Finnish lyric diction.
Songs have words; therefore, it is a necessity for those singers, voice pedagogues, and choir directors who wish to include Finnish vocal music in their programs to have a practical knowledge of the Finnish language, or at least its basic phonology. That already will enable them to delve into this treasure trove of lesser known musical gems. The features for mastering Finnish lyric diction will be presented in this article, first through an introduction to each necessary aspect of Finnish phonology, and second, through direct application to songs, with constant reference to the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). It is hoped that this will be of help, and will inspire interest in Finnish vocal repertoire.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FINNISH LANGUAGE
Finnish is a non-Indo-European language of noteworthy linguistic and musical interest. As a national language of Finland, it is used today by some six million people, among them many world renowned composers, poets, singers, pianists, violinists, conductors, choir directors, and other musicians who have proven themselves globally to be experts in their fields of music.
Other than in Finland itself, Finnish is spoken in several other countries, especially in those of nearest proximity to Finland: Sweden, Norway, Estonia, and the province of Karelia in Russia. Due to mass migrations at certain points in Finnish history, Finnish nationals have also settled in such far away places as the USA, Canada, and Australia, with vibrant communities intent on preserving their Finnish culture still in existence.
Linguistically Finnish belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages, with Estonian and Hungarian the nearest relatives, and Turkish, along with many minor groups of the Altaic family, as a distant linguistic relative. When compared with Indo-European languages, the Finnish language differs in a number of ways. Some of the most distinct differences are outlined here.
In Finnish there are no articles before nouns, no pronouns distinguishing gender, just one third person singular (han), no prepositions, but several postpositions and suffixes which, when added to words, make them appear very long. There is no future tense. The accent is always on the first syllable; intonation does not rise in interrogative sentences; a strict system of quantity of length is observed with both vowels and consonants; with vowels there is a special system called vowel harmony, and with consonants, consonant gradation.
Finnish is commonly known as a phonetic language, particularly singable and quite easy to pronounce, as each letter of the alphabet represents only one sound, which, even if not always pronounced the same way by individuals, will usually be understood. The letters correspond efficiently with most of the IPA symbols. The original Finnish alphabet consists of twenty-one letters: a, d, e, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v/w, y, a [ae], and o [o]. "Original," in this context, means the primary Finnish alphabet, used with authentic Finnish vocabulary. Since the 1940s, as Finland has continued to become more globally connected, the "foreign" letters b, c, f, q, x, z, and a have become integral components of what is now the basic Finnish alphabet. Their addition facilitates the writing of loan words from other languages, names of foreign businesses, and non-Finnish names of individuals. There are no silent letters in Finnish.
The alphabet is divided into eight vowels and thirteen consonants which all require special attention, since their correct articulation is the key to Finnish pronunciation. The good news, particularly for singers, is that there is an abundance of vowel combinations, making singing in Finnish a pleasure, especially the long, flowing legato phrases, constructed with pure vowels. Before the introduction of computer technology, it was an accepted fact in linguistic research that frequency of vowels in Finnish surpasses frequency of consonants, in a ratio of ninety-six consonants to a hundred vowels. This was considered a specific characteristic of the Finnish sound pattern. However, current computerized measurements based on written Finnish show the frequency ratio to be a hundred and eight consonants to a hundred vowels. In comparison with several other European languages, Finnish still qualifies as a language of low consonant frequency. The following data present the ratio of consonants to a hundred vowels as used by these languages: (1)
Finnish 108 Italian 108 Spanish 122 Latin 127 Hungarian 141 French 141 Russian 150 Swedish 161 German 177 Czech 188
This chart provides an interesting comparative outline of the consonant vs. vowel frequencies in these European languages. However, the figures may not be entirely accurate, nor comparable with Finnish, since they are based on old measurement data and use a different range and scope of material. It is also unfortunate that of such major languages as English and Chinese, no corresponding information was available to the author of the source. (2)
The frequent use of vowels and comparatively minimal use of consonants make Finnish a euphonious and pleasant language both to sing and to listen to. In fact, like Italian, Finnish can be called a "musical language" because of the high vowel frequency, with most words ending in a vowel. Using the eight single vowels in various combinations, it is possible to create fifty-six different vowel composites. However, the standard Finnish language uses only about a quarter of them--for example, diphthongs ending in <a> or <a> appear in dialects, but are missing in standard Finnish. (3)
Vowels: Short and kong
The eight different vowels in Finnish are:
a [a] o [o] u [u] a [ae] 0 [o] y [y] i [i] e [e]
Of these, <i> is the most common--about 27% of vowels and 12% of all Finnish sounds. The other vowels, in order of frequency, are: (4)
<a> 23% <e> 16% <o> 10% <u> 10% <a> 9% <y> 3% <o> 1%
All vowels are pure, distinct phonemes.
As mentioned earlier, since there is only one sound for each vowel, even if a speaker's diction differs from the norm (for example, in cases of regional dialects), the speaker is generally understood. Finnish letter vowels do not form "open" and "closed" pairs, as for instance in German. Instead, Finnish vowels are grouped by their two degrees of quantity, short and long, which doubles the vowel phoneme count of the language to sixteen. In orthography, the short sound is presented by one letter, the long with two. It is necessary to remember that, although the long vowel sign is two letters, it is still only one long sound.
In speech, standard Finnish requires a clear distinction between the duration of the long and the short vowels, since the meaning of a word can be altered entirely if the vowel is not given correct length. The ratio of duration between a short and a long vowel is about 1:2 or 1:2.5, but it can be even 1:3. (5) For example, the word tule has a short [u] and [e] and translates in English as "come" the imperative singular of the verb tulla, "to come." However, if the [u] and [e] are doubled and sounded long, the word changes to tuulee, which is the third person singular of the verb tuulla, meaning "to blow" (as in wind)--that is, "to be windy" The long vowel has the same sound as the short, but when it is doubled in length, the meaning of the word changes.
A specific characteristic of Finno-Ugric phonology, as mentioned earlier, is first-syllable stress on all words, which affects the pronunciation of long vowels on unstressed syllables. In fact, a long vowel in such position must be drawn to triple length; otherwise the meaning will be compromised. The following sentences illustrate this:
Tapaan pomoni tiistaina. (I'll meet my boss on Tuesday.)
Tapan pomoni tiistaina. (I'll kill my boss on Tuesday.)
Note that the stressed first syllable in tapaan/tapan retains a short vowel, while unstressed syllables can have long vowels. This is a feature of the language that, like Czech, takes some getting used to in speech. The crucial difference in the meaning between ta-paan and ta-pan depends entirely on the length of the vowel [a(:)] in the unstressed syllable of the first word. Conversely, if a short, pure vowel is lengthened in speech, it also can cause misunderstanding. For example, if a speaker asks, Missii Sari on? (Where is Sari?), but lengthens the first vowel in the name, it becomes Missal saari on? (Where is the island?).
Another category of vowels in Finnish phonology is the diphthong. The eighteen phonemic diphthongs of the Finnish language are:
ai, ei, oi, ui, yi
au, eu, iu, ou
ay, oy, ey, iy
ie, uo, yo
An important factor regarding the pronunciation of diphthongs is that they retain their value as short vowels; nothing changes in quantity when the two vowels are combined. Because of this, a speaker needs to pay special attention that the first vowel, though stressed, is no longer than the unstressed second vowel. In <u&lgt; final diphthongs, in particular, the unstressed <u&lgt; tends to be cut short. Diphthongs are pronounced quickly like two different vowels, yet connected. To learn to say them correctly, it would be useful first to speak them separately and then to connect them, e.g., [o], [u], [au]. The model word nearest to [au] in English could be, for example, "how" [hau], but the English off-glide would have to be more rounded, to sound like a pure [u].
Sung diphthongs differ from spoken diphthongs, as the note values determine the length of the vowels. It is necessary to know how to divide them on a note. There are no strict rules about this, but the following practical observations can be a guide to usage. The illustrations are from Tunturilauluja (Songs of the Fells), Op.52, by Yrjo Kilpinen.
In "Janka" (The Fen), m. 5, the diphthong [ai] in the word lai-ha (weedy) falls on a quarter note, in which case both short vowels in the diphthong receive equal length. This approach is consistent with all the diphthong pairs on notes of a quarter value or shorter. In the same song, m. 4, the diphthong [aei] in jai-nen (icy) is written on a half note. In this case and in all cases in which [i] is the second vowel in the diphthong, the first vowel sound (in this case [ae]) is carried through the length of the note value, and the [i] is brought in just before moving onto the next syllable [jae:i nen]. The same approach applies for both the [u]- and [y]-ending diphthongs, e.g., leu-ka [le:u ka] and loy-ly [lo:y ly].
The final three diphthongs, [ie], [uo], and [yo], are all opening diphthongs, and differ from the rest in that they lengthen the second vowel instead of the first, e.g., "Tunturille" (Away to the Mountain), m. 5 and 11: siella [sie:l lae] (there), and m. 17: siel ta [sie:l tae] (from there). In "Janka," m. 6: let-to-suo [let to suo:] (bog) and m. 24: tuo [tuo:] (that), the second vowel [o] is sung long. The last diphthong [yo] follows this same division pattern when on a long note.
One vowel by itself can make a syllable, e.g., o-pe-tus (lesson), and any vowel can be the first in a diphthong combination; however, the second vowel cannot be <a> or <a>. For example, in the word peh-me-a (soft), the two successive vowels do not make a diphthong, because they do not belong in the same syllable. In addition to diphthongs there are other vowel combinations that have come about during historical linguistic evolution, e.g., the digraphs <ea>, <ae>, <ya>, <ua>, <ia>, <ia>, and <ue>. Though vowel combinations, they do not belong in the same syllable, but are often encountered because an intervening consonant has disappeared over time. An analogy can be made with Italian in this regard; for instance, mi parea derives from mi pareva, as <v> has dropped over time. Syllable division lines in vocal scores will guide singers.
Vowel harmony is characteristic of ali Finno-Ugric and Altaic language groups, the only exception being the nearest linguistic relative, Estonian. The vowels are classified according to their place of articulation as:
front vowels [ae], [ae:], [o], [o:], [y], [y:];
back vowels [a], [a:], [o], [o:], [u], [u:]; and
neutral vowels [i], [i:], [e], [e:].
The last group is called neutral because, although they are front vowels according to their place of articulation, they can occur lexically in either of the other two groups in Finnish. Any single Finnish word is constructed with either front vowels, e.g., kypara (helmet) or back vowels, e.g., mato (worm), but never a mix of both. The neutral vowels, however, are exceptions, e.g., liina (scarf) is a mix of neutral and back vowels, and elama (life) has both neutral and front vowels. Estonian words, however, are composed of all vowel groups, e.g., kusimus (question) and uheksa ("nine").
Vowel harmony becomes most apparent when suffixes are attached to the roots of words. Because Finnish (as well as the Altaic language groups, such as Turkish) has an agglutinating structure, relationships of time, place, etc. are expressed as suffixes and postpositions at the end of the root word, rather than as prefixes. These endings must also follow vowel harmony rules. Thus a word containing only back vowels or back vowels plus neutral vowels will have back vowel endings: auto / autossa / autoissa (car / in car / in cars). Note the sequence: root word / "in" suffix added / plural ending <i> added before "in." A word that contains front vowels and neutral vowels will have front vowel endings: hairio / hairiossa / hairioissa (disturbance / in disturbances / disturbances). A word with only neutral vowels will always have front vowel endings: tie / tiella (road / on the road).
The following example of vowel harmony in Hungarian shows a similarity to the Finnish example above. In the Hungarian language, the plural of a noun is often made with the suffix--the plural of haz (house) is hazak, and the plural of ember (man) is emberek. (6) Vowel harmony requires that the vowel in the suffix has to agree with the vowel in the root. Vowel harmony does not affect compound words because the two or more root words that comprise the combination retain their original orthography and pronunciation: yovuoro (nightshift). Yo (night) retains its front vowels, and vuoro (shift) its back vowels. Should a suffix be added, e.g., "in a nightshift" it would follow the vowel harmony rule of the last word in the combination: yovuorossa.
A singer needs to observe vowel harmony rules carefully. However, in order to keep the line of vowels even, the phoneme [ae] should be modified to [a]. For instance, in Kilpinen's "Laululle" (To Song), mm. 3 and 4, hiljaa / helaa should be [hilja:] / [hela:]. A change would also be necessary in a short word like sa (abbreviated from sina [you] m. 7), which is followed by laulu (m. 8) in order to keep [sa] in line with [lau lu].
Consonants--Short and Long
As mentioned earlier, compared to several other European languages, Finnish has the lowest consonant frequency.
The original thirteen consonants are:
d, g, h, j,k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v.
The most frequently used Finnish consonant is <t>. Like vowels, Finnish consonants also have two grades of quantity, short and long. The orthography follows the vowel usage, with one letter indicating a short consonant and two a long. Again there is a marked difference between the short and the long sounds, with very short, quickly pronounced single consonants (ku-ka, [who]--short <k>) and long double consonants (kuk-ka [flower]--long <kk>).
In the previous section on vowel harmony, when suffixes were added to words, some changes occurred in the root words. Consonant gradation also effects a change in root words, specifically the words with single letters <k>,
, <t>, and their geminated forms <kk>, <pp>, and <tt>. Consonant gradation does not belong to Indo-European languages, nor all Uralic languages. In addition to Finnish, a number of Baltic-Finnic languages, Lapp (Sami), and a couple of Samoyed languages employ it. (7) It is one of the most characteristic features of Finnish.
Consonant gradation is identified by two grades, strong and weak. The strong grade occurs in the beginning of an open syllable (i.e., ending in a vowel): luok-ka (class), kup-pi (cup), tyt-to (girl). The weak grade occurs at the beginning of a closed syllable (i.e., ending in a consonant): luo-kat (classes), ku-pit (cups), ty-tot (girls). Thus the rule:
<kk> / <k>
<tt> / <t>
If the strong grade has a single <k>, the <k> either disappears or changes to <v> or <j> in the weak grade:
si-ka (pig) / si-at (pigs)
lu-ku (chapter) / lu-vut (chapters)
poi-ka (boy) / po-jat (boys)
in strong grade becomes <v>:
ra-pa (custom) / ta-vat (customs)
and a single <t> becomes <d>:
ka-tu (street) / ka-dut (streets)
The reverse applies particularly to <s>-final words:
ra-kas (dear) / rak-kaat (dears)
li-pas (box) / lip-paat (boxes)
ra-ras (wheel) / rat-taat (wheels)
In addition to the above examples of consonant gradation, there are various other combinations involving the letters <k>,
, and <t> which change as follows:
<nk> / <ng>
<mp> / <mm>
<lt> / <ll>
<nt> / <nn>
<rt> / <rr>
Some exceptions also exist.
In general, Finnish consonants are pronounced more softly than in English, and closer to those of the Romance languages. The stops [k], [p], and [t] are not aspirated. A quick way to test this is to keep your hand in front of your mouth as you say koni, poni, toni. The absence of breath on your hand is proof of correct pronunciation.
One more feature of Finnish consonants that needs to be mentioned is that there are two consonant sounds used in Finnish words that do not have their own symbol in writing: the allophone [n] and the word-final aspiration <e'>. The [n] occurs only in consonant clusters, and always appears in a cluster beginning with <n>, as <nk> [nk]. Thus, kenka (shoe) is pronounced [ken kae]. When a consonant-initial suffix is added to the word root, ken-ka + ssa, [nk] becomes [ng]: kengassa (in the shoe) = [ken:gaes:ae].
Final aspiration, traditionally called jaannoslopuke (remnant-ending, end-breath) and currently called rajageminaatio (border gemination), is not easy for a non-Finnish speaker to distinguish, as it is unrepresented in standard orthography. (8) According to the newest Finnish grammar text, Iso Suomen kielioppi, the term rajageminaatio means "end doubling" and mostly occurs in <e>-final words.
According to John Atkinson, a lecturer in Finnish at the University of Hull in England ... "the <e>-ending is a remnant of an earlier consonant ending, in most instances -ek or -eh. The final consonant is still to be traced in the aspiration which may be heard in careful speech after the -e (e'), and more especially in the long pronunciation of the first consonant of an immediately following word." (9)
A. H. Whitney also talks about final aspiration as
... an element of Finnish not normally written nor generally noticeable in speech, [which] has yet its grammatical functions and significance and an audible effect, and written sign used in grammar-books and other linguistic works to denote its presence ... it is not generally heard except in some dialects; its audible effect is to double a following consonant, and the written sign is an apostrophe, thus rule'. (10)
Because this "doubling" or strengthening of the consonant does happen in lyric texts, a singer needs to know about the final aspiration and to be able to produce it.
As mentioned above, <e>-final words, when followed by a consonant-initial word, double the consonant. For example, if sade jatkuu (rain continues) is pronounced as two words, there is a stop at the end of <e> because of the phantom <k>. To facilitate a smooth transition, both in song and speech, the consonant <j> is doubled and the word is pronounced sadejjatkuu. The same pronunciation rule applies also to compound words, when the first word ends in <e>: tervetuloa (welcome) is a compound noun made of terve (well), an <e>-final word, and tuloa (come), which begins with a consonant. The word is pronounced tervettuloa.
When a vowel-final word precedes a vowel-initial word, a stop occurs between the words: anna [?] olla (let it be). If the speaker wants to emphasize the command, the stop between the words will aid this. If, however, it is not a command, but rather a quick side remark, the two words can be joined without a stop.
In the case of a consonant-final word preceding a vowel-initial word, there is no elision nor doubling of the consonant. The vowel-initial word must be separated, as in German--otherwise there could be some humorous or confusing results. For example, in the second verse of Sibelius's Finlandia, the following two words are adjacent: sorron alle (under oppression). If the singer elides the <n> rather than separating the two words, the result will be sorronalle--nalle, being the name for a bear or teddy-bear.
Although the remaining consonants correspond closely to their English counterparts, it is useful for a singer to know about the slight differences regarding the letter <h>. Never a silent letter in Finnish, <h> is aspirated, but not overly so. Depending on its position in the word, <h> will vary slightly in the amount of friction produced. Word-initially, as in hyvaa huomenta (good morning), the aspiration of <h> is quite limited--just a wisp of air, not even a puff. However, when positioned between a vowel and a consonant, as in uhka (threat), the friction, because of the vowel [u], is labiovelar and notably stronger. With [a] as in ahma (wolverine), the friction is produced with the pharynx and is less strong than with [u].
When adjacent to an [i], as in ihme (miracle), the <h> is palatal like that in the German pronoun ich [c], but with less friction. The least friction--just a breathy aspiration-is produced when <h> occurs between vowels, as in the wordpaha (bad). (11)
APPLICATION OF FINNISH LYRIC DICTION
Two years ago I had the pleasure of viewing and listening to a performance of Jean Sibelius's Finlandia, sung in Finnish by a student choir from the Student Union of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, with Leon Chu conducting. A native speaker of Finnish, I was impressed by the choir's excellent diction in the hymn text, considering how very different their own native language is. I also noticed some recurring diction deviations which I had encountered previously with my English-speaking students.
Following are comments on two of the most frequent diction errors.
Pronunciation of diphthongs
Both vowels in a diphthong must be pure: in the [i]-final diphthongs e.g., [oi] (koittaa), [aei] (paivas), and [yi] (synnyinmaa) the <i> is a pure, closed [i] rather than [i]. The [ae] in naytit is open, unrounded, not at all like [e] or [e]. The <y> (yon) is nearest in sound to German [y], never [j]. In initial position, [y] requires rounded, almost closed lips.
Pronunciation of consonants
The phoneme <h> must be heard, particularly when between a vowel and a consonant [uhka]. In consonant combinations each consonant is to be heard clearly, not doubled or otherwise modified, e.g., katso (<ts>), not kasso (<ss>) nor kato or kahto.
The Finnish language, with all its peculiarities, is a beautiful, musical language. It is a joy to speak it, listen to it, and to sing it. Understanding how phonetic Finnish really is and applying Finnish lyric diction to the song texts will aid a singer, enhancing the singing process, and allowing the vowel-dominated sounds to soar. To help audiences comprehend the thoughts behind the sounds, singers need to work vigorously in articulating the consonants.
This advice applies to all singing.
Atkinson, J. A. A Finnish Grammar. Helsinki: The Finnish Literature Society, 1969.
Haapala, Eero. Kaytannon kielioppi [Practical Grammar]. Helsinki: Kirjayhtyma, 1971.
Hajdu, Peter (trans. and adapted by G. F. Cushing). Finno-Ugrian Languages and Peoples. London: Andre Deutsch, 1975.
Hakulinen, Lauri. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys [Finnish Language Structure and Development]. Helsinki: Otava, 1968.
Hughes, J. P. The Science of Language: An Introduction to Linguistics. New York: Random House, 1968.
Ikola, Osmo, ed. Nykysuomen kasikirja [Modern Finnish Handbook]. Helsinki: Weilin & Goos, 1971.
Keinanen, Jussi, ed. Suomi kasikirja [Finland Handbook]. Helsinki: Otava, 1968.
Kilpinen, Yrjo. Tunturilauluja [Songs of the Fells]. Helsinki: OY Musiikki Fazer, 1980.
Korhonen, Riitta, Kirsti Makinen, and Juha Rikama. Lukion aidinkieli [Senior High School Mother Tongue]. Porvoo: WSOY, 1978.
Rytkonen-Bell, Aili, and H. David Argoff. Conversational Finnish /Suomea keskustellen. U.S. Department of State: Foreign Service Institute, 1987.
Setala, E. N., and Matti Sadeniemi. Suomen kielioppi: Aanne-ja sanaoppi [Finnish Grammar: Phonetics and Word Lessons]. Helsinki: Otava, 1972.
Viljanen, Lauri, ed. Suomen kirjallisuus III [Finland's Literature III]. Helsinki: Otava, 1968.
Whitney, Arthur H. Teach Yourself Finnish. New York: David McKay, 1970.
http://kaino.kotus.fi/visk/etusivu/php. A website maintained by Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus [Native Languages Research Centre], featuring a new Finnish grammar text, Iso Suomen kielioppi [Large Finnish Grammar], 2008.
(1.) Lauri Hakulinen, Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys [Finnish Language Structure and Development] (Helsinki: Otava, 1968), 15-16.
(3.) Riitta Korhonen, Kirsti Makinen, and Juha Rikama, Lukion aidinkieli [Senior High School Mother Tongue] (Porvoo: WSOY, 1978), 2.
(4.) Hakulinen, 16.
(5.) Ibid., 23.
(6.) J. P. Hughes, The Science of Language: An Introduction to Linguistics (New York: Random House, 1968), 92-93.
(7.) Korhonen, Makinen, and Rikama, 4.
(8.) Osmo Ikola, ed., Nykysuomen kasikirja [Modern Finnish Handbook] (Helsinki: Weilin & Goos, 1971), 21-23.
(9.) J. A. Atkinson, A Finnish Grammar (Helsinki: The Finnish Literature Society, 1969), 49.
(10.) Arthur H. Whitney, Teach Yourself Finnish (New York: David McKay, 1970), 14.
(11.) For further information, see http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/ Finnish_phonology.
In drear-nighted December, Too happy, happy tree, Thy Branches ne'er remember Their green felicity: The north cannot undo them, With a sleety whistle through them; Nor frozen thawings glue them From budding at the prime. In drear-nighted December, Too happy, happy Brook, Thy bubblings ne'er remember Apollo's summer look; But with a sweet forgetting, They stay their crystal fretting, Never, never petting About the frozen time. Ah! would 'twere so with many A gentle girl and boy! But were there ever any Writh'd not of passed joy? The feel of not to feel it, When there is none to heal it, Nor numbed sense to steel it, Was never said in rhyme.
John Keats, from "Stanzas"
Sinikka Tellervo (Tellie) Kahara, BA, BEd, HBA, MA, ARCT, received her Master of Music degree, Vocal Performance with Pedagogy Option, in 1998, with the late Dixie Ross Neill, from McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
An educator for a quarter century, the last seven years at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, as Vocal Instructor, Ms. Kahara, mezzo soprano, has gained critical acclaim as recitalist. She has also performed as a soloist for choral and orchestral concerts in Canada, USA, and Europe, including the World Premiere of the Prophecies of Isaiah by George Seibst with Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra.
Interested in ethnic research, Ms. Kahara has been a presenter at International Finno-Ugric Congress in Debrecen, Hungary, and Finn Forum Conference in Turku, Finland. She is a founding member of Finno-Ugric Studies Association of Canada (FUSAC).
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|Title Annotation:||LANGUAGE AND DICTION|
|Publication:||Journal of Singing|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2010|
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