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Federal statistics on healthcare benefits and cost trends: an overview: federal government statistical agencies provide a variety of healthcare information on diverse aspects of the nation's healthcare picture.

There are various Federal statistical surveys that attempt to shed light on a major national topic--healthcare availability and costs. Federal agencies--such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services--collect, analyze, and publish data that address different aspects of the healthcare picture. Some statistical programs such as those conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics have as their primary mission the dissemination of statistics. Other agencies, such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, publish data in conjunction with their primary mission to provide services and enforce regulations. This article summarizes major Federal healthcare statistical surveys and identifies selected benefit provisions, including incidence of coverage and employer and employee costs. Two types of surveys are examined separately--surveys of establishments (employers) and household surveys. In addition, Federal accounting structures that provide a measurement of aggregate medical costs are reviewed.

Establishment surveys

The two major establishment-type surveys are the Bureau of Labor Statistics' National Compensation Survey (NCS) and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Both establishment surveys are conducted annually. Data for the NCS are collected by personal visit initially and updated by mail and telephone; the MEPS'S data are collected primarily by mail. Both survey types obtain some detailed provisions from benefit plan documents rather than directly from respondents. Tables 1 through 4 present examples of selected published data from the NCS and the MEPS-IC. (2)

While both establishment surveys collect health insurance data, the focus of each is considerably different. (Note that the NCS reference to "medical care" is comparable to the MEPS' "health care" term.) The NCS is designed to get broad estimates of several types of employee compensation, including wages and salaries, overtime pay, sick leave, vacation benefits, health and retirement benefits, and so forth. The following is a sample of the medical insurance details available from the NCS:

* Incidence of coverage of selected medical services

* Amount of plan deductibles

* Coinsurance rates

* Out-of-pocket expense provisions

* Mental health and substance abuse treatment provisions

* Types of prescription drug coverage

* Brand name drug provisions

* Type of medical plan and financial intermediary

* Cost containment provisions

* Dollar plan maximums

* Employee share of total premiums and average monthly contributions (see table 2) The MEPS is designed specifically for in-depth analysis of healthcare benefits. (3) It provides, for example, cost of premiums and employees' contributions by private-sector (non-government) data, by industry groupings, and by such characteristics as ownership type and age of firm. (See table 4.) The following is a sample of some other health insurance details available from the MEPS:

* Private-sector data by firm size and selected characteristics

* Private-sector data by firm size and State

* Public-sector data by government type, government size, and census division

* National totals for enrollees and cost of health insurance coverage for the private and public sectors

* Private-sector data by proportion of employees who are full time or low wage and State

* Private-sector data by average wage quartiles and State.

Within each of these categories, tables are subsequently grouped by:

* Establishment-level tables

* Employee-level tables

* Premiums, employee contributions, and enrollment tables for single coverage plans

* Premiums, employee contributions, and enrollment tables for family coverage plans

* Premiums, employee contributions, and enrollment tables for employee-plus-one coverage plans.

Household surveys

There are three major Federal household surveys that collect data on healthcare benefits:

* The Current Population Survey (CPS)

* The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

* The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component (MEPS-HC).

The Current Population Survey is a monthly household survey jointly conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of the Census. Data are collected by personal and telephone interviews. The CPS (4) is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. Supplemental questions are often added to the regular CPS questionnaire to produce estimates on a variety of topics, including health and employee benefits. Table 5 presents selected demographic information related to health insurance coverage.

The Survey of Income and Program Participation (5) is conducted by the Bureau of the Census and provides information on the source and amount of income, labor force information, program participation and eligibility data, and general demographic characteristics to measure the effectiveness of existing Federal, State, and local programs. Data are collected by personal interviews with telephone follow-ups. Data are used to estimate future costs and coverage for government programs, such as food stamps, and to provide improved statistics on the distribution of income in the country. The survey design is a continuous series of national panels, with a sample of household interviews lasting about 2 1/2 to 4 years. Table 6 presents selected published data from the SIPP.

The MEPS Household Component Survey (HC), (6) a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population, collects medical expenditure data at both the person and household levels. The MEPS-HC collects detailed data on demographic characteristics, health conditions, health status, use of medical care services, charges and payments, access to care, satisfaction with care, health insurance coverage, income, and employment. In addition to collecting data at the person and household levels, expenditure data for the sampled households are then collected from the doctors, hospitals, and pharmacies used by these households. The primary collection method uses Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing (CATI) techniques. Table 7 presents selected data on the health insurance status of the population under age 65.

Establishment vs. household surveys

Why are there separate establishment and household surveys covering what appears to be the same health topics? Each survey type provides information that is unavailable or not readily available from the other. Establishment surveys provide more accurate data on the costs and details of health plans than do household surveys; however, the latter are better vehicles for obtaining demographic data such as age, sex, race, and marital status. (7) A question also is raised on the rationale for conducting multiple establishment and multiple household surveys. The answer again is that each survey is designed and funded for specific purposes, even though broad subjects, such as healthcare, may be the concern of different agencies. For example, as noted, the MEPS household survey focuses on such details as the health status of individuals, their access to and use of healthcare services, and their income and employment status. The SIPP household survey, while producing selected healthcare statistics, collects data used to estimate future costs for government programs such as the food stamps program.

Trends in healthcare costs

There are several Federal Government agencies that provide estimates on trends in health care costs. BLS publishes information from the NCS and the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The Bureau of Economic Analysis from the Department of Commerce, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from the Department of Health and Human Services, also provide information on healthcare trends.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. The NCS provides trends in employer costs through the Employment Cost Index (ECI) and the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC). The ECI measures the rate of change in employee compensation, which includes employer costs for benefits, including health insurance. (8) The ECEC measures the average cost per employee hour worked that employers pay for employee compensation, including health insurance benefits. The ECI and ECEC provide data for the civilian economy, which includes the total private nonfarm economy and State and local governments, excluding households and the Federal Government. In December 2003, data were obtained from about 8,300 establishments in the private sector and 800 sample establishments in State and local government. Although both use the same data source, the ECI uses fixed employment weights based on the Bureau's Occupational Employment Statistics survey to derive industry and occupation series indexes. Since March 1995, 1990 employment counts have been used. The ECEC, on the other hand, produces cost levels and is calculated by using current, rather than fixed, employment weights.

