Printer Friendly

First record of a sea spider (Pycnogonida) from an anchialine habitat.

Studies of the anchialine fauna in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) began more than 25 years ago, with the explorations of the Nohoch Nah Chich and Sac Actun systems in Quintana Roo (Kambensis & Coke, 2016; Bauer-Gottwein et al., 2011), since then several publications have summarized the records of the fauna (Alvarez & Iliffe, 2008; Alvarez et al, 2015); most of them involving mainly crustacean species. Recently, other groups such as mollusks, echinoderms, and annelids have been found in these systems (Solis-Marin & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010; Frontana-Uribe & SolisWeiss, 2011; Rubio et al., 2015); however, pycnogonids have never been found. Pycnogonida is a relatively small, exclusively marine group of invertebrates that includes more than 1,300 species (Bamber et al., 2017); living from shallow shores to deep abyssal trenches, and found in both marine and estuarine habitats, but not known from freshwater (Child, 1992).

Most pycnogonids are small, with leg spans of less than one centimeter, in some species just a few millimeters, but some deep-sea species have leg spans of up to 60 cm (Arnaud & Bamber, 1987). Although their phylogeny until now is not clearly resolved, pycnogonids are currently considered to be a sister group of the rest of the Chelicerata (Dunlop & Arango, 2005; Regier et al, 2010; Giribet & Edgecombe, 2012).

Reports of pycnogonids from Mexico have been sporadic. The first species (Nymphon pixellae Scott, 1912) was cited by Hilton (1942); and later Hedgpeth (1948), Stock (1955), and Arnaud (1978) mentioned other pycnogonids from Mexican coasts. Child (1979) listed 21 species from the Mexican Pacific coast. Munilla (2002) summarized the information for the group, recording 42 species in 17 genera across six families. The latest contributions to the knowledge of Mexican pycnogonids reported two species from a rocky intertidal shore in southern Veracruz (Vassallo et al., 2014) and five epibenthic species collected from the giant lion's-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) (De Leon-Espinosa & De Leon-Gonzalez, 2015). The Pycnogonida of the YP has the most records within Mexico (Child, 1979; Munilla, 2002). Nevertheless, faunal studies focusing on pycnogonids in anchialine waters are unknown locally, and throughout the world.

We present herein a new record of the pycnogonid, Anoplodactylus batangensis, from Cenote Nohoch Nah Chich, which is located in Rancho San Felipe (20[degrees]17.92'N, 87[degrees]24.22'W), 6 km north of the town of Tulum, and 3.8 km from Casa Cenote, the site where the Sac Actun system connects with the Caribbean Sea (Fig. 1a). Cenote Nohoch Nah Chich is one of the many entrances to a flooded cave system that extends some 8 km inland from the coast inland (Alvarez et al., 2015).

Samples were obtained with a 300 [micro]m mesh net from the aquatic vegetation present in the surface waters at the entrance of the cenote (Fig. 1b). The samples were preserved in 70% ethanol. A DS5X Hydrolab multiparameter sonde was used to obtain temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration profiles.

All collected organisms were sorted under a stereoscopic microscope, cleaned, and individually preserved in vials with 80% ethanol. The illustrations and measurements were made using a Nikon Optiphot-2 phase contrast microscope. Microphotographs were obtained with an AxioCam MRC5 camera using a Carl Zeiss AxioZoom V16 microscope. All specimens were collected under the scientific collector's license issued to F. Alvarez (FAUT 0104) by the Mexican environmental authority (SEMARNAT). The single specimen was deposited in the National Crustacean Collection (CNCR) of the Institute of Biology, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, with catalog number CNCR 31997. A systematic account of the species is presented following the classification proposed by Bamber (2007) and a new complementary description with details and illustrations of the female are presented.

Phylum Arthropoda Siebold & Stannius, 1845

Subphylum Cheliceriformes Schram, 1978

Class Pycnogonida Latreille, 1810

Order Pantopoda Gerstacker, 1863

Family Phoxichilidiidae Sars, 1891

Genus Anoplodactylus Wilson, 1878

Anoplodactylus batangensis (Helfer, 1938)

Anoplodactylus intermedius Hilton, 1942

Anoplodactylus stylirostris Hedgpeth, 1948

Anoplodactylus tenuirostris Lebour, 1949

Pycnosomia batangense Helfer, 1938

Members of the family Phoxichilidiidae are well known from tropical habitats around the world. In particular, Anoplodactylus is one of the most numerous genera of Pycnogonida, with more than 180 species widely distributed and very common in shallow waters.

