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Financial management practices for empowerment of women's self help groups in micro finance--a study.

Introduction

Microfinance is the provision of financial services such as micro credit, micro savings and micro insurance to the active poor people. By helping them to accumulate large sums of money, this expands their choices and reduces the risks they face. The roots of micro finance can be found in many places, but the best known story is that of Muhammad Yunus and the founding of Bangladesh's Grameen Bank. Micro finance has garnered significant worldwide attention as being successful to meet the substantial demand for financial services by low-income micro entrepreneurs. It has evolved over the past quarter century across India into various operating forms and to a varying degree of success. India now occupies a significant place and a niche in global microfinance through promotion of the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and the home grown SHG--Bank Linkage (SBL) model.

The Self Help Group is considered as a viable organization of the rural poor particularly women, who are marginalized groups of our society due to the present of socio-economic constraints in the rural areas, for delivering micro credit in order to undertake entrepreneurial activities. While no definitive date has been determined for the actual conception and propagation of SHGs, the practice of small groups of rural and urban people bonding together to form a savings and credit organization is well established in India. By the 1990s, SHGs were viewed by State governments and NGOs to be more than just a financial intermediation but as a common interest group, working on other concerns as well. People below poverty line, mostly women, voluntarily join SHGs as members. In recent years, both the number of SHGs and their membership is constantly increasing in India. The concept of 'Self-Help-Group' is not a generic term. It refers only to the groups formed by people particularly women below the poverty line. The policies in respect of the formation of WSHGs emphasize the inclusion of the poorest of the poor.

II. Need for the Study

Rural Women's contribution to the economy is quite significant. Over 50 per cent of the working women in rural areas are engaged in agriculture and allied activities. SGHS are playing an important role in optimization of natural and human resources through people's participation. The success of SHGs lies in the regularity in the flow of finance on the one hand availability of ready markets for their products on the other. Proper monitoring, and supervision of the income generating activities and utilization of credit is necessary. This paper is an attempt to examine the financial management practices of Women's Self-Help Groups in Microfinance.

III. Objective of the Study

Keeping in view the importance of the study area, the objective of this research paper is set at analyzing the financial management practices of the sample SGHs, which is an integral part for the successful running of the SHGs in microfinance.

IV. Data Sources and Methodology

The research study considered both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was collected from the 300 sample respondents using pre-tested questionnaire. Secondary data was collected from books, journals, research papers, and Reports of NABARD, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivriddhi Society (APMAS), Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project (APRLP), Centre for Economics and Social Sciences (CESS), etc. Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh State was chosen for the study. Six mandals are selected randomly and five villages from each Mandal are purposively selected. At the same time 10 SHG members are selected from each village. Multi-stage stratified random sampling is used for the present study.

V. Analysis and Interpretation

Though the access to credit has been seen as a motivational factor behind the formation of Self Help Groups (SHGs), SHGs have a potential that goes beyond mere economics of loan management. SHGs ensure people's participation in the development process as these are the grass root level democratic institutions of rural people. An examination of various management aspects of the Self Help Groups is very important in order to make recommendations to ensure long run sustainability of these groups. Sample respondents are asked to express about various management aspects practiced in their groups.

V.1 Maintenance of books of accounts

Book keeping is most important for the sustainability of the SHGs. It is needed in order to keep an accurate record of all transactions and decisions taken in the group. Sample groups are maintaining certain records like minutes book, general ledger, loan ledger, cash book, receipts book, vouchers book and bank passbook, to record their transactions. Sample respondents are asked to state who maintains the SHG books of accounts. Distribution of the sample respondents by whom books of accounts of SHGs are maintained is furnished in Table--1. It is clear from the table that books of accounts are maintained by the Group Leader in the case of 90 per cent of the sample respondents. A few of the respondents reported that books are maintained by either second group leader or literate member of by a hired person.

Across the strata, it is observed that all the members under study comprising of clothes business women, fish vending business women, dairy business women and tiffin stalls business women reported maintenance of books of accounts by the group leader, followed by more than three fourths of the rest of the categories of respondents. Only about 11 per cent of the fancy shop business women reported that second group leader maintains the books of accounts. A few of the grocery shop business women and petty business women reported maintenance of books of accounts by literate member. On the contrary, one fourth of the vegetables vending business women reported maintenance of books of accounts by a hired person, followed by little percentage of the tailoring women and fancy shop business women. The study shows that only a very few of the sample groups are hiring persons for maintaining books of accounts and they are paying an amount of INR 50 per month to these persons meeting the expenditure from the interest given by banks for their savings. Overall group leader herself maintains books of accounts in the case of huge percentage of the sample respondents' SHGs.

