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Finite-Element-Based transfer equations: Post-Mortem human subjects versus hybrid III test dummy in frontal sled impact.

ABSTRACT

Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (FHBM relative to HIII50) were consistent with a set of test-based results. The HIC15 transfer equation was used to transform the cadaver-based risk curve into the HIII50 domain.

CITATION: El-jawahri, R., Laituri, T., Kim, A., Rouhana, S. et al., "Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Frontal Sled Impact," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 3(1):2015.

INTRODUCTION

There were 33,561 road user fatalities in the United States of America in 2012. Among them, 12,271 (37%) were passenger car occupants. Between 1970 and 2012, the US experienced 60% reduction in passenger car occupant fatalities. Further reductions are expected with additional advancements in restraint technologies and electronic stability control, increase in the use of safety belts and ageappropriate child safety seats, and continued decrease in alcohol- and drug-impaired driving (NHTSA, 2014). In 2012, fatalities in frontal crashes constituted 61.8% of the total number of fatalities in all crashes and injuries caused by frontal crashes made up 70.9% of injuries in all crashes (NHTSA, 2012).

Statistical analyses are typically used to derive risk curves. Risk curves relate cadaveric injury outcomes such as bone fracture to corresponding physical input variables such as force, compression, etc. Injury outcomes may be obtained from tests involving postmortem human subjects (PMHS). The responses of test dummies like the Hybrid III mid-sized male dummy (HIII50) are often directly compared to cadaver-based risk curves. Response or transfer equations that relate the cadaveric responses to those of the HIII50, subjected to matched or nearly-identical loading conditions, may potentially improve the fidelity and applicability of those risk curves.

One method of relating PMHS- to dummy-responses is through testing both surrogates under matched loading conditions. Test-based transfer equations are often difficult to generate due to the limited availability of PMHS for matched testing. Laituri et al. (2005) derived a test-based transfer equation. In that study, the test-based transfer equation was used to convert the PMHS-based risk curve into a HIII50-deflection-based risk curve. However, a literature search resulted in 20 approximately-matched tests. Many of those tests involved mixed loading conditions. In addition, due to the limited number of those tests, the effect of age could not be established from the matched tests. Laituri et al. subsequently applied the resulted, albeit limited, test-based transfer equation. The authors of that study noted that supplemental math modeling might be useful.

In the present study, model-based transfer equations were developed. First, finite element (FE) models of the age-dependent Ford Human Body Model (FHBM) and the HIII50 were validated against physical tests. Next, the validated models were used to create a set of responses from matched cases involving different impact speeds, severities, and FHBM ages. The resulting FHBM and HIII50 responses were then subjected to regression analyses to generate transfer equations. This approach was applied in separate analyses of the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot. Finally, those model-based transfer equations were compared to test-based transfer equations that were developed, using the same regression analyses, from limited published matched-condition tests of the same surrogates tested under nominally identical loading conditions..

METHODS

The age-dependent FHBMs and Altair's HIII50 Radioss models were used in the current study. The models were previously validated against published tests. Those tests included frontal blunt and sled impacts. Details on the tests and validation results can be found in (El-Jawahri et al. 2014).

The FHBM and the HIII50 FE models were subjected to matchedcondition simulations of frontal sled impacts at different severities and speeds. The sled had dimensions based on the average of a number of mid-sized sedans (Backaitis et al. 1995). It had a rigid seat, a padded knee-bolster, a deformable steering wheel, and a rigid foot rest. The knee-bolster padding thickness and material parameters represented a typical production vehicle. The steering column stroke was modeled, but only translation was allowed. Figure 1 shows the content and dimensions of the sled. Each surrogate was restrained with a 3-point standard belt with and without a single-stage-inflator airbag. Belt elongation was 12%. The belt anchorage points were the same for all surrogates. The shoulder belt was routed so that it passed over the mid-clavicle and mid-sternum of each surrogate. Figure 2 shows the belt orientation on each surrogate.

In a previous study (El-Jawahri et al. 2014), the FHBMs and HIII50 models were subjected to matched blunt impact conditions. The two surrogates were positioned such that the orientations of the body region of interest were similar. In the current study, each surrogate was positioned to fit the sled. As a result, the orientations of some body regions were different. For example, the head and chest of the HIII50 were closer to the steering wheel compared to those of the FHBMs. The pelvises, femurs, legs, and feet of the two surrogates were oriented similarly. Overlays of the two positioned surrogates are shown in Figure 3 (Blue for FHBM and Red for HIII50).

CHEST DEFLECTION

The external chest deflection of the age-dependent human models and the slider deflection of the HIII50 were gathered from the respective simulations. The external chest deflections of the FHBMs were chosen because in most of the cadaveric tests those are typically measured. Those chest deflections are typically normalized by the depth of the respective cadaver chest. In the current study, the chest deflections of the FHBMs and HIII50 were normalized by the depth of the respective chest of each surrogate. The FHBM chest depth was measured from the model at the 4th intercostal space in the midsagittal plane (213 mm). The HIII50 chest depth was 229 mm (Neathery et al. 1974).

SLED MODEL VALIDATION

The sled model was validated against three different test datasets. The first dataset consists of unbelted HIII50 frontal sled tests that were run with AVs of 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 mph (Laituri et al. 2006). The second set represents the average of multiple 30 mph CMVSS 208 tests (n = 48) where the HIII50 was restrained with a standard belt only. The third set is based on 30 mph CMVSS 208 tests (n=64) where the HIII50 was restrained with a standard belt and an airbag. For each case, the responses of the HIII50 model were compared to the respective test data. More details on the CMVSS 208 data can be found in Laituri et al. 2003a and 2003b.

SLED PULSES

Pulses with different severities and speeds were used. Specifically, 26 different pulses were used with each occupant. The pulses were classified into three severity groups: non-potentially barrier like event (NPBLE), potentially barrier like events (PBLE), and new car assessment program pulses (NCAP). There were 7 NPBLE and 7 PBLE pulses both increasing from 5 to 35 mph [DELTA]V in 5 mph increments and 12 NCAP pulses at 35 mph [DELTA]V. More details on the PBLE and NPBLE pulses can be found in Laituri et al. 2003a. The m atched-condition simulations were run for each surrogate with all the pulses for the belt-only cases. Since driver airbags are typically fired at around 15 mph [DELTA]V or higher, the 22 pulses with [DELTA]V greater than 15 mph were simulated for the belt-and-airbag cases.

AIRBAG FIRING TIME

The time for firing the airbag was determined subject to a "5 inches minus 30 milliseconds" methodology. The firing time is calculated by subtracting 30 ms from the time needed for an unbelted HIII50 occupant to travel a distance of 5 inches. The firing time calculation is a pulse-dependent phenomenon. MADYMO models for each of the 26 pulses were run to determine the airbag firing times based on the aforementioned method.

MODEL-BASED TRANSFER EQUATIONS

The corresponding model responses of all surrogates were obtained from the simulation output. The responses were: peak resultant acceleration of head center of gravity (cg), HIC15, peak upper neck shear, peak upper neck tension-compression force, peak upper neck flexion-extension moment, peak Nij, peak chest acceleration, chest acceleration 3-ms clip, peak chest deflection, peak pelvis acceleration, peak femur axial force, peak upper tibia axial force, peak upper tibia x- and y-moments, peak lower tibia axial force, peak lower tibia x- and y-moments, peak foot acceleration, and peak shoulder belt force. Regression analyses were performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-model-based responses. The resulting regression equations were called "model-based transfer equations."

TEST-BASED TRANSFER EQUATIONS

There are some published studies with the two surrogates tested under nominally-identical conditions. To compare the model-based responses, the PMHS and HIII50 responses from those tests were gathered. The loading conditions of those tests differed. Due to the limited number of exactly matched-condition tests, the test-based responses were not grouped subject to the type of loading or restraint system used. Those studies included the following:

1. Frontal sled tests with the HIII50, THOR, and cadavers (Petitjean et al. 2002). In that study, two types of restraint systems were used: a 6 kN load-limiting 3-point belt, and a 4 kN load-limiting belt with an airbag. A Euro NCAP pulse that represents a 64 km/h impact against a deformable barrier with 40% overlap was used. A knee bolster and steering wheel were present in those tests.

2. Frontal sled tests with the HIII50, THOR, and cadavers at 30 and 50 km/h (Vezin et al. 2002). The surrogates were seated in a rigid seat similar in geometry to that of a midsized car. A threepoint belt with a 4 kN shoulder belt load limiter was used in the 30 km/h tests. The restraint used in the 50 km/h tests consisted of a 3-point belt with a 4 kN shoulder belt load limiter and an airbag.

3. Several studies of matched-condition tests with PMHS and HIII50 at different loading conditions were cited by Laituri et al. (2003a and 2003b). In those two studies chest deflections of both surrogates were reported. More details on the different studies can be found in Laituri et al. (2003a and 2003b).

4. Frontal sled tests with the HIII50, THOR, and cadavers at 29 and 38 km/h (Forman et al. 2006). The surrogates were seated in a rigid seat of a mid-sized sedan sled buck and restrained with a standard 3-point belt.

The relevant responses from the two surrogates were collected. Subsequently, regression analyses were performed to derive testbased transfer equations. Similar to the model-based approach, a linear fit that passes through the origin was assumed.

RESULTS

For brevity, the 55 YO FHBM relative to the HIII50 response plots for the head and chest responses will be presented. The transfer equations for the other responses will be summarized later. The results will be grouped into three parts: the sled model validation, derivation of the head response transfer equations, derivation of the chest deflection transfer equation, and transfer equations for the rest of the responses.

SLED MODEL VALIDATION

Figure 4 compares the test and model results from the frontal sled impact with the unbelted HIII50 at different speeds. The model responses and the respective fleet averages of CMVSS 208 are shown in Figures 5 and 6. For easier presentation, each response was normalized to its respective injury criterion performance limit (ICPL) as defined by FMVSS 208. The ICPL values for HIC36, chest acceleration, chest deflection, and femur load are 1000, 60 g, 63 mm, and 10 kN, respectively. The ICPL for the shoulder belt was determined from the chest deflection ICPL. It is based on the following: each 0.2 kN of shoulder belt load results in 1 mm of chest deflection (Mertz et al. 1991). Since the ICPL for chest deflection was 63 mm; the calculated shoulder belt load ICPL was 12.6 kN. The figures show that the model was in good agreement with the test and fleet data for the different restraints and speeds. The chest deflection for the unrestrained occupant was under-predicted by the model.

Unrestrained, HIII, 10 mph

           Model  Test

HIC36       11     6
Chest G     31    25
Def         25    40
Femur Fz    28    30

Unrestrained, HIII, 12 mph

           Model  Test

HIC36       10     7
Chest G     35    39
Def         42    56
Femur Fz    24    30

Unrestrained, HIII, 14 mph

           Model  Test

HIC36       10     7
Chest G     51    46
Def         57    65
Femur Fz    27    30

Unrestrained, HIII, 16 mph

           Model  Test

HIC36       13     15
Chest G     53     52
Def         62     77
Femur Fz    29     38

Unrestrained, HIII, 14 mph

           Model  Test

HIC36       16     21
Chest G     61     64
Def         69     81
Femur Fz    30     39

Figure 4. Comparison of test/model sled results (unrestrained)

Note: Table made from bar graph.

           Model  Test

HIC36       21    40
Chest G     69    70
Deflection  53    54
Femur Fz    46    45
Sho Force   37    40

Figure 5. HIII50 sled model validation, 30 mph AV (belt-and-airbag)

Note: Table made from bar graph.


HEAD RESPONSE TRANSFER EQUATIONS

The peak head cg resultant acceleration and HIC15 were gathered from the matched-condition simulations of the two surrogates.

Regression analyses were performed for three datasets subject to the restraint type: all data, belt-only cases, and belt-and-airbag cases. This resulted in three transfer equations, one for each dataset. Figures 7 and 8 show the peak head acceleration of the 55 YO FHBM and HIII50 for all cases (n = 48) and belt-and-airbag (n = 22), respectively. There were only 22 belt-and-airbag cases because the airbag did not deploy for speeds below 15 mph. Consequently, the 5 and 10 mph belt-and-airbag cases were not considered. Linear relationships that pass through the origin were assumed between the responses while deriving the transfer equations for the different body regions. The figures also show the respective test-based matched data of the two surrogates. Due to the paucity of the test data, those data were not classified subject to the restraint type. Figures 9 and 10 show the HIC 15 values of both surrogates for all cases and belt-andairbag simulations, respectively.

           Model  Test

HIC36       74    80
Chest G     66    71
Deflection  62    61
Femur Fz    41    41
Sho Force   55    59

Figure 6. HIII50 sled model validation, 30 mph AV (belt only)

Note: Table made from bar graph.


CHEST RESPONSE TRANSFER EQUATIONS

The external chest deflection at the 4th intercostal space of the age-dependent FHBMs and the chest deflection at the slider of the HIII50 were gathered from the matched-condition simulations of the two surrogates. The chest deflections of the FHBMs and HIII50 were normalized to the respective chest depths at the location of the chest deflection measurement. The chest depth of the FHBM is 213 mm. The HIII50 chest depth is 229 mm (Neathery et al. 1974). Figures 11 and 12 show the normalized chest deflections of the 55 YO FHBM and HIII50 for all cases (n = 48) and belt-and-airbag (n = 22), respectively. The figures also show the test-based matched data of the two surrogates. Due to the paucity of the test data, those data were not classified subject to the restraint type.

MODEL-BASED TRANSFER EQUATIONS

Similar to the head regression analyses, linear relationships that pass through the origin were assumed between the age-dependent FHBMs and HIII50 responses for all body regions. Figures A1, Figures A2, Figures A3, Figures A4, Figures A5, Figures A6, Figures A7, Figures A8, Figures A9, Figures A10, Figures A11, Figures A12, Figures A13, Figures A14, Figures A15, Figures A16 illustrate the model-based peak responses of the FHBMs and HIII50. The figures also show the respective test-based data (if available). Tables A1, A2, A3, A4 list the transfer equation slops for the model-based FHBMs and HIII50 responses. The respective R2 values are also listed in those tables. For each of the upper body responses, three transfer equations were derived subject to the loading type. Those are: all sled cases, belt-and-airbag cases, and belt-only cases. For lower body responses, it was assumed that an airbag would have little to no effect on those responses.