Diagnosis

Trunk triangular, anterior lateral processes broader than posterior pairs. Proboscis, tapering gradually from broad base to narrow distal section; mouth minute, curved ventrally in proximal half. Legs short; tibia short, with setose bulges, auxiliary claws minute, sometimes absent (Child, 1992).

Description of the female. Trunk length 0.6 mm, width 0.19 mm; segmentation lines visible in dorsal and ventral views (Figs. 2c-2d); body compact, crurigers or lateral processes separated by about half their diameter. Ocular tubercle inclined forward, rounded tip, eyes well pigmented (Fig. 2b); proboscis slender, styliform, upturned, tapering distally (Fig. 2d). Abdomen (0.18 mm) erect, almost same height as ocular tubercle (0.14 mm) (Figs. 2b-2c). Palps absent. Chelifore scape 1-jointed, smooth, touching each other, palm with scattered short setae, fingers in front of the mouth, in downward diagonal position (Figs. 2a, 2c). Ovigers absent. Legs robust, margins irregular, femora swelled, single dorsodistal long spine on femur and tibiae (Figs. 2a, 2g); propodus large, curved, robust, strong heel, 2 heel spines, 5-6 sole spines and propodal lamina; no auxiliary claws visible (Figs. 2e-2f). Cement gland not present.

Measurements

Proboscis, ventral length 0.51 mm, width 0.17 mm. Body, 0.83 mm long from anterior end of the cephalic segment to end of fourth lateral processes, width between the second pair of lateral processes 0.19 mm. Leg 1, 3.42 mm long from coxa I to the tip of main claw. Coxa I, 0.18 mm; coxa II, 0.78 mm; coxa III, 0.19 mm; femur, 0.16 mm; tibia I, 0.56 mm; tibia II, 0.54 mm; tarsus, 0.3 mm; propodus, 0.45 mm; claw, 0.26 mm.

Material examined

Mexico: Quintana Roo, Tulum, Cenote Nohoch Nah Chich (20[degrees]17.92'N, 87[degrees]24.22'W), associated to surface vegetation; 1 female, CNCR 31997; 28/06/2015.

Distribution

Anoplodactylus batangensis has been reported in the YP in Mexico (Child, 1992; Munilla, 2002). It is considered a pantropical species in coastal waters at shallow depths (Bourdillon, 1955; Bamber, 2007), and a frequently reported species from Colombia (Muller & Krapp, 2009), Brazil (Lucena et al., 2015) and Mexico (Child, 1992; Munilla, 2002).

Remarks

The record of a single A. batangensis female collected associated to the vegetation in the pool of cenote Nohoch Nah Chich, Quintana Roo, Mexico, represents the first occurrence of a pycnogonid in an anchialine habitat. Females of A. batangensis are easily recognizable due to their upturned, tapering proboscis, without tubercles or alar processes ventrally; these characters are used to distinguish them from all other shallow-water Anoplodactylus species. Our specimen shows slight variations relative to the reports made by Child (1982), namely: a pale brown cuticle (Figs. 2a2b), and segmentation lines that are visible ventrally and dorsally. Arango (2003) observed also slight differences in specimens from Australia. Future studies should evaluate if the amount of geographic variation observed warrants the description of several species.