V.2 Maintenance of SHG members' passbooks

Sample respondents are asked to state who maintains members' passbooks. Distribution of the sample respondents by whom SHG members' passbooks are maintained is shown in Table--II. It is delineated from the table that members' passbooks are maintained by the members themselves in the case of 60 per cent of the sample respondents. This enables the members to update their transactions and have knowledge about the transactions. But in the case of 37 per cent of the sample respondents, Group leader maintains the members' passbooks. As most of the members are not well educated, Group Leader maintains the members' passbooks in the case of these 37 per cent of the sample respondents. There are 3 percent of the respondents, who stated that members' passbooks are maintained by the literate member of the group.

Among different categories of respondents, it is seen from the table that entire fish vending business women and diary reported that individual members themselves maintains their passbooks, followed by nearly 89 per cent of the tailoring women, two thirds of the fancy shop business women, each around 63 per cent of the grocery shop business women and vegetables vending business women, nearly 53 per cent of the clothes business women, about 48 per cent of the petty business women and about 44 per cent of the tiffin stalls business women. As many as around 56 per cent of the sample tiffin stalls business women reported that Group Leader maintains members' passbooks, followed by about 48 per cent of the petty business women, about 44 per cent of the clothes business women, each around 38 per cent of the vegetables vending business women and grocery shop business women, nearly 28 per cent of the fancy shop business women and about 11 per cent of the tailoring women. A few of the fancy shop business women, clothes business women and petty business women reported maintenance of members' passbook by a literate member.

Thus members' passbooks are maintained by the members themselves in the case of higher proportion of the sample respondents and in case of not well educated, Group Leader maintains the passbooks.

V.3 Frequency of updating of books of accounts

Sample respondents are asked to state how frequent they update their books of accounts. The data provided in Table--III reveals interesting facts that as many as 96 per cent of the sample respondents update their books of accounts regularly. On the other hand, only 2 per cent of the sample respondents reported updating of books of accounts occasionally, whereas another 2 per cent of the sample respondents reported updating of books of accounts rarely.

Across the strata, it is observed that entire sample respondents from all categories with exception of very few of the respondents of clothes business women, vegetables vending business women and petty business women reported updating of books of accounts regularly. A few of the clothes business women and petty business women reported updating of books of accounts occasionally. Some of the vegetables vending business women and petty business women reported updating of books of accounts rarely.

V.4. Frequency of updating of members' passbooks

Sample respondents are asked to state frequency of updating of members' passbooks. Distribution of the sample respondents by frequency of updating of members' passbooks revealed that majority of the sample respondents reported that members' passbooks are updated regularly (96 per cent), while only one per cent of the respondents reported updating of members' passbooks occasionally. On the other hand, 3 per cent of the respondents reported updating of members' passbooks rarely. Among different categories of respondents, it is noted that entire sample respondents except few of the clothes business women, vegetables vending business women and petty business women reported that they update members' passbooks regularly. On the other hand, a few of the clothes business women only reported updating of members' passbooks occasionally, while some of the vegetables vending business women and petty business women reported updating of members' passbooks rarely.

V.5 Savings

One of the basic principles of SHGs is that even the very poor may save small amounts, and that the additional incentives of getting bank loans at lower rates of interest, particularly among those who are otherwise ineligible for getting bank loans, would inculcate and strengthen the habit of saving. The members of SHGs save a fixed amount periodically, depending upon the convenience of the members of the SHG, and the savings of all the members is kept together in the bank in the name of the SHG and forms the SHG Fund. Savings may be remitted by the members either weekly or fortnightly or month.

V.6 Changes in the savings activities

It is found from the study that all the sample members under study are paying equal amount of thrift throughout the year. It is found from the study that thrift amount is INR 30 per month in the initial days of the group formation. Later, it rose to INR 50 per month. Now, all the groups in the study area are saving an amount of INR 100 per month irrespective of age of the groups. All the sample members are paying equal amount of thrift, say, INR 100. A good practice is also observed in the field survey that Group Leader is giving receipt to the members after receiving savings amount and loan installment amount.