MODEL- AND TEST-BASED TRANSFER EQUATIONS

As mentioned earlier, test-based responses of PMHS and HIII50 under nominally-identical conditions were gathered from literature. The same regression analyses used in the model-based data were performed on the test-based data. Table A5 lists the dataset size, slope of the linear fit, and R2 values of the test-based transfer equations for the different responses. The table also lists the respective dataset size, slope and R2 values of the model-based transfer equations.

DISCUSSION

Head Response Transfer Equations

As seen from Figures 7 and 8, the model-based peak head acceleration of the 55 YO FHBM was similar to that of the HIII50 when all cases were considered. However, in the belt-and-airbag cases the peak head acceleration of the 55 YO FHBM was lower than that of the HIII50 by 10%. The figures also show that the test-based data were within the spread of the model-based data. The test-based peak head acceleration of the PMHS was lower than that of the HIII50 by 4%.

The model-based HIC 15 of the 55 YO FHBM was 12% lower than that of the HIII50 when all cases were considered. The HIC 15 of the 55 YO FHBM was 15% lower than that of the HIII50 when only the belt-and-airbag cases were considered. No matched-condition test data are available. The aforementioned differences between the head responses of the two surrogates may be attributed to the deformability of the human head compared to the rigid dummy head and/or the differences between the neck and spine of the two surrogates. Figures 13 and 14 show the head acceleration time histories of both surrogates in the 25 and 35 mph AV PBLE for the belt-and-airbag and belt-only cases, respectively. In the belt-and-airbag cases the peak head accelerations of both surrogates were comparable for both speeds however; the timing and duration of the peaks were different. The same was observed in the lower speed belt-only case (i. e. comparable peaks but different timing and duration). In the higher speed belt-only case, the head of the FHBM and HIII50 contacted the steering wheel at 95 and 86 ms, respectively. The location of contact on the steering wheel was also different. Figures 15 and 16 show the head location of both surrogates relative to the airbag and steering wheel at the time of contact for the belt-and-airbag and belt-only cases for the 35 mph AV PBLE cases, respectively.

Figures 17 and 18 show the y-x and z-x trajectories of the head for the belt-and-airbag and belt-only of the 35 mph AV PBLE cases, respectively. The x-displacements of both heads were comparable for both loading cases. However, the y- and z-displacements of the FHBM head were greater compared to those of the HIII50 in both loading cases. The FHBM head moved about 150 and 100 mm to the left side of the occupant in the belt-and-airbag and belt-only cases, respectively. Whereas, the head of the HIII50 moved about 5 and 10 mm to the right side of the occupant in those cases, respectively. With respect to the Z-axis, the FHBM head moved 105 and 200 mm downward in the belt-and-airbag and belt-only cases, respectively. Whereas, the HIII50 head moved about 40 and 150 mm downward in those cases, respectively.

Neck Responses Transfer Equations

The 55 YO FHBM neck responses were lower than those of the HIII50. The neck shear, tension, and moment were 62, 53, and 91% lower than those of the HIII50 when all loading cases were considered, respectively. Whereas, those responses were 50, 51, and 90% lower than those of the HIII50 when only belt-and-airbag cases were considered, respectively. The 55 YO Nijs were 80 and 68% lower than those of the HIII50 when all loading cases and belt-andairbag cases were considered, respectively (see Figures A1, A2, A3, A4). This could be explained by the differences in necks of the two surrogates. The human neck has deformable vertebrae and vertebral discs. The vertebrae are connected by spinal ligaments. The head is attached to the neck through ligaments and muscles. The HIII50 neck is made of aluminum parts and rubber disks to represent the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral discs, respectively. The muscle of the neck is represented by a central steel cable. The head is rigidly connected to the HIII50 neck.

Chest Transfer Equations

As Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the 55 YO FHBM normalized chest deflections were 92% and 70% higher than those of the HIII50 when all loading cases and belt-and-airbag cases were considered, respectively. When compared to the test-based data, the model responses were within the spread of the test data. However, the belt-and-airbag cases were closer to the test data. The human ribcage has 12 ribs slanted at different angles with respect to the thoracic spine.

The first rib and clavicle are connected to the top of sternum. The HIII50 ribcage has 6 elliptical horizontal ribs. There is no clavicle-tosternum connection in the HIII50 ribcage. The HIII50 is instrumented with a single-point chest deflection measurement at the mid-sternum level. This location was chosen to represent the 4th intercostal space in humans.

Two additional transfer equations were developed, namely: the 3 ms acceleration clip and the peak chest resultant acceleration. The 55 YO FHBM 3 ms acceleration clips and peak chest accelerations were 21 and 44% higher than those of the HIII50, respectively when all loading cases were considered. The same responses were 21 and 41% higher than those of the HIII50, respectively, when the belt-andairbag cases were considered. The test-based PMHS 3 ms accelerations were 5% higher than those of the HIII50. There was no published test data reporting the peak chest accelerations of the two surrogates under the same loading conditions (see Figures A5 and A6).

Pelvis and Femur Transfer Equations

For the lower body responses, it was assumed that the airbag has little effect on the lower body responses. As such, only all loading cases were considered in deriving the transfer equations for those regions. Three transfer equations were derived: pelvis peak resultant acceleration, left femur Fz, and right femur Fz. The 55 YO FHBM peak pelvis accelerations were similar to those of the HIII50 when all loading cases were considered. When compared to the test-based data, the PMHS peak pelvis accelerations were 1% lower than those of the HIII50 (see Figure A7).

It was observed that the left femur Fzs of both surrogates were higher than those of the right femur. The hypothesis is that that the driver belt routing tends to restrain the right side more than the left side of the occupant since the shoulder belt goes on the right side of the occupant whereas, the upper left side of the occupant is relatively unrestrained. The 55 YO FHBM peak left femur axial forces were 85% lower than those of the HIII50. Whereas, the 55 YO FHBM right femur axial forces were 81% lower than those of the HIII50. There was no published test-based data reported femur axial forces of the two surrogates under the same loading conditions (see Figure A8). In addition to the pelvis and femurs being deformable in humans and rigid in the HIII50, there are some geometrical differences in the femur that can result in differences between the pelvis and femur responses. Figures 19 and 20 illustrate the geometrical differences between the human and HIII50 lower extremities. There are three differences in the femur of the human relative to that of the HIII50: 1) it is longer, 2) it has bigger eccentricity between the femur head and the mid-shaft, and 3) the curvature is more pronounced.

The pelvis kinematics of the two surrogates were also different in both restraint systems. Figures 21 and 22 show the x-y and x-z trajectories of the pelvis for the two occupants in the 35 mph AV PBLE pulse for belt-and-airbag and belt-only cases, respectively. The figures show that the differences between the pelvis trajectories were similar in both restraint systems for both occupants. The figures also show that both pelvises moved forward about 130 mm. The HIII50 moved to the left about 25 mm whereas, the FHBM moved to the right around 7 mm. Finally, the pelvis of the HIII50 moved down before it moved up whereas the FHBM pelvis moved only down and later in the event.

Tibia Transfer Equations

Three transfer equations were derived for each tibia load cell: axial force, x-moment, and y-moment. For the left upper tibia of the 55 YO FHBM [F.sub.z]s, [M.sub.x]s, and [M.sub.y]s were 75, 81, and 56% lower than those of the HIII50, respectively. The same responses of the right upper tibia of the 55 YO FHBM were 66, 76, and 51% lower than those of the HIII50, respectively. The 55 YO FHBM [F.sub.z]s, [M.sub.x]s, and [M.sub.y]s of the left lower tibia, were 80, 52, and 50% lower than those of the HIII50, respectively. Those values of right lower tibia of the 55 YO FHBM were 76, 36, and 48% lower than those of the HIII50, respectively (see Figures A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A14).

Although the legs of the two surrogates are similar in length, there are several differences. First, there is no representation of the fibula bone and the Achilles tendon in the HIII50 leg. Second, there is a un-humanlike offset of the lower end of the leg (see Figure 20) that can produce moment during an axial loading of the leg. And third, the HIII50 leg is a rigid component compared to the deformable bones of the human leg.

Foot Transfer Equation

The 55 YO FHBM left and right foot accelerations were 14% lower than those of the HIII50. The feet of the HIII50 are rigid compared to human feet. In addition, the human foot has some cartilage between those bones that allow some flexibility in the human foot that is not represented in the HIII50 foot. There are no reported foot accelerations of the two surrogates under the same loading conditions (see Figure A15).

Shoulder Belt Force Transfer Equation

The two occupants were restrained with standard 3-point belt (no load limiter or pre-tensioner). Model-based transfer equation for the peak shoulder belt force was derived from the matched-condition simulations. The 55 YO FHBM shoulder belt forces were 12% higher than those of the HIII50 (see Figure A16). The test-based PMHS shoulder belt forces were 9% lower than those of the HIII50. Since the masses of the two surrogates are similar and they are subjected to the same pulse; it is expected that the belt forces would be comparable.

Model- and Test-Based Transfer Equations

There were limited published test data of the responses from matched-condition tests of the two surrogates. Similar to the model-based data, the same regression analyses were performed on the test-based data. Linear fit that passes through the origin was assumed in both the model- and test-based matched data. As seen from Figures 7, 8, 11, 12 A6, A7 and A16 and Table A5, the modelbased slopes of the linear fits are consistent with those of the test-based transfer equations.

There is a need to generate additional test-based responses of the two surrogates under identical loading conditions. Different loading conditions, postures, and severities should be investigated. The range of those responses should be wide enough to include both the low and high stimuli observed in vehicular crashes.

HIII50-Based Head Injury Risk Curve

To give an example of how the transfer equations can be used; the skull fracture injury risk curve of Mertz, Prasad, and Irwin 1997 was transformed into the HIII50 domain using the HIC 15 transfer equation derived in the current study. The original risk curve was derived from cadaveric test data. The data consisted of isolated head drops on different surfaces, whole cadaveric sled tests against windshields, and helmeted cadaver drop tests. More information can be found in Prasad and Mertz 1985.

Figure 23 shows the skull fracture risk curve of Mertz in the PMHS domain compared to the HIII50-based risk curve. The 55-YO HIC 15 transfer equation for the belt-and-airbag was used to transform the risk curve into the HIII50 domain. The figure illustrates that the two curves are different. For example, a HIC 15 of 1000 of a cadaver results in 15.3% probability of a 55-YO cadaver sustaining a skull fracture, whereas, a HIC 15 of 1000 of the HIII50 results in 9.1% probability of a 55-YO cadaver sustaining a skull fracture.

General Remarks

Vehicle manufacturers continue to introduce advanced safety systems such as dual-stage airbags, complex pre-tensioners, energy management safety belt retractors, etc., which are evaluated using the Hybrid III in global regulatory and public domain (e.g., US NCAP, IIHS, Euro NCAP) crash testing. However, new technologies (pre-crash sensing, braking, movable pedals), new regulations and balancing of countermeasures for different crash modes (full vs. moderate offset vs. small offset frontal impacts) may require more advanced safety systems (e.g., inflatable belts, different types of airbags, knee bolsters, four-point belts, etc.). Evaluation of these systems may require more sophisticated and advanced dummies so that the full potential of these technologies and countermeasures can be realized.

The next-generation advanced crash test dummy for frontal crash testing may likely be the THOR, which continues to be developed and researched by NHTSA. Considering the extensive resources and efforts expended by NHTSA in the development of THOR, it seems likely that they will eventually incorporate the device into US regulations and NCAP. If so, it also seems likely that other governments and public domain entities would follow NHTSA's actions by eventually adding THOR to their regulations and test protocols. Consequently, test- and model-based transfer equations that relate the responses of the HIII50, THOR, and PMHS seems to be a likely candidate for future research.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Correlated age-dependent FHBM and HIII50 FE models were used to simulate matched-condition frontal sled impacts at different restraints, speeds, and severities. The responses from seven body regions of the two occupants were used to derive transfer equations via regression analyses. Transfer equations for the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, foot, and shoulder belt force were reported in the current study. Test-based transfer equations were also derived from published matched-condition tests involving the two dummies. The coefficients of the model-based equations were consistent with those from the respective test-based equations.

In general, the age-dependent model responses were lower for all body regions. One exception was the peak head accelerations which were similar to those of the HIII50. Higher responses in an ATD could mean lower NCAP scores when the vehicle is assessed by the NHTSA. However, the final NCAP scoring system will also be a function of the injury risk curves that are used with the ATD.

LIMITATIONS

The following limitations of the current study and potential future developments are listed below:

* There is a need for more matched-condition test data with the two surrogates.

* There is a paucity of matched-condition tests with PMHS and HIII50. The model-based transfer equations developed in the current study should be refined when those tests are available.

* The effect of shoulder belt load limit, belt pre-tensioning and dual-stage airbag on the transfer equations should be considered.

* Transfer equations in oblique loading should be considered.

REFERENCES

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4. Edwards, M., Versmissen, T., Langer, T., Zander, O., Compigne, S., Nombela, M., Kennedy, A., Feist, F., and O'Brien, S., APROSYS Project Report (2007) "Draft test and assessment protocol for Advanced European Full Width (AE-FW) test"

5. El-jawahri, R., Laituri, T., Kim, A., Rouhana, S. et al., "Finite-Element- Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Blunt Impact," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 2(1):117- 129, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0486.

6. Forman, J., Lessley, D., Shaw, C., Evans, J., Kent, R., Rouhana, S., and Prasad, P., (2006) "Thoracic Response of Belted PHMS, the Hybrid III, and THOR-NT Mid-Sized Male Surrogates in Low Speed, Frontal Crashes" Stapp Car Crash Journal 50: 191-215.

7. International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (2010) IRTAD Road safety 2010 Annual Report (www.irtad.net).

8. Kang, S., 2002 "Test Method for Dynamic Webbing Tension Test" Ford Internal Best Practice Report

9. Laituri, T., Kachnowski, B., Prasad, P., Sullivan, K. et al., "A Theoretical, Risk Assessment Procedure for In-Position Drivers Involved in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01- 1354, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1354.

10. Laituri, T., Prasad, P., Kachnowski, B., Sullivan, K. et al., "Predictions of AIS3+ Thoracic Risks for Belted Occupants in Full-Engagement, Real-World Frontal Impacts: Sensitivity to Various Theoretical Risk Curves," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1355, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1355.

11. Laituri, T., Prasad, P., Sullivan, K., Frankstein, M. et al., "Derivation and Evaluation of a Provisional, Age-Dependent, AIS3+ Thoracic Risk Curve for Belted Adults in Frontal Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0297, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0297.

12. Laituri, T., Henry, S., Sullivan, S., and Prasad, P., (2006) "Derivation and Theoretical Assessment of a Set of Biomechanics-Based, AIS2+ Risk Equations for the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex," 2006-22-0054, Stapp Car Crash Journal 50: 97-130.

13. Mertz, H., Horsch, J., Horn, G., and Lowne, R., "Hybrid III Sternal Deflection Associated with Thoracic Injury Severities of Occupants Restrained with Force-Limiting Shoulder Belts," SAE Technical Paper 910812, 1991, doi:10.4271/910812.

14. Mertz, H., Prasad, P., and Irwin, A., "Injury Risk Curves for Children and Adults in Frontal and Rear Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 973318, 1997, doi:10.4271/973318.

15. Mueller, B. C., Sherwood, C. P., Arbelaez, A., Zuby, J. M., and Nolan, J. M., (2011) "Comparison of Hybrid III and THOR Dummies in Paired Small Overlap Tests" Stapp Car Crash Journal, 55:379-409.

16. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2012) Traffic Safety Facts 2011, DOT HS 811 754.

17. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2014) Traffic Safety Facts 2012, DOT HS 812 016.

18. Petitjean, A., Lebarbe, M., Potier, P., and Trosseille, X., (2002) "Laboratory Reconstructions of Real World Frontal Crash Configurations Using the Hybrid III and THOR Dummies and PMHS" Stapp Car Crash Journal, 47:383-438.

19. Prasad, P. and Mertz, H., "The Position of the United States Delegation to the ISO Working Group 6 on the Use of HIC in the Automotive Environment," SAE Technical Paper 851246, 1985, doi:10.4271/851246.

20. Xu, L., Jensen, J., Byrnes, K., Kim, A. et al., "Comparative Performance Evaluation of THOR and Hybrid III," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0161, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0161.

21. Yaguchi, M., Ono, K., Masuda, M., Watamori, T., Seshita, T., and Hibion, T., (2009), 16th International Technical Conference of Enhanced Safety Vehicles, Paper number 268.

APPENDIX

Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, and Para V. Weerappuli

Ford Motor Co.

Table A1. Model-based transfer equations of the head responses

                       55 YO FHBM = m * Hybrid III
                                                       35 YO
Response               Type                            m    [R.sup.2]

                       All Cases (n = 48)              0.71 0.68
Head Acceleration (g)  Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22)  0.94 0.90
                       Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)        0.66 0.71
                       All Cases (n = 48)              0.56 0.69
HIC 15                 Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22)  0.91 0.93
                       Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)        0.55 0.68

                         55 YO           75 YO
Response               m     [R.sup.2]   m     [R.sup.2]

                       1.00  0.93        1.17  0.93
Head Acceleration (g)  0.90  0.90        0.94  0.59
                       1.01  0.93        1.21  0.97
                       0.88  0.94        1.22  0.91
HIC 15                 0.85  0.94        0.89  0.95
                       0.88  0.93        1.24  0.90

Table A2. Model-based transfer equations of the neck responses

               55 YO FHBM = m* Hybrid III
                                                           35 YO
Response                   Type                           m    [R.sup.2]


                           All Cases (n = 48)             0.35  0.78
Upper Neck [F.sub.x] (kN)  Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22) 0.42  0.79
                           Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)       0.33  0.85
                           All Cases (n = 48)             0.54  0.56
Upper Neck [F.sub.z] (kN)  Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22) 0.54  0.67
                           Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)       0.53  0.59
                           All Cases (n = 48)             0.07  -0.12
Upper Neck [M.sub.y] (kN)  Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22) 0.09  0.47
   Corrected               Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)       0.05  -0.62
                           All Cases (n = 48)             0.22  -0.42
Upper Neck [N.sub.ij]      Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22) 0.35  0.86
                           Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)       0.18  0.25

Response                     55 YO          75 YO
                           m     [R.sup.2]  m      [R.sup.2]

Upper Neck [F.sub.x] (kN)  0.38   0.68       0.35   0.31
                           0.50   0.72       0.50   0.38
                           0.34   0.93       0.30   0.88
Upper Neck [F.sub.z] (kN)  0.47   0.35       0.37   0.27
                           0.49   0.47       0.39   0.38
                           0.45   0.42       0.35   0.34
Upper Neck [M.sub.y] (kN)  0.09  -0.20       0.08  -0.47
   Corrected               0.10   0.63       0.08   0.20
                           0.07  -0.61       0.08  -0.53
Upper Neck [N.sub.ij]      0.20  -0.62       0.16  -0.62
                           0.32   0.73       0.27   0.20
                           0.16   0.15       0.13   0.17

Table A3. Model-based transfer equations of the chest responses

                        55 YO FHBM = m* Hybrid III

                                                          35 YO
Response                Type                             m     [R.sup.2]

                        All Cases (n = 48)               1.24  0.82
Chest Acceleration (g)  Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22)   1.20  0.96
                        Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)         1.29  0.75
                        All Cases (n = 48)               1.07  0.96
Chest 3 ms Clip (g)     Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22)   1.09  0.97
                        Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)         1.04  0.94
                        All Cases (n = 48)               1.71  0.90
Normalized UC           Belt-and-Airbag Cases (n = 22)   1.57  0.95
                        Belt-Only Cases (n = 26)         1.86  0.96

Response                  55 YO            75 YO
                        m     [R.sup.2]  m     [R.sup.2]

Chest Acceleration (g)  1.44  0.94       1.58  0.96
                        1.41  0.92       1.55  0.96
                        1.48  0.97       1.63  0.96
Chest 3 ms Clip (g)     1.21  0.98       1.34  0.96
                        1.21  0.98       1.34  0.97
                        1.22  0.99       1.34  0.94
Normalized UC           1.92  0.85       2.18  0.86
                        1.70  0.95       1.93  0.96
                        2.15  0.97       2.43  0.96

Table A4. Model-based transfer equations of the lower body responses

                                   55 YO FHBM = m * Hybrid III
                                                       35 YO  55 YO
Response                           Type                m      [R.sup.2]

Pelvis Acceleration (g)            All Cases (n = 48)  0.90   0.88
Left Femur [F.sub.z] (kN)          All Cases (n = 39)  0.13   0.93
Right Femur [F.sub.z] (kN)         All Cases (n = 36)  0.18   0.96
Left Upper Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)    All Cases (n = 48)  0.22   0.83
Left Upper Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.17   0.54
Left Upper Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.40   0.91
Left Lower Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)    All Cases (n = 48)  0.17   0.61
Left Lower Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.41   0.76
Left Lower Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.49   0.70
Right Upper Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.26   0.83
Right Upper Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)  All Cases (n = 48)  0.24   0.62
Right Upper Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)  All Cases (n = 48)  0.46   0.91
Right Lower Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)   All Cases (n = 48)  0.21   0.71
Right Lower Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)  All Cases (n = 48)  0.54   0.54
Right Lower Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)  All Cases (n = 48)  0.51   0.58
Left Foot Acceleration (g)         All Cases (n = 48)  0.85   0.91
Right Foot Acceleration (g)        All Cases (n = 48)  0.84   0.87
Shoulder Belt Force (kN)           All Cases (n = 48)  1.11   0.97

Response                            75 YO         35 YO
Pelvis Acceleration (g)           m    [R.sup.2]  m     [R.sup.2]

Left Femur [F.sub.z] (kN)         0.91 0.85       0.98  0.80
Right Femur [F.sub.z] (kN)        0.15 0.94       0.16  0.96
Left Upper Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)   0.19 0.87       0.21  0.82
Left Upper Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)  0.25 0.80       0.28  0.84
Left Upper Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)  0.19 0.42       0.20  0.54
Left Lower Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)   0.44 0.93       0.46  0.95
Left Lower Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m)  0.20 0.73       0.22  0.77
Left Lower Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m)  0.48 0.74       0.50  0.74
Right Upper Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)  0.50 0.58       0.48  0.51
Right Upper Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m) 0.30 0.85       0.34  0.88
Right Upper Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m) 0.24 0.60       0.27  0.66
Right Lower Tibia [F.sub.z] (kN)  0.49 0.90       0.52  0.91
Right Lower Tibia [M.sub.x] (N.m) 0.24 0.79       0.27  0.80
Right Lower Tibia [M.sub.y] (N.m) 0.64 0.59       0.69  0.57
Left Foot Acceleration (g)        0.52 0.63       0.50  0.52
Right Foot Acceleration (g)       0.86 0.82       0.87  0.79
Shoulder Belt Force (kN)          0.86 0.70       0.85  0.78
                                  1.12 0.96       1.11  0.94

Table A5. Test- and model-based slopes and [R.sup.2] values

                             Test-Based               Model-Based
                                                      35 YO
Response                     N   m     [R.sup.2]  m     [R.sup.2]

Head Acceleration (g)        6   0.96  0.39       48  0.71  0.68
Chest 3 ms Acceleration (g)  4   1.05  0.97       48  1.07  0.96
Normalized UC                20  1.78  0.44       48  1.71  0.90
Pelvis Acceleration (g)      6   0.99  0.97       48  0.90  0.88
Shoulder Belt Load (kN)      4   0.91  0.98       48  1.11  0.97


                              55 YO            75 YO
Response                      m     [R.sub.2]  m     [R.sub.2]

Head Acceleration (g)        1.00  0.93       1.17  0.93
Chest 3 ms Acceleration (g)  1.21  0.98       1.34  0.96
Normalized UC                1.92  0.85       2.18  0.86
Pelvis Acceleration (g)      0.91  0.85       0.98  0.80
Shoulder Belt Load (kN)      1.12  0.96       1.11  0.94

Table A6. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

                 Severity  [DELTA]M      Head Acc.(g)
Rwstraint                     mph
                                    HIII50  35 YO  75 YO  HIII50

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE       15     23.70   13.24  14.02   28
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE       20     32.00   20.56  19.76   52
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE       25     35.60   24.30  24.02   74
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE       30     35.70   28.79  29.78   90
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE       35     38.40   33.39  35.32  113
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE        15     31.40   20.17  20.62   50
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE        20     33.80   24.19  22.10   58
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE        25     33.10   26.95  26.72   61
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE        30     35.00   39.94  36.87   91
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE        35     40.30   42.67  39.12  119
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     41.90   41.05  97.96  125
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     73.70   77.62  76.48  477
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     71.20   71.76  67.03  398
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     42.60   42.61  39.35  122
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     59.20   46.16  46.44  284
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     55.80   52.95  48.49  258
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     52.50   47.95  47.44  201
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     42.40   41.34  38.64  121
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     51.70   52.10  47.28  236
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     46.70   47.52  43.41  156
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     63.60   63.51  61.68  320
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP        35     52.00   50.91  43.97  217

                     HIC 15               Neck Fx (kN)
Rwstraint
                 35 YO  55 YO  75 YO  HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag    8      9     10    0.25    0.16   0.14   0.16
Belt-and-Airbag   23     19     22    0.62    0.22   0.18   0.19
Belt-and-Airbag   38     36     37    0.74    0.24   0.23   0.22
Belt-and-Airbag   56     58     54    0.81    0.26   0.25   0.24
Belt-and-Airbag   82     71     79    0.88    0.27   0.30   0.32
Belt-and-Airbag   22     19     22    0.59    0.20   0.18   0.19
Belt-and-Airbag   36     30     30    0.70    0.24   0.18   0.23
Belt-and-Airbag   51     47     45    0.71    0.24   0.20   0.32
Belt-and-Airbag  122    112    104    0.83    0.49   0.51   0.42
Belt-and-Airbag  137    132    122    0.96    0.39   0.57   0.46
Belt-and-Airbag  139    138    153    0.89    0.35   0.49   0.20
Belt-and-Airbag  405    400    466    1.16    0.60   0.88   1.04
Belt-and-Airbag  357    335    341    1.30    0.56   0.59   0.63
Belt-and-Airbag  158    143    136    0.90    0.36   0.45   0.29
Belt-and-Airbag  187    193    192    1.15    0.44   0.60   0.54
Belt-and-Airbag  240    217    212    1.12    0.53   0.62   0.57
Belt-and-Airbag  201    204    197    1.09    0.45   0.56   0.44
Belt-and-Airbag  141    138    127    0.86    0.33   0.49   0.28
Belt-and-Airbag  228    204    209    1.07    0.49   0.60   0.49
Belt-and-Airbag  194    164    163    0.91    0.39   0.45   0.38
Belt-and-Airbag  306    260    274    1.09    0.59   0.55   1.46
Belt-and-Airbag  220    195    183    1.06    0.33   0.58   0.38

Table A7. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

                           [DELTA]V     Upper Neck  [F.sub.z] kN
Restraint        Severity  mph         HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15          0.85    0.64   0.67   0.60
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20          1.18    0.69   0.72   0.60
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25          1.12    0.68   0.78   0.53
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30          1.29    0.73   0.69   0.56
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35          1.56    0.77   0.70   0.57
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15          1.01    0.60   0.73   0.61
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20          1.05    0.66   0.68   0.61
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25          1.03    0.67   0.71   0.58
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30          1.26    1.16   0.83   0.67
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35          1.40    1.09   0.88   0.69
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.71    0.92   0.81   0.57
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.92    1.29   1.09   0.95
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.30    1.22   1.00   0.82
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.46    0.84   0.76   0.54
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.15    0.99   0.91   0.68
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.01    1.06   0.94   0.70
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.79    1.01   0.85   0.59
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.74    0.83   0.79   0.58
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.97    1.04   0.93   0.59
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          1.63    0.88   0.76   0.58
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.09    1.20   1.00   1.23
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35          2.07    1.03   1.00   0.73

