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First record of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) disseminating Alternaria solani (Pleosporaceae) in potato crops in Brazil.

Liriomyza leafminers can adversely affect agronomic crops by transmitting a number of disease pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Often this results from the physical damage to leaves following insertion of an ovipositor by females during the act of egg laying. For example, Durairaj et al. (2010) reported that L. trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) females perforate leaves of Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), predisposing the plant to infection by Alternaria (Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae) fungi. Similarly, Deadman et al. (2002) reported that leaf perforation during L. trifolii oviposition favored leaf necrosis caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl in S. tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). Alternaria spp. can reduce photosynthetic leaf area and subsequent tuber production in infected potato plants (Simmons 2000).

The economic impacts of Liriomyza are high. For example, Liriomyza spp. in Kenya have caused losses of US$54 and US$64.5 million in Pisum sativum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae), respectively (Pratt et al. 2017). These species also are agronomic pests of other vegetable crops such as Beta vulgaris L. and Spinacia oleracea L. (Amaranthaceae) (Minkenberg 1988). Mujica and Kroschel (2013) reported that the leafminer L. huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) was responsible for leaf damage that subsequently reduced yields of S. tuberosum by up to 51% in the Canete Valley (central coast of Peru). Here, we provide the first report on the association of L. huidobrensis as a facilitating agent of A. solani (Cooke) Wint infection to S. tuberosum in a commercial potato crop in Brazil.

Leafminer sampling was conducted twice between Sep 2013 to Apr 2014 in the municipality of Rio Paranaiba (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) on S. tuberosum leaves (cv. Agata) from a field containing larval L. huidobrensis. The field (19.208744[degrees]S, 46.164902[degrees]W) consisted of 35 ha, with potato plants at the tuber formation stage (50 d after planting) (Meier 2001). The field was divided into 5 areas of 5 ha each. Each area was further divided into 10 parcels of 50 x 50 m (2,500 [m.sup.2]). We evaluated 50 plants per parcel.

Plants were spaced 80 to 87 cm apart with 12 to 15 stems per meter. Mines of L. huidobrensis larvae with A. solani lesions were visually counted following the method of Alves et al. (2014) (Fig. 1a). Spatial distribution of mines caused by L. huidobrensis and A. solani lesions was evaluated using the Moran Index (I) (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) with the Z test (Seffrin et al. 2018). This index measures whether a distribution is irregular, even, or clustered. Indices closest to 1 indicate high spatial dependence (clustered values); those closest to zero are characterized as spatial independence, while indices closest to -1 indicate high level of dispersion.

We found a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.84; n = 500; P < 0.001) between the number of L. huidobrensis mines and A. solani lesions, with the dissemination of this pathogen in potato plants being influenced by the degree of spatial distribution of L. huidobrensis (I = +0.225; P = 0.001) and A. solani (I = +0.428; P = 0.001). Moreover, the presence of A. solani concentric halos in potato leaves associated with L. huidobrensis oviposition sites, coincided with growth of this fungus. Our results were similar to those of Durairaj et al. (2010) who reported that L. trifolii oviposition sites favored A. alternata infection in tomatoes. Indeed, Deadman et al. (2002) observed that as L. trifolii oviposition perforations in S. tuberosum leaf tissue increased, A. alternata lesions increased (Deadman et al. 2002).

Summary

A significant association between Liriomyza huidobrensis leafminers and Alternaria solani fungus is reported here for the first time in a commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) field in Brazil. We found that there was a high correlation (0.84) between the number of L. huidobrensis mines and A. solani lesions on infected plants.

Key Words: cluster; miner; oviposition; Solanaceae; spatial distribution; symptoms

Sumario

Uma associacao significante entre a mosca minadora Liriomyza huidobrensis e o fungo Alternaria solani e reportado aqui pela primeira vez em campo de batata comercial (Solanum tuberosum) no Brasil. Nos verificamos alta correlacao especial (0,84) entre o numero de minas de L. huidobrensis e as lesoes de A. solani em plantas infectadas.

Palavras Chaves: agregacao; minador; oviposicao; Solanaceae; distribuicao espacial; sintomas

References Cited

Alves FM, Diniz JFS, Silva IW, Fernandes FL, Silva PR, Gorri JER. 2014. A sampling plan for Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on a potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantation. American Journal of Potato Research 91: 663-672.

Deadman ML, Khan IA, Thacker JRM, Al-Habsi K. 2002. Interactions between leafminer damage and leaf necrosis caused by Alternaria alternata on potato in the sultanate of Oman. Plant Pathology Journal 18: 210-215.

Durairaj C, Karthikeyan G, Ganapathy N, Karuppuchamy P. 2010. Predisposition effect of Liriomyza trifolii damage to Alternaria leaf spot disease in tomato. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 23: 161-162.

Meier U. 2001. Growth stages of mono and dicotyledonous plants. BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical industry) Monograph, Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Berlin, Germany.

Minkenberg OPJM. 1988. Dispersal of Liriomyza trifolii. EPPO Bulletin 18: 173182.

Mujica N, Kroschel J. 2013. Pest intensity-crop loss relationships for the leafminer fly Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) in different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties. Crop Protection 47: 6-16.

Pratt CF, Constantine KL, Murphy ST. 2017. Economic impacts of invasive alien species on African smallholder livelihoods. Global Food Security 14: 31-37.

Seffrin R, Araujo EC, Bazzi CL. 2018. Regression models for prediction of corn yield in the state of Parana (Brazil) from 2012 to 2014. Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 40: 1-11.

Simmons EG. 2000. Alternaria themes and variations (244-286): species on Solanacaeae. Mycotaxon 75: 1-115.

Walyson Silva Soares (1), Rosa Angelica Plata-Rueda (2), Maria Elisa de Sena Fernandes (2), Flavio Lemes Fernandes (2,*), Fldvia Maria Alves (3), and Italo Willian da Silva (2)

(1) Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais 38400-902, Brazil; E-mail: walysonagronomia@gmail.com (W. S. S.)

(2) Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Rio Paranaiba, Minas Gerais 38810-000, Brazil; E-mail: angelicaplata@yahoo.com.mx (R. A. P. R.), maria.sena@ufv.br (M. E. S. F.), flaviofernandes@ufv.br (F. L. F.), italo.silva@ufv.br (I. W. S.)

(3) Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Vicosa, Minas Gerais 36570-900, Brazil; E-mail: flaviamarialves@gmail.com (F. M. A.)

(*) Corresponding author; E-mail: flaviofernandes@ufv.br

Caption: Fig. 1. (a) Presence of Liriomyza huidobrensis mines on a Solanum tuberosum leaf infected with Alternaria solani; (b) diagram showing representative distribution of mines and fungal lesions.

Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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Author:Soares, Walyson Silva; Plata-Rueda, Rosa Angelica; Fernandes, Maria Elisa de Sena; Fernandes, Flavio
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Words:1099
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