Sample respondents are also asked to state whether there are any changes regarding periodicity of payment of savings. It is found from the study that they changed the savings amount only and there are no changes regarding periodicity of payment of savings. Sample respondents pay the thrift amount as well as loan installment amount to the group leader at the group meeting usually conducted in the first week of every month. In turn, Group Leader gives receipt to the amount received. Group Leader along with one member goes to the bank to credit these amounts. Generally, the entire sample groups are paying these amounts before 10th of every month. This shows the good discipline of the sample groups.

V.7 Mobilization period of thrift

Distribution of the sample respondents by period of mobilization of the thrift It can be seen from the table that 97 per cent of the respondents are contributing thrift monthly. Only one per cent of the respondents are contributing thrift weekly, whereas nearly two per cent of the respondents are mobilizing thrift fortnightly. Further, timely contribution thrift to the group leader is found from the field survey. Among different categories of respondents, it is obvious from the table that entire sample tailoring women, grocery shop business women, clothes business women, vegetables vending business women, fish vending business women and petty business women are mobilizing thrift monthly, followed by about 94 per cent of the fancy shop business women and around 89 per cent of the tiffin stalls business women and half of the dairy business women. As against this, half of the dairy business women are contributing thrift fortnightly, followed by about 11 per cent of the tiffin stalls business women, while only a little percentage of the fancy shop business women are mobilizing thrift weekly.

V.8 Interest accrued on savings

The bank credits the interest amount on the savings of the SHGs into their accounts as per the bank interest rates for savings. This interest amount is not a big amount. Sample respondents are asked to state how they meet the group expenses like stationery, travelling to other places in connection with the group, etc. It is noteworthy to observe from the field survey that sample groups are meeting these expenses from the interest accrued in the banks on their monthly savings. A small percentage of the sample groups, who hired persons for book keeping, are paying remuneration to them meeting the expenditure from this interest amount.

V.9 Internal lending norms

Maintaining the equity and punctuality in delivering adequate credit has more impact on the sustainability of the groups. Sample groups decide the quantum of internal group loan to be given to a member on the basis of her capability to repay the internal group loan, savings amount and bank loan installment. Thus, the study reveals that sample SHGs are following good financial management practices.

Based on the necessity of amount to a member, sample groups give the priority to the member to provide internal group loan. Sample groups are providing internal group loan to the members after receiving their signatures on the vouchers prepared for this purpose. This ensures the proper maintenance of accounts of the group. Sample respondents are charging exorbitant rate of interest, say, 24 per cent per annum for the internal group.

V.10 Disbursement of bank loan

In the study area, all the members under study are sharing the loan amount provided by the bank equally. All the members in the group per se have access to credit equal number of times. As regards disbursement of credit, it is found from the study that banks sanction loan to the SHGs group account, which is handled by the Group Leader and Treasurer of the Group. Both of these two members have to sign in order to draw the sanctioned loan amount. After drawing the amount, all members meet at a place generally outside the bank and disburse the credit among them equally. Before disbursing the credit, Group Leaders informs to utilize the amount for the purpose for which it is sanctioned and to repay the installment amount regularly.

V.11 Financial sustainability of SHGs

The financial sustainability of the SHGs depends mainly on the repayment patterns of SHGs. It is only when SHGs make timely repayment to banks that they get access to bigger loans. This, in turn, depends on the repayment pattern of the individual members. Timely repayment of loan, either it is bank loan or group loan, is very important for the sustainability of the group. The bank sanctions the loan to the SHGs charging the interest rate as per the norms of the bank. The members of the SHGs are sharing the bank loan amount equally in the study area.

V.12 Performance in repayment of internal group loan

Sample respondents are asked to state their performance in the repayment of internal group loan. Distribution of the sample respondents by performance in the repayment of internal group loan reveals that all the members under study are making either full amount or part amount of repayment of internal group loan timely. It is observed from the table that huge percentage of the sample respondents are repaying the total installment of the internal group loan timely. On the other hand, one tenth of the sample respondents are repaying more than three fourths of the total installment of the internal group loan timely, whereas 3 per cent of the sample respondents are repaying more than half of the total installment amount timely.

Among different categories of respondents, it is evident from the table that all the members under study comprising of grocery shop business women, fish vending business women and dairy business women are repaying the total installment amount timely, followed by more 80 per cent of the petty business women, tiffin stalls business women, fancy shop business women and clothes business women, around 78 per cent of the tailoring women and around 63 per cent of the vegetables vending business women. The data further reveals that around 38 per cent of the vegetables vending business women and about 22 per cent of the tailoring women are repaying more than three fourths of the total installment amount of the internal group loan timely, followed by nearly 12 per cent of the clothes business women and less than 10 per cent of the petty business women and fancy shop business women. A few of the tiffin stalls business women, clothes business women and fancy shop business women only reported to be repaying more than half of the total installment amount timely.

