First record of Trichodina centrostrigeata Basson, Van As & Paperna, 1983 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) cultured in southeastern Mexico.
In this study, we report a new geographic location in the southeastern region of Mexico for T. centrostrigeata parasitizing the skin, fins, and gills of O. niloticus, previously identified for T. niloticus from southern Africa (Basson et al., 1983). Nile tilapia is cultured at high densities in fish farms in southeastern Mexico, Villahermosa (Tabasco). Fish showed characteristic disease signs: rubbing on the sides or bottom on the pond, caudal fin erosion, hemorrhagic areas in the skin (Valladao et al., 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016), abundant slime and corneal opacity (29%). Smears of trichodinids were taken from the skin and gills of 240 infested O. niloticus fingerlings and juveniles. The silvery stain by Klein (1958) was used for detailed observation of the denticle structures, the fixation disk characteristics and the number of their constituents, and the Harris' hematoxylin solution was used for the observation of the nuclear apparatus as additional information. The methodology reported by Lom (1958) and Wellborn (1967) was used for taxonomic identification. Once the tinted slides were mounted through the technique by Klein (1958), they were observed in detail under the optical microscope (Motic BA310E) searching for trichodinids (Fig. 1). Those that were completely mature and well-shaped with all the constituents of the adhesive disk clear and well tinted were selected. At a 1000x amplification, the denticle morphology of each one of the organisms was carefully observed: blade and ray, the degree of silvery impregnation of the center of the adhesive disk and presence or absence of chitin structures, etc. The angle described by the adoral spiral was also observed. All of these characteristics were compared to the descriptions by Lom & Dykova (1992) to locate them taxonomically in a tentative way, and this was followed by the review of the original studies for the determination of the species, for which the corresponding measurements were also done. The specific differentiation was based on a description for trichodinids as ectoparasites of cichlids and cyprinid fishes in South Africa and Israel (Basson et al., 1983). Trichodinids were counted using an optical microscope (Motic BA310E) at 60x and 100x magnification (Rodriguez-Santiago, 2002). Although T. centrostigeata was documented in T. nilotica in northwestern Mexico by Rodriguez-Santiago (2002), this information was never formally published. The ectoparasite species found was identified as Trichodina centrostrigeata, which constitutes the first record for Mexico. The morphologic characteristics that led to its identification were: wide triangular denticle blades with blunt edges, a straight thorn rod-like shape and a curving slightly backward about the blade (Fig. 1). The morphometric charac-teristics of T. centrostrigeata are shown in Table 1. The taxonomical characteristics considered were: wide triangular denticle blades with blunt edges, a straight thorn rod-like shape and a curving slightly backward about the blade.
Thanks for the support during the elaboration process of this work to Lety Sanchez. We also thank Dr. Rafael Martinez Garcia, M.C. Serapio Lopez Jimenez, M.C. Alejandro McDonald Vera and M.C. Miguel Angel Perez Mendez for the time dedicated to the review of this work and for comments. In the same way, we thank Guadalupe Garcia Jimenez, Luisa Ramos Colorado and Guadalupe Reyes for their support in the laboratory analysis, and to the Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory of the division for their support in the collections of the organisms (UJAT). We are grateful to Karen Englander (Faculty of Languages, University of Baja California) for her English review and editing of the manuscript. Special thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their comments to improve this article.
