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First record of Clavicornia of the subfamily Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China, with the description of a new species.

Abstract--Clavicornia Kormilev, 1960, representing the subfamily Mezirinae, is recorded from China for the first time. A new aradid, Clavicornia schuhi, new species, is described. A key to known species and subspecies of this genus is given and photos of the diagnostic morphological features of the new species are provided.

Key words: Aradidae, Mezirinae, Clavicornia, new record, new species, China.


Kormilev (1960) established genus Clavicornia to accommodate C. usingeri from New Guinea. Subsequently, Kormilev (1967) described C. usingeri granulata from Australia and Heiss (1982) described C. subparallela from India (Heiss, 1982; Kormilev and Froeschner, 1987; Monteith, 1997). During a study of the Chinese aradids, we found the interesting species described herein. This study is based on material preserved in the Entomological Museums of the Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot (IMNU) and the China Agricultural University (CAU). Measurements were obtained using a calibrated micrometer. All measurements are in millimeters.


Clavicornia Kormilev, 1960:169; Kormilev, 1971: 9; Kormilev and Froeschner, 1987: 128; Monteith, 1997: 67.

TYPE SPECIES: Clavicornia usingeri Kormilev, 1960.

DIAGNOSIS: Macropterous. Small. Body: elongate ovate with sides parallel. Head: wider than long, the anterior process short with small clypeus; gena reduced, not exceeding apex of clypeus; antenniferous tubercles blunt; eyes large, semiglobose; postocular margins broadly rounded without tubercles or spine, not exceeding outer margins of eyes, converging on constricted neck; antenna long and stout, first and fourth segments subequal in length, second shortest, third longest, first incrassate, second, third and fourth clavate, fourth with pilose apex (Fig. 1A-E); rostrum arising from a slit-like opening of atrium, not exceeding limits of rostral groove (Fig. 1F). Thorax: anterior lobe of pronotum much narrower than posterior lobe, anterolateral angles obliquely truncate, lateral notch angularly deep; sublateral areas of disc of fore lobe each with a rugose longitudinal ridge which runs posteriorly to middle of hind lobe. Scutellum: subtriangular, carinate laterally, apex pointed. Hemelytron: complete, clavus reaching to tip of scutellum, corium developed, membrane large, without veins (Fig. 1A, C, G). Legs: long and slender, without spines, trochanters distinct, preapical comb on fore tibia present, femur subcylindrical, claws with pulvilli and a median bristle (Fig. 1H, I). Connexival plates narrow, second and third connexival segments fused. Anterior half of sterna III to VI with a broad transverse depression (Fig. 2B, D). Spiracles II absent. Paratergites short, clavate (Figs. 1A-D, 2A-D).

DISTRIBUTION: Australia, China, India, New Guinea.


1. Antennal segment III longer than I 2

--Antennal segments I, III, and IV subequal 3

2. Spriacles III to IV sublateral, not visible from above Clavicornia schuhi, new species

--Spriacles III to IV sublateral, visible from above C. subparallela

Heiss, 1982

3. Central field of pronotum without granulations C. usingeri Kormilev, 1960

--Central field of pronotum with granulations C. usingeri granulata Kormilev, 1967

Clavicornia schuhi, new species Figures 1-2

HOLOTYPE: CHINA: Hainan: Baisha, 10-XI-2008, W. J. Zhang leg [male] (IMNU).