The repayment performance of internal group loan is found to be good. Major chunk of the respondents of all categories are making timely repayment of total installment amount. However, some of the respondents are repaying major part of the installment amount only.

V.13 Performance in repayment of the bank loan

As regards the performance in the repayment of bank loan, the responses were compiled and depicted in Table IV. It is deduced from the table that majority of the members under study are making total installment of the bank loan timely (89 per cent), while the rest of the respondents are repaying more than three fourths of the installment timely. It is found from the field survey that group leaders are adjusting the amount in case if any of the member didn't repay the total installment amount. Further, it is also found from the study that the SHGs are sanctioning internal group loan to the member, who is unable to make repayment of the installment of the bank loan amount, to enable her to repay the bank loan amount timely. Ultimately, the SHGs under study are repaying the full installment amount to the bank timely. It is noteworthy to mention here that the State Government of Andhra Pradesh is remitting back the amount of interest paid by the SHGs in excess of three per cent of rate of interest per annum during the previous financial year, directly to the bank accounts of the SHGs. This incentive encourages the SHGs to make regular repayments.

Among different categories of respondents, it is noticed from the table that timely repayment of total installment of bank amount is reported by entire tiffin stalls business women, diary, and grocery shop business women, about 96 per cent of the petty business women, each more or less 88 per cent of the fancy shop business women and clothes business women, 75 per cent of the vegetables vending business women, two thirds of the tailoring women and half of the fish vending business women. On the other hand, half of the fish vending business women, one third of the tailoring women is found to be repaying more than three fourths of the total installment amount timely, followed by one fourth of the vegetables vending business women and a few of the petty business women, fancy shop business women and clothes business women.

VI. Conclusion

The policies in respect of the formation of WSHGs emphasize the inclusion of the poorest of the poor in WSHGs. The inconsistency arises on account of their failure to draw members for the poorest section of the rural society in spite of the specific guidelines of the government. For most of the WSHGs some members are seen to have come from financially well-to-do influential families and in fact, they control the mode of operation and finance of these WSHGs. Over a period of time, SHG--Bank linkage has become the dominant mode of microfinance in India and has been successful in encouraging significant savings and high repayment rates. It is however a point of concern that SHGs require a large amount of pre and post lending monitoring and needless to say the success lies in the regularity in the flow of finance on the one hand and availability of ready markets for their products on the other, proper monitoring and supervision of the income-generating activities by WSHGs. Furthermore, an important aspect of successful functioning of SHGs is appropriate maintenance of records, the membership register, cash book, loan ledger and the members pass book, etc.

The repayment performance with regard to bank loan in the study area is found to be good. Except a significant percentage of the fish vending business women, tailoring women and vegetables vending business women, largest chunk of the all categories of respondents are making timely repayment of the bank loan. Further, it is observed that half of the fish vending business women, one third of the tailoring women and one fourth of the vegetables vending business women are repaying more three fourths of installment amount only timely. The term microfinance has yet to break into the mainstream or entrepreneurial finance literature. There is a need to take a critical look at the financial management practices of the Self Help Groups besides various income generating activities taken up by them. Therefore, there is a need to encourage SHGs to contribute thrift weekly in order to inspire to save more.

Women Self Help Groups (SHGs) should work not only for the economic development of their society, but also to ensure that welfare benefits reach the weaker and backward sections. The SHGs should achieve financial empowerment by making the optimum use of the credit linkage being extended to them by banks. The SHGs have the specific responsibility of ensuring the benefits of the various welfare schemes of the State and Central Governments reach beneficiaries who belong mostly to the weaker and backward sections.

References

Ajai, Nair (2005). Sustainability of Microfinance Self Help Groups in India: Would Federating Help? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3516, Washington, D.C.,

APMAS (2007). SHG Federations in India: A Status Report, Hyderabad, APMAS.

Boraian, M.P. (2008). Empowerment of rural women: The deterrents and determinants, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.

Government of Andhra Pradesh (2009-2010). Socio-economic Survey Report, Hyderabad.

Jothi, V.N. (2010, January-March). Socio-economic impact: Micro financing of self help groups. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 91-103.

Karamkar, K.G. (1999). Rural credit and Self-Help Groups: New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Malhotra, (2004). Micro finance programmes for women empowerment. Indian Journal of Social Work, 32, (4), 127-131.

Mansuri, B.B. (2010, December 3). Microfinancing through Self-Help Groups--A case study of Bank Linkage Programme of NABARD, Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management (APJRBM), 1, 141-150.

Reddy. C.S., & Sandeep, Manak (2005). Self-Help-Groups: A Keystone of Microfinance in India--Women Empowerment & Social Security, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society (APMAS).

Sanjay Kanti Das (2011, July-December). Women empowerment and self-help groups: An analytical study of constraints in Karbi Anglong district of Assam. Journal of North East India Studies, 1 (1), 1-22.

Shibalal, Meher (2007). Microfinance through self help Groups to fight against poverty. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Urmila, Moon (2011, June). Role of self-help groups--Bank linkage model in women empowerment. Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management, 2 (6), 47-65.

Venkatesh. J., & K. Kala (2011, January). Upholding of microfinance self-help groups, JM International Journal of Management Research, 1, (2), 172-175.

V. Narasimha Rao

Director, P.G. Department of Business Administration, Akkineni Nageswara Rao College, Gudiwada, Andhra Pradesh.

Table--I

Distribution of the Sample Respondents by the Persons
who Maintain Books of Accounts

Category              Who maintains books of accounts

                     Group     Second Group    Literate
                    Leader        Leader        member

                      24            -             -
Tailoring women     (88.90)
                    (8.90)

Grocery shop          21            -             3
business women      (87.50)                    (12.50)
                    (7.80)                     (25.00)

Fancy shop            45            6             -
business women      (83.30)      (11.10)
                    (16.70)      (100.0)

Clothes               51            -             -
business women     (100.00)
                    (18.90)

Vegetables            18            -             -
vending business    (75.00)
women               (6.70)

Fish vending           6            -             -
business women     (100.00)
                    (2.20)

Dairy                  6            -             -
business women     (100.00)
                    (2.20)

Petty                 72                          9
business women      (88.90)         -          (11.10)
                    (26.70)                    (75.00)

Tiffin stalls         27            -             -
business women     (100.00)
                    (10.00)

Total                 270           6             12
                    (90.00)       (2.00)        (4.00)
                    (100.00      (100.00)      (100.00)

                          Who maintains
Category                 books of accounts

                   Person employed
                        by SHG          Total

                          3              27
Tailoring women        (11.10)        (100.00)
                       (25.00)         (9.00)

Grocery shop              -              24
business women                        (100.00)
                                       (8.00)

Fancy shop                3              54
business women          (5.60)        (100.00)
                       (25.00)         (18.00)

Clothes                   -              51
business women                        (100.00)
                                      (17. 00)

Vegetables                6              24
vending business       (25.00)        (100.00)
women                  (50.00)         (8.00)

Fish vending              -               6
business women                        (100.00)
                                       (2.00)

Dairy                     -               6
business women                        (100.00)
                                       (2.00)

Petty                                    81
business women            -           (100.00)
                                       (27.00)

Tiffin stalls             -              27
business women                        (100.00)
                                       (9.00)

Total                     12             300
                        (4.00)        (100.00)
                       (100.00)       (100.00)

Note: Figures in the parentheses represent percentages.

Source: Computed from the Primary Data.

Table--II

Distribution of the Sample Respondents by Maintenance
of Members' Passbooks

Category               Who maintains Members' Passbooks

                      Individual members    Group Leader

Tailoring women               24                 3
                            (88.90)           (11.10)
                            (13.30)            (2.70)

Grocery shop                  15                 9
business women              (62.50)           (37.50)
                            (8.30)             (8.10)

Fancy shop                    36                 15
business women              (66.70)           (27.80)
                            (20.00)           (13.50)

Clothes                       27                 21
business women              (52.90)           (41.20)
                            (15.00)           (18.90)

Vegetables vending        15 (62.50)         9 (37.50)
business women              (8.30)             (8.10)

Fish vending                   6
business women             (100.00)              -
                            (3.30)

Dairy                          6
business women             (100.00)              -
                            (3.30)

Petty business                39                 39
women                       (48.10)           (48.10)
                            (21.70)           (35.10)

Tiffin stalls                 12                 15
business women              (44.40)           (55.60)
                            (6.70)            (13.50)

Total                         180               111
                            (60.00)           (37.00)
                           (100.00)           (100.00)

                         Who maintains
Category              Members' Passbooks

                        Literate member        Total

Tailoring women                                  27
                               -              (100.00)
                                               (9.00)

