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Field studies in the United States and United Kingdom of the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation systems on indoor air quality in hospitality venues where smoking is allowed in relation to outdoor air conditions.

INTRODUCTION

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation in building spaces where smoking is allowed field studies measuring ventilation and indoor air quality in six well-ventilated hospitality venues on two continents were conducted. The hospitality venues were selected to include a variety of uses and types of mechanical ventilation systems. The field study included three resort casino properties in the United States and two pubs and one restaurant in the United Kingdom.

METHODS

The field study consisted of:

* Phase 1 -- Selection of venues

* United States Venues

* United Kingdom Venues

* Phase 2 -- Site testing/assessment in both the United States and the United Kingdom

Phase 1-Selection of Venues

The purpose of these field studies was the evaluation of indoor air quality in well-ventilated hospitality venues where smoking occurs. The selection of venues for inclusion in the field studies of typical hospitality facilities that are well ventilated was very important. For the North American field study the selection of hospitality venues included the inspection of large casino resort facilities in a variety of locations throughout the United States. The geographic locations included: Atlantic City; East Chicago; Las Vegas; Tunica, Mississippi; and Kansas City, Missouri. In the United Kingdom, the selection of hospitality venues included two pubs and a restaurant in Cardiff and London.

United States. Through consultation with mechanical engineering and casino operations personnel, three different casinos were selected to be included in the field study following an assessment of nine different casinos. During the selection process researchers evaluated the nine casino venues using a checklist including the following parameters:

* Ceiling height

* Estimated floor area

* Carbon dioxide levels and ventilation rate

* Number of smokers present

* Type of ventilation system

* Tobacco smoke control measures in place

The primary selection criteria for the three venues to be included in the field study were that they were provided with effective ventilation by commonly used (not specialized) mechanical systems and that the occupancy and smoking rates were typical of similar casino establishments throughout the United States. Two of the venues selected were located in Las Vegas, Nevada and one of the venues was located in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Las Vegas

Venue #1-Purpose Built Casino

This is a new casino constructed in the late 1990's. The casino has high ceilings and the ventilation rate was also high.

Venue #2-Purpose Built Casino

This facility was originally constructed in the late 1970's with recent major renovations to the casino substantially increasing ceiling height and ventilation rate.

Atlantic City

Venue #3-Purpose Built Casino

Originally constructed in the late 1970's, the casino received recent major renovations to substantially increase ceiling height and ventilation rate.

United Kingdom. In November 2006, researchers conducted site inspections of a total of twelve United Kingdom hospitality venues located in London and Cardiff. The purpose of the site inspections was to select three well-ventilated hospitality venues where smoking is allowed to be included in the field study. Researchers gathered data on each of the twelve venues using a checklist that included the following:

* Location (busy street, city, etc.)

* Type of establishment (pub, restaurant, etc.)

* Ceiling height

* Estimated floor area

* Carbon dioxide levels and ventilation rate

* Seating capacity

* Number of smokers present

* Type of ventilation system

* Tobacco smoke control measures in place

Three venues were selected for the field study based on the data collected during the site inspections. The primary selection criteria for these venues were that they were provided with effective ventilation by commonly used (not specialized) mechanical systems and that the occupancy and smoking rates were typical of similar hospitality establishments throughout the United Kingdom. One of the venues was located in London and two of the venues were located in Cardiff.

Cardiff

Venue #4 -- Traditional Pub

A typical small one-room pub located on the outskirts of Cardiff with seating for approximately 60 people.

Venue #5 -- Newly Renovated Pub/Restaurant

This venue is a purpose-built restaurant/pub and is considered an up-scale venue that has undergone extensive renovations and upgrades over the past few years. It is located in the heart of Cardiff on the main street, which is heavily traveled by automobiles. This venue has a seating capacity of 850.

London

Venue #6 -- Wine Bar/Restaurant

The venue is an elegant restaurant/wine bar located on the basement level of a building located in central London. The street is quite heavily traveled by automobiles and the restaurant has a seating capacity of approximately 120.

Phase 2-Site Testing/Assessment

The benchmarks used by indoor air quality researchers to evaluate indoor air quality in commercial and hospitality environments are carbon dioxide (metabolic activity and ventilation), carbon monoxide (combustion byproduct), respirable suspended particles (air cleanliness), temperature and humidity (both comfort measurements) (Collett et al 1993; Gammage, et al 1989; Lane et al 1989; Nathanson 1990; Shaw 1988; Sterling et al, 1987a; Sterling et al 1987b).

Most researchers evaluating indoor air quality in spaces where smoking occurs have used respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) as a marker for tobacco smoke. RSP is used because it is easy to measure and the equipment to measure RSP is readily available. RSP is generally defined as a particle less than 4 micrometers in size (ISO Standard 7708:1995).

Several sampling locations were selected inside each of the hospitality venues. These locations were selected to be representative of occupancy and ventilation. At each of these locations, both instantaneous and integrating air-sampling techniques were utilized. In addition, one outdoor location was selected as representative of ambient conditions.

Sampling was conducted for the following parameters both indoors and outdoors (in order to be representative of street level exposure for comparison to indoor locations outdoor sample locations were selected immediately outside the front doors of the venue and not necessarily near the outdoor air intake for the mechanical ventilation systems):

* Carbon dioxide ([CO.sub.2])

* Carbon monoxide (CO)

* Temperature and relative humidity

* Respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP)

During the part of the field study in the United Kingdom, instantaneous air quality measurements for the indoor air quality parameters noted above were collected at one-hour intervals over the course of the 8-hour sampling day at each indoor location and the one outdoor location. The sampling duration was slightly different for the casino venues located in the United States to account for the facilities 24/7 operation and occupancy. During the United States part of the field study, the same instantaneous air quality measurements were collected as in the United Kingdom. However the samples were collected during three separate eight hour sampling periods evenly spread over a 24-hour period. During each sampling period, measurements were collected from locations across each venue which were representative for the entire facility with respect to occupancy and ventilation.

Measurements were collected with the following instrumentation.

Carbon dioxide ([CO.sub.2]), temperature, relative humidity and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured with an instrument called a TSI Q-Trak. The Q-Trak has the following specifications:
Sensor         Sensor Type             Range            Resolution

Carbon        Non-dispersive      0 to 5000 ppm *         1 ppm *
dioxide          infrared

Temperature     Thermistor     32 to 122[degrees]F *  0.1[degrees]F *
                                0 to 50[degrees]C *   0.05[degrees]C *

Relative        Thin-film
Humidity        Capacitive           5 to 95% *            0.1% *

Carbon       Electro-chemical      0 to 500 ppm           0.1 ppm
Monoxide

* ppm = parts per million; oF = Fahrenheit; [degrees]C = Celsius; % =
percentage.


Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSP) was measured using a TSI Inc. forward light scattering DustTrak[TM] aerosol monitor. The cyclone attachment was in place for the RSP measurements. The sensor is a 90[degrees] light scattering laser diode sensor that has a range of 1 to 100,000 micrograms per cubic meter of air ([mu]g/[m.sup.3]) and a resolution of +/- 0.1% of the reading or +/- 1 [micro]g/[m.sup.3], whichever is greater.

Indoor air quality research has shown that Dustrak measurements tend to overestimate indoor particle levels when compared to the traditional and accepted gravimetric sampling and analytical method (Cenko et al 2004)).

Research showing the need for the application of a correction factor for the Dustrak includes Heal, Beverland, et. al, 2000, Edwards, et al. 2006 and Jenkins 2004 (Heal et al 2000, Edwards et al 2006, Jenkins et al 2004). This research shows that the Dustrak overestimates particle levels when compared to gravimetric sampling techniques by factors ranging from 2 to 3.24.

The Dustrak is factory calibrated to the standard ISO 12103-1, A1 test dust (formerly Arizona Test Dust). This standard test dust is used because of its wide particle size distribution (Model 8520 Dustrak Operation and Service Manual). Because of the potential for the instrument to overestimate dust differing in type and composition from the factory calibration standard the Operation and Service Manual sets forth a method to determine an applicable correction factor for specific aerosols. A correction factor for this field study was calculated based on the method presented in the Operation and Service Manual for the Dustrak.

The correction factor was calculated using data from ten other indoor air quality investigations conducted by the authors that included 101 comparable data points where both gravimetric RSP data and Dustrak RSP measurements were acquired side-by-side in smoking-permitted environments. These data are stored on a proprietary relational database of building performance and IAQ research measurements taken in various types of buildings by the authors. The database is a component of a field research project involving the experimental development of indoor air quality and control system technologies (Pinchevsky and Company 2007 and Collett, C.W. et. al. 1987). The database enables the analysis of multiple datapoints collected in multiple buildings. From these data and comparison of side-by-side sampling results (Dustrak and gravimetric sampling), the correction factor was calculated to be 3.84.

Measurement of Ventilation Rates

In the United Kingdom, the professional standards of practice for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and manufacturing of natural and mechanical ventilation systems are defined by the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). CIBSE has provided recommendations for ventilation rates in smoking and non-smoking environments in "Ventilation and Air Conditioning CIBSE Guide B-2" (2001) (CIBSE 2001). A table of the CIBSE recommended outdoor air supply rates for smoking environments is presented below.

For the European Union countries, EN standards supersede national standards. When EN Standards are published conflicting national standards must be withdrawn. The recently approved EN/DIN Standard 15251 "Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics" recommends specific ventilation rates for spaces in buildings where smoking is allowed (CEN EN/DIN 15251). Table B.2 provides examples of the amount of additional ventilation that is required for typical spaces where smoking is allowed. For example for typical restaurants that allow smoking the additional ventilation required is 2.8 1/s/[m.sup.2] (0.55 cfm/[m.sup.2]). EN 15251 was prepared under the mandate given to the European Committee For Standardization (CEN) by the European Commission and the Europe Free Trade Association Mandate and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2002/91/EC. Since EN 15251 is a CEN Standard, according to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of all European Union countries including the United Kingdom are required to implement it.
Table 1. Recommended Ventilation Rates--Smoking Environments

Level of Smoking    Proportion of     Outdoor Air       Outdoor Air
                    Occupants that  Supply Rate (L/s  Supply Rate (cfm
                     Smoke (%) *     per person) *     per person) *

No smoking                0                8                 17

Some smoking             25               16                 34

Heavy smoking            45               24                 51

Very heavy smoking       75               36                 76

* % = percentage; L/s = Litres per second; cfm = cubic feet per minute.
Table 2. Results from US Venues

Location  Indoor RSP (Outdoor)  Indoor [CO.sub.2]  Indoor CO (Outdoor)
          ([mu]g/[m.sup.3]) *   (Outdoor) (ppm) *         (ppm) *

Venue #1     35.07 (15.0)           596 (374)          1.43 (2.40)

Venue #2     33.65 (16.2)           826 (495)          <0.5 (<0.5)

Venue #3     31.25 (16.0)           802 (413)          <0.5 (<0.5)

* [mu]g/[m.sup.3] = micrograms per cubic meter of air; ppm = parts per
million.
Table 3. Results from US Venues

Location   Ventilation       Indoor         Indoor
               Rate       Temperature      Relative
          (cfm/person) *    (Outdoor)      Humidity
            (L/s per      ([degrees]F)    (Outdoor)
            person) *     ([degrees]C) *     (%) *

Venue #1        48          72.5 (22.5)      30.6
               (25)        (82.0) (27.7)    (26.7)

Venue #2        35          72.0 (22.2)       7.7
              (17.5)      (60.3) (15.72)     (2.5)

Venue #3        29          70.4 (21.3)      20.4
               (15)       (64.7) (18.16)    (15.0)

* cfm/person = cubic feet of outdoor air delivered per minute for each
person; L/s = Litres per second; [degrees]F = Fahrenheit; [degrees]C =
Celsius; % = percentage.
Table 4. Average Results from US Venues

                                          Indoor    Outdoor

RSP ([mu]g/[m.sup.3]) *                    33.3       15.7
CO2 (ppm) *                                 741        427
CO (ppm) *                                 0.81       1.13
Ventilation Rate (cfm/person) *            37.3         NA
Temperature ([degrees]F) ([degrees]C) *  71.6 (22)  69 (20.5)
Relative Humidity (%) *                    19.6       14.7

* [mu]g/[m.sup.3] = micrograms per cubic meter of air; ppm = parts per
million; cfm/person = cubic feet of outdoor air delivered per minute for
each person; [degrees]F = Fahrenheit; [degrees]C = Celsius; % =
percentage.
Table 5. Results from UK Venues

Location      Indoor RSP       Indoor[CO.sup.2]   Indoor CO
               (Outdoor)       (Outdoor) (ppm) *   (Outdoor)
          ([mu]g/[m.sup.3]) *                       (ppm) *

Venue 4       49.4 (21.3)          548 (363)       3.1 (2.9)

Venue 5       33.9 (24.9)          561 (366)       2.9 (2.5)

Venue 6       29.0 (42.0)          722 (387)       2.9 (3.0)

* [mu]g/[m.sup.3] = micrograms per cubic meter of air; ppm = parts per
million.
Table 6. Results from UK Venues

Location    Ventilation      Indoor        Indoor
               Rate        Temperature    Relative
          (cfm/person) *    (Outdoor)     Humidity
             (L/s per      ([degrees]F)   (Outdoor)
            person) *     ([degrees]C) *    (%) *

Venue 4       80 (45)      72.1(22.2)     53.5 (63.0)
                          (58.6) (14.7)

Venue 5       64 (32)      72.3 (22.4)    39.5 (43.4)
                          (57.7) (14.3)

Venue 6       51 (25)         70.2
                          (21.2)(60.4)    44.8 (44.6)
                              (15.7)

* cfm/person = cubic feet of outdoor air delivered per minute for each
person; L/s = Litres per second; [degrees]F = Fahrenheit; [degrees]C =
Celsius; % = percentage.
Table 7. Average Results from UK Venues

                                           Indoor       Outdoor

RSP ([mu]g/[m.sup3]) *                       37.4        29.4

CO2 (ppm) *                                  610          372

CO (ppm) *                                   2.97        2.80

Ventilation Rate (cfm/person) *              65           NA

Temperature ([degrees]F) ([degrees]C) *  71.5 (21.9)  58.9 (14.9)

Relative Humidity (%) *                     45.9         50.3

* [mu]g/[m.sup.3] = micrograms per cubic meter of air; ppm = parts per
million; cfm/person = cubic feet of outdoor air delivered per minute for
each person; [degrees]F = Fahrenheit; [degrees]C = Celsius; % =
percentage.


For the United States, the professional standards of practice for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and manufacturing of natural and mechanical ventilation systems are defined by the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). ASHRAE writes standards for the purpose of establishing: 1) test methods for use in commerce and 2) performance criteria to guide the industry. ASHRAE publishes the following three types of voluntary standards: Method of Measurement or Test, Standard Design and Standard Practice. ASHRAE does not write rating standards unless a suitable rating standard will not otherwise be available.

ASHRAE standards are developed and published to define minimum values of acceptable performance, whereas other documents, such as design guides, may be developed and published to encourage enhanced performance.

ASHRAE is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and follows ANSI's requirements for due process and standards development. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality" prescribes ventilation rates for different space types and occupancy categories in buildings (ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007). The Standard provides that, in areas where smoking is allowed, that smoking areas shall have more ventilation and/or air cleaning than comparable no-smoking areas.

The performance of a ventilation system with respect to the amount of outside air provided is usually determined by measuring concentrations of [CO.sub.2] in the indoor environment. For this field study, ventilation rates were calculated using [CO.sub.2]. The following mass balance equation was used to determine the amount of ventilation air provided in the spaces by using the carbon dioxide levels measured inside and in the outside air. This equation is presented in Appendix C of the ASHRAE Standard 62-2007. (see also Levine et al 1992).

[C.sub.s] = N/[V.sub.oa] + [C.sub.oa] or [V.sub.oa] = N/([C.sub.s] - [C.sub.oa])

Where,

[C.sub.s] = carbon dioxide in the space

N = [CO.sub.2] generation rate per person based on activity level (0.0106 cfm for persons performing office work)

[V.sub.oa] = Ventilation rate in cfm

[C.sub.oa] = [CO.sub.2] level outside using 350 ppm estimate (expressed as 0.00035)

RESULTS

United States Venues

Venue #1. Throughout most of the casino ceiling height varies from 12 to 18 feet (3.7 to 5.5 meters) due to different architectural features. The casino is approximately 116,000 [ft.sup.2] (10,780 [m.sup.2]) in size and has some separated areas including a poker room, race and sports booking, baccarat and private gambling. The floors are carpeted throughout and there is extensive use of heavy upholstered furniture along with restaurants that are open to the casino.

The space is ventilated with a conventional dilution ventilation system with ceiling mounted return and supply diffusers evenly spread throughout the casino.

Venue #2. The casino is approximately 150,000 [ft.sup.2] (13,940 [m.sup.2]) in size and includes a Keno parlor, race and sports booking, poker room, bingo hall. The ceiling height in the casino ranges from 12 to 16 feet(3.7-5.9 meters). The floors are carpeted throughout and there is extensive use of heavy upholstered furniture along with restaurants that are open to the casino.

The space is ventilated with a conventional dilution ventilation system with ceiling mounted return and supply diffusers evenly spread throughout the casino.

Venue #3. There is approximately 125,000 [ft.sup.2] (11,610 [m.sup.2]) of casino floor space, which includes separate areas for poker, Keno and race/sports booking. The ceiling height ranges from 12 to 15 feet (3.7-4.6 meters) in the main gaming areas. The floors are carpeted throughout and there is extensive use of heavy upholstered furniture along with restaurants that are open to the casino.

The space is ventilated with a conventional dilution ventilation system with ceiling mounted return and supply diffusers evenly spread throughout the casino.

Air Sampling Results. All three casino venues were observed to be well ventilated as determined by the ventilation rates calculated from [CO.sub.2] measurements. The occupancy rates and smoking rates were observed to be typical for casinos in the United States. The ventilation rates measured in the venues were within the ventilation rates recommended by both CIBSE Guide B-2 and CEN EN 15251. Whereas CIBSE and CEN provide specific ventilation rates for spaces where smoking is allowed ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 provides guidance that smoking spaces shall have more ventilation than comparable spaces where smoking is not allowed. The ventilation rates measured in all of the casino venues comply with this ASHRAE requirement.

Indoor carbon monoxide levels averaged 0.81 ppm while outdoor levels average 1.13 ppm. Indoor RSP averaged 33.4 [micro]g/[m.sup.3]. Outdoor RSP averaged 15.7 [micro]g/[m.sup.3].

United Kingdom Venues

Venue #4. This venue was a typical one-room pub establishment approximately 1720 [ft.sup.2] (160[m.sup.2]) in size with an 8-foot (2.4 meter) ceiling. Ventilation in this venue was provided by a combination of systems. Outdoor air is supplied to the space through five different supply vents located above the bar and one wall mounted fan. Three different exhaust fans are located in the walls around the perimeter of the space.

Venue #5. This venue was a large (5376 [ft.sup.2] (500[m.sup.2])) purpose-built restaurant/pub that has undergone extensive renovations and upgrades over the past few years. Customer service is provided over two floors with the main (lower) floor having approximately a 13-foot (4 meters) high ceiling. The upper floor has a ceiling approximately 10 feet (3 meters) high.

The venue is very long and narrow and ventilation is provided by two long ducts that extend from the middle and along the length of each long wall on each floor. Many supply diffusers are present along each of the duct lengths.

Venue #6. This up-scale restaurant in Central London is located below street level and serviced by the base building ventilation system. Ventilation air is delivered through slotted diffusers located throughout the restaurant. There are a two exhaust vents in the 2150 [ft.sup.2] (200[m.sup.2]) restaurant and the ceiling is approximately 8 feet (2.4 meters) high.

Air Sampling Results. All three of the venues were well ventilated as determined by the ventilation rates calculated from [CO.sub.2] measurements. The occupancy rates and smoking rates were typical for hospitality venues in the United Kingdom. The ventilation rates in the venues were within the ventilation rates recommended by both CIBSE Guide B-2 and CEN EN 15251 for the amount of smoking observed. Whereas CIBSE and CEN provide specific ventilation rates for spaces where smoking is allowed ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 provides guidance that smoking spaces shall have more ventilation than comparable spaces where smoking is not allowed. The ventilation rates measured in all of the United Kingdom venues comply with this ASHRAE requirement. Indoor carbon monoxide levels averaged 2.97 ppm while outdoor levels average 2.8 ppm. Indoor RSP averaged 37.4 [micro]g/[m.sup.3]. Outdoor RSP averaged 29.4 [micro]g/[m.sup.3].

DISCUSSION

Ventilation is the intentional introduction into and movement of ventilation air through an enclosed space. Ventilation air can be outdoor air, indoor air or a combination of the two, which is introduced into a space through ventilation. There are two ventilation methods--natural and mechanical. A space can be ventilated naturally, with windows, doors and other openings, or mechanically with fans and diffusers or by a combination of the two methods called hybrid systems. There are two ventilation principles by which air is delivered using mechanical means--dilution and displacement. Dilution ventilation is the introduction and mixing (entrainment) of ventilation air with air already present in the space. Displacement ventilation involves the introduction of ventilation air generally at or near floor level in a directional pattern with little or no mixing to force air out from or near the ceiling.

Neither air filtration (cleaning) nor air conditioning is ventilation because neither process introduces air into or moves air through an enclosed space. Air filtration involves the use of filters to remove particles and gasses from the air. Filtration may be used in conjunction with a ventilation system, but used alone does not constitute ventilation. Air conditioning controls temperature and humidity and also may be used with a ventilation system, but used alone does not constitute ventilation.

The results of these field studies show that levels of particles and gases in well-ventilated hospitality venues where smoking occurs are comparable to the levels of particles and gases in the outdoor air. By "comparable" we mean that the measurements fall within a range observed by our research of indoor and outdoor air quality over the past 35 years (Collett et al 1989). The range of RSP found outdoors in our research is between 10[micro]g/[m.sup.3] and 50 [micro]g/[m.sup.3]. Jenkins found a somewhat wider general range of RSP in outdoor air of between 1-80 [micro]g/[m.sup.3] (Jenkins et al 2000). All of our indoor observations fell within the range of the observed outdoor RSP levels. In the United Kingdom, Venue 4 and Venue 5 showed higher levels of particles indoors than outdoors because of the rainy and windy weather conditions on the days that the outdoor measurements were taken. Venue 6 had slightly lower indoor particle levels than outdoor particle levels. In the United States, the casinos showed slightly higher levels of particles indoors due to the occupant density and activity levels as well as the extensive use of carpets and upholstered furniture and the presence of cooking sources from numerous restaurants. (1)

CONCLUSION

These are field studies of six well-ventilated hospitality venues located in the United States and the United Kingdom. The venues included three typical casinos, two typical pubs and one upscale restaurant.

The benchmarks used by indoor air quality researchers to evaluate indoor air quality in commercial and hospitality environments are carbon dioxide (metabolic activity and ventilation), carbon monoxide (combustion byproduct), respirable suspended particles (air cleanliness), temperature and humidity (both comfort measurements).Most researchers evaluating indoor air quality in spaces where smoking occurs have used respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) as a marker for tobacco smoke.

The measurements of this study included all of the generally accepted benchmarks for particles and gasses (carbon dioxide ([CO.sub.2]), carbon monoxide (CO), temperature, relative humidity and respirable suspended particulate (RSP). The results of these field studies are important because based on the generally accepted benchmarks used by researchers to evaluate IAQ and ventilation they show that mechanical ventilation is an effective means of providing indoor air quality conditions that are comparable to the outdoor air quality in hospitality venues where smoking is permitted.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Funding for this research was provided in part by Imperial Tobacco Limited and in part by gaming industry companies. Assistance with coordination of the equipment in the United Kingdom was provided by Jaros, Baum and Bolles UK Limited.

REFERENCES

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European Committee For Standardization (CEN), European Standard DIN EN 15251:2007:E. 2007. Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.

Collett, C.W., Ross, J.A. and Sterling, E.M. 1993. Review of Strategies Used to Investigate Indoor Air Quality Problems. Building Design, Technology & Occupant Well-Being in Temperate Climates. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA,. pp. 129-135.

Collett, C.W., Sterling, E.M., McIntyre, E.D., Steeves, J.F.and Weinkam, J.J. The Building Performance Database: An Analytical Tool for Indoor Air Quality Research. pp 426-430 in Indoor Air 87(Vol.2). Fourth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Berlin 1987.

Gammage, R.B., Hansen, D.L. and Johnson, L.W. 1989. Indoor Air Quality Investigations: A practitioner's approach. Environment International 15: 503-510.

Lane, C.A., Woods, J.E. and Busman, T.A. 1989. Indoor air quality diagnostic procedures for sick and healthy buildings. ASHRAE IAQ 89: The Human Equation--Health and Comfort, pp 237-240.

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Pinchevsky and Company. 2007. Scientific Research and Experimental Development Activities 2006 and 2007. Confidential report to Theodor Sterling Associates.

Shaw, C.Y. 1988. A proposed plan for assessing indoor air quality of non-industrial buildings. Proceedings: 81st Annual Meeting of Air Pollution Control Association, Dallas, June. Pittsburgh: Air and Waste Management Association.

Sterling, E.M, McIntyre, E.D., and Collett, C.W. 1987a. Field measurements for air quality in office buildings: A three phased approach to diagnosing building performance problems. Sampling and Calibration for Atmospheric Measurements (ASTM STP 957), J.K. Taylor, ed., pp.46-65. Philadelphia: American Society of Testing and Materials.

Sterling, E.M., Collett, C.W. and Meredith, J. 1987b. A five phased strategy for diagnosing air quality and related problems in commercial buildings. Proceedings: 80th Annual Meeting of Air pollution Control Association, New York. Pittsburgh: Air and Waste Management Association.

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Cenko, C., Pisaniello, D., Esterman, A., 2004. A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 14(1), pp 3-11.

Heal, M.R., Beverland, I.J., McCabe, M., et al, 2000. Inter-comparison of five [PM.sub.10] monitoring devices and the implications for exposure measurement in epidemiological research. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 2000, Vol. 2, pp 455-461.

Edwards, R., Smith, K, Kirby, B., et al, 2006. An Inexpensive Dual-chamber Particle Monitor: Laboratory Characterization. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association.

Jenkins, R.A., Ilgner, R.H. and Tomkins, B.A., 2004. Development and Application of Protocols for the Determination of Response of Real-Time Particle Monitors to Common Indoor Aerosols. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 54, pp 229-241.

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Levine, K. B., Collett, C.W. and Sterling, E.M., 1992. Measurements of [CO.sub.2] concentrations to estimate outside air ventilation rates. Proceedings: 85th Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association, Kansas City, June. Pittsburgh: Air and Waste Management Association.

Collett, C.W., Sterling, E.M., Sterling, T.D., Weinkam, J.J. 1989. A Database of Problem Buildings: Learning by Past Mistakes, in Present and Future of Indoor Air Quality, C.J. Bieva, Y. Courtois, M. Govaerts (eds), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 413-420.

Jenkins, R.A., Guerin, M.R., Tompkins, B.A. 2000. The Chemistry of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Composition and Measurement, p 149, Appendix 1.

Jenkins, R.A., Finn, D., Tomkins, B.A., et al, 2001. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Nonsmoking Section of a Restaurant: A Case Study.

Repace, J., 2004. Respirable Particles and Carcinogens In the Air of Delaware Hospitality Venues Before and After a Smoking Ban. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 46, Number 9, September 2004, pp. 887-905.

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Mulcahy, M., Byrne, M.A. and Ruprecht, A. 2005. How Does the Irish Smoking Ban Measure Up? A Before and After Study of Particle Concentrations in Irish Pubs. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005.

(1). It is interesting to note also that in the six hospitality venues studied where smoking occurred the levels of particles and gasses measured were also found to be similar or less than levels of particles and gasses measured in similar hospitality venues where smoking is not allowed and does not occur (Jenkins et al 2001, Repace 2004, Repace 2005, Mulcahy et al 2005).

Elia Sterling

Member ASHRAE

Elia Sterling is president and Michael Glassco is operations manager of Theodor Sterling Associates, Vancouver, British Columbia.
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Author:Sterling, Elia; Glassco, Michael
Publication:ASHRAE Transactions
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jul 1, 2009
Words:5161
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