                   Upper Neck [M.sub.y] N.m     Upper   Neck [N.sub.ij]
Restraint         HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO   HIII50  35 YO  55 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   29.40    3.31   5.36   5.38    0.18    0.10   0.11
Belt-and-Airbag   55.83    3.12   5.66   5.54    0.32    0.11   0.12
Belt-and-Airbag   63.83    3.07   6.66   4.30    0.34    0.13   0.13
Belt-and-Airbag   67.94    4.45   5.32   5.01    0.40    0.14   0.14
Belt-and-Airbag   73.17    5.33   5.60   4.88    0.45    0.15   0.15
Belt-and-Airbag   54.15    2.67   5.71   5.66    0.30    0.10   0.11
Belt-and-Airbag   60.02    3.00   5.57   6.16    0.34    0.11   0.12
Belt-and-Airbag   62.26    2.80   6.29   4.08    0.34    0.13   0.14
Belt-and-Airbag   68.47   10.12   7.38   5.86    0.40    0.16   0.15
Belt-and-Airbag   56.33    8.66   8.37   6.28    0.43    0.20   0.16
Belt-and-Airbag   70.12    5.83   6.39   4.14    0.45    0.15   0.14
Belt-and-Airbag   71.42   10.31   7.00   7.94    0.63    0.22   0.18
Belt-and-Airbag   88.49    9.15   7.56   7.21    0.59    0.21   0.17
Belt-and-Airbag   70.41    6.27   6.05   4.44    0.44    0.14   0.13
Belt-and-Airbag   84.73    6.56   7.67   5.77    0.56    0.17   0.16
Belt-and-Airbag   84.44    7.95   7.90   5.21    0.54    0.18   0.16
Belt-and-Airbag   83.69    7.00   7.31   4.51    0.50    0.17   0.15
Belt-and-Airbag   67.32    4.81   6.36   4.22    0.41    0.14   0.14
Belt-and-Airbag   79.83    7.30   7.72   5.12    0.54    0.18   0.16
Belt-and-Airbag   73.66    6.49   6.23   4.52    0.46    0.15   0.13
Belt-and-Airbag   79.98    9.27   7.76  11.78    0.56    0.21   0.17
Belt-and-Airbag   77.03    6.27   8.14   4.70    0.52    0.17   0.17

Restraint        75 YO
Belt-and-Airbag  0.11
Belt-and-Airbag  0.12
Belt-and-Airbag  0.13
Belt-and-Airbag  0.14
Belt-and-Airbag  0.16
Belt-and-Airbag  0.11
Belt-and-Airbag  0.12
Belt-and-Airbag  0.13
Belt-and-Airbag  0.14
Belt-and-Airbag  0.15
Belt-and-Airbag  0.10
Belt-and-Airbag  0.16
Belt-and-Airbag  0.14
Belt-and-Airbag  0.09
Belt-and-Airbag  0.11
Belt-and-Airbag  0.12
Belt-and-Airbag  0.10
Belt-and-Airbag  0.10
Belt-and-Airbag  0.10
Belt-and-Airbag  0.10
Belt-and-Airbag  0.22
Belt-and-Airbag  0.12

Table A8. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

                                         Chest  Acceleration g
Restraint        Severity  [DELTA]V
                           mph       HIII50  35 YO   55 YO   75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15        13.40   19.60   19.83   20.83
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20        19.10   19.95   25.27   23.97
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25        25.60   28.61   33.36   29.92
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30        30.60   34.92   38.41   37.61
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35        33.90   40.61   41.20   46.06
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15        18.40   22.34   24.39   22.05
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20        22.70   27.33   29.35   26.48
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25        24.20   29.06   32.59   30.62
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30        29.90   32.42   37.27   38.20
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35        34.90   35.25   38.25   52.37
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        36.70   43.07   42.62   54.08
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        73.10   97.87  105.01  108.44
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        63.10   83.38   95.89  103.49
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        33.70   39.27   47.00   57.30
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.30   61.03   78.09   89.86
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        51.10   60.10   97.75   86.53
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        42.60   52.46   59.08   68.78
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        35.50   42.02   42.86   51.51
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        47.20   57.45   62.94   76.20
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        37.50   45.28   49.85   63.56
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.40   70.30   90.91   92.95
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        49.90   47.24   60.58   81.74

                  Chest  Acceleration 3 ms  Clip g   Normalized  UC
Restraint         HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO        HIII50  35 YO

Belt-and-Airbag    13      18     18     20          0.08    0.17
Belt-and-Airbag    19      19     24     23          0.11    0.18
Belt-and-Airbag    25      27     31     29          0.12    0.20
Belt-and-Airbag    30      34     37     34          0.14    0.21
Belt-and-Airbag    34      38     40     40          0.15    0.21
Belt-and-Airbag    18      21     23     22          0.10    0.18
Belt-and-Airbag    22      25     27     26          0.11    0.20
Belt-and-Airbag    24      27     31     29          0.11    0.20
Belt-and-Airbag    29      31     35     34          0.14    0.24
Belt-and-Airbag    35      34     37     45          0.16    0.26
Belt-and-Airbag    36      40     38     47          0.16    0.26
Belt-and-Airbag    72      84     88     92          0.24    0.37
Belt-and-Airbag    62      73     81     84          0.21    0.32
Belt-and-Airbag    33      37     39     49          0.17    0.25
Belt-and-Airbag    54      54     65     74          0.19    0.30
Belt-and-Airbag    50      51     61     72          0.19    0.29
Belt-and-Airbag    42      46     50     58          0.19    0.29
Belt-and-Airbag    35      40     38     45          0.16    0.26

Belt-and-Airbag    46      50     55     65          0.18    0.29
Belt-and-Airbag    37      42     42     55          0.19    0.28
Belt-and-Airbag    55      60     74     78          0.20    0.31
Belt-and-Airbag    48      45     53     68          0.18    0.30


                  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   0.18   0.20
Belt-and-Airbag   0.19   0.21
Belt-and-Airbag   0.21   0.23
Belt-and-Airbag   0.23   0.26
Belt-and-Airbag   0.25   0.28
Belt-and-Airbag   0.19   0.21
Belt-and-Airbag   0.21   0.23
Belt-and-Airbag   0.21   0.23
Belt-and-Airbag   0.25   0.27
Belt-and-Airbag   0.27   0.28
Belt-and-Airbag   0.28   0.32
Belt-and-Airbag   0.41   0.49
Belt-and-Airbag   0.36   0.41
Belt-and-Airbag   0.26   0.30
Belt-and-Airbag   0.33   0.38
Belt-and-Airbag   0.32   0.37
Belt-and-Airbag   0.29   0.32
Belt-and-Airbag   0.28   0.32
Belt-and-Airbag   0.31   0.36
Belt-and-Airbag   0.27   0.31
Belt-and-Airbag   0.35   0.40
Belt-and-Airbag   0.32   0.37

Table A9. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

                           [DELTA]V          Pelvis  Acceleration g
Restraint        Severity  mph       HIII50  35 YO   55 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15        27.70    16.83   16.54
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20        35.90    21.39   19.61
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25        43.80    24.79   26.42
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30        40.50    32.27   33.41
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35        46.10    38.85   40.22
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15        38.60    23.05   20.88
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20        39.20    25.20   24.53
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25        36.60    25.33   26.11
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30        40.10    26.63   32.70
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35        44.00    37.20   40.11
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.40    43.52   53.88
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35       113.00   129.04  118.04
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        95.00    97.92   94.83
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        49.50    41.50   44.98
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        83.60    76.58   94.45
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        77.90    66.70   87.33
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.20    49.30   55.51
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        52.30    66.76   52.35
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        69.70    68.46   79.15
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.10    40.73   58.77
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        86.40    95.53   98.69
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        71.50    73.66   80.59

                                 L. Femur  [F.sub.z] kN
Restraint        75 YO   HIII50  35 YO     55 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   16.34   NC      NC        NC
Belt-and-Airbag   21.04   NC      NC        NC
Belt-and-Airbag   33.28   2.61    0.34      0.47
Belt-and-Airbag   40.38   3.96    0.48      0.62
Belt-and-Airbag   50.47   5.11    0.65      0.70
Belt-and-Airbag   20.43   NC      NC        NC
Belt-and-Airbag   25.95   2.42    0.26      0.38
Belt-and-Airbag   27.15   2.88    0.31      0.42
Belt-and-Airbag   38.00   4.30    0.45      0.63
Belt-and-Airbag   45.16   5.39    0.62      0.74
Belt-and-Airbag   87.97   7.17    0.78      0.87
Belt-and-Airbag   92.89  14.20    2.03      2.22
Belt-and-Airbag  113.25  11.70    1.49      1.76
Belt-and-Airbag   60.75   6.09    0.70      0.73
Belt-and-Airbag   90.52  10.20    1.20      1.70
Belt-and-Airbag   90.87   9.51    1.21      1.28
Belt-and-Airbag   50.23   7.19    0.90      1.16
Belt-and-Airbag   57.84   7.28    0.75      0.81
Belt-and-Airbag   51.94   8.71    1.02      1.13
Belt-and-Airbag   75.63   7.35    0.72      0.76
Belt-and-Airbag   88.84  10.40    1.30      1.55
Belt-and-Airbag   94.82   9.05    1.41      1.49

                                R. Femur  [F.sub.z] kN
Restraint        75 YO  HIII50  35 YO     55 YO         75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NC      NC      NC        NC            NC
Belt-and-Airbag  NC      NC      NC        NC            NC
Belt-and-Airbag  0.55    NC      NC        NC            NC
Belt-and-Airbag  0.63    2.54    0.58      0.74          0.82
Belt-and-Airbag  0.83    3.66    0.75      0.87          0.95
Belt-and-Airbag  NC      NC      NC        NC            NC
Belt-and-Airbag  0.50    NC      NC        NC            NC
Belt-and-Airbag  0.51    1.27    0.32      0.52          0.62
Belt-and-Airbag  0.63    2.54    0.56      0.73          0.81
Belt-and-Airbag  0.75    3.59    0.73      0.89          0.97
Belt-and-Airbag  1.10    5.45    0.93      1.00          1.02
Belt-and-Airbag  2.33   13.00    2.21      2.27          2.33
Belt-and-Airbag  1.97   10.40    1.72      1.90          1.91
Belt-and-Airbag  0.84    4.46    0.86      0.90          0.94
Belt-and-Airbag  1.69    8.45    1.49      1.44          1.63
Belt-and-Airbag  1.62    7.80    1.41      1.44          1.43
Belt-and-Airbag  1.06    5.76    1.15      1.21          1.27
Belt-and-Airbag  1.02    5.46    0.88      0.93          0.96
Belt-and-Airbag  1.43    6.86    1.24      1.27          1.38
Belt-and-Airbag  0.91    5.16    0.92      0.97          1.00
Belt-and-Airbag  1.68    8.47    1.55      1.65          1.68
Belt-and-Airbag  1.63    7.37    1.36      1.48          1.70

Table A10. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition
sled impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

 Restraint       Severity  [DELTA]V       Upper Left Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
                           mph       HIII50  35 YO      55 YO    75 YO


bBelt-and-Airag  NPBLE     15        0.76    0.26       0.24     0.24
bBelt-and-Airag  NPBLE     20        0.89    0.33       0.30     0.30
bBelt-and-Airag  NPBLE     25        1.11    0.37       0.35     0.34
bBelt-and-Airag  NPBLE     30        1.74    0.40       0.37     0.44
bBelt-and-Airag  NPBLE     35        2.24    0.43       0.43     0.56
bBelt-and-Airag  PBLE      15        1.01    0.33       0.33     0.32
bBelt-and-Airag  PBLE      20        1.25    0.37       0.36     0.35
bBelt-and-Airag  PBLE      25        1.32    0.36       0.36     0.35
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30        1.74    0.37       0.36     0.36
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35        2.33    0.38       0.35     0.43
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.22    0.58       0.76     0.91
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.49    1.35       1.67     1.75
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        5.14    1.00       1.06     1.17
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.03    0.46       0.56     0.75
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.92    0.84       1.03     1.08
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.29    0.69       0.93     1.03
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.02    0.45       0.47     0.72
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.51    0.55       0.73     0.89
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.61    0.81       0.92     1.01
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.63    0.44       0.49     0.76
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.92    1.07       1.04     1.16
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.92    0.87       1.02     1.07

 Restraint        Upper  Left  Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m  Upper Left
                                                    Tibia [M.sub.y] N.m
                  HIII50 35 YO  55 YO   75 YO        HIII50  35 YO

bBelt-and-Airag   37.96   5.03   6.07    7.12        53.98   25.21
bBelt-and-Airag   45.61   6.08   7.26    7.67        60.49   32.30
bBelt-and-Airag   54.96   6.63   8.06    8.26        66.43   36.19
bBelt-and-Airag   55.22   7.60   8.27    9.11        79.48   38.17
bBelt-and-Airag   50.42   8.85   9.59    9.38        98.00   41.23
bBelt-and-Airag   49.24   6.39   7.02    7.80        61.09   32.37
bBelt-and-Airag   51.37   6.37   8.22    8.10        62.27   33.48
bBelt-and-Airag   50.16   6.60   8.74    8.17        67.04   34.00
Belt-and-Airbag   47.38   7.59   9.68   10.44        93.38   42.47
Belt-and-Airbag   52.11   8.27  10.69   10.73       106.25   48.64
Belt-and-Airbag   42.14   9.24  10.79   10.42       124.53   46.91
Belt-and-Airbag   66.04  19.03  17.40   20.81       224.25  100.06
Belt-and-Airbag   85.73  13.71  11.95   14.48       206.65   84.34
Belt-and-Airbag   37.65  10.12  10.39   10.37       106.57   41.28
Belt-and-Airbag   60.88  12.97  10.86   11.60       176.38   70.95
Belt-and-Airbag   56.75  11.88  12.74   12.50       156.30   61.48
Belt-and-Airbag   39.44  10.06  11.27   12.62       135.39   49.42
Belt-and-Airbag   48.31   9.25  11.28   10.78       137.27   48.90
Belt-and-Airbag   54.25   9.56  11.44   12.25       133.76   53.05
Belt-and-Airbag   38.58  10.50  12.21   11.86       122.68   40.40
Belt-and-Airbag   58.73  10.71  14.70   14.61       170.80   70.96
Belt-and-Airbag   57.83  11.00  10.65   12.24       164.31   62.88