Grocery shop                                     24
business women                 -              (100.00)
                                               (8.00)

Fancy shop                     3                 54
business women              (5.60)            (100.00)
                            (33.30)           (18.00)

Clothes                        3                 51
business women              (5.90)            (100.00)
                            (33.30)           (17.00)

Vegetables vending             -            24 (100.00)
business women                                 (8.00)

Fish vending                                     6
business women                 -              (100.00)
                                               (2.00)

Dairy                                            6
business women                 -              (100.00)
                                               (2.00)

Petty business                 3                 81
women                       (3.70)            (100.00)
                            (33.30)           (27.00)

Tiffin stalls                                    27
business women                 -              (100.00)
                                               (9.00)

Total                          9                300
                            (3.00)            (100.00)
                           (100.00)           (100.00)

Note: Figures in the parentheses represent percentages.

Source: Computed from the Primary Data.

Table--III

Distribution of the Sample Respondents by Frequency
of Updating of Books of Accounts

                             Frequency of updating
                             of books of accounts

Category                 Regularly       Occasionally

Tailoring women             27
                         (100.00)              -
                          (9.40)

Grocery shop                24
business women           (100.00)              -
                          (8.30)

Fancy shop                  54
business women           (100.00)              -
                          (18.80)

Clothes                     48                 3
business women            (94.10)           (5.90)
                          (16.70)           (50.00)

Vegetables vending      21 (87.50)             -
business women            (7.30)

Fish vending                 6
business women           (100.00)              -
                          (2.10)

Dairy                        6
business women           (100.00)              -
                          (2.10)

Petty                       75                 3
business women            (92.60)           (3.70)
                          (26.00)           (50.00)

Tiffin stalls               27
business women           (100.00)              -
                          (9.40)

Total                       288                6
                          (96.00)           (2.00)
                         (100.00)          (100.00)

                      Frequency of updating
                      of books of accounts       Total

Category                     Rarely

Tailoring women                                    27
                                -               (100.00)
                                                 (9.00)

Grocery shop                                       24
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                 (8.00)

Fancy shop                                         54
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                (18.00)

Clothes                                            51
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                (17.00)

Vegetables vending          3 (12.50)         24 (100.00)
business women               (50.00)             (8.00)

Fish vending                                       6
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                 (2.00)

Dairy                                              6
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                 (2.00)

Petty                           3                  81
business women               (3.70)             (100.00)
                             (50.00)            (27.00)

Tiffin stalls                                      27
business women                  -               (100.00)
                                                 (9.00)

Total                           6                 300
                             (2.00)             (100.00)
                            (100.00)            (100.00)

Note: Figures in the parentheses represent percentages.

Source: Computed from the Primary Data.

Table--IV

Distribution of the Sample Respondents by Performance
in Repayment of Bank Loan

                               Performance in
                           repayment of bank loan

                         Total       More than three
                      installment     fourths of the
                       amount is       installment
Category              paid timely       amount is         Total
                                       paid timely

Tailoring women            18               9               27
                        (66.70)          (33.30)         (100.00)
                         (6.70)          (27.30)          (9.00)

Grocery shop               24                               24
business women          (100.00)            -            (100.00)
                         (9.00)                           (8.00)

Fancy shop                 48               6               54
business women          (88.90)          (11.10)         (100.00)
                        (18.00)          (18.20)         (18.00)

Clothes                    45               6               51
business women          (88.20)          (11.80)         (100.00)
                        (16.90)          (18.20)         (17.00)

Vegetables vending         18               6               24
business women          (75.00)          (25.00)         (100.00)
                         (6.70)          (18.20)          (8.00)

Fish vending               3                3               6
business women          (50.00)          (50.00)         (100.00)
                         (1.10)           (9.10)          (2.00)

Dairy                      6                                6
business women          (100.00)            -            (100.00)
                         (2.20)                           (2.00)

Petty                      78               3               81
business women          (96.30)           (3.70)         (100.00)
                        (29.20)           (9.10)         (27.00)

Tiffin stalls              27                               27
business women          (100.00)            -            (100.00)
                        (10.10)                           (9.00)

                          267               33             300
Total                   (89.00)          (11.00)         (100.00)
                        (100.00)         (100.00)        (100.00)

Note: Figures in the parentheses represent percentages.

Source: Computed from the Primary Data.
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Author:Rao, V. Narasimha
Publication:Abhigyan
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Apr 1, 2015
Words:5091
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