retardants that also aid in moisture resistance and electrical properties. These products are available in colors, may be used alone or in standard epoxy resin systems, and reportedly provide environmental protection and thixotropy and viscosity control. They are suited to component dip-coating operations and electronic-component and integrated-circuit applications. Products for casting or coating are offered.

THE MILWHITE CO., INC.

Hydrated alumina is supplied for application in plastics.

MOBAY CORP.

Disflamoll phosphoric acid esters serve as flame-retardant plasticizers in PVC. The line includes various aryl, alkyl, and alkylaryl esters.

MONMOUTH PLASTICS INC.

Flame-retardant concentrates are supplied for use in all grades of PE and PP. At proper letdowns, these concentrates meet specifications of UL, NFPA, and SAE.

MONSANTO CO.

Santicizer line of nonhalogenated, phosphate ester plasticizers and resin modifiers for PVC, rubber, paints and coatings, cellulose acetate, and engineering thermoplastics offers a choice of properties, such as low-smoke, low-temperature flexibility, fast fusion, low volatility, and FDA acceptability.

Phos-Chek, ammonium polyphosphate-based flame retardants have traditionally been used for intumescant coatings. This product family now offers a new series of low-smoke, nonhalogen additives specifically designed to flame retard plastics such as polypropylene, polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, and crosslinked), and polyurethanes. The basic Phos-Chek flame retardants can be used to flame retard adhesives, textiles, and building materials (e.g., wall coverings, ceiling tiles, roofing products, and chip board).

Company also offers Tetrathal, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, a reportedly versatile, permanent, low-cost flame retardant for polyester resins used in construction, transportation, and chemical and food preparation equipment. Also available are polyols based on Tetrathal for use in urethane foams and alkyd and epoxy surface coatings.

MONTEDISON USA INC.

MF-80, a polymeric flame retardant, imparts an intumescent char-forming action to polyolefins when blended with ammonium polyphosphate. Product is said to provide UL 94V-O and nonsmoking and nontoxic properties. Available in powder form, the system does not contain halogens or metallic compounds. Typical application is in PP. With higher loading levels, the system can be used in ethylene-propylene copolymers, PE, PS, and polybutylene. Mechanical and physical properties of the base polymer are said to be unaffected because of the low loadings required.

MORTON INTERNATIONAL, INC. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS GROUP

Company's Versamag magnesium hydroxide and Elastocarb magnesium carbonate are used in various polymers as flame retardants and smoke suppressors. Versamag Tech powder and Elastocarb Tech Light are used in rigid PVC, polyurethanes, EPDM and latexes in 25-40 phr for smoke suppression. Special grades of Versamag magnesium hydroxide are used in polyethylene and polypropylene at 50-60% loadings to achieve UL 94 V-O and maintain polymer melt-flow and physical properties. Treated grades of Versamag and Elastocarb are also available.

NYACOL PRODUCTS INC.

See The PQ Corp.

OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL CORP. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS DIV.

Dechlorane Plus chlorinated organic flame retardant is nonplasticizing, non-reactive, thermally stable and provides char formation for nondripping flame-retardant formulations. It has applications in many polymer systems, including nylon, PBT, ABS, polyolefins, elastomers, and epoxy and is reportedly well suited to formulations where colorability, hydrolytic stability, electrical properties, and flammability performance are important. The unique char-forming characteristic of Dechlorane Plus provides for low-smoke formulations. Flame-retardant technology is also available that provides high CTI values in both nonglass and glass-reinforced nylon formulations. Non-antimony oxide synergist formulations for flame-retardant nylon and epoxy are also available. Dechlorane Plus 1000 is available for applications where fine particle size is critical.

Through the acquisition of Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Co., Occidental also offers chlorinated paraffins, trademarked Chlorowax, in resinous and liquid forms.

OLIN CORP.

Thermolin 101 is a highly stable, low-viscosity chlorinated phosphate ester designed for flame retarding flexible urethane foam. Product is said to be highly efficient in meeting current urethane combustibility standards, to have minimal effects on physical and mechanical properties of urethane foams, and to perform well in heat and humidity aging tests.

Thermolin RJT is also a low-viscosity chlorinated phosphate ester, and exhibits many of the properties of Thermolin 101, but is more hydrolytically stable, and less likely to contribute to discoloration in flexible polyether foams.

PMS CONSOLIDATED

Specialty concentrates, in solid or liquid form, are available containing fire retardants, colorants, fillers, antioxidants, uv stabilizers, silicones, blowing agents, slip agents, or antistats.

PMS has production and laboratory facilities at 11 locations in the U.S. and Puerto Rico.

PPG INDUSTRIES, INC. CHEMICALS GROUP

Flame-retardant concentrates are offered in pelletized form in nylon, TPE, PE, ABS, PP, SAN, PS, and EVA vehicles at loadings up to 90%. Several organic flame-retardant additives are also offered:

* Endura FSB-100 is targeted for PP applications.

POLYVEL

Company is a specialty producer of highly concentrated uv stabilizers developed for easy dilution in polyolefin application. Custom-formulated uv stabilizer systems containing primary and secondary stabilizers and antioxidants with up to a 50% active ingredient are also produced. All concentrates are available in pellet and powder form.

PROGRESSIVE POLYMERS, INC.

Concentrates containing uv stabilizers, antioxidants, and other additives are produced in most thermoplastics to customer specifications.

QUANTUM CHEMICAL CORP.

See USI Div.

REED PLASTICS DIV. SANDOZ CHEMICALS CORP.

Offers custom-formulated uv inhibitor concentrates for thermoplastics molding and extrusion. Also available are multi-functional concentrates containing both uv inhibitors and colorants. All are sold in pellet form.

RIVERDALE COLOR CO.

See listing under Colorants.

ROSEMAR OPERATIONS

See Ferro Corp.

SANDOZ CHEMICALS CORP.

Sanduvor VSU of the oxalanilide chemistry is a white free-flowing powder stable to 572F. The oxalanilides reportedly do not interfere with fluorescent pigments nor discolor by reaction with metals. Sanduvor VSU is recommended for PVC, styrenics, and acrylics.

SANTECH, INC.

Company's Sunshade uv stabilizer concentrates contain zinc oxide. They are used in LLDPE agricultural film and PP/EPDM thermoplastic elastomers and have been evaluated in HDPE irrigation pipe. New formulations, some based on zinc oxide, are being tested by PVC sheet producers. Accelerated tests reportedly indicate that zinc-oxide-based systems can increase heat and light stability of rigid and flexible PVC tenfold. Special formulations improve PVC heat and light stability by overcoming the destabilizing effects of zinc.

A. SCHULMAN INC.

The Polybatch additive concentrates are designed to provide improvement of specific properties. The range includes different carriers, and all possible modifications are offered: slip and antiblock, antistatic and uv resistance, antifogging, foaming, antioxidant, etc.

SHEPHERD CHEMICAL CO.

Manufactures barium, calcium, cadmium and zinc compounds for incorporation into stabilizer systems.

STANDRIDGE COLOR CORP.

See listing under Colorants.

TEKNOR COLOR CO. DIV. TEKNOR APEX COMPANY

Offers uv absorber concentrates for polyethylene in letdown ratios up to 200:1.

TENNESSEE VALLEY CHEMICAL CORP.

Two nickel-based uv stabilizers for polyolefins are Conservator 125N nickel dibutylthiodicarbamate (NBC), used in PP cotton bale wrap, and Conservator 77N, containing 7 1/2% nickel for PP and synthetic grass.

USI DIV. QUANTUM CHEMICAL CORP.

Spectrathene specialty compounds include concentrates containing uv inhibitors and other additives as specified.

UNITED-GUARDIAN INC.

Voidox 100% is said to serve as a uv stabilizer, antioxidant, plasticizer and lubricant in PE and PP. It is a fatty stearate/BHT/glycerine complex and is usually used in plastics at 0.1-0.25% levels. It reportedly has been cleared by the FDA for use in food packaging.

WASHINGTON PENN PLASTIC CO.

Supplies uv concentrates for use in PE, PP, and PS.

WITCO CORP. ARGUS DIV.

Company's Mark uv absorbers include substituted benzophenones for use in rigid and flexible PVC, polyolefins and other resins. Products include Mark 1413 powder and Mark 1535 liquid. (See ads pp. 450-451, 514, this page.)

supplied in phosphate esters or halogenated vehicles. Custom formulations are available.

TAC INDUSTRIES INC.

High-purity alumina trihydrates are offered in a range of particle sizes for use in latex, urethane foams, PVC, and polyester SMC, BMC, and spray-up.

TEKNOR COLOR CO. DIV. TEKNOR APEX CO.

Offers flame-retardant concentrates for PE and PS at 3:1 to 6:1 letdown ratios.