The presence of this pycnogonid in cenote Nohoch Nah Chich, 3.8 km from the coastline, following the map of the submerged cave, shows that coastal marine organisms can be transported inland through the conduits or passageways of anchialine systems, since there are no superficial bodies of water in the YP, expanding their distribution ranges. Three other coastal species from the Mexican Caribbean have been reported from cenotes: the halacarid mite Limnohalacarus cultellatus Viets, 1940 (Ojeda et al., 2016), the atyid shrimp Jonga serrei (Bouvier, 1909) (Alvarez et al., 2015), the hippolytid shrimp Barbouria cubensis (Von Martens, 1872) (Alvarez & Iliffe, 2008); and there are unpublished records of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegman, 1836) from several cenotes (CNCR 26033, 26035, 26037, 26040, 26042, 26046). With these findings, a pattern is emerging that shows a high degree of connectivity operating in the anchialine systems of the eastern portion of Quintana Roo, that allows coastal marine species to live in cenotes kilometers away from the coast. The pycnogonid was collected live in the first 20 cm of water at a salinity of 1.63, temperature of 25.8[degrees]C, pH of 6.94, and 1.49 mg [L.sup.-1] of dissolved oxygen, at the entrance of the cenote, and no halocline was recorded in the first 12 m. Hence, this shallow-water marine species, once it has penetrated into the anchialine system, seems to be capable of adjusting to these particular conditions. The few available observations on the tolerance of pycnogonids to salinity variations show that some species can occur regularly in brackish waters at salinities as low as 11, including two species of Anoplodatylus, A. petiolatus (Kroyer, 1884) and A. pygmaeus (Hodge, 1864) (Wolff, 1976; El-Hawawi & King, 1978).

DOI: 10.3856/vol46-issue1-fulltext-21

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The first author gratefully acknowledges the funding awarded through CONACYT grant 155644(546) "Processes that create and maintain the biodiversity in an extreme environment: the anchialine systems of Yucatan" and through the Texas A&M-CONACYT, Collaborative Research Grant Program (2015-049) "Distribution patterns of the anchialine fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula". We also thank Susana Guzman, IBUNAM for the photographs processing, and Ana L. Carlos for helping with the sorting of samples.

REFERENCES

Alvarez, F. & T.M. Iliffe. 2008. Fauna anquihalina de Yucatan. In: F. Alvarez & G. Rodriguez-Almaraz (eds.). Crustaceos de Mexico: estado actual de su conocimiento. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-PROMEP, Monterrey, pp. 379-418.

Alvarez, F., T.M. Iliffe, S. Benitez, D. Brankovits & J.L. Villalobos. 2015. New records of anchialine fauna from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Check List, 11(1): 1505.

Arango, C.P. 2003. Sea spiders from the great barrier reef: new species, new records, and ecological annotations. J. Nat. Hist., 37: 2723-2772.

Arnaud, F. 1978. A new species of Ascorhynchus (Pycnogonida) found parasitic on an opisthobranchiate mollusk. In: Sea spiders (Pycnogonida). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. Lond., 63: 99-104.

Arnaud, F. & R.N. Bamber. 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Adv. Mar. Biol., 24: 1-96.

Bamber, R.N. 2007. A holistic re-interpretation of the phylogeny of the Pycnogonida Latreille, 1810 (Arthropoda). In: Z.-Q. Zhang & W.A. Shear (eds.). Linnean Tercentenary. Progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 295-312.

Bamber, R.N., A. El Nagar & C. Arango. (eds.). 2017. Pycnobase: world Pycnogonida Database. [http:// www.marinespecies.org/pycnobase]. Reviewed: 9 February 2017.

Bauer-Gottwein, P., B.R.N. Gondwe, G. Chauvet, L.E. Marin, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra & G. Merediz-Alonso. 2011. The Yucatan Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico. J. Hydrogeol., 19(3): 507-524.

Bourdillon, A. 1955. Les Pycnogonides de la croisiere 1951 du President Theodore Tissier. Rev. Trav. Inst. Peche Marit., 19(4): 581-609.

Child, C.A. 1979. Shallow-water Pycnogonida of the Isthmus of Panama and the coasts of Middle America. Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 23: 1-86.

Child, C.A. 1982. Pycnogonida from carrie bow cay, Belize. Smithson. Contrib. Mar. Sci., 12: 1-539.

Child, C.A. 1992. Shallow water Pycnogonida of the Gulf of Mexico. Mem. Hourglass Cruises, 9(1): 1-86.

De Leon-Espinosa, A. & J.A. De Leon-Gonzalez. 2015. Pycnogonids associated with the giant lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) in Ojo de Liebre Bay, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. ZooKeys, 530: 129-149.

Dunlop, J.A. & C.P. Arango. 2005. Pycnogonid affinities: a review. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 43: 8-21.

El-Hawawi, A.S.N. & P.E. King. 1978. Salinity and temperature tolerance by Nymphon gracile (Leach) and Achelia echinata (Hodge) (Pycnogonida). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 33: 213-221.

Frontana-Uribe, S. & V. Solis-Weiss. 2011. First records of polychaetous annelids from cenote Aerolito (sinkhole and anchialine cave) in Cozumel Island, Mexico. J. Cave Karst Stud., 73: 1-10.

Giribet, G. & G.D. Edgecombe. 2012. Revaluating the arthropod tree of life. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 57: 167-186.

Hedgpeth, J.W. 1948. The Pycnogonida of the western North Atlantic and the Caribbean. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 97(3216): 157-342.

Hilton, W.A. 1942. Pantopoda chiefly from the Pacific. I. Nymphonidae. Pomona J. Entomol. Zool., 34(l): 3-7.

Kambensis, P.N. & J.G. Coke. 2016. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Bol. Geol. Min., 127(1): 177-192.

Lucena, R.A., J.P. Araujo & M.L. Christoffersen. 2015. A new species of Anoplodactylus (Pycnogonida: Phoxichilidiidae) from Brazil, with a case of gynandromorphism in Anoplodactylus eroticus Stock, 1968. Zootaxa, 4000(4): 428-444.

Muller, H.G. & F. Krapp. 2009. The pycnogonid fauna (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) of the Tayrona National Park and adjoining areas on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Zootaxa, 2319: 1-138.

Munilla, L.T. 2002. Pycnogonida. In: J. Llorente-Bousquets & J.J. Morrone (eds.). Biodiversidad, taxonomia y biogeografia de artropodos de Mexico: hacia una sintesis de su conocimiento. Vol. III, Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Mexico, pp. 215-222.

Ojeda, M., G. Rivas & F. Alvarez. 2016. First record of the genus Limnohalacarus (Acari: Halacaridae) from Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers., 87: 1131-1137.

Regier, J.C., J.W. Schultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J.W. Martin & C.W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature, 463: 1079-1084.

Rubio, F., E. Rolan, K. Worsaae, A. Martinez & B.C. Gonzalez. 2015. Description of the first anchialine gastropod from a Yucatan cenote, Teinostoma brankovitsi n. sp. (Caenogastropoda: Tornidae), including an emended generic diagnosis. J. Mollusc. Stud., 82: 169-177.

Solis-Marin, F.A. & A. Laguarda-Figueras. 2010. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean. Rev. Mex. Biodivers., 81: 663-668.

Stock, J.H. 1955. Pycnogonida from the West Indies, Central America and the Pacific Coast of North America. Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914-1916. Vid- enskabelige meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening I Kjobenhavn, 117: 209-266.

Vassallo, A., Y. Davila, N. Luviano, S.D. Amozurrutia, X.G. Vital, C.A. Conejeros, L. Vazquez & F. Alvarez. 2014. Inventario de la zona rocosa intermareal de Montepio, Veracruz, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers., 85: 349-362.

Wolff, W.J. 1976. Distribution of Pantopoda in the estuarine area in the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Neth. J. Sea Res., 10(4): 472-478.

Received: 14 December 2016; Accepted: 15 May 2017

Fernando Alvarez (1) & Margarita Ojeda (2)

(1) Coleccion Nacional de Crustaceos, Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico

(2) Coleccion Nacional de Acaros, Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico

Corresponding author: Fernando Alvarez (falvarez@unam.mx)

Corresponding editor: Sergio Palma

Caption: Figure 1. Cenote Nohoch Nah Chich, Quintana Roo, Mexico. a) Map showing location within the Yucatan Peninsula, b) site of collection.

Caption: Figure 2. Anoplodactylus batangensis (Helfer, 1938) from Cenote Nohoch Nah Chich. a) Habitus, ventral view, b) trunk, dorsal view, c) trunk, dorsal view, d) trunk, ventral view, e, f) propodus and dactyl of leg 3; leg 3, entire. Scale bars represent a) 0.5 mm, b) 0.2 mm, c-d) 0.01 mm, e-g) 0.05 mm.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Alvarez, Fernando; Ojeda, Margarita
Publication:Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research
Date:Mar 1, 2018
Words:2462
Previous Article:Effects of salinity gradients on larval growth and otolith asymmetry of austral hake Merluccius australis.
Next Article:Survival in juvenile shrimps (Penaeus vannamei) exposed to inactive against active white spot virus: a challenge bioassay perspective.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |