Printer Friendly

Federal Activities Addressing Violence in Schools.

Homicides, suicides, and serious nonfatal violent injuries and crimes are not rare events for American children. Homicide is the second-leading cause of death for Americans aged 15 to 24 years. Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for this age group. Children and adolescents spend a considerable amount of time in school, on the way to and from school, and at school-sponsored events. Each year between July 1994 and June 1998, approximately 45 violent incidents that resulted in deaths occurred in these school-associated settings. While recent school shootings have increased public attention to violence associated with schools, the fact remains that the vast majority of America's schools are safe places. Less than 1% of all homicides and suicides among school-aged children (5-19 years of age) occur in or around school grounds or on the way to or from school. Nevertheless, any amount of violence in or around schools is unacceptable.

Many federal agencies actively address the problem of violence in schools by acquiring and disseminating information about school violence and supporting strategies that work to reduce violence. The following inventory of federal activities addressing violence in schools was created through the collaborative effort of many federal agencies and offices. It is designed to facilitate coordination of federal school violence prevention activities and enhance collaboration on future projects. By describing these activities and projects, this inventory will also help those interested to better understand federal activities addressing violence in schools.

For this inventory, agencies identified all ongoing activities as well as recently completed efforts that either: 1) directly address the problem of violence that occurs on school property, on the way to or from school, or at school-associated events, or 2) indirectly address school violence by focusing on precursors of violence, factors associated with violence, or mechanisms for preventing violent behavior. This inventory provides information on the lead or funding agency, collaborating federal agencies, and contact information for federal agency staff associated with each project. Many of the listed projects are collaborative efforts with non-federal partners. These partners are listed in the project descriptions.

This document is available on the internet at: <http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash>. The internet version will be updated semiannually.

Many federal agencies are involved in activities related to violence in school. It is possible that some agencies working in this area were not included. If readers are aware of relevant federal activities that should be included, please contact: Lisa C. Barrios, DrPH, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop K-33, Atlanta, GA 30341-3717; 770/488-3215 (phone); 770/488-3112 (fax); or <LIC8@cdc.gov>

SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES

Monitoring the Status of Homicides Among Young People and Fatal and Nonfatal Firearm-related Assaultive Injuries

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is conducting descriptive analyses of data reported on death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Measures of mortality include the number of deaths, crude, age-specific, and age-adjusted death rates, classified in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases. Analysis is also being conducted on nonfatal firearm-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). NEISS is operated by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Center for Heath Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Lee Annest, (770) 488-4656, JLA1@cdc.gov or Lois Fingerhut, (301) 458-4213, LAF4@cdc.gov

National Morbidity Surveillance Data Sources

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates a number of data collection systems to monitor injury morbidity nationally. The NHAMCS (National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) has data on diagnosis at visit to hospital emergency departments and place of injury occurrence. The National Health Interview Survey, beginning with 1997 data, has data on cause of injury, activity at time of injury and place of injury occurrence. These and other data sets are available to the public.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Heath Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Lois Fingerhut, (301) 458-4213, LAF4@cdc.gov

School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey

The Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics collaborated to add a special supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to collect data on aspects of school crime. Household members aged 12 years or older who attend school were asked questions about their school environment. These data represent an estimated 22 million students, aged 12-19 years. Information was obtained on availability of drugs at school, existence of street gangs, prevalence of gang fights, presence of guns at school, victimization, and fear of being attacked or harmed.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Collaborators: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Michael Rand, (202) 616-3494, randm@ojp.usdoj.gov

School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS)

SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. SHPPS was first conducted in 1994 and will be repeated in 2000. SHPPS provides information on health education, programs, environmental strategies, and policies that states, districts, and schools use to address violence prevention.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Dept. of Education.

Contact: Laura Kann, (770) 488-3257, LKK1@cdc.gov

School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSoCS)

The School Survey on Crime and Safety is a survey used to collect data from principals about crimes, violent incidents, and policies in their schools. The study will use a nationally representative sample of elementary, middle, and senior high schools and will be conducted biennially beginning in the year 2000.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Kathryn Chandler, (202) 219-1767, Kathryn_Chandler@ed.gov

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was developed to monitor priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among young people in the United States. The YRBSS consists of national, state, and local school-based surveys of representative samples of 9th- through 12th-grade students, a national household-based survey of 12- through 21- year olds, and a national mail survey of college students. The school-based surveys are conducted biennially and provide information on a variety of violence-related behaviors both on school property and in general.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Dept of Education.

Contact: Laura Kann, (770) 488-3257, LKK1@cdc.gov

EVALUATION RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Interventions on Young Children's Learning and Development

This study will be used to determine if community based, intensive, comprehensive mental health interventions with children from birth through 7 years of age improve the children's overall readiness for school. The children in this study have parents with histories of chronic substance abuse and/or mental health disorders.

Lead/Funder: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: James Griffin, (202) 219-2168, James_Griffin@ed.gov

Evaluation of Specific Youth Violence Intervention Projects Targeting Early Childhood and Parents

Four projects are funded to evaluate specific early interventions that target young children in an effort to affect attitudes and behavior that could lead to aggression and violence. The projects focus on staff training in child care centers, with support for at-risk families; family interventions for children just entering school; and parent training for incarcerated parents of young children.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Debra Hayes-Hughes, (770) 488-4646, DSH1@cdc.gov

Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training Program (G.R.E.A.T.)

In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms are evaluating the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. G.R.E.A.T. is a school-based gang prevention curriculum taught by law enforcement officers. This evaluation will assess the instruction of G.R.E.A.T. officers and the effectiveness of G.R.E.A.T. in terms of attitudinal and behavioral consequences (cross sectional and prospective longitudinal panel design) on students. The longitudinal portion of the evaluation is ongoing in six sites. This project is also supporting a research-based review of the G.R.E.A.T. Program. The University of Nebraska has assembled a team of practitioners and researchers to review existing literature on school-based prevention programs and to determine what changes or modifications should be made to the current G.R.E.A.T. program. This workgroup will convene and produce a document that will propose recommendations for improving the G.R.E.A.T. program to the G.R.E.A.T. National Policy Board and National Training Committee.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, Dept. of the Treasury.

Contact: Winifred Reed, (202) 307-2952, winnie@ojp.usdoj.gov

Experiential Examination of the Effectiveness of a Social Competence Curriculum with Toddler Age Children Who Have Disabilities

The University of Connecticut is conducting this project examining the effectiveness of a social competence curriculum for toddlers who have disabilities. The purpose is to determine if a social skills curriculum can teach young children the social skills needed to succeed in education programs for children without disabilities. The study involves toddlers with disabilities who attend child-care centers or other toddler programs side-by-side with children who show no signs of developmental delays.

Lead/Funder: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: Donna Hinkle, (202) 219-2172, Donna_Hinkle@ed.gov

Improving Educational Readiness through Theory-Based Interventions Focused on Enhancing Resilience for Our Youngest At-Risk Children

Utah State University designed a home visiting model that focuses on building resilience in children and families who are disadvantaged and considered "at high risk" by social service agencies. The University will test the effectiveness of this resilience model in four existing home visiting programs in Utah.

Lead/Funder: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: James Griffin, (202) 219-2168, James_Griffin@ed.gov

Longitudinal Evaluation of Youth Violence Intervention Projects

Four projects are funded to evaluate specific interventions to reduce injuries and deaths related to interpersonal violence among adolescents and young adults. These interventions are based on sound theory with the potential to produce measurable behavioral or health improvements. The projects target children from kindergarten age through middle school.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Debra Hayes-Hughes, (770) 488-4646, DSH1@cdc.gov

Multiple Site Violence Prevention Evaluation Study

The purpose of this cooperative agreement prevention study is to determine the effectiveness of a middle school-based, social cognitive intervention to reduce violence and to determine the impact of including a community-based intervention that complements the school-based activities. Social cognitive programs and some types of community-based programs (eg, caregiver training) that emphasize social and emotional competence, prosocial problem-solving, and family functioning are among the most promising early interventions to reduce aggression and violence. Given that violence often extends beyond the boundaries of the school setting, it is important for schools to identify appropriate community resources and build partnerships with those whose programs complement school-based violence prevention activities and education.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and ContrOl, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Wendy Watkins, (770) 488-4646, DMW7@cdc.gov or Robin Ikeda, (770) 488-4646, RMI0@cdc.gov

National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs

The National Institute of Justice in collaboration with the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) has sent out solicitation for proposals for a national assessment of School Resource Officer (SRO) programs. The COPS office has provided funds to the National Institute of Justice to support one national evaluation. This solicitation closed on February 14, 2000. The evaluation is designed to assess the impact of SRO programs on selected indicators of school safety in order to identify effective practices for SRO programs.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Dept. of Justice.

Contacts: Kwabena A. Nuamah, (202) 616-7373, Nuamahk@ojp.usdoj.gov or Nicholas Lewin, (202) 633-1493, Nicholas.Lewin@usdoj.gov

National Evaluation of the Middle School Drug Prevention and School Safety Coordinators Initiative

The National Evaluation of the Middle School Drug Prevention and School Safety Coordinators Initiative will include a process and outcome evaluation of the Middle School Coordinators Initiative. The evaluation will seek to describe the conditions under which the middle school coordinators operated and the outcomes that were achieved.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Joanne Wiggins, (202) 401-2266, Joanne_Wiggins@ed.gov

National Evaluation of the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative

The overall Safe Schools/Healthy Students National Evaluation Project will carefully document both the process and the outcome of the initiative. It will encompass the formation of the community collaboratives, the impact of these collaborations on school safety and health, student development, economic analyses, surveillance of core indicators, and intensive outcome analyses. It will describe the activities conducted in the 54 sites. The evaluation will also explore each of the six individual components of the collaboration: school safety, alcohol and other drug and violence prevention and intervention programs, school and community mental health preventive and treatment services, early childhood psychosocial and emotional development programs, education reform, and safe school policies.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, Dept. of Education; Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Kellie Dressler, (202) 514-4817, dresslek@ojp.usdoj.gov; Eve Moscicki, (301) 443-3775, em15y@nih.gov; Meg Small, (202) 205-2855, Meg_Small@ed.gov; or Joanne Wiggins, (202) 401-2266, Joanne_Wiggins@ed.gov

National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools

This study is being implemented by Gottfredson Associates, Inc. The objectives are to conduct a national assessment of school-based delinquency prevention efforts that will 1) classify and describe existing programs and practices including information on the range of practices, programs and arrangements; differences by location and population served; and relation to safety levels of violence and disorder; 2) test factors related to successful implementation; 3) develop program assessment tools; 4) validate student reports of program exposure; and 5) develop tools for evaluation of implementation and effects.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Dept. of Education Planning and Evaluation Service.

Contact: Rosemary Murphy, (202) 307-2958, rosemary@ojp.usdoj.gov

National Study on School Violence and Violence Prevention

This study, being conducted by Westat, is examining the incidence of violence and disorder in schools nationally and the effectiveness of approaches to preventing violence in schools, including approaches funded by the Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. The Department of Education is working with the National Institute of Justice to coordinate this study with the National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools, conducted by Gottfredson Associates under a National Institute of Justice grant.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Collaborators: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Joanne Wiggins, (202) 401-2266, Joanne_Wiggins@ed.gov

Preventing Problem Behavior Among Middle School Students: The Going Places Program

The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of an intervention designed to reduce early adolescent problem behaviors, including aggressive and violent behavior, school misconduct, and delinquency. The Going Places 6th through 8th grade curriculum is designed to improve students' ability to problem solve, communicate, and resolve conflict, and to shape social norms and attitudes about the acceptability of antisocial behavior. Parents receive the "Attentive Parenting" video and booklet and participate in selected homework activities. Teachers receive training in classroom management and participate in an incentive program designed to "catch students being good." A social marketing program includes schoolwide media and activities.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Bruce Simons-Morton, (301) 496-1126, bm79k@nih.gov, or Denise Haynie, (301) 435-6934, haynied@exchange.nih.gov

Reach for Health Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors

This study is part of the ongoing community-based Reach for Health project that surveys economically disadvantaged minority youth and provides school-based prevention interventions. In partnership with the New York City Schools and the Columbia University School of Public Health, this study will examine a mental health/suicidal behavior model in order to investigate the emergent health risk of suicide in a relatively understudied population. Suicide risk will be studied in the context of other potentially related health behaviors, including violence and weapon-carrying.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Ted Jones, (770) 488-4824, TMJ1@cdc.gov

Suicide Intervention Evaluations

These programs are being conducted to help identify effective suicidal behavior prevention activities. One of the projects targets high school students in New York. The intervention will be presented as a supplement to an existing in-school mandatory health curriculum and is designed to enhance awareness, use, and efficacy of telephone crisis intervention services for adolescents.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Debra Hayes-Hughes, (770) 488-4646, DSH1@cdc.gov

Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program and National Evaluation

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) will oversee the National Evaluation of the Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program, a joint effort of OJJDP, the US Department of Education and the Executive Office for Weed and Seed. The evaluation will assess the effect of a variety of truancy reduction projects in the country, determine how community collaboration can impact truancy and lead to systemic reform, and assist OJJDP to develop a truancy reduction program model for community use.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Dept. of Education, Executive Office for Weed and Seed.

Contact: Janet Chiancone, (202) 353-9258, chiancoj@ojp.usdoj.gov

Violence Prevention Programs for High-Risk Youth

These programs aim to target young people at high risk of perpetrating or becoming a victim of violence. Two of the three projects include a school component. One will test a 13-week curriculum in alternative high schools in Northern California; the intervention's goal is to enhance the ability of young people to resolve interpersonal conflict and develop communications skills. The project will compare outcomes related to violent behavior among young people at intervention and comparison schools.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Wendy Watkins, (770) 488-4646, DMW7@cdc.gov

OTHER RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Adolescent Violence in Schools and Communities

This project with the Vera Institute of Justice addresses the context and meaning of violence in the lives of adolescents and the ways in which the danger of violence affects their development. Four areas are of particular concern: 1) what adolescents actually do in order to stay safe; 2) what kinds of social supports adolescents draw in order to avoid violence and to cope psychologically with exposure to violence; 3) the relationship between the fear of being victimized and the propensity to victimize others; and 4) an understanding of the meaning of violence for adolescents. In a comparative ethnographic approach, adolescents will be studied in three junior high schools in different areas of New York City and their communities. Data collection will include participant observation, neighborhood walks, life history interviews, parent interviews, and standard psychological instruments.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Richard Titus, (202) 307-0695, titus@ojp.usdoj.gov

Child Exposure to Violence and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Across Urban Settings

Investigators at Harvard University, under the auspices of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, are assessing 6,000 males and females, beginning at age 1, and subsequently at ages 4, 7, 10, 13, and 16. The aims of the study are both descriptive and analytic. Descriptive goals are to determine the prevalence and correlates of exposure to violence and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the context of a large urban environment that varies markedly in the social class and ethnic group compositions of its neighborhoods. Analytic aims relate to an examination of the causal links between exposure to violence and PTSD and other psychiatric disorders, as well as to an investigation of the consequences of such exposure for the cognitive, social, and academic functioning of children. The National Institute of Mental Health-supported component should advance current understanding of the causes and prevention of psychopathology in children and improve the planning and efficacy of health promotion and violence prevention activities at the local community level.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Coping with Stress Course

The Coping with Stress Course was designed to prevent the onset of depressive disorders among adolescents who report high levels of depressive symptoms but do not yet meet criteria for a depressive disorder. With programs in Oregon, Maryland, and Ohio, this group course teaches adolescents cognitive skills to identify and challenge negative or irrational thoughts and beliefs that may contribute to developing depression. Evaluation showed that the course was successful in reducing the number of cases of depressive disorder among adolescents at risk. In fact, twice as many students in the no-treatment group developed a depressive disorder than in the treatment group. Students in the treatment group also reported fewer depressive symptoms and better adjustment than students in the untreated group. However, with the passage of time, differences between the treatment and no-treatment groups decreased.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov, or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Disruptive Disorders and Antisocial Behaviors in Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents in Puerto Rico and the Mainland

Investigators at the New York State Psychiatric Institute are comparing the development, co-morbidities and risk factors of disruptive disorders and antisocial behaviors (ASB) in Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and the mainland. This study is describing the development of ASB in Puerto Rican young people in the South Bronx in New York City and the San Juan metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. The researchers will examine whether differences in rates among Puerto Rican children at these two sites are explained by differences in the age of onset, in severity and persistence, and in the associated risk factors of ASB. The study will also assess comorbidities of ASB and conduct problems in this population cross-sectionally and ascertain whether the sequencing over time between ASB and its co-morbid conditions differs between island and mainland Puerto Rican children. The study also will evaluate the association between individual, family, peer, and community factors and the development of ASB in each setting. Among the risk and protective factors to be examined are possible cultural determinants, such as strong familial attachments, parental and neighborhood monitoring, and type and level of acculturation.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301)443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Dunedin (NZ) Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study

Investigators at the University of Wisconsin were initially funded in 1984 to conduct research on antisocial behavior among a representative New Zealand (NZ) 1972 birth cohort. This was the first longitudinal application of a prospective measure of neuropsychological functioning to predict the initiation and persistence of delinquent behavior. Existing data on this cohort, interviewed at ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21, allowed the investigators to trace the development of antisocial behavior. Ongoing work in the Dunedin study is exploring the following questions: Why do some young adults persist in antisocial behavior beyond adolescence while others desist?; What broad constellation of mental disorders and life problems accompanies adult antisocial behavior?; Can childhood aggression lead to adulthood abuse of family members?; Can bonds to a job or a romantic partner foster recovery from antisocial behavior?; How do parental antisocial behavior affect their children?; and Do developmental models of male antisocial behavior apply to women?

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Estimating the Full Costs of the Fast Track Intervention and its Impact on Reducing Mental Health Services Utilization

The National Institute of Mental Health is currently sponsoring a 10-year multisite, randomized clinical trial of Fast Track, a project designed to prevent the onset of serious conduct disorder in children and chronic violent crime in adolescents. After seven years, the evaluation of Fast Track indicates that the intervention does promote academic, cognitive, and social skills, and it reduces behavior problems and special education placements. The benefits, however, may not be sufficient to merit additional public funding and broader dissemination of the program. The Department of Public Administration and Urban Studies at Georgia State University will address the question of whether the value of Fast Track's benefits to the taxpayers and to society justify the cost of the intervention. Georgia State will provide information on both the implicit and explicit costs of Fast Track, as well as the value of reduced mental health expenditures resulting from involvement in the experimental group. Duke University's Office of Research will provide additional information on the measurement and evaluation of mental health services utilization and expenditures from the Fast Track project. The goal of this component is to provide a significant piece of the information needed to determine the extent to which the Fast Track intervention reduces expenditures on mental health services.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov

Efficacy and Effectiveness Studies of Youth Violence Interventions

The National Institute of Mental Health is funding approximately 17 efficacy studies including controlled trials of different approaches to youth violence prevention, treatment of externalizing behavior problems, and maintenance (adherence to care, aftercare). NIMH research has also focused on promising and successful interventions to treat and prevent adolescent depression, which often coexists with conduct problems. Several NIMH projects focus on determining whether cognitive therapy techniques, effective for treating depression in adults, can be applied to preventing depression in adolescents. These include studies of the effects of after-school programs based on cognitive therapy and social problem-solving techniques and delivered by school staff. Other projects test the effects of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for young people with depression (aged 12-17 years). Going beyond the effects of treatment on symptoms of depression, this research also focuses on how these interventions affect functioning in school, at home, and in the community.

NIMH is also funding approximately 13 effectiveness studies. These include implementation studies examining fidelity to protocol, organizational structure and climate, community mobilization, and provider or trainer training; information dissemination research; policy studies; large-scale community trials; and multi-risk/multi-level intervention approaches.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301)443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Families and Schools Together (Fast) Track Program

The Families and Schools Together (Fast) Track Program is a multifaceted, multiyear program designed for aggressive children in kindergarten starting at age 6. A four-site study in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Washington involves working with the child, their family, and the school system, including teachers. Preschool children at high risk were identified at 55 different schools. These children were randomly assigned for intervention or no intervention. The children initially enrolled in the study are now young adolescents. An evaluation of Fast Track indicated that by the third grade, students who took part in the program showed less oppositional and aggressive behavior and were less likely to require special education services than students who did not take part.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Dept. of Education; National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Dept of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Formative Research on Weapon Carrying

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control is funding research on the factors that initiate and promote weapon carrying among adolescents and how these factors relate to interpersonal violence. Information from this study can be used to develop more effective interpersonal violence and weapon-related injury prevention programs.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Wendy Watkins, (770) 488-4646, DMW7@cdc.gov

Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study

The Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study is a unique cross-national research study conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The HBSC study aims to gain new insight into, and increase understanding of health behaviors, lifestyles and their context in young people. HBSC collects data on a wide range of health behaviors and health indicators and factors that may influence their development and prevalence. International comparisons and research about health behavior help each country learn more about problems common to all adolescents or relatively unique to certain countries. Understanding why these problems do or do not occur in other countries may help prevent problem health behaviors in the United States.

The United States participated in the international study for the first time in 1998. Surveys have been conducted at four-year intervals since 1985-86 with the number of member countries growing to about 30 members. Special research focus areas in the 1997-98 survey included peer relations and support, including bullying; perceptions of the school and its influence; school experiences; perceptions of parental expectations and support for school; violence; and injuries.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Mary Overpeck, (301) 435-7597, Mary_Overpeck@nih.gov or Peter Scheidt, (202) 884-6516, Peter_Scheidt@nih.gov

Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression and Violent Behavior

Investigators at the State University of New York, Albany, and the University of North Carolina, are exploring the intergenerational transmission of aggression and violent behavior with data from two longitudinal data sets. Focusing on a range of antisocial behaviors, including their onset, course, and severity, these studies will help to clarify continuity and discontinuity from parent to child. The investigators hope to identify mediating behavioral processes to explain the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Kindergarten Transition Studies

The National Center on Early Development and Learning at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill is examining how relationships between and among families, teachers, and young children affect the children's transitions from kindergarten to elementary school.

Lead/Funder: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: James Griffin, (202) 219-2168, James_Griffin@ed.gov

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) Program

The Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) Program is a 10-week intervention in Oregon created for children and families who are at-risk for developing conduct problems because they live in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of juvenile delinquency. The LIFT Program is a multicomponent intervention that includes parent training, social skills training, a playground behavioral program, and regular communication between teachers and parents. Following program participation, students engaged in significantly less aggressive behaviors on the playground, parents demonstrated fewer negative behaviors during family problem-solving activities, and teachers reported improved student social behaviors and peer interactions. Three years following the intervention, students who received the program were less likely to engage in consistent alcohol use, less likely to have troublesome friends, and were less likely to be arrested for the first time than students who did not receive the program. Students were also less likely to demonstrate inattentive, impulsive, overactive, and disruptive behaviors in the classroom than students who did not receive the program.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301)443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Longitudinal Prospective Studies of Development, Course, and Outcome of Child Externalizing Behavior Problems, Psychopathology, and Other Outcomes

The National Institute of Mental Health is funding 79 studies that focus on individual, family, peer, neighborhood, school, community, policy, or multiple factor levels. They include methodological research as well as pilot studies of interventions. The NIMH portfolio includes several long-term studies that follow specific groups, or cohorts, of young people across the years of childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. Several of these studies involve national samples. The studies are longitudinal, continuing over many years, and prospective -- that is, the investigators acquire data by monitoring developments in peoples' lives as they occur, rather than relying on recall of past events. These studies are concerned with the development, course, and outcome of child conduct problems, psychopathology, and a host of childhood and adult outcomes, including substance abuse, chronic behavior problems, academic failure, and early parenthood.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Multisystemic Therapy (MST)

In multisystemic therapy (MST) specially trained therapists work with young people and their families in their homes, with a particular focus on changing the peers with whom the young people associate. MST therapists identify strengths in the families and use these strengths to develop natural support systems and to improve parenting skills. Specific interventions are individualized to the family and address the needs of the child, family, school, peers, and neighborhood. Multiple, rigorous outcome evaluations have demonstrated the efficacy of this approach, and an independent cost-benefit analysis found that this model had a very high cost-benefit payoff. A number of states are now attempting to implement this model.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301)443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

National longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

This large multilevel study was developed to analyze risk and protