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Fermentation of amaranth polysaccharide component to fractional fission products.

Abstract: The topic of the article is oriented at Amaranthus plant and its possible using. Complex exploitation of amaranth mass uses the rest of the herb after removing leafs and seeds is in the research. Fermentation of amaranth mass is engaged in anaerobic decay. This way of amaranth utilization is tested in this case. It is suitable to describe fermentation by mathematical simulation of the decay process. The mechanism of four-level decomposition is described by a vector differential equation, which presents a first order mechanism with regard to all reaction components. For analytical solution is Laplace transformation used. The designed mathematical model was verified by experimental measurement. Experimental device was supplemented by visualization program which was designed in programming environment Control Web. Archived data are compared with actual measured values.

1. INTRODUCTION

Amaranth [Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. cruentus (grain), A. tricolor (vegetable)] is a plant with an up-right growth habit, cultivated for both its seeds which are used as a grain and its leaves which are used as a vegetable. Both the leaves and seeds contain protein of an unusually high quality. The grains are milled for flour or popped like popcorn. The leaves of both the grain and vegetable types may be eaten raw or cooked. The amaranths that are principally for vegetable use have better tasting leaves then the grain types.

Amaranths produce many thousands of tiny seeds having very valuable contents. The crop has high nutritional values, contains remarkable amounts of protein with high portion essential amino-acid and other considerable substances, like squalene and flavonoids (rutin). As a result, amaranth starts to be exploited especially in the food industry to avoid new products, conducive to prevention against civilization diseases. Amaranth has a wide variety of applications in the food industry it can be used in a number of food products including breakfast cereals, confectionery products, salad condiments, baked products, etc. This utilization is dominant. On the other hand, amaranth starts to be used also in medicine, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Further research is in progress, for example in the area of amaranth biomass treatment. Fermentation of amaranth mass runs in anaerobic decay. This way of amaranth exploitation is tested in this case. It is suitable to describe fermentation by mathematical simulation of the decay process. The mechanism of four-level decomposition is described by a vector equation, which presents a first order mechanism with regard to all reaction components. For analytical solution of equation system is Laplace transformation used [3].

2. THEORY

2.1 Mathematical model of anaerobic decay

One of the purposes of the article is to check out the anaerobic decay efficiency of amaranth in laboratory conditions.

Generally, anaerobic proceed decay in four stadiums, therefore mathematical model of four-level decomposition is used.

Mathematical simulation of anaerobic decay of amaranth rest will progress in these presumptive steps:

* degradation

* hydrolysis

* acetolysis

* methane genesis.

This could be expressed in the following scheme:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

where [k.sub.1], [k.sub.2], [k.sub.3], [k.sub.4] are speed constants each subsequent reaction. The constants dependent on the sludge activity. In the first approach was contemplated the mechanisms of the first degree. In this presumption the following system of differential equations will be applied.

[dc.sub.A] / d[tau] = [k.sub.1][c.sub.A] (1)

[dc.sub.B] / d[tau] = [k.sub.1][c.sub.A] - [k.sub.2][c.sub.B] (2)

[dc.sub.c] / d[tau] = [k.sub.2][c.sub.B] - [k.sub.3][c.sub.c] (3)

[dc.sub.D] / d[tau] = [k.sub.3][c.sub.C] - [k.sub.4][c.sub.D] (4)

[dc.sub.D] / d[tau] = [k.sub.4][c.sub.E] (5)

[??] = A x C (6)

Equation (6) is a vector differential equation with consecutive initial conditions:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (7)

Vector differential equation (6) with the initial condition (7) represents a linear model; hence the Laplace transformation is solvable. Consequently is Laplace transformation solved, which conduces to these results:

[c.sub.A] = [c.sub.A0][e.sup.-kr] (8)

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (9)

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (10)

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (11)

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (12)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

3. THE EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

The mathematical model of anaerobic decay was verified by the help of experimental equipment which is shown in Figure 3. Reactor with the magnetic stirrer was filled with the mixture of anaerobic sludge and biomedium, then was the substrate added and eke out with water so the inlet of inert gas was dived. The reactor was vacual closed and aerated with nitrogen for 15 min which has provided oxygen expulsion from water liquor and performance of anaerobic conditions. Produced gas is collected and drained through the bubble flowmeter to ambient. The sensor is composed of a glass tube, which is encased in a chuck from an organic glass. Inlet of gas measuring through a nozzle needle is fixed on the chuck and leads below the liquid level. By the low flow rates are the bubbles formed at the issue of the jet. The bubble flowmeter is volumetric gauged. The scaler is connected to a computer, where is the process of the measurement registered via the program Control Web. The bioreactor is maintained by the constant temperature 23[degrees]C and the content is stirred with 50 turns per minute. As a matter of fact amaranth mass compacts especially of starch which is compounded of glucose molecules. With calculation of molecular weight was exact amount of amaranth charge achieved, it was 0,03 g. The processes of performed experiments are shown in Figures above (3,4).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Acknowledgments: The work has been supported by the grant MSM 7088352102 the Ministry of Education (MSMT) of the Czech Republic. This support is very gratefully.

4. REFERENCES

Zabranska, J. and composite authors (1997). Laboratory methods in water technology, VSCHT Prague

Kupec, J.(1978). Waste water technology, FT VUT Gottwaldov

Kodrikova, K. (2004). Evaluation of amaranth components and research of the polysaccharide component fermentation to fractional fission products, UTB Zlin 2004.
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Author:Kodrikova, K.; Adamek, M.; Kolomaznik, K.
Publication:Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:1028
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