The ECI is designed to measure how compensation paid by employers would have changed over time if the industry/occupation composition of employment had not changed from the base period, while the ECEC is designed to measure the current cost for employee compensation. While the ECEC provides information about average compensation in the economy at a point in time, the ECI should be used to examine changes in benefit costs over time. However, by comparing the ECEC at different points in time, a measure of the change in average compensation in the labor market can be observed. For health insurance costs, for example, the change could indicate a shift in firms providing health insurance benefits, a change in the composition of premium costs between employer and employee, or a change in employee participation. (9) The share of total compensation accounted for by health insurance in private industry rose from 6.0 percent in March 1991 to 6.6 percent in March 2004. Table 8 provides estimates on annual benefit and health insurance cost trends from the ECI and ECEC from March 1991 to March 2004.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of goods and services purchased for day to day living. (10) The current CPI uses a market basket developed from detailed expenditure information collected from the Consumer Expenditure Survey. The 1998 CH revision used information provided by families and individuals on what they actually bought over the years 1993 through 1995. Altogether, more than 30,000 individuals and families provided expenditure information for use in determining the importance, or weight, of more than 2,000 categories in the CPI index structure. Using Consumer Expenditure Survey data from 1999 through 2000, the CPI began an ongoing 2-year weight revision with the publication of the 2002 indexes.

The CPI reflects spending patterns for two population groups: All urban consumers (CPI-U) and Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). The CPI-U represents about 87 percent of the total U.S. population. It is based on the expenditures of almost all residents of metropolitan areas. It excludes the spending patterns of persons in non-metropolitan areas, farm families, persons in the Armed Forces, and those in institutions such as prison inmates. The CPI-W's population represents about 32 percent of the total U.S. population and is a subset of the CPI-U's population.

Medical care is one of the major item groups within the Consumer Price Index. This major group consists of medical care commodities and medical care services. Medical care services, the major component of medical care, includes physician, dental, eye care, and other medical professional services, inpatient and outpatient hospital care, and nursing home services. Medical care commodities include prescription and non-prescription drugs and medical equipment and supplies. Weights for CPI medical care reflect household expenditures for health insurance premiums, as well as out-of-pocket medical expenses not covered by health insurance. The CPI does not include employer-paid insurance premiums or government-paid healthcare such as Medicare Part A. (11) Table 9 provides estimates on annual price trends from the CPI from March 1991 to March 2004. Bureau of Economic Analysis. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) is an agency of the Department of Commerce, which along with the Bureau of the Census, are part of the Economics and Statistics Administration. The cornerstone of BEA'S estimates is the National Economic Accounts, which feature the estimates of gross domestic product and related measures. (12)

The National Economic Accounts are aggregations of accounts belonging to four sectors of the economy: business, personal, government, and foreign. For each sector, three accounts are created--a production account that records the production attributable to that sector; an appropriation account that records the sources of that sector's income; and a savings-investment account that records the sector's net increase in assets or liabilities. Taken together, these sector accounts constitute a double-entry system in which an outlay recorded in one account is also recorded as a receipt in another account.

The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) are a combination of the sector accounts designed to display the value and composition of national output and the distribution of incomes generated by its production. The NIPA consists of seven accounts: (1) the domestic income and product account: (2) the private enterprise income account; (3) personal income and outlay account; (4) the government receipts and expenditures account; (5) the foreign transactions current account: (6) the domestic capital account: and (7) the foreign transactions capital account. (13)

In producing NIPA estimates, BEA relies primarily on data based on information gathered by regulatory or tax agencies for other purposes as well as data from other statistical agencies, such as BLS and the Bureau of the Census. Comprehensive data on health insurance are difficult to obtain because employer-provided health insurance has no single administrative source of data. Final estimates are based on a combination of regulatory information, survey data, and trade sources. MEPS is the primary date source for the employer cost of the employee health insurance component and for the medical care and hospitalization insurance component of personal consumption expenditures. Estimates from the Employer Cost for Employee Compensation published by BLS are used to estimate the annual growth rate of employer expenditures. Wage data from the BLS annual tabulations of wages and salaries of employees covered by State unemployment insurance reports are also used.

Within the personal income and outlays account is the Personal Consumption Expenditures for medical care. Included within this account are costs (in current dollars) for physicians, dentists, and other professional services; costs for hospital visits and nursing homes; and health insurance and workers' compensation costs. Changes in current dollar expenditures can be decomposed into quantity and price components. Quantities or "real" measures and prices are expressed as index numbers with the reference year 2000, currently equal to 100. Annual changes in quantities and prices are calculated using a Fisher formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent years. (14) The NIPA produces a "chained weighted" measure that updates the weights for every period. For example, the growth rate between 1992 and 1993 is computed using prices that prevailed in 1992 and 1993, while the growth rate between 1997 and 1998 is computed using prices that prevailed in 1997 and 1998. Chain-type estimates provide the best available method for comparing the level of a given series at two points in time. Table 10 provides estimates on trends in healthcare costs from the National Economic Accounts from March 1991 to March 2003.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The CMS publishes the National Health Accounts (NHA), an annual series of statistics presenting total national health expenditures. (15) The NHA consists of categories defining the sources of healthcare dollars and the establishments from which services are purchased with these funds. Funding sources are broadly classified into private health insurance, out-of-pocket spending, and specific government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A small portion of expenditures is estimated for other private revenues, such as philanthropic giving and revenues received for nonhealth activities. Behind each NHA source of funding is a sponsor, designated as business, households, governments, and other private funds, who provides the financial support with which healthcare bills are paid. The difference between the source of funds and the sponsor can be illustrated using private health insurance. Although private health insurers pay claims on the behalf of individuals, the premiums are paid or sponsored by employers (business, government, and households). Although private health insurance is considered a private source of funding, in the NHA, the payments are categorized into business, household, and government sponsor categories. The NHA is compatible with the National Income and Product Accounts published by BEA.

The NHA includes the National Health Expenditures, historical and projected, and the State Health Expenditures. The National Health Expenditure survey measures spending for healthcare in the United States by type of service delivered (hospital care, physician services, nursing homecare, and so forth) and the source of funding for those services (private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, out-of-pocket spending, and so forth). Total health expenditures are broadly classified into private health insurance, out-of-pocket spending, and specific government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A small portion of expenditures is estimated for other private revenues such as philanthropic giving and revenues received by some healthcare providers from nonhealth activities such as the operation of cafeterias and gift shops. Private health expenditures include out-of-pocket expenses, private insurance, and "other private revenues" described above. Private health insurance expenditures are the cost of premiums earned by private health providers. See the box below for the definitions used by the National Health Expenditure Survey.

The primary source for estimating private and State and local government contributions to employer-sponsored health insurance plans is the MEPS-IC survey sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Employer-paid premiums were estimated forward using the annual growth in private health premiums derived from the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation component of the NCS. The U.S. Office of Personnel Management supplied estimates of the premium amounts paid by Federal employers on behalf of their employees and retirees. Tables 11 and 12 provide estimates on expenditures and trends in healthcare costs from the National Health Expenditures Survey from 1993 to 2002.

Summary

THE STATISTICAL SYSTEM of the United States is highly decentralized, with a myriad of Federal agencies involved in the collection and analysis of health statistics. The missions of agencies differ, with some having a major focus of investigation, regulation, or enforcement, while others such as BLS being exclusively a statistical agency. These different purposes result in outputs varying in scope of coverage, methodology, and timing. The purpose of this article was to give an overview of the major Federal statistics on healthcare, not to provide an exhaustive list of all surveys and detailed differences in methodology. For more information, visit the Internet sites listed in the Notes section.

Definitions used in the National Health Expenditure Survey

Out of pocket expenditures

Direct spending by consumers for all healthcare goods and services. Included is the amount paid for services not covered by insurance and the amount of coinsurance and deductibles required by private health insurance and by public programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Enrollee premiums for private health insurance and Medicare are not included, as are coinsurance and deductible amounts paid by supplementary Medicare policies.

Private health insurance

Individually purchased and employer-sponsored insurance premiums paid for by a variety of plans, including traditional healthcare plan (Blue Cross and Blue Shield) premiums, managed care, and self-insured plans. Managed care plans include Health Maintenance Organiastions (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), and Point of Service Plans (POSs). Self-insured plans are offered by employers who directly assume the major cost of health insurance for their employees. Some self-insured plans bear the entire risk, while others insure against large claims by purchasing stop-loss insurance plans. Stop-loss coverage limits the amount an employer will have to pay for each person (individual limit) or for the total expense of the company (group limit).

Other private funds

Revenues received for which no direct patient care services are rendered. The most widely recognized source of other private funds is philanthropy. Philanthropic support may be direct from individuals, obtained through fund-raising organizations such as the United Way, or obtained from foundations or corporations. For some institutions, other private funds include income from the operation of gift shops, cafeterias, parking lots, as well as investment income.

Medicare

Payments from the Federal health insurance program for people aged 65 and older and those with certain disabilities. Medicare coverage provides for acute hospital care, physician services, brief stays in skilled nursing facilities, and short-term skilled homecare related to a medical problem. Coverage is restricted to medical care, and does not include prescription drugs or custodial care at home or in nursing homes.

Medicaid

Payments from a Federal-State program that covers health services for low-income individuals and families. Coverage and eligibility requirements vary by State. Medicaid is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with limited income and the primary payer of nursing homecare.

Other public funds

All other healthcare expenditures channeled through any program established by public law. For example, expenditures under workers' compensation programs and direct healthcare costs for the Department of Defense, Department of Veteran Affairs, and Indian Health Service. Also included are State and local hospitals, home health agencies, and school health subsidies. Premiums paid by enrollees for Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance are included as a public expenditure; however, Medicare coinsurance and deductibles are included under out-of-pocket payments because they are paid directly by the beneficiary to the provider of the service.
Table 1. Percent of workers participating in healthcare benefits, by
selected characteristics, private industry, National Compensation
Survey, March 2004

 Vision
 Characteristic Medical care Dental care care

All employees 53 37 22

 Worker characteristics

White-collar occupations 59 43 25
Blue-collar occupations 60 40 25
Service occupations 24 16 11
Full-time employees 66 46 27
Part-time employees 11 8 6
Union 81 68 50
Nonunion 50 33 19
Average wage:
 Less than $15 per hour 40 26 15
 $15 per hour or higher 71 53 33

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing 69 49 30
Service-producing 48 33 20
1-99 workers 43 24 14
100 workers or more 64 52 32

 Geographic areas

Metropolitan areas 54 38 23
Nonmetropolitan areas 48 31 18
New England 49 38 17
Middle Atlantic 53 38 24
East North Central 54 39 22
West North Central 51 32 17
South Atlantic 52 35 19
East South Central 52 36 25
West South Central 54 33 20
Mountain 51 38 23
Pacific 55 41 30

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey

Table 2. Percent of medical insurance participants required to
contribute and percentage and amount of premiums paid by employees, by
selected characteristics, private industry, National Compensation
Survey, March 2004

 Single coverage

 Employee Employee
 contribution share of Average
 required premium monthly
 Characteristic (percent) (percent) contribution

All employees 76 18 $67.57

 Worker characteristics

White-collar occupations 78 19 69.07
Blue-collar occupations 70 16 63.15
Service occupations 81 21 72.40
Full-time employees 76 18 67.05
Part-time employees 71 21 78.61
Union 57 11 56.53
Nonunion 79 20 68.98
Average wage:
 Less than $15 per hour 79 20 70.27
 $15 per hour or higher 73 17 65.22

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing 74 16 59.89
Service-producing 77 19 70.63
1-99 workers 67 18 74.02
100 workers or more 83 18 63.33

 Geographic areas

Metropolitan areas 76 18 67.56
Nonmetropolitan areas 76 18 67.62
New England 84 20 69.37
Middle Atlantic 73 17 67.43
East North Central 76 18 67.73
West North Central 77 18 66.60
South Atlantic 79 21 72.02
East South Central 79 19 64.16
West South Central 81 19 66.49
Mountain 79 18 64.04
Pacific 65 16 65.19

 Family coverage

 Employee Employee
 contribution share of Average
 required premium monthly
 Characteristic (percent) (percent) contribution

All employees 89 31 $264.59

 Worker characteristics

White-collar occupations 91 32 271.60
Blue-collar occupations 84 28 242.81
Service occupations 91 35 294.58
Full-time employees 89 31 263.65
Part-time employees 83 33 284.66
Union 67 17 195.12
Nonunion 93 33 273.51
Average wage:
 Less than $15 per hour 92 34 275.81
 $15 per hour or higher 86 28 255.05

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing 85 26 221.25
Service-producing 90 33 281.44
1-99 workers 87 36 307.78
100 workers or more 90 27 231.23

 Geographic areas

Metropolitan areas 89 30 262.99
Nonmetropolitan areas 90 32 274.02
New England 91 26 224.98
Middle Atlantic 84 27 246.61
East North Central 84 27 252.62
West North Central 86 30 258.23
South Atlantic 95 35 293.72
East South Central 94 33 247.83
West South Central 97 36 288.84
Mountain 89 32 269.86
Pacific 85 31 260.51

(1) The average is presented for all covered workers in plans stating a
flat monhtly cost and excludes workers without the plan provision.

NOTE: Average contributions in this table are limited to participants
who are required to contribute to medical insurance costs. The employee
share of premium category includes workers who do not have to make a
contribution as well as employees who do have to contribute. The
employee contributions referred to in table 4 include employees who do
not contribute to medical insurance premiums as well as those who do.
Dashes indicate data did not meet publication criteria.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.

Table 3. Percent of private-sector employees that are enrolled in
health insurance plans at establishments that offer health insurance by
selected firm size and selected characteristics, Medical Expenditure
Panel Survey (Insurance Component), United States, 2001

 1,000 or more
 Characteristic All firm sizes employees

 United States 62.2 64.4
Industry group:
 Agriculture, fishing, forestry 59.5 64.7
 Mining and manufacturing 80.4 84.0
 Construction 64.9 71.3
 Utilities and transportation 72.7 73.9
 Wholesale trade 75.4 80.0
 Financial services and real estate 72.8 73.5
 Retail trade 47.6 42.4
 Professional services 65.8 67.2
 Other services 41.9 45.1
Ownership:
 For profit, incorporated 63.3 64.8
 For profit, unincorporated 57.1 61.0
 Nonprofit 58.5 63.1
 Unknown 62.7 62.9
Age of firm:
 Less than 5 years 53.9 68.2
 5-9 years 52.0 39.4
 10-19 years 56.0 53.1
 20 or more years 63.2 64.3
 Unknown 67.0 67.1
Multi/single status:
 2 or more locations 63.6 64.5
 1 location only 59.2 58.9
Full-time employees:
 Less than 25 percent 18.3 21.1
 25-49 percent 31.4 34.4
 50-74 percent 50.0 55.4
 75 percent or more 70.7 72.3
 Unknown 64.2 64.8
Union presence:
 No union employees 60.7 62.4
 Has union employees 67.7 68.7
 Unknown 64.2 64.8
Percent of low-wage (1) employees:
 50% or more low wage 36.4 35.7
 Less than 50% low wage 68.6 69.3
 Unknown 66.1 66.5

 Less than 50 50 or more
 Characteristic employees employees

 United States 60.5 62.6
Industry group:
 Agriculture, fishing, forestry 52.6 64.4
 Mining and manufacturing 71.2 81.8
 Construction 66.6 63.2
 Utilities and transportation 63.2 73.6
 Wholesale trade 69.7 77.3
 Financial services and real estate 71.3 73.0
 Retail trade 58.8 44.7
 Professional services 66.0 65.8
 Other services 41.9 42.0
Ownership:
 For profit, incorporated 62.2 63.6
 For profit, unincorporated 56.5 57.4
 Nonprofit 53.9 59.5
 Unknown 95.8 62.3
Age of firm:
 Less than 5 years 57.0 50.4
 5-9 years 58.2 46.3
 10-19 years 59.8 53.1
 20 or more years 62.2 63.5
 Unknown 56.3 67.1
Multi/single status:
 2 or more locations 58.2 63.8
 1 location only 60.7 57.2
Full-time employees:
 Less than 25 percent 16.9 18.8
 25-49 percent 29.3 31.8
 50-74 percent 46.4 50.9
 75 percent or more 69.2 71.1
 Unknown 71.9 64.0
Union presence:
 No union employees 60.1 60.9
 Has union employees 66.0 67.8
 Unknown 71.9 64.0
Percent of low-wage (1) employees:
 50% or more low wage 37.4 36.1
 Less than 50% low wage 67.8 68.9
 Unknown 54.2 66.4

(1) Defined as earning $9.50 per hour or less.

SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Table 4. Average annual single and family premiums, average employee
contribution and percent of total per enrolled employee at private-
sector establishments that offer health insurance, by selected
characteristics, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (Insurance
Component), United States, 2001

 Single coverage

 Employee
 Characteristic Total cost contribution

 United States $2,889 $498
Industry group:
 Agriculture, fishing, forestry 2,709 449
 Mining and manufacturing 2,738 423
 Construction 2,632 442
 Utilities and transportation 2,817 393
 Wholesale trade 2,735 427
 Financial services and real estate 2,944 539
 Retail trade 2,774 643
 Professional services 2,992 439
 Other services 3,062 607
Ownership:
 For profit, incorporated 2,821 512
 For profit, unincorporated 3,032 472
 Nonprofit 3,182 443
 Unknown 2,839 499
Age of firm:
 Less than 5 years 3,013 509
 5-9 years 2,819 544
 10-19 years 2,838 499
 20 or more years 2,956 495
 Unknown 2,747 493
Multi/single status:
 2 or more locations 2,857 521
 1 location only 2,947 459
Full-time employees:
 Less than 25 percent 2,670 601
 25-49 percent 2,744 631
 50-74 percent 3,019 551
 75 percent or more 2,882 481
Union presence
 No union employees 2,860 511
 Has union employees 2,938 408
 Unknown 3,149 569
Percent of low-wage (2) employees:
 50% or more low wage 2,813 610
 Less than 50% low wage 2,923 465
 Unknown 2,860 512

 Single Family
 coverage coverage

 Employee
 Characteristic percent (1) Total cost

 United States 17.3 $7,509
Industry group:
 Agriculture, fishing, forestry 16.6 6,859
 Mining and manufacturing 15.5 7,308
 Construction 16.8 7,154
 Utilities and transportation 14.0 7,362
 Wholesale trade 15.6 7,331
 Financial services and real estate 18.3 7,878
 Retail trade 23.2 7,171
 Professional services 14.7 7,746
 Other services 19.8 7,735
Ownership:
 For profit, incorporated 18.1 7,463
 For profit, unincorporated 15.6 7,775
 Nonprofit 13.9 7,759
 Unknown 17.6 7,416
Age of firm:
 Less than 5 years 16.9 7,684
 5-9 years 19.3 7,408
 10-19 years 17.6 7,570
 20 or more years 16.7 7,544
 Unknown 17.9 7,415
Multi/single status:
 2 or more locations 18.2 7,476
 1 location only 15.6 7,601
Full-time employees:
 Less than 25 percent 22.5 7,046
 25-49 percent 23.0 7,065
 50-74 percent 18.3 7,524
 75 percent or more 16.7 7,533
Union presence
 No union employees 17.9 7,648
 Has union employees 13.9 7,070
 Unknown 18.1 7,730
Percent of low-wage (2) employees:
 50% or more low wage 21.7 7,113
 Less than 50% low wage 15.9 7,626
 Unknown 17.9 7,426

 Family coverage

 Employee Employee
 Characteristic contribution percent (1)

 United States $1,741 23.2
Industry group:
 Agriculture, fishing, forestry 1,106 16.1
 Mining and manufacturing 1,311 17.9
 Construction 1,839 25.7
 Utilities and transportation 1,271 17.3
 Wholesale trade 1,650 22.5
 Financial services and real estate 1,913 24.3
 Retail trade 2,234 31.1
 Professional services 1,921 24.8
 Other services 2,088 27.0
Ownership:
 For profit, incorporated 1,701 22.8
 For profit, unincorporated 2,359 30.3
 Nonprofit 1,757 22.6
 Unknown 1,671 22.5
Age of firm:
 Less than 5 years 2,126 27.7
 5-9 years 2,340 31.6
 10-19 years 1,996 26.4
 20 or more years 1,714 22.7
 Unknown 1,586 21.4
Multi/single status:
 2 or more locations 1,644 22.0
 1 location only 2,013 26.5
Full-time employees:
 Less than 25 percent 1,829 26.0
 25-49 percent 1,676 23.7
 50-74 percent 1,963 26.1
 75 percent or more 1,716 22.8
Union presence
 No union employees 1,966 25.7
 Has union employees 1,186 16.8
 Unknown 1,598 20.7
Percent of low-wage (2) employees:
 50% or more low wage 2,227 31.3
 Less than 50% low wage 1,802 23.6
 Unknown 1,571 21.2

(1) Percents may vary slightly due to rounding.

(2) Defined as earning $9.50 per hour or less.

SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Table 5. Percent of people with health insurance coverage for the
entire year and type of coverage by selected characteristics, Current
Population Survey, 2002

 Covered by private or government
 health insurance

 Private health insurance

 Direct
 Characteristic Total Total Total Employment purchase

Total 100 84.8 69.6 61.3 9.3

 Sex

Male 100 83.3 69.6 62.2 8.6
Female 100 86.1 69.6 60.4 10.0

 Race and ethnicity

White alone or in
 combination 100 85.8 72.3 63.2 10.1
 White alone 100 85.8 72.4 63.3 10.2
 White alone, not
 Hispanic 100 89.3 77.4 67.3 11.4
Black alone or in
 combination 100 80.1 54.2 50.4 4.3
 Black alone 100 79.8 54.0 50.3 4.4
Asian alone or in
 combination 100 82.0 69.1 60.6 9.5
 Asian alone 100 81.6 68.7 60.0 9.8
Hispanic (of any race) 100 67.6 46.0 42.4 3.7

 Age

Under 18 years 100 88.4 67.5 63.0 5.3
18 to 24 years 100 70.4 60.4 48.9 5.7
25 to 34 years 100 75.1 67.5 63.2 5.3
35 to 44 years 100 82.3 75.4 70.7 6.4
45 to 64 years 100 86.5 77.7 71.2 9.1
65 years and older 100 99.2 60.4 33.8 29.6

 Nativity

Native 100 87.2 71.9 63.3 9.6
Foreign born 100 66.6 52.2 46.0 7.1
 Naturalized citizen 100 82.5 64.8 56.3 9.8
 Not a citizen 100 56.7 44.4 39.6 5.4

 Region

Northeast 100 87.0 71.7 64.1 8.4
Midwest 100 88.3 76.4 67.4 10.0
South 100 82.5 65.9 58.0 9.1
West 100 82.9 66.9 58.3 9.6

 Covered by private or government health
 insurance

 Government health insurance

 Medi- Military Not
 Characteristic Total Medicaid care care covered

Total 25.7 11.6 13.4 3.5 15.2

 Sex

Male 23.6 10.5 11.9 3.8 16.7
Female 27.8 12.7 14.9 3.2 13.9

 Race and ethnicity

White alone or in
 combination 24.8 9.8 14.2 3.5 14.2
 White alone 24.7 9.6 14.4 3.5 14.2
 White alone, not
 Hispanic 24.6 7.7 15.8 3.8 10.7
Black alone or in
 combination 33.8 23.4 10.3 3.6 19.9
 Black alone 33.7 23.1 10.5 3.5 20.2
Asian alone or in
 combination 18.7 10.6 8.1 2.8 18.0
 Asian alone 18.4 10.4 8.5 2.3 18.4
Hispanic (of any race) 26.1 20.2 6.4 1.8 32.4