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Maria Amparo Rodriguez-Santiago (1,2), Leticia Garcia-Magana (3), Mayra I. Grano-Maldonado (4) Enrique N. Silva-Martinez (5), Jesus Guerra-Santos (5) & Rolando Gelabert (5)
(1) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT), Mexico
(2) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Centro de Investigacion de Ciencias Ambientales Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico
(3) Division Academica de Ciencias Biologicas Villahermosa Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Tabasco, Mexico
(4) Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico
(5) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Ambientales Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico
Corresponding author: Maria Amparo Rodriguez-Santiago (email@example.com)
Corresponding editor: Sandra Bravo
Received: 20 February 2018; Accepted: 25 October 2018
Table 1. Comparative measurements ([micro]m) of Trichodina centrostrigeata taken from Oreochromis niloticus (Basson et al., 1983),O. mossambicus, Tilapia rendalli, Pseudocrenilabrus philander, T. sparrmanii (Basson & Van As, 1994) and O. niloticus Egyptian variety (Rodriguez-Santiago, 2002). Rp/d: number of radial pins per denticle, Med: macronucleu external diameter. Numbers represent the absolute minimum, and maximum values observed. The average [+ or -] SD (standard deviation) is indicated within parenthesis. The number located after SD indicates the quantity of trichodinid specimens that were measured. Basson et al. (1983) Oreochromis niloticus Position on host Skin and fins Locality South Africa Body diameter 31.2-45.8 (37.6 [+ or -] 3.6, 100) Adhesive disc diameter 18.7-33.3 (23.2 [+ or -] 2.5, 100) Central rods 12-16 (14, 100) Number of denticles 26-30 (28, 100) Rp/d 6-7 (7, 100) Denticle lengh 2.0-6.2 (4.1 [+ or -] 0.6, 100) Blade lengh 2.8-6.4 (5.2 [+ or -] 0.7, 100) Ray lengh 1.13.0 (1.9 [+ or -] 0.3, 100) Lightning length 3.2-6.0 (4.5 [+ or -] 0.6, 100) Med 20.9-49.7 (37.6 [+ or -] 6.9, 23) Basson & Van As (1994) Cichlids and cyprinid Position on host Skin and fins Locality South Africa, Philippines Body diameter 30.0-45.0 (36.0 [+ or -] 4.2, 16) Adhesive disc diameter 18.5-26.0 (21.7 [+ or -] 2.4, 16) Central rods 13-16 (14, 12) Number of denticles 24-29 (26, 16) Rp/d 7-8 (8, 7) Denticle lengh 3.0-5.0 (4.3 [+ or -] 0.6, 13) Blade lengh 5.0-6.0 (5.5 [+ or -] 0.5, 15) Ray lengh 1.0-1.5 (1.1 [+ or -] 0.2, 15) Lightning length 3.5-5.0 (4.3 [+ or -] 0.6, 15) Med -- Rodriguez-Santiago (2002) Oreochromis niloticus Egyptian variety Position on host Skin and fins Locality Sinaloa, Mexico Body diameter 30-44 (37.51 [+ or -] 3.9, 31) Adhesive disc diameter 18-38 (19.64 [+ or -] 2.1, 31) Central rods 12-15 (13, 31) Number of denticles 23-29 (26, 31) Rp/d 6-8 (6, 31) Denticle lengh 3.3-5.6 (4.29 [+ or -] 0.74, 31) Blade lengh 3.3-6.7 (4.55 [+ or -] 0.77, 31) Ray lengh 2.22-6.7 (2.73 [+ or -] 0.89, 31) Lightning length 3.3-7.8 (5.29 [+ or -] 0.97, 31) Med 19-37 (32 [+ or -] 7.4, 7, 13) This study Oreochromis niloticus Position on host Skin and fins Locality Villahermosa, Mexico Body diameter 30-43 (36.0 [+ or -] 4.2, 25) Adhesive disc diameter 18-25.0 (21.7 [+ or -] 2.4, 25) Central rods 12-16 (13, 25) Number of denticles 20-29 (26, 25) Rp/d 7-8 (7, 25) Denticle lengh 3-5.5 (4.1 [+ or -] 0.6, 25) Blade lengh 5.0-6.5 (5.5 [+ or -] 0.5, 25) Ray lengh 1.0-1.5 (1.1 [+ or -] 0.3, 25) Lightning length 3-5.0 (4 [+ or -] 0.6, 20, 25) Med --
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|Title Annotation:||Short Communication|
|Author:||Rodriguez-Santiago, Maria Amparo; Garcia-Magana, Leticia; Grano-Maldonado, Mayra I.; Silva-Martinez,|
|Publication:||Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research|
|Date:||May 1, 2019|
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