 Restraint
                  55 YO    75 YO


bBelt-and-Airag    27.82    29.05
bBelt-and-Airag    34.02    30.39
bBelt-and-Airag    34.62    32.68
bBelt-and-Airag    36.20    39.71
bBelt-and-Airag    41.05    45.46
bBelt-and-Airag    32.98    27.76
bBelt-and-Airag    31.35    30.16
bBelt-and-Airag    30.71    29.56
Belt-and-Airbag    37.50    32.57
Belt-and-Airbag    44.47    41.17
Belt-and-Airbag    49.36    58.04
Belt-and-Airbag   117.22   115.9
Belt-and-Airbag    88.43    90.08
Belt-and-Airbag    40.48    46.61
Belt-and-Airbag    78.02    82.76
Belt-and-Airbag    70.15    72.76
Belt-and-Airbag    51.61    54.33
Belt-and-Airbag    50.99    57.38
Belt-and-Airbag    66.11    71.88
Belt-and-Airbag    43.34    47.94
Belt-and-Airbag    81.87    90.40
Belt-and-Airbag    75.72    80.55

Table A11. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

                           [DELTA]V    Lower Left Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
Restraint        Severity  mph       HIII50  35 YO       55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15        0.92    0.29        0.31   0.31
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20        1.07    0.39        0.40   0.42
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25        1.50    0.46        0.47   0.48
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30        2.29    0.53        0.51   0.55
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35        2.95    0.59        0.56   0.61
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15        1.23    0.41        0.42   0.43
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20        1.52    0.47        0.47   0.48
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25        1.60    0.46        0.49   0.50
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30        2.44    0.48        0.52   0.52
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35        3.15    0.49        0.52   0.54
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.79    0.66        0.73   0.80
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        5.63    1.23        1.54   1.69
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        6.31    0.86        0.98   1.11
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        2.54    0.60        0.70   0.71
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.78    0.68        0.93   1.02
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.34    0.67        0.83   0.97
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.04    0.57        0.61   0.71
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.17    0.63        0.74   0.79
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.59    0.70        0.83   0.94
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        3.26    0.59        0.66   0.73
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        4.98    0.86        0.99   1.12
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        5.00    0.77        0.92   1.02

                  Lower Left Tibia [M.sub.x] N
Restraint         HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   11.92    2.26   2.80   3.10
Belt-and-Airbag   13.42    2.93   4.37   5.00
Belt-and-Airbag   18.36    4.48   6.12   5.99
Belt-and-Airbag   20.22    5.37   6.10   6.92
Belt-and-Airbag   20.50    6.47   7.34   8.00
Belt-and-Airbag   14.94    4.14   4.25   4.70
Belt-and-Airbag   18.15    4.86   5.01   5.11
Belt-and-Airbag   16.67    4.80   5.26   5.38
Belt-and-Airbag   15.56    4.94   6.94   6.34
Belt-and-Airbag   20.46    6.91   8.05   8.85
Belt-and-Airbag   16.52    8.16   9.34   9.76
Belt-and-Airbag   44.30   21.89  26.26  24.28
Belt-and-Airbag   38.12   15.87  17.52  18.40
Belt-and-Airbag   15.93    7.18   7.89   7.98
Belt-and-Airbag   23.21   12.39  15.62  16.02
Belt-and-Airbag   21.01   11.77  13.30  14.87
Belt-and-Airbag   20.92    8.58   9.56  11.65
Belt-and-Airbag   17.30    8.79   9.75   9.42
Belt-and-Airbag   19.78    8.24   11.66 13.40
Belt-and-Airbag   15.04    6.90   7.75   8.69
Belt-and-Airbag   23.98   12.50  16.94  17.05
Belt-and-Airbag   20.85    9.24  12.95  14.73

                 Lower Left Tibia [M.sub.y] N.m
Restraint        HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  19.18   10.06  12.46  11.79
Belt-and-Airbag  20.63   15.06  14.99  13.18
Belt-and-Airbag  28.10   16.45  17.54  12.30
Belt-and-Airbag  37.35   18.29  15.94  11.94
Belt-and-Airbag  43.89   21.77  16.44  14.39
Belt-and-Airbag  22.32   17.47  14.93  12.59
Belt-and-Airbag  26.17   15.51  15.28  11.02
Belt-and-Airbag  31.27   15.42  15.21  10.67
Belt-and-Airbag  50.30   23.62  21.61  16.60
Belt-and-Airbag  52.33   26.94  24.51  19.62
Belt-and-Airbag  40.16   19.83  21.25  18.03
Belt-and-Airbag  57.82   34.58  47.88  51.86
Belt-and-Airbag  50.29   33.66  33.67  37.49
Belt-and-Airbag  44.66   17.53  15.42  14.76
Belt-and-Airbag  47.93   23.83  26.48  29.05
Belt-and-Airbag  54.40   24.22  26.97  25.45
Belt-and-Airbag  63.79   29.37  26.02  23.06
Belt-and-Airbag  40.45   21.06  22.98  18.66
Belt-and-Airbag  48.98   15.79  18.61  23.27
Belt-and-Airbag  41.84   16.78  16.88  14.90
Belt-and-Airbag  54.49   21.13  27.93  34.02
Belt-and-Airbag  50.45   16.92  21.33  25.86

Table A12. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

Restraint         Severity  [DELTA]V  Upper Rig [F.sub.z]
                            mph       HIII50

Belt-and-Airbag   NPBLE     15        0.76
Belt-and-Airbag   NPBLE     20        0.89
Belt-and-Airbag   NPBLE     25        0.99
Belt-and-Airbag   NPBLE     30        1.11
Belt-and-Airbag   NPBLE     35        1.68
Belt-and-Airbag   PBLE      15        1.00
Belt-and-Airbag   PBLE      20        1.25
Belt-and-Airbag   PBLE      25        1.32
Belt-and-Airbag   PBLE      30        1.43
Belt-and-Airbag   PBLE      35        1.74
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.20
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        3.52
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        4.03
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.03
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.97
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.76
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.41
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.51
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.81
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.34
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        3.00
Belt-and-Airbag   NCAP      35        2.92

Restraint                Upper Right Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m
                 75 YO   HIII50  35 YO   55 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  0.24    32.68    5.43   6.18
Belt-and-Airbag  0.27    44.36    6.32   7.03
Belt-and-Airbag  0.32    39.39    7.14   8.02
Belt-and-Airbag  0.43    42.98    8.14   8.11
Belt-and-Airbag  0.57    34.79    9.55   9.55
Belt-and-Airbag  0.29    45.53    6.79   6.96
Belt-and-Airbag  0.31    32.18    6.85   7.56
Belt-and-Airbag  0.33    32.40    6.92   7.69
Belt-and-Airbag  0.39    41.71    8.05   9.67
Belt-and-Airbag  0.46    40.03    8.63   9.82
Belt-and-Airbag  0.85    42.09    9.09  11.81
Belt-and-Airbag  1.62    53.54   19.60  15.65
Belt-and-Airbag  1.08    51.25   16.78  11.28
Belt-and-Airbag  0.74    37.14    9.91  11.50
Belt-and-Airbag  1.00    46.37   15.04  11.77
Belt-and-Airbag  0.99    39.35   12.76  12.53
Belt-and-Airbag  0.72    39.25   10.46  11.86
Belt-and-Airbag  0.84    44.08    9.39  10.87
Belt-and-Airbag  0.97    49.48   11.21  11.16
Belt-and-Airbag  0.75    37.25   10.75  12.91
Belt-and-Airbag  1.12    46.00   10.86  12.72
Belt-and-Airbag  0.98    48.57   12.91  11.20

Restraint        Upper Right  Tibia [M.sub.y]
                 HIII50   35 YO   55 YO   75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   53.39   27.05   28.56   30.25
Belt-and-Airbag   61.53   34.21   34.63   31.34
Belt-and-Airbag   67.63   37.95   35.60   33.48
Belt-and-Airbag   72.75   40.07   37.66   38.93
Belt-and-Airbag   84.21   41.74   40.34   45.26
Belt-and-Airbag   61.37   34.05   34.46   30.23
Belt-and-Airbag   65.41   34.50   34.61   28.79
Belt-and-Airbag   66.02   35.19   33.38   30.14
Belt-and-Airbag   87.73   45.96   38.90   33.18
Belt-and-Airbag  103.31   50.83   47.10   42.11
Belt-and-Airbag  114.11   43.76   48.11   59.66
Belt-and-Airbag  201.97  100.83  120.60  126.31
Belt-and-Airbag  175.18   85.30   89.69   88.14
Belt-and-Airbag   90.82   38.69   41.90   46.15
Belt-and-Airbag  149.45   74.48   81.95   82.08
Belt-and-Airbag  144.71   64.49   69.12   73.88
Belt-and-Airbag  115.23   51.38   51.71   53.72
Belt-and-Airbag  128.72   46.81   49.82   56.79
Belt-and-Airbag  120.11   58.38   68.27   75.34
Belt-and-Airbag  110.96   41.44   40.64   49.67
Belt-and-Airbag  161.42   75.34   81.63   92.14
Belt-and-Airbag  124.70   64.39   74.89   76.14

Table A13. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition
sled impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

Restraint        Severity  [DELTA]V  Lower Right  Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
                           mph        HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15         0.92    0.26   0.26   0.31
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20         1.08    0.35   0.33   0.36
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25         1.20    0.42   0.44   0.46
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30         1.45    0.48   0.49   0.53
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35         2.21    0.55   0.54   0.59
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15         1.21    0.38   0.38   0.40
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20         1.51    0.42   0.45   0.45
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25         1.60    0.43   0.46   0.43
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30         1.77    0.44   0.47   0.52
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35         2.40    0.44   0.48   0.56
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         2.75    0.66   0.77   0.80
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.87    1.18   1.46   1.60
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         4.82    0.86   0.96   1.08
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         2.52    0.54   0.67   0.74
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.61    0.66   0.93   0.98
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.64    0.63   0.84   0.96
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.28    0.52   0.60   0.70
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.15    0.63   0.75   0.81
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.63    0.70   0.82   0.94
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         2.92    0.52   0.68   0.73
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.85    0.84   1.06   1.09
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35         3.78    0.75   0.87   0.92

Restraint        Lower Right Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m
                 HIII50 35 YO 55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  12.59   1.95  2.68   3.92
Belt-and-Airbag  15.31   2.44  4.57   5.03
Belt-and-Airbag  13.27   4.26  6.17   5.88
Belt-and-Airbag  13.83   5.31  6.61   6.85
Belt-and-Airbag  15.35   6.78  7.40   8.18
Belt-and-Airbag  16.02   3.50  4.38   4.94
Belt-and-Airbag  11.69   4.07  4.98   4.89
Belt-and-Airbag  11.96   4.49  5.32   5.10
Belt-and-Airbag  12.25   5.74  7.43   6.16
Belt-and-Airbag  12.31   7.58  8.82   8.75
Belt-and-Airbag  15.41   7.68  9.20   9.88
Belt-and-Airbag  22.76  21.66 23.40  27.88
Belt-and-Airbag  21.87  16.60 17.99  18.67
Belt-and-Airbag  13.76   7.07  7.52   7.74
Belt-and-Airbag  21.27  12.50 15.56  16.61
Belt-and-Airbag  14.88  10.37 13.52  15.48
Belt-and-Airbag  13.94   8.75  10.15  11.67
Belt-and-Airbag  16.93   7.77  9.62   9.48
Belt-and-Airbag  17.99   8.53  12.01  14.20
Belt-and-Airbag  15.40   6.93  7.19   8.58
Belt-and-Airbag  16.99   12.88 15.31  17.54
Belt-and-Airbag  20.25   8.86  13.17  14.07


Restraint        Lower Right Tibia [M.sub.y] N.m
                 HIII50 35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  21.45  12.66  12.86  12.41
Belt-and-Airbag  21.61  16.01  15.66  14.71
Belt-and-Airbag  25.70  17.92  18.81  13.90
Belt-and-Airbag  35.63  19.58  17.82  13.75
Belt-and-Airbag  40.46  22.89  17.38  12.99
Belt-and-Airbag  27.09  17.65  15.78  13.92
Belt-and-Airbag  29.29  16.70  16.61  12.01
Belt-and-Airbag  28.49  16.30  16.67  10.53
Belt-and-Airbag  43.27  25.34  23.08  16.62
Belt-and-Airbag  51.35  28.75  26.39  20.34
Belt-and-Airbag  36.87  18.42  20.59  18.53
Belt-and-Airbag  58.69  34.25  42.66  50.03
Belt-and-Airbag  50.14  33.87  35.18  37.59
Belt-and-Airbag  46.67  15.63  17.41  14.62
Belt-and-Airbag  44.17  28.01  28.64  31.87
Belt-and-Airbag  50.86  26.32  27.89  26.49
Belt-and-Airbag  57.45  30.64  27.99  22.24
Belt-and-Airbag  42.62  20.13  22.15  18.82
Belt-and-Airbag  45.71  16.73  19.62  24.14
Belt-and-Airbag  50.68  15.15  17.09  14.11
Belt-and-Airbag  54.87  22.02  27.63  31.22
Belt-and-Airbag  50.16  16.82  20.11  27.24

Table A14. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt-and-airbag)

Restraint        Severity  [DELTA]V  Left Foot Acceleration g
                           mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     15        42.89   33.64  30.85  30.28
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     20        49.83   39.07  34.65  36.27
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     25        55.22   45.84  40.80  35.04
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     30        59.99   48.54  57.31  52.09
Belt-and-Airbag  NPBLE     35        61.66   51.83  40.92  36.65
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      15        47.05   42.99  36.13  38.34
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      20        48.72   46.44  43.37  39.22
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      25        50.65   45.33  43.32  46.19
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      30        50.66   48.73  47.09  47.50
Belt-and-Airbag  PBLE      35        52.50   47.13  43.04  50.78
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        66.59   58.78  61.79  75.18
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        88.13   73.17  80.20  95.59
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        79.18   68.45  54.39  76.46
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        70.53   60.27  48.98  53.16
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        56.25   47.13  51.91  55.66
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        68.51   53.91  62.23  58.00
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        55.85   46.39  53.93  59.62
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        82.32   70.36  79.54  64.45
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        83.38   62.48  73.82  60.22
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        72.14   62.70  60.54  62.12
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        85.60   71.08  78.47  67.43
Belt-and-Airbag  NCAP      35        67.21   58.46  56.69  60.68

                    Right Foot Acceleration g  Shoulder Belt Force kN
                    HIII50 35 YO  55 YO  75 YO    HIII50  35 YO  55 YO

Belt-and-Airbag     42.41  33.17  32.00  29.77    1.66    2.09   2.36
Belt-and-Airbag     49.16  37.78  38.84  34.00    2.31    2.86   3.09
Belt-and-Airbag     54.28  43.58  37.22  38.69    3.00    3.71   3.89
Belt-and-Airbag     57.87  48.88  46.22  36.20    3.64    4.45   4.70
Belt-and-Airbag     61.61  52.26  52.91  44.99    4.23    5.24   5.25
Belt-and-Airbag     47.83  41.59  37.25  35.20    2.23    2.88   3.07
Belt-and-Airbag     51.81  46.86  49.80  42.87    2.57    3.31   3.53
Belt-and-Airbag     54.54  45.13  43.46  45.31    2.75    3.53   3.81
Belt-and-Airbag     55.82  45.27  44.87  46.74    3.70    4.90   4.82
Belt-and-Airbag     55.65  41.53  44.62  46.54    4.31    5.51   5.36
Belt-and-Airbag     56.41  44.99  68.71  74.25    4.38    5.88   5.74
Belt-and-Airbag     92.99  81.74  84.37  92.29    9.48    9.89   9.96
Belt-and-Airbag     80.69  61.36  49.14  68.31    7.90    9.03   9.04
Belt-and-Airbag     55.98  61.05  75.44  60.57    4.30    5.84   5.75
Belt-and-Airbag     65.65  53.78  52.72  60.82    6.71    7.60   7.45
Belt-and-Airbag     71.72  59.12  49.95  67.01    6.25    7.38   7.40
Belt-and-Airbag     55.96  52.85  58.42  58.14    5.55    6.76   6.87
Belt-and-Airbag     75.88  71.49  79.35  70.47    4.23    5.76   5.64
Belt-and-Airbag     83.20  65.64  58.76  68.15    6.02    7.13   7.27
Belt-and-Airbag     76.84  62.10  61.46  57.54    4.70    6.26   6.31
Belt-and-Airbag     89.99  70.30  74.61  76.72    7.12    8.06   8.15
Belt-and-Airbag     69.86  58.40  51.88  54.03    6.40    7.72   7.92


                  75 YO

Belt-and-Airbag   2.48
Belt-and-Airbag   3.25
Belt-and-Airbag   3.81
Belt-and-Airbag   4.61
Belt-and-Airbag   5.26
Belt-and-Airbag   3.20
Belt-and-Airbag   3.50
Belt-and-Airbag   3.72
Belt-and-Airbag   4.93
Belt-and-Airbag   5.49
Belt-and-Airbag   5.68
Belt-and-Airbag   9.49
Belt-and-Airbag   8.89
Belt-and-Airbag   5.73
Belt-and-Airbag   7.68
Belt-and-Airbag   7.32
Belt-and-Airbag   6.92
Belt-and-Airbag   5.60
Belt-and-Airbag   7.20
Belt-and-Airbag   6.36
Belt-and-Airbag   8.05
Belt-and-Airbag   7.75

Table A15. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

                     [DELTA]V          Head  Acc.(g)
Restraint  Severity  mph       HIII50  35 YO   55 YO    75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5          3.72    3.08    3.11     3.24
Belt Only  NPBLE     10          9.14    8.56    7.29     6.22
Belt Only  NPBLE     15         14.70   15.10   12.39    11.15
Belt Only  NPBLE     20         19.10   20.37   19.27    17.21
Belt Only  NPBLE     25         27.90   25.86   25.89    24.56
Belt Only  NPBLE     30         31.10   32.03   31.86    31.69
Belt Only  NPBLE     35         36.10   38.45   39.05    44.66
Belt Only  PBLE       5          5.24    4.80    4.26     4.33
Belt Only  PBLE      10         15.80   15.59   12.52    11.51
Belt Only  PBLE      15         19.70   20.35   19.77    17.29
Belt Only  PBLE      20         21.60   24.98   24.09    23.34
Belt Only  PBLE      25         23.00   30.15   30.93    30.23
Belt Only  PBLE      30         40.60   44.94   48.66    76.85
Belt Only  PBLE      35        102.00   52.80   90.41   126.44
Belt Only  NCAP      35         70.30   52.24   78.34   134.62
Belt Only  NCAP      35        169.00  165.52  219.60   211.75
Belt Only  NCAP      35        161.00  171.20  182.29   191.12
Belt Only  NCAP      35        103.00   50.47   69.67   124.34
Belt Only  NCAP      35        135.00   71.46  138.63   173.28
Belt Only  NCAP      35        139.00   72.67  143.78   169.27
Belt Only  NCAP      35        148.00   58.56  139.22   163.64
Belt Only  NCAP      35         84.50   51.31   58.98   104.51
Belt Only  NCAP      35        140.00   65.40  143.53   171.86
Belt Only  NCAP      35        127.00   50.22   84.31   125.52
Belt Only  NCAP      35        151.00  128.20  172.76   179.48
Belt Only  NCAP      35        148.00   72.16  141.17   180.64

                 HIC 15                     Upper Neck Fx (kN)
Restraint  HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO  HIII50  35 YO    55 YO

Belt Only     1       0      0      0     0.09    0.09   0.08
Belt Only     2       2      2      1     0.33    0.16   0.15
Belt Only     9       9      6      4     0.52    0.20   0.21
Belt Only    21      25     17     14     0.67    0.28   0.26
Belt Only    39      44     42     42     0.77    0.31   0.35
Belt Only    63      74     80     78     0.88    0.35   0.39
Belt Only    90     123    127    142     1.34    0.38   0.46
Belt Only     1       1      1      1     0.18    0.13   0.13
Belt Only    11      10      6      4     0.54    0.21   0.24
Belt Only    20      27     21     16     0.66    0.27   0.29
Belt Only    26      41     37     36     0.73    0.29   0.30
Belt Only    33      64     68     69     0.81    0.30   0.34
Belt Only   102     169    191    353     1.42    0.37   0.41
Belt Only   784     247    466   1050     1.70    0.38   0.46
Belt Only   386     249    445   1188     1.54    0.45   0.47
Belt Only  1946    1732   1799   1812     2.50    0.85   0.82
Belt Only  1992    1875   2287   2589     2.20    1.01   0.71
Belt Only   734     242    344    922     1.72    0.41   0.49
Belt Only  1447     409   1221   2132     2.07    0.75   0.77
Belt Only  1461     427   1306   1950     2.04    0.70   0.75
Belt Only  1343     322   1154   1906     1.89    0.62   0.72
Belt Only   596     237    302    805     1.62    0.44   0.49
Belt Only  1360     398   1327   1922     1.98    0.68   0.78
Belt Only   989     237    436   1029     1.90    0.44   0.60
Belt Only  1623    1105   1171   1218     2.15    0.87   0.70
Belt Only  1384     430   1293   2147     2.08    0.72   0.77


Restraint  75 YO

Belt Only  0.07
Belt Only  0.13
Belt Only  0.20
Belt Only  0.28
Belt Only  0.34
Belt Only  0.40
Belt Only  0.44
Belt Only  0.11
Belt Only  0.22
Belt Only  0.27
Belt Only  0.35
Belt Only  0.35
Belt Only  0.37
Belt Only  0.48
Belt Only  0.52
Belt Only  0.74
Belt Only  0.64
Belt Only  0.45
Belt Only  0.61
Belt Only  0.57
Belt Only  0.47
Belt Only  0.51
Belt Only  0.61
Belt Only  0.49
Belt Only  0.65
Belt Only  0.56

Table A16. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V          Upper Neck [F.sub.z] kN
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5        0.11    0.09   0.07   0.05
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        0.39    0.25   0.23   0.19
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        0.53    0.50   0.42   0.32
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        0.69    0.61   0.47   0.36
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        0.99    0.74   0.54   0.42
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        1.11    0.84   0.68   0.56
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        1.32    0.94   0.83   0.62
Belt Only  PBLE       5        0.15    0.17   0.12   0.10
Belt Only  PBLE      10        0.59    0.52   0.43   0.34
Belt Only  PBLE      15        0.71    0.65   0.50   0.44
Belt Only  PBLE      20        0.78    0.72   0.59   0.48
Belt Only  PBLE      25        0.85    0.77   0.62   0.52
Belt Only  PBLE      30        1.37    0.93   0.86   0.69
Belt Only  PBLE      35        1.84    1.02   0.92   0.69
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.43    0.96   0.99   0.76
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.56    1.20   0.87   0.69
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.72    1.16   0.93   0.60
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.86    1.04   1.02   0.77
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.25    1.16   0.91   0.59
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.05    1.13   0.90   0.88
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.02    1.11   0.84   0.74
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.69    1.05   1.20   0.80
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.90    1.11   0.88   0.92
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.77    1.03   1.25   0.81
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.24    1.04   0.78   0.55
Belt Only  NCAP      35        1.96    1.09   0.89   0.65

Restraint  Seve    Upper Neck [M.sub.y] N.m    Upper  Neck [N.sub.ij]
                 HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO   HIII50  35 YO  55 YO

Belt Only  NPBL   1.75    1.10   0.71    0.61   0.04    0.02   0.01
Belt Only  NPBL  22.78    1.63   1.44    1.26   0.09    0.04   0.04
Belt Only  NPBL  44.15    1.69   1.16    1.01   0.16    0.08   0.06
Belt Only  NPBL  55.39    0.88   0.95    1.03   0.21    0.09   0.07
Belt Only  NPBL  61.19    1.40   1.49    2.27   0.24    0.11   0.08
Belt Only  NPBL  69.79    1.96   1.83    2.62   0.28    0.13   0.10
Belt Only  NPBL  52.52    2.17   3.25    3.02   0.38    0.14   0.13
Belt Only  PBLE   6.29    1.77   1.12    0.77   0.06    0.03   0.02
Belt Only  PBLE  47.05    1.63   1.24    0.94   0.17    0.08   0.07
Belt Only  PBLE  55.79    0.90   0.94    1.20   0.20    0.10   0.08
Belt Only  PBLE  56.31    1.30   1.32    2.19   0.21    0.11   0.09
Belt Only  PBLE  88.06    1.47   1.51    2.42   0.24    0.12   0.10
Belt Only  PBLE  72.80    1.91   3.54    3.50   0.41    0.14   0.14
Belt Only  PBLE  41.66    2.22   5.31    9.60   0.79    0.16   0.15
Belt Only  NCAP  64.41    2.11   6.16    6.44   0.40    0.15   0.16
Belt Only  NCAP  18.05   10.41   8.68    6.92   1.49    0.21   0.15
Belt Only  NCAP  25.44   12.29   8.03    6.72   1.31    0.20   0.16
Belt Only  NCAP  49.37    2.60   5.85    5.99   0.69    0.16   0.17
Belt Only  NCAP  28.00    5.41   6.28    6.71   1.09    0.18   0.15
Belt Only  NCAP  27.43    4.61   6.29   14.62   1.08    0.18   0.15
Belt Only  NCAP  20.47    5.31   5.46    8.67   1.09    0.17   0.14
Belt Only  NCAP  62.12    3.22   8.38    5.89   0.67    0.17   0.20
Belt Only  NCAP  25.82    4.14   6.38   14.09   0.98    0.17   0.15
Belt Only  NCAP  44.62    2.45   9.16    6.12   0.97    0.16   0.21
Belt Only  NCAP   1.46    7.64   5.60    5.93   1.22    0.17   0.13
Belt Only  NCAP  32.18    2.63   5.80    8.37   1.04    0.17   0.15

Restraint
           75 YO

Belt Only  0.01
Belt Only  0.03
Belt Only  0.05
Belt Only  0.06
Belt Only  0.06
Belt Only  0.09
Belt Only  0.10
Belt Only  0.02
Belt Only  0.05
Belt Only  0.07
Belt Only  0.07
Belt Only  0.08
Belt Only  0.11
Belt Only  0.13
Belt Only  0.13
Belt Only  0.12
Belt Only  0.11
Belt Only  0.13
Belt Only  0.11
Belt Only  0.17
Belt Only  0.14
Belt Only  0.14
Belt Only  0.18
Belt Only  0.14
Belt Only  0.10
Belt Only  0.12

Table A17. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V    Chest Acceleration g
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO   55 YO   75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5         4.81     5.33   5.36   5.81
Belt Only  NPBLE     10         7.19    10.63   9.67  10.27
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        11.80    14.31  14.88  14.26
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        16.50    19.54  19.39  18.94
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        22.30    22.16  26.30  30.96
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        26.80    23.46  34.15  35.41
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        30.30    29.42  40.01  47.06
Belt Only  PBLE       5         5.58     8.95   8.70   9.12
Belt Only  PBLE      10        12.70    15.65  15.58  15.09
Belt Only  PBLE      15        15.90    20.19  18.18  19.03
Belt Only  PBLE      20        19.50    22.22  24.29  26.53
Belt Only  PBLE      25        21.20    22.97  26.27  29.31
Belt Only  PBLE      30        25.50    28.21  39.11  40.57
Belt Only  PBLE      35        30.20    32.00  42.12  55.83
Belt Only  NCAP      35        36.00    36.19  45.15  59.85
Belt Only  NCAP      35        62.40   102.81  98.77  90.80
Belt Only  NCAP      35        53.40    64.81  89.84  86.88
Belt Only  NCAP      35        29.50    32.32  41.67  49.59
Belt Only  NCAP      35        46.40    48.40  71.48  77.78
Belt Only  NCAP      35        43.90    49.51  63.34  75.55
Belt Only  NCAP      35        36.70    41.53  53.60  65.01
Belt Only  NCAP      35        29.30    36.85  40.92  49.01
Belt Only  NCAP      35        40.20    45.94  57.82  73.75
Belt Only  NCAP      35        32.60    34.01  50.45  55.62
Belt Only  NCAP      35        46.30   115.06  75.71  80.45
Belt Only  NCAP      35        41.20    41.81  60.22  76.03

Restraint  Chest Acceleration 3 ms Clip g       Normalized UC
           HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO      HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only   4       5      5       6        0.02    0.07   0.08   0.10
Belt Only   7      10      9      10        0.04    0.10   0.13   0.14
Belt Only  12      14     14      14        0.07    0.13   0.15   0.17
Belt Only  16      19     19      18        0.10    0.15   0.18   0.20
Belt Only  22      21     24      24        0.11    0.17   0.20   0.23
Belt Only  26      23     28      27        0.12    0.21   0.25   0.28
Belt Only  30      27     31      36        0.14    0.25   0.30   0.33
Belt Only   5       9      8       8        0.03    0.08   0.11   0.12
Belt Only  13      15     15      15        0.08    0.13   0.16   0.18
Belt Only  16      19     18      18        0.09    0.15   0.18   0.20
Belt Only  19      21     22      22        0.10    0.16   0.19   0.22
Belt Only  21      22     24      23        0.11    0.19   0.25   0.28
Belt Only  25      27     30      34        0.16    0.29   0.35   0.39
Belt Only  30      30     39      53        0.17    0.32   0.38   0.40
Belt Only  35      35     42      58        0.18    0.31   0.38   0.41
Belt Only  61      65     75      72        0.24    0.42   0.50   0.56
Belt Only  53      56     69      67        0.20    0.41   0.45   0.53
Belt Only  29      31     33      40        0.17    0.32   0.36   0.40
Belt Only  45      42     57      60        0.18    0.35   0.40   0.46
Belt Only  43      41     50      57        0.18    0.36   0.41   0.47
Belt Only  36      36     45      57        0.18    0.36   0.40   0.44
Belt Only  29      35     36      44        0.18    0.31   0.36   0.39
Belt Only  39      39     47      56        0.18    0.36   0.41   0.47
Belt Only  32      32     39      47        0.18    0.34   0.36   0.41
Belt Only  46      62     60      59        0.20    0.38   0.45   0.50
Belt Only  41      38     49      58        0.18    0.35   0.40   0.46

Table A18. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V    Pelvis  Acceleration g
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO   55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5         14.80    6.59    6.70    6.85
Belt Only  NPBLE     10         18.70   10.99   12.44   11.42
Belt Only  NPBLE     15         28.60   16.53   16.18   15.64
Belt Only  NPBLE     20         37.10   20.82   21.12   21.76
Belt Only  NPBLE     25         42.50   26.21   27.70   35.29
Belt Only  NPBLE     30         40.80   33.31   37.46   40.14
Belt Only  NPBLE     35         47.10   37.95   45.25   56.46
Belt Only  PBLE       5         16.30    8.74    9.85    9.52
Belt Only  PBLE      10         29.90   17.08   16.65   17.63
Belt Only  PBLE      15         38.90   22.68   21.09   20.43
Belt Only  PBLE      20         38.30   25.77   24.73   29.66
Belt Only  PBLE      25         35.90   26.81   25.99   29.16
Belt Only  PBLE      30         38.90   30.27   31.87   37.40
Belt Only  PBLE      35         45.10   39.30   36.97   44.12
Belt Only  NCAP      35         56.70   45.72   50.46   51.30
Belt Only  NCAP      35        118.65  128.14   90.44  107.90
Belt Only  NCAP      35         97.34  100.37   97.15   84.45
Belt Only  NCAP      35         5D.8D   41.80   54.55   50.63
Belt Only  NCAP      35         85.10   74.41   83.02   89.01
Belt Only  NCAP      35         80.10   59.93   67.90   81.16
Belt Only  NCAP      35         66.00   44.66   49.91   56.59
Belt Only  NCAP      35         52.90   55.67   58.27   87.27
Belt Only  NCAP      35         71.70   70.28   78.12   79.15
Belt Only  NCAP      35         56.20   40.10   45.18   59.76
Belt Only  NCAP      35         112.00  78.91   64.36   81.09
Belt Only  NCAP      35         73.50   69.70   75.98   94.60

Restraint       L. Femur [F.sub.z] kN         R. Femur [F.sub.z] kN
            HIII50 35 YO  55 YO  75 YO  HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    2.85   0.42   0.59   0.64    1.13    0.47   0.67   0.76
Belt Only    4.16   0.62   0.71   0.76    2.77    0.64   0.85   0.93
Belt Only    5.34   0.80   0.79   0.96    3.89    0.81   1.00   1.05
Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    NC     NC     NC     NC      NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    1.11   0.28   0.38   0.48    NC      NC     NC     NC
Belt Only    2.64   0.35   0.52   0.57    0.97    0.38   0.54   0.70
Belt Only    3.14   0.40   0.55   0.60    1.47    0.42   0.62   0.71
Belt Only    4.45   0.59   0.70   0.73    2.77    0.64   0.82   0.94
Belt Only    5.47   0.76   0.87   0.94    3.76    0.77   0.98   1.10
Belt Only    7.51   0.89   0.95   1.08    5.61    1.09   1.05   1.16
Belt Only   14.30   2.36   2.35   2.41   13.40    2.47   2.50   2.63
Belt Only   12.10   1.87   2.02   2.03   10.70    2.08   2.03   2.26
Belt Only    6.47   0.87   0.88   0.97    4.62    0.84   1.00   1.05
Belt Only   10.60   1.39   1.61   1.72    8.79    1.59   1.63   1.85
Belt Only    9.65   1.46   1.44   1.58    8.00    1.62   1.53   1.67
Belt Only    7.45   1.10   1.20   1.25    5.97    1.12   1.36   1.38
Belt Only    7.54   0.87   0.92   1.06    5.66    1.05   1.02   1.11
Belt Only    8.96   1.20   1.32   1.50    6.92    1.41   1.41   1.55
Belt Only    7.58   0.90   0.96   1.00    5.52    0.91   1.07   1.14
Belt Only   10.70   1.59   1.67   1.79    8.84    1.73   1.83   1.95
Belt Only    9.46   1.32   1.43   1.66    7.90    1.44   1.55   1.75

Table A19. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V   Upper Left  Tibia [F.sub.z] kN  N.m
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5        0.46    0.04   0.07   0.08
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        0.63    0.14   0.17   0.19
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        0.76    0.26   0.25   0.24
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        0.89    0.32   0.31   0.31
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        1.41    0.38   0.36   0.37
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        2.05    0.42   0.37   0.50
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        2.61    0.45   0.50   0.62
Belt Only  PBLE      5         0.52    0.08   0.12   0.16
Belt Only  PBLE      10        0.76    0.27   0.26   0.26
Belt Only  PBLE      15        1.01    0.34   0.33   0.33
Belt Only  PBLE      20        1.25    0.40   0.36   0.36
Belt Only  PBLE      25        1.32    0.41   0.37   0.37
Belt Only  PBLE      30        2.08    0.38   0.37   0.43
Belt Only  PBLE      35        2.67    0.38   0.36   0.50
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.25    0.61   0.83   0.99
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.78    1.36   1.59   1.61
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.38    1.00   1.03   1.11
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.03    0.50   0.63   0.79
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.22    0.92   0.97   1.02
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.69    0.68   0.92   1.00
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.45    0.45   0.47   0.78
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.53    0.59   0.79   0.91
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.95    0.89   0.96   1.03
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.86    0.49   0.58   0.82
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.24    1.05   1.09   1.18
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.20    0.89   0.99   0.97

Restraint  Upper Left Tibia [M.sub.x]N.m   Upper Left Tibia [M.sub.y]
           HIII50  35 YO   55 YO  75 YO   HIII50  35 YO   55 YO   75 YO

Belt Only  20.05    2.13    2.72   2.90    25.77   10.36   11.76   12.50
Belt Only  25.80    4.04    4.54   4.67    43.67   18.14   20.70   22.26
Belt Only  36.95    5.40    6.39   7.07    53.55   26.90   29.57   29.92
Belt Only  47.96    6.54    7.12   7.37    60.35   31.70   34.81   30.57
Belt Only  54.99    7.27    8.04   8.40    69.17   38.69   34.82   34.61
Belt Only  53.52    7.96    8.75   8.74    86.04   41.38   37.45   40.46
Belt Only  55.59    7.92    9.99   9.34   105.22   43.14   41.68   46.41
Belt Only  25.93    3.17    4.07   3.99    31.76   14.44   15.84   15.82
Belt Only  39.02    5.68    6.44   7.31    55.93   28.72   31.45   31.02
Belt Only  49.98    6.39    7.32   7.46    60.81   33.37   34.02   28.46
Belt Only  51.84    6.92    7.96   7.91    66.04   35.85   30.33   29.20
Belt Only  50.45    7.17    8.41   8.22    69.83   35.85   30.55   31.37
Belt Only  48.12    7.79    9.74  10.16    98.86   43.36   35.62   33.19
Belt Only  48.99    7.75   11.12  10.83   116.62   48.59   44.94   40.27
Belt Only  41.58    9.17   10.89  10.71   131.13   47.43   49.06   59.93
Belt Only  70.69   17.57   17.31  19.16   228.91   98.11  113.19  114.4
Belt Only  90.67   11.47   11.60  14.54   220.27   80.83   87.67   91.14
Belt Only  37.77    8.66   11.20  10.64   103.50   42.10   40.30   48.54
Belt Only  67.57   11.97   11.93  12.34   174.71   71.89   77.42   82.77
Belt Only  58.29   10.95   12.84  12.42   165.38   61.41   69.05   73.56
Belt Only  45.22    9.52   11.62  12.95   138.48   50.95   51.56   53.63
Belt Only  44.13    8.81   11.35  10.97   143.45   50.01   50.55   58.12
Belt Only  59.46    9.74   11.56  12.00   151.07   56.53   67.36   74.10
Belt Only  40.02    9.82   11.88  11.96   129.59   40.53   44.38   49.35
Belt Only  61.16   10.28   14.31  15.03   172.91   70.91   80.45   87.56
Belt Only  69.86   10.08   10.88  12.53   173.13   58.67   73.23   79.35

Table A20. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V  Lower Left Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO


Belt Only  NPBLE      5        0.56    0.05   0.08   0.09
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        0.76    0.17   0.21   0.24
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        0.92    0.31   0.32   0.32
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        1.07    0.39   0.41   0.42
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        1.83    0.49   0.48   0.49
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        2.64    0.54   0.53   0.57
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        3.36    0.60   0.58   0.62
Belt Only  PBLE       5        0.63    0.10   0.15   0.19
Belt Only  PBLE      10        0.92    0.33   0.34   0.34
Belt Only  PBLE      15        1.23    0.42   0.43   0.44
Belt Only  PBLE      20        1.52    0.50   0.48   0.49
Belt Only  PBLE      25        1.60    0.53   0.50   0.51
Belt Only  PBLE      30        2.81    0.51   0.54   0.53
Belt Only  PBLE      35        3.56    0.51   0.53   0.54
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.81    0.70   0.76   0.87
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.97    1.24   1.49   1.60
Belt Only  NCAP      35        6.55    0.90   1.00   1.10
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.56    0.65   0.70   0.74
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.06    0.77   0.92   1.01
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.83    0.68   0.87   0.97
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.58    0.60   0.63   0.72
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.20    0.68   0.76   0.83
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.94    0.73   0.87   0.97
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.48    0.63   0.67   0.76
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.36    0.87   1.02   1.13
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.32    0.76   0.90   0.95

Restraint  Lower Left Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m  Lower Left Tibia
                                           [M.sub.y] N.m
           HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO     HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only   7.98   0.96    0.95    0.82     15.18    4.53   5.20   5.04
Belt Only  10.32   1.94    1.92    2.19     17.53    8.27   8.55   8.92
Belt Only  11.77   2.58    2.92    3.69     19.37   11.49  12.45  11.93
Belt Only  14.57   3.80    5.14    5.13     22.04   17.07  15.63  13.65
Belt Only  19.16   4.99    6.34    6.38     31.32   19.25  17.70  11.27
Belt Only  21.26   6.01    6.56    7.31     38.47   21.19  15.20  11.78
Belt Only  20.99   7.46    7.48    8.55     46.28   21.38  15.13  14.58
Belt Only   8.81   1.29    1.23    1.71     16.36    5.82   6.93   6.46
Belt Only  12.01   2.73    3.40    4.46     20.04   11.80  13.24  12.91
Belt Only  15.73   4.32    5.02    4.85     25.07   16.85  15.49  12.58
Belt Only  18.15   5.30    5.15    5.41     31.87   17.61  15.01  10.73
Belt Only  17.84   6.57    5.56    5.82     34.28   16.91  14.98  10.85
Belt Only  17.66   6.24    6.45    6.53     51.94   24.71  19.18  14.91
Belt Only  20.94   7.72    8.33    8.71     56.13   28.19  23.89  18.09
Belt Only  16.57   9.93    9.35   10.19     43.48   21.62  21.35  19.84
Belt Only  49.21  19.41   25.72   25.89     54.81   33.56  47.29  48.02
Belt Only  41.38  17.08   17.11   18.40     51.52   34.43  33.27  38.22
Belt Only  15.30   8.26    7.91    7.98     47.63   18.81  15.60  14.81
Belt Only  21.49  13.43   15.12   16.61     45.59   26.14  26.53  30.17
Belt Only  22.71  12.65   13.48   15.55     55.62   26.73  26.92  25.59
Belt Only  26.99   9.61    9.62   11.92     65.93   30.55  24.95  21.71
Belt Only  16.89  10.50   9.76     9.79     40.51   23.72  22.95  19.45
Belt Only  20.47   9.44   11.97   14.61     46.77   17.83  18.84  24.25
Belt Only  15.08   8.31    8.18    8.86     42.03   18.45  17.15  14.94
Belt Only  20.26  13.49   17.41   16.89     52.01   21.26  27.87  29.99
Belt Only  24.93   9.92   12.62   14.26     51.12   18.04  21.09  24.78

Table A21. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V  Upper Righ Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5        0.44    0.04   0.06   0.07
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        0.62    0.08   0.14   0.17
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        0.76    0.23   0.21   0.25
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        0.89    0.28   0.26   0.28
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        0.99    0.35   0.32   0.37
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        1.32    0.38   0.38   0.49
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        1.89    0.41   0.47   0.63
Belt Only  PBLE       5        0.50    0.05   0.09   0.14
Belt Only  PBLE      10        0.76    0.25   0.23   0.26
Belt Only  PBLE      15        1.00    0.33   0.29   0.29
Belt Only  PBLE      20        1.25    0.36   0.34   0.33
Belt Only  PBLE      25        1.32    0.35   0.35   0.42
Belt Only  PBLE      30        1.47    0.33   0.36   0.41
Belt Only  PBLE      35        1.97    0.34   0.37   0.47
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.21    0.59   0.83   0.89
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.58    1.31   1.47   1.72
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.40    0.92   0.98   1.16
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.03    0.50   0.68   0.78
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.11    0.86   0.97   1.00
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.99    0.68   0.90   0.96
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.69    0.46   0.53   0.75
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.53    0.58   0.78   0.87
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.96    0.87   0.90   0.96
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.34    0.51   0.61   0.79
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.15    1.03   1.07   1.14
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.10    0.93   0.90   0.93

Restraint  Upper Right Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m
           HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  11.66    2.20   2.95   3.00
Belt Only  25.17    3.80   4.78   4.70
Belt Only  36.13    5.83   6.24   6.16
Belt Only  44.80    6.79   6.92   7.56
Belt Only  43.80    7.76   7.66   8.29
Belt Only  43.39    8.68   8.68   9.72
Belt Only  35.63    9.83   9.78  10.30
Belt Only  17.15    3.13   4.13   4.05
Belt Only  35.37    6.01   6.48   6.53
Belt Only  45.21    6.82   7.10   7.85
Belt Only  34.75    7.40   7.95   7.83
Belt Only  34.71    7.67   8.31   8.62
Belt Only  42.09    9.06   9.93  10.71
Belt Only  39.14    9.95  10.45  10.95
Belt Only  45.06   11.17  12.14  12.33
Belt Only  69.82   17.44  16.70  21.04
Belt Only  56.21   15.66  12.75  15.93
Belt Only  39.02   10.04  12.04  12.76
Belt Only  48.50   14.77  12.25  14.48
Belt Only  43.79   13.86  13.83  14.48
Belt Only  39.92   10.91  12.78  12.95
Belt Only  44.09   10.03  11.45  11.79
Belt Only  49.44   10.76  12.21  14.13
Belt Only  36.20   11.09  13.19  13.23
Belt Only  45.01   12.69  13.24  15.13
Belt Only  48.39   11.78  11.76  14.16

Restraint  Upper Right Tibia [M.sub.y] N.m
           HIII50   35 YO  55 YO    75 YO

Belt Only   28.08   11.50   11.79   12.66
Belt Only   41.00   19.18   21.41   22.84
Belt Only   52.48   27.98   30.48   31.42
Belt Only   61.45   35.62   35.55   31.20
Belt Only   67.57   40.28   36.66   34.58
Belt Only   75.31   41.39   38.54   39.97
Belt Only   89.78   42.38   40.40   46.53
Belt Only   32.92   15.65   17.29   17.78
Belt Only   52.07   29.86   32.14   32.15
Belt Only   61.05   35.15   35.30   31.09
Belt Only   65.27   36.92   34.76   30.17
Belt Only   66.01   37.70   33.41   31.24
Belt Only   90.78   45.86   38.49   33.33
Belt Only  107.83   50.79   46.56   41.60
Belt Only  119.03   46.06   48.11   60.33
Belt Only  202.29   96.41  115.76  119.18
Belt Only  189.34   81.50   87.76   88.81
Belt Only   94.25   38.03   41.89   47.78
Belt Only  153.98   71.91   81.04   81.03
Belt Only  148.71   63.12   67.62   73.40
Belt Only  135.89   52.98   50.52   52.94
Belt Only  130.05   46.99   49.75   57.70
Belt Only  128.95   56.54   68.21   75.49
Belt Only  117.30   41.47   40.69   50.51
Belt Only  162.37   74.54   80.52   90.44
Belt Only  131.68   62.52   74.09   78.64

Table A22. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V  Lower Righ Tibia [F.sub.z] kN
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO


Belt Only  NPBLE      5        0.54    0.06   0.05   0.08
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        0.75    0.11   0.18   0.21
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        0.92    0.28   0.27   0.32
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        1.08    0.35   0.34   0.38
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        1.20    0.45   0.45   0.46
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        1.73    0.50   0.49   0.54
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        2.45    0.56   0.55   0.60
Belt Only  PBLE       5        0.60    0.06   0.10   0.16
Belt Only  PBLE      10        0.92    0.30   0.29   0.34
Belt Only  PBLE      15        1.21    0.40   0.39   0.41
Belt Only  PBLE      20        1.51    0.45   0.45   0.46
Belt Only  PBLE      25        1.59    0.47   0.47   0.45
Belt Only  PBLE      30        2.02    0.46   0.49   0.54
Belt Only  PBLE      35        2.67    0.45   0.50   0.54
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.77    0.66   0.78   0.84
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.99    1.17   1.41   1.71
Belt Only  NCAP      35        5.17    0.83   0.96   1.13
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.52    0.58   0.68   0.75
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.84    0.72   0.92   0.98
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.92    0.67   0.86   0.97
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.64    0.54   0.61   0.69
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.17    0.62   0.77   0.84
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.80    0.74   0.83   0.95
Belt Only  NCAP      35        2.93    0.56   0.69   0.76
Belt Only  NCAP      35        4.04    0.84   1.06   1.10
Belt Only  NCAP      35        3.92    0.77   0.85   0.93

Restraint  Lower Right Tibia [M.sub.x] N.m  Lower Right Tibia [M.sub.y]
                                                     N.m
           HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO    HIII50  35 YO   55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only   4.70    1.38   1.27    1.02    22.78    5.42   4.89   4.95
Belt Only  11.06    1.59   1.75    2.11    16.41    8.60   9.33   9.33
Belt Only  12.46    2.32   2.74    4.16    20.08   12.94  13.14  12.76
Belt Only  15.76    3.09   5.04    5.18    21.92   17.15  16.18  13.36
Belt Only  13.52    5.18   6.41    6.12    27.45   20.06  18.86  13.45
Belt Only  14.17    6.47   6.96    7.16    39.56   22.01  17.11  13.49
Belt Only  15.31    6.94   7.86    9.14    42.77   22.66  16.96  13.33
Belt Only   7.80    1.39   1.40    1.49    19.69    6.34   6.92   6.71
Belt Only  11.86    2.57   3.42    4.57    18.97   13.78  13.96  13.64
Belt Only  15.38    3.73   5.13    5.25    26.88   17.76  16.15  14.06
Belt Only  11.83    4.68   5.69    5.14    29.06   18.31  16.96  11.81
Belt Only  12.06    5.58   5.76    5.24    28.38   18.31  16.43  10.58
Belt Only  12.26    6.61   7.80    6.52    47.38   26.69  21.30  15.81
Belt Only  12.37    8.52   9.15    9.03    52.63   29.63  25.05  20.06
Belt Only  15.77   10.09   9.21   10.60    37.14   24.57  20.59  20.84
Belt Only  23.42   19.79  23.37   26.15    58.06   32.35  41.76  48.78
Belt Only  21.71   16.98  18.56   18.36    50.59   33.98  34.44  38.22
Belt Only  13.81    7.81   7.54    7.76    49.06   17.20  17.45  14.64
Belt Only  21.25   13.43  15.63   16.46    43.33   26.70  28.10  32.69
Belt Only  15.67   12.29  14.94   15.54    52.27   27.71  26.46  26.83
Belt Only  14.02   10.60  10.17   11.38    58.53   30.96  26.20  21.63
Belt Only  17.02    9.66   9.65   10.03    42.69   22.61  22.22  20.38
Belt Only  18.08    9.09  12.10   14.58    45.95   19.46  19.09  23.18
Belt Only  14.98    7.76   7.47    9.04    50.58   17.55  17.19  14.19
Belt Only  17.10   13.44  15.53   17.33    56.33   21.72  26.53  30.74
Belt Only  20.33   9.69   13.07   15.20    49.33   17.87  21.73  25.55

Table A23. FHBM and HIII50 peak responses of matched-condition sled
impact simulations (belt only)

Restraint  Severity  [DELTA]V  Left Foot Acceleration
                     mph       HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  NPBLE      5         9.23   13.44  14.29   15.35
Belt Only  NPBLE     10        29.23   23.60  24.26   24.22
Belt Only  NPBLE     15        41.94   31.53  30.41   32.61
Belt Only  NPBLE     20        48.81   38.74  34.31   35.08
Belt Only  NPBLE     25        55.41   42.70  39.13   36.35
Belt Only  NPBLE     30        60.04   46.06  43.38   51.25
Belt Only  NPBLE     35        63.21   55.71  53.91   53.32
Belt Only  PBLE       5        18.06   15.23  19.80   18.62
Belt Only  PBLE      10        42.99   32.65  31.25   31.88
Belt Only  PBLE      15        46.79   42.46  43.16   34.99
Belt Only  PBLE      20        48.71   44.64  45.15   39.52
Belt Only  PBLE      25        50.42   47.68  49.09   42.32
Belt Only  PBLE      30        51.27   51.78  51.13   53.34
Belt Only  PBLE      35        61.22   58.89  55.00   58.40
Belt Only  NCAP      35        84.14   68.69  90.87   77.34
Belt Only  NCAP      35       101.10   86.86  93.69  104.42
Belt Only  NCAP      35        79.29   62.00  60.55   68.53
Belt Only  NCAP      35        50.11   56.84  47.83   52.68
Belt Only  NCAP      35        66.58   54.87  49.95   46.13
Belt Only  NCAP      35        68.89   49.75  61.82   57.80
Belt Only  NCAP      35        56.44   45.08  65.61   66.31
Belt Only  NCAP      35        63.10   51.03  53.93   54.80
Belt Only  NCAP      35        78.76   60.26  61.17   67.06
Belt Only  NCAP      35        45.29   51.96  61.25   63.50
Belt Only  NCAP      35        85.17   73.61  60.12   65.64
Belt Only  NCAP      35        65.00   53.05  59.22   50.73

Restraint  Right Foot Acceleration      Shoulder Belt Force
           HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO  HIII50  35 YO  55 YO  75 YO

Belt Only  10.26   13.36  13.36  15.05   0.59    0.88   0.88   0.83
Belt Only  26.49   22.86  23.47  23.36   1.41    1.87   1.95   2.03
Belt Only  41.70   34.53  31.11  33.33   2.38    2.95   3.08   3.12
Belt Only  48.80   38.97  36.75  34.11   3.38    3.93   4.08   3.97
Belt Only  54.83   42.33  40.35  39.13   4.25    4.82   4.74   4.84
Belt Only  58.19   50.06  51.11  42.58   5.10    5.71   5.55   5.69
Belt Only  62.72   52.03  53.31  47.55   5.95    6.37   6.44   6.58
Belt Only  16.33   15.86  19.48  19.12   0.99    1.41   1.45   1.45
Belt Only  40.76   32.59  32.33  32.29   2.59    3.18   3.30   3.31
Belt Only  48.04   39.58  39.11  35.58   3.24    3.87   4.02   3.92
Belt Only  51.48   48.34  44.18  40.75   3.66    4.38   4.46   4.41
Belt Only  54.53   53.09  54.18  44.04   3.86    4.61   4.60   4.63
Belt Only  55.76   56.93  59.45  48.59   5.95    6.52   6.61   6.73
Belt Only  55.30   60.01  61.25  51.35   6.50    7.07   7.21   7.18
Belt Only  57.53   49.67  67.05  63.68   6.02    6.79   6.87   6.98
Belt Only  93.84   72.68  89.30  93.25  11.90   11.92  11.65  11.25
Belt Only  80.75   56.77  62.66  53.60  10.60   11.14  10.92  10.60
Belt Only  55.56   51.08  55.65  64.93   6.64    7.20   7.48   7.56
Belt Only  65.92   50.39  51.02  52.00   8.96    9.50   9.56   9.42
Belt Only  71.76   55.51  65.76  56.50   8.61    9.23   9.28   9.19
Belt Only  56.85   60.64  57.41  46.28   8.22    8.86   8.94   8.91
Belt Only  76.72   66.21  81.36  72.97   6.03    6.84   7.05   7.13
Belt Only  82.58   65.53  49.90  58.88   8.30    8.93   9.03   8.93
Belt Only  57.84   59.56  62.17  63.05   7.57    7.99   8.33   8.33
Belt Only  90.93   65.25  66.57  64.63   9.52   10.17  10.10   9.85
Belt Only  63.77   50.89  64.07  56.38   8.58    9.03   9.12   9.04
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Author:El-jawahri, Raed E.; Laituri, Tony R.; Kim, Agnes S.; Rouhana, Stephen W.; Weerappuli, Para V.
Publication:SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2015
Words:20630
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