USI DIV. QUANTUM CHEMICAL CORP.

XLD-1053-FRI is an antimony oxide/halogen concentrate formulated for LDPE film. Two-mil-thick LDPE film samples containing this concentrate at letdown ratios up to 12:1 reportedly have met the requirements of MVSS 302. Flame retardant concentrate XLD-1489-FIC is an antimony/halogen system formulated for HDPE film. A 10:1 letdown reportedly meets specifications of California Fire Marshals Tests for flammability of synthetic fabrics. XEC 1591 is similar in composition and performance to XLD-1489-FIC but is formulated for high processing temperatures, as in extrusion coating, for use in LDPE, HDPE, and PP.

Spectrathene specialty additive concentrates include a flame retardant for disposable draperies used in hospitals and areas where ether and other combustible materials are handled.

UNITED STATES BORAX & CHEMICAL CORP.

Company's Firebrake ZB (registered) is a fire-retardant synergist that reportedly can be used as a low-cost replacement or extender for antimony oxide in systems containing halogen. It is a white crystalline zinc borate powder with mean particle size of 2-10 microns, crystal density of 2.8 gm/cu cm, and tinting strength much lower than that of antimony oxide, reportedly permitting formulation of translucent FR compositions. Firebrake ZB reportedly withstands processing temperatures up to 550 F and is virtually insoluble in water below 100 F. This product, often combined with antimony oxide, is recommended for resins such as PVC, thermoset polyester, epoxy, polyolefin, nylon, urethane, and rubbers such as SBR and EPDM. Firebrake ZB is a smoke and afterglow suppressant and strong synergist for hydrated alumina to reduce smoke. It also improves anti-tracking and anti-arcing properties of nylon, polyester, and polyolefin.

Firebrake ZB-Fine, a fine grade with a mean particle size of 3 microns, is offered for applications where physical properties of the substrate are vital.

XPI-187, an experimental anhydrous zinc borate, is offered for polymers that are processed at 550 F or higher.

XPI-213 is a zinc borate which can release 30% by weight of water starting at 100 C. (See ad p. 501.)

U.S. GYPSUM CO. INDUSTRIAL GYPSUM DIV.

USG LP Filler #2 (Leisure Product Filler), the dihydrate form of calcium sulfate, is made by fine grinding of select gypsum containing about 17% water of crystallization. Because of this water of crystallization, LP Filler #2 can provide fire retardancy in room temperature curable system such as unsaturated polyester spray-up. Depending on resin system, LP Filler #2 allows an excess of 50-55% loading levels, offering significant cost savings.

It is finely divided, nonabrasive, nontoxic, and is said to be an easily dispersable powder. It is available in 2000-lb bulk bags or 50-lb paper bags from Huntington, Indiana.

VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORP.

Chlorendic anhydride is a solid, reactive flame retardant with a stable bicyclic structure. An acid anhydride with a chloride content of 54.5%, it is used as a flame retardant and corrosion-resistant agent for unsaturated polyester and alkyd resins, and as a crosslinking agent in epoxy. Systems containing chlorendic anhydride can be formulated to obtain a range of responses in the ASTM-E84 tunnel test as well as the UL-94 tests, and to meet military specifications. Product is available in technical and refined grades and in a free-flowing crystalline form that is reportedly easy and safe to handle.

WHITE CHEMICAL CORP.

Offers brominated organic products for use in PS, SAN, ABS, PVC, nylon, urethane, epoxy, polyester, phenolic, polycarbonate, and polyolefins. Products include decabromodiphenyl oxide (also pentabromo and octabromo versions of the same), hexabromocyclododecane, and Caliban F/R P-45, Caliban F/R P-150 and Caliban F/R P-151.

WITCO CORP. ARGUS DIV./PEARSALL PRODUCTS

Flexchlor chlorinated normal paraffins are secondary plasticizers that provide flame retardancy and low-temperature performance. A broad range of viscosities and chlorine contents are available, including special grades designed for compatibility at high levels in PVC.

Fyarestor brominated-chlorinated paraffins are available for applications requiring additional flame-retardancy, and are recommended for fabric coatings, urethanes, PVC, and epoxies. (See ads pp. 450-451, 514, 528.)
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1990, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Title Annotation:1990-1991 Manufacturing Handbook and Buyers' Guide
Publication:Plastics Technology
Date:Jul 15, 1990
Words:5142
Previous Article:Fillers: product lines reviewed.
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