 Age

Under 18 years 26.8 23.9 .7 2.9 11.6
18 to 24 years 13.6 10.6 .7 2.8 29.6
25 to 34 years 10.1 7.1 1.2 2.3 24.9
35 to 44 years 9.6 6.2 2.0 2.5 17.7
45 to 64 years 13.6 5.9 5.6 4.2 13.5
65 years and older 95.8 9.6 95.3 6.6 .8

 Nativity

Native 26.5 11.8 13.7 3.8 12.8
Foreign born 19.9 10.5 11.3 1.5 33.4
 Naturalized citizen 27.6 9.8 20.7 2.5 17.5
 Not a citizen 15.1 10.9 5.5 .9 43.3

 Region

Northeast 26.0 12.2 14.7 1.8 13.0
Midwest 23.3 9.7 13.3 2.1 11.7
South 27.4 11.8 14.1 4.9 17.5
West 25.4 12.8 11.6 4.1 17.1

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau.

Table 6. Health insurance coverage types by age, sex, and employment
status, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1997

[Numbers in thousands]

 15 years and older 15-44

Characteristic Number Percent Number Percent

 Total 208,059 100.0 120,784 100.0
Employed 131,290 63.1 87,603 72.5
 Current employer 69,845 53.2 45,261 51.7
 Previous employer 3,336 2.5 1,295 1.5
 Spouse's employer 21,033 16.0 13,306 15.2
 Other relative's employer 5,500 4.2 5,342 6.1
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 8,727 6.6 4,602 5.3
 Public health insurance 3,503 2.7 2,387 2.7
 No health insurance 19,345 14.7 15,411 17.6
Unemployed 5,527 2.7 4,445 3.7
 Previous employer 708 12.9 485 10.9
 Spouse's employer 702 12.7 485 10.9
 Other relative's employer 425 7.7 425 9.6
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 339 6.1 233 5.2
 Public health insurance 790 14.3 672 15.1
 No health insurance 2,564 46.4 2,145 48.3
Not in labor force 71,241 34.2 28,736 23.8
 Previous employer 11,246 15.8 1,902 6.6
 Spouse's employer 14,164 19.9 6,137 21.4
 Other relative's employer 6,799 9.5 6,567 22.9
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 14,482 20.3 2,228 7.8
 Public health insurance 15,672 22.0 5,419 18.9
 No health insurance 8,878 12.5 6,483 22.6

 45-64 65 and older

Characteristic Number Percent Number Percent

 Total 55,211 100.0 32,064 100.0
Employed 39,485 71.5 4,202 13.1
 Current employer 23,619 59.8 965 23.0
 Previous employer 1,479 3.7 562 13.4
 Spouse's employer 7,323 18.5 404 9.6
 Other relative's employer 126 .3 31 .7
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 2,601 6.6 1,524 36.3
 Public health insurance 468 1.2 649 15.4
 No health insurance 3,868 9.8 67 1.6
Unemployed 970 1.8 112 .4
 Previous employer 199 20.5 24 21.8
 Spouse's employer 209 21.6 7 6.4
 Other relative's employer (1) (1) (1) (1)
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 54 5.5 52 46.4
 Public health insurance 189 9.2 28 25.4
 No health insurance 419 43.2 -- --
Not in labor force 14,756 26.7 27,749 86.5
 Previous employer 2,938 19.9 6,405 23.1
 Spouse's employer 4,780 32.4 3,248 11.7
 Other relative's employer 114 .8 118 .4
 Privately purchased or
 military-related 1,654 11.2 10,600 38.2
 Public health insurance 3,078 20.9 7,176 25.9
 No health insurance 2,193 14.9 202 .7

(1) Represents zero or rounds to zero.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau.

Table 7. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized
population under age 65, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (Household
Component), United States, first half of 2002

 Percent distribution

Population characteristic Population in thousands Private

Total (1) 247,523 67.9

 Employment status

 Employed 133,479 78.6
 Not employed 48,923 49.6

 Sex

 Male 122,942 68.3
 Female 124,581 67.5

 Race/ethnicity

 Hispanic 35,454 43.4
 Black 31,777 52.7
 White 166,748 76.0
 Other 13,544 68.0
 Hispanic male 18,251 44.2
 Black male 14,866 53.1
 White male 83,148 76.2
 Other male 6,677 68.5
 Hispanic female 17,203 42.5
 Black female 16,911 52.2
 White female 83,600 75.7
 Other female 6,867 67.6

 Marital status (2)

 Married 98,352 80.3
 Widowed 3,282 56.0
 Divorced 20,493 64.2
 Separated 3,946 45.7
 Never married 56,852 59.1

Perceived health status

 Excellent 84,060 71.6
 Very good 81,487 72.3
 Good 59,080 63.3
 Fair 17,076 54.1
 Poor 5,594 40.4

 Census region

 Northeast 46,026 73.3
 Midwest 56,152 75.0
 South 87,689 63.2
 West 57,656 64.1

 Percent distribution

Population characteristic Public only Unisured

Total (1) 13.5 18.5

 Employment status

 Employed 3.5 17.9
 Not employed 22.8 22.7

 Sex

 Male 12.0 19.7
 Female 15.1 17.4

 Race/ethnicity

 Hispanic 20.5 36.1
 Black 27.0 20.4
 White 9.3 14.6
 Other 15.6 16.3
 Hispanic male 17.4 38.4
 Black male 24.4 22.5
 White male 8.4 15.3
 Other male 14.2 17.3
 Hispanic female 23.7 33.8
 Black female 29.2 18.5
 White female 10.3 14.0
 Other female 17.0 15.4

 Marital status (2)

 Married 4.9 14.9
 Widowed 20.2 23.8
 Divorced 12.5 23.3
 Separated 20.7 33.6
 Never married 12.4 28.6

Perceived health status

 Excellent 12.3 16.1
 Very good 10.2 17.5
 Good 14.9 21.8
 Fair 23.3 22.7
 Poor 37.4 22.3

 Census region

 Northeast 13.1 13.6
 Midwest 10.2 14.8
 South 14.8 22.1
 West 15.3 20.7

(1) Includes persons with unknown employment, unknown marital and
unknown perceived health status.

(2) For individuals ages 16 and older.

NOTE: The estimates in this table cover the civilian
noninstitutionalized population under age 65. Percents may not add to
100 because of rounding.

SOURCE: Center for Financing, Access and Cost Trends, Agency for
Health-care Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey,
Household Component, 2002.

Table 8. Trends in private industry employer health insurance costs,
National Compensation Survey, March 1991 to March 2004

 ECEC private industry ECEC private industry
 costs costs
 (cents per hour worked) (annual percent change)

 Health Health
 Date All benefits insurance All benefits insurance

March
 1991 $4.27 $0.92 -- --
 1992 4.55 1.02 6.6 10.9
 1993 4.80 1.10 5.5 7.9
 1994 4.94 1.14 2.9 3.6
 1995 4.85 1.06 -1.8 -6.3
 1996 4.91 1.04 1.2 -1.7
 1997 4.94 .99 .6 -4.4
 1998 5.02 1.00 1.6 1.8
 1999 5.13 1.03 2.2 2.6
 2000 5.36 1.09 4.5 5.9
 2001 5.63 1.16 5.0 8.0
 2002 5.90 1.31 4.8 12.6
 2003 6.22 1.45 5.4 11.2
 2004 6.65 1.53 6.9 5.5

 ECI private industry
 (annual percent change)

 Health
 Date All benefits insurance

March
 1991 5.8 11.5
 1992 6.3 10.3
 1993 5.6 8.1
 1994 4.4 5.7
 1995 2.9 1.6
 1996 1.6 -.6
 1997 2.0 0.2
 1998 2.3 2.2
 1999 2.2 3.7
 2000 5.5 7.6
 2001 5.0 8.1
 2002 4.8 10.5
 2003 6.1 9.8
 2004 7.0 9.3

NOTE: Dash indicates percent change is not applicable.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.

Table 9. Trends in healthcare prices, Consumer Price Index, March
1991 to March 2004

 CPI Medical care
 CPI All items CPI Medical care services
 (1982-84=100) (1982-84=100) (1982-84=100)

 Percent Percent Percent
 Date Index change Index change Index change

March
 1991 135.0 -- 173.7 -- 173.8 --
 1992 139.3 3.2 187.3 7.8 187.4 7.8
 1993 143.6 3.1 198.6 6.0 199.7 6.6
 1994 147.2 2.5 208.3 4.9 210.4 5.4
 1995 151.4 2.9 218.4 4.9 221.8 5.4
 1996 155.7 2.9 226.6 3.8 230.7 4.0
 1997 160.0 2.8 233.4 3.0 237.7 3.0
 1998 162.2 1.4 239.8 2.8 244.8 3.0
 1999 165.0 1.7 248.3 3.6 253.1 3.4
 2000 171.2 3.8 258.1 4.0 263.2 4.0
 2001 176.2 2.9 270.0 4.6 275.9 4.8
 2002 178.8 1.5 282.0 4.5 288.9 4.7
 2003 184.2 3.0 294.2 4.3 302.6 4.8
 2004 187.4 1.7 307.5 4.5 318.4 5.2

 CPI Medical care
 commodities
 (1982-84=100)

 Percent
 Date Index change

March
 1991 173.2 --
 1992 186.7 7.8
 1993 193.9 3.9
 1994 199.4 2.7
 1995 203.7 2.3
 1996 208.9 2.6
 1997 214.7 2.8
 1998 218.5 1.8
 1999 227.7 4.2
 2000 236.3 3.8
 2001 244.9 3.6
 2002 254.1 3.8
 2003 261.4 2.9
 2004 267.3 2.3

NOTE: Dash indicates percent change is not applicable.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index, All Urban
Consumers, U.S. city average, not seasonally adjusted.

Table 10. Trends in healthcare costs, Bureau of Economic Analysis,
National Economic Accounts, March 1991 to March 2003

 Index for personal
 Personal consumption consumption expenditures
 expenditures for medical care for medical care
 (millions of dollars) (2000=100)

 Millions of
 Date dollars Percent change Index Percent change

March
 1991 $590,667 -- 72.655 --
 1992 656,587 11.2 76.633 5.5
 1993 703,754 7.2 80.483 5.0
 1994 741,349 5.4 83.911 4.3
 1995 789,806 6.5 87.485 4.3
 1996 821,476 4.0 89.624 2.5
 1997 859,878 4.7 92.031 2.7
 1998 911,398 6.0 94.247 2.4
 1999 944,276 3.6 96.491 2.4
 2000 1,003,564 6.3 98.934 2.5
 2001 1,084,582 8.1 102.819 3.9
 2002 1,175,209 8.4 105.410 2.9
 2003 1,272,391 8.3 108.369 2.8

NOTE: Dash indicates percent change is not applicable.

SOURCE: Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Economic Accounts,
National Income and Product Accounts tables, Table 2.4.4U Chain-Type
Price Indexes for Personal Consumption Expenditures, Medical care;
Table 2.4.5U Personal Consumption Expenditures by Type of Product,
Medical Care.

Table 11. Per capita health expenditures and growth in private health
costs and private health insurance, National Health Expenditures
Survey, 1993-2002

 Average annual percent
 growth from previous
 Per capita health expenditures year

 Private Private
 Per Private health Per health
 capita health insurance capita expenditure
Year amount expenditures expenditures growth growth

1993 $3,381 $1,895 $989 8.5 6.4
1994 3,534 1,922 -- 5.5 2.4
1995 3.698 1,993 1,078 5.7 4.7
1996 3,847 2,061 1,119 5.0 4.4
1997 4,007 2,161 1,171 5.1 5.8
1998 4,179 2,285 1,243 5.3 6.7
1999 4,402 2,411 1,319 6.3 6.5
2000 4,670 2,550 1,422 7.1 6.7
2001 5,021 2,716 1,545 8.5 7.5
2002 5,440 2,941 1,679 9.3 9.3

 Average annual
 percent growth
 from previous
 year

 Private
 health
 insurance
Year growth

1993 --
1994 --
1995 --
1996 3.8
1997 4.7
1998 6.2
1999 6.1
2000 7.8
2001 8.7
2002 8.6

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

SOURCE: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Health
Expenditures Survey.

Table 12

Amount and percent distribution of personal healthcare expenditures by
source of funds, National Health Expenditures Survey, selected calendar
years 1993-2002

 Year

Expenditure category 1993 1995 1997 1999

Amount (billions of dollars)

Total $775.8 $865.7 $959.2 $1,065.0
 Out-of-pocket payments 146.9 146.5 162.1 184.5
 Private health insurance 259.9 288.8 319.2 366.4
 Other private funds 38.4 44.2 51.4 56.2
 Public funds 330.5 386.2 426.6 457.9
 Medicare 144.4 178.6 203.6 206.2
 Medicaid 115.7 135.3 151.7 173.7
 Other public funds 70.4 72.3 71.3 78.0

 Percentage distribution

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 Out-of-pocket payments 18.9 16.9 16.9 17.3
 Private health insurance 33.5 33.4 33.3 34.4
 Other private funds 5.0 5.1 5.4 5.3
 Public funds 42.6 44.6 44.5 43.0
 Medicare 18.6 20.6 21.2 19.4
 Medicaid 14.9 15.6 15.8 16.3
 Other public funds 9.1 8.4 7.4 7.3

 Year

 Expenditure category 2000 2001 2002

Amount (billions of dollars)

Total $1,135.3 $1,231.4 $1,304.2
 Out-of-pocket payments 192.6 200.5 212.5
 Private health insurance 398.7 437.2 479.3
 Other private funds 54.2 53.7 56.2
 Public funds 489.8 540.0 592.2
 Medicare 217.5 239.2 259.1
 Medicaid 188.3 207.5 232.4
 Other public funds 184.0 93.3 100.7

 Percentage distribution

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
 Out-of-pocket payments 17.0 16.3 15.9
 Private health insurance 35.1 35.5 35.8
 Other private funds 4.8 4.4 42.0
 Public funds 43.1 43.8 44.2
 Medicare 19.2 19.4 19.3
 Medicaid 16.6 16.9 17.3
 Other public funds 7.4 7.6 7.5

SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of the
Actuary, National Health Statistics Group; US Census Bureau.


Notes

(1) More information on the National Compensation Survey is available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(2) More information on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (Insurance Component) is available on the Internet at http:// www.meps.ahepr.gov/MEPSDATA/ic/2001/technote2001.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(3) For more details on MI-PS and NCS comparisons, see William Wiatrowski, Holly Harvey, and Katharine R. Levit, "Employment-Related Health Insurance: Federal Agencies' Roles in Meeting Data Needs," Health Care Financing Review, Spring 2002, Volume 23, Number 3, pp. 115-130. The article is available on the Internet at http:/ /www.cms.hhs.gov/review/02spring/02Springpg115.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(4) More information on the Current Population Survey is available on the Internet at http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p60-223.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(5) More information on the Survey of Income and Program Participation is available on the Internet at http://www.census.gov/prod/ 2003pubs/p70-81.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(6) More information on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (Household Component) is available on the Internet at http:// www.meps.ahrq.gov/papers/rf18_02-0006/rf18.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(7) For a full discussion on comparing establishment and household surveys, see Diane E. Herz, Joseph R. Meisenheimer II, and Harriet G. Weinstein, "'Health and retirement benefits: data from two BLS surveys," Monthly Labor Review, March 2000, pp. 3-20. The article is available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/03/ art1full.pdf (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(8) More information on the methodology of the National Compensation Survey and historical data for the Employment Cost Index and Employer Costs for Employee Compensations is available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov.ncs/ect.home.htm (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(9) More information on using and comparing estimates from the ECI and ECEC is available from several articles. See Michael K. Lettau, Mark A. Loewenstein, and Aaron T. Cushner, "Explaining the Differential Growth Rates of the ECI and the ECEC, "Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997, pp. 15 23; Albert E. Schwenk. "Measuring Trends in the Structure and Levels of Employee Costs for Employee Compensation," Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997, pp. 3 14; and Martha A.C. Walker and Bruce J. Bergman, "Analyzing Year-to-Year Changes in Employer Costs for Employee Compensation," Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1998, pp. 17 27.

(10) More information on the methodology and historical data for the Consumer Price Index is available on the Internet at http:// www.bls.gov/cpi/home.htm (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(11) More information on measuring price change for medical care in the CPI is available on the Internet at http://www..bls.gov/cpi/ cpifact4.htm (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

(12) More information on the methodology and historical data for the National Economic Accounts is available on the Internet at http:// www.bea.doc.gov/bea/mp.htm and http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/ dn1.htm (visited Apr. 1, 2004).

(13) The number of accounts in NIPA increased to seven with the 2003 benchmark revision. For more information, see Nicole Mayerhauser, Shelly Smith, and David F. Sullivan. "Preview of the 2003 Comprehensive Revision of the National Income and Product Accounts," Survey of Current Business, August 2003, pp. 7-31.

(14) For more information on Fisher formulas and the use of "chained weighted" index in the NIPA, see the news release, "Initial Results of the 2003 Comprehensive Revision of the National Income and Product Accounts," Survey of Current Business. December 2003, Volume 83, Number 12.

(15) More information on the methodology and historical data for the National Health Accounts is available on the Internet at http:// www.cms.hhs.gov/statistics/nhe/default.asp and http:// www.cms.hhs.gov/statistics/nhe/historical/ (visited Sept. 24, 2004).

John Buckley and Robert Van Giezen are economists in the Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, Bureau of Labor Statistics, E-mail: Buckley.John@bls.gov VanGiezen.Robert@ bls.gov
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Title Annotation:Healthcare Benefits
Author:Buckley, John E.; Van Giezen, Robert W.
Publication:Monthly Labor Review
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2004
Words:9065
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