DESCRIPTION: COLORATION: Body: reddish brown to dark brown. Rostrum and membrane pale brown. STRUCTURE: Antenna, head, pronotum and legs roughly granulate. Head wider than long (17:24); anterior process conical, reaching basal one-fifth of first antennal segment; gena not exceeding apex of clypeus; clypeus strongly raised anteriorly. Antenniferous tubercles blunt; eyes large, convex laterally. Postocular lateral margins strongly converging. Vertex with 2 (1 + 1) medial parallel rows of granules, flanked by 2 (1 + 1) large callosities. Antenna about 1.80 times as long as width of head across eyes. Rostrum short, rostral groove shallow, opened posteriorly (Fig. 1A-F). Pronotum 1.66 times as wide as long; collar narrow; anterior margin feebly sinuate; anterolateral angles slightly produced beyond collar; anterolateral borders deeply concave, angular; lateral borders of hind lobe subparallel, converging anteriorly; posterior margin sinuate; disc medially with longitudinal depression on anterior lobe, flanked by 2 (1 + 1) large callosities; 2 (1 + 1) zig-zag carinae extending fore and hind lobe sublaterally; posterior lobe medially transversely elevated with granulate carina, sloping and shiny anteriorly. Scutellum as long as pronotum, lateral margins carinate; disk with median longitudinal carina, transversely rugose; apex angular (Fig. 1A, C). Hemelytron with clavus exposed, reaching apex of scutellum; lateral margins of corium slightly carinate, parallel, almost extending to posterior margin of connexivum II; membrane lacking veins, reaching to base of seventh abdominal segment (Fig. 1A, C, F). Posterolateral angles of dorsal external laterotergites II to III without protruding, IV to VI slightly protruding, VII forming an obtuse angle; lateral border of connexival segments V to VII slightly concave, posterior margin of segment VII substraight; paratergites clavate, as long as one-second length of pygophore; glabrous area faint (Figs. 1A, C; 2A, C). Metapleural scent gland canais short. Abdominal sterna elevated, sterna III to VI raised along posterior border, depressed along anterior border, and with a row transverse pits medially (Fig. 2B, D). Spiracles II absent, III to IV ventral and not visible from above, V and VII lateral and visible from above, VII large, near posterolateral angle of dorsal external laterotergites VII, VI sublateral and slightly visible from above, VIII terminal (Figs. 1A, C; 2A-D). Pygophore cordate, 0.66 times as wide as long (Figs. 1A, B; 2A, B). Parameres fused as shown in Fig. 2E, F. Phallus as shown in Fig. 2G, H.

MEASUREMENTS (N = 2[male], 3[female]): Body length: [male], 2.72-2.84; [female], 2.78-2.86. Maximal width of abdomen: [male], 1.06-1.10; [female], 1.12-1.16. Head length: [male], 0.34-0.36; [female], 0.34-0.38; width: [male], 0.46-0.48; [female], 0.48-0.50. Pronotum length: [male], 0.62-0.64; [female], 0.64-0.66; width [male], 1.0; [female], 1-02-1.06. Scutellum length: [male], 0.34-0.36; [female], 0.34-0.38; width [male], 0.56; [female], 0.58. Pygophore length: 0.18, width: 0.12. Antennal segment lengths: [male], I-IV = 0.22, 0.16, 0.264).28, 0.22; [female], I-IV = 0.22, 0.14-O.16, 0.2643.28, 0.22.

ETYMOLOGY: The species is named in honor of Dr. Randall T. Schuh for his many contributions to the study of heteropterology and for bis much appreciated help with our true bug studies.

DISTRIBUTION: China (Hainan).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES: same data as for holotype, 1[male], 1[female] (CAU), 2[female] (IMNU).


We sincerely thank Dr. Thomas J. Henry of Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA for suggestions and critical reading of the manuscript. This research is supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31060289, 30825006).


Heiss, E. 1982. New and little known Aradidae from India in the Museum d'Histoine Naturelle de Geneve (Heteroptera). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 89: 245-267.

Kormilev, N. A. 1960. Notes on Aradidae from the Eastern Hemisphere. XVII (Hemiptera). Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum 13:163-174.

Kormilev, N. A. 1967. Notes on Australian Aradidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with descriptions of new species of Calisius Stal and Glochocoris Usinger and Matsuda. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 79: 71-78.

Kormilev, N. A. 1971. Mezirinae of the Oriental Region and South Pacific (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Aradidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 26: 1-165.

Kormilev, N. A. and R. C. Froeschner. 1987. Flat bugs of the world. A synonymic list (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Entomography 5:1-246.

Monteith, G. B. 1997. Revision of the Australian flat bugs of the subfamily Mezirinae (Insecta: Heteroptera: Aradidae). Memories of the Queensland Museum 41(1): 1-169.


(1) Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Zhaowuda Road 81, Huhhot 010022, China, e-mail:

(2) Research Entomologist, Tiroler Landesmuseum, Josef Schraffl Strasse 2a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria, e-mail:

(3) Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100094, China, e-mail:

(4) Corresponding author


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Article Details
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Author:Bai, Xiaoshuan; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jan 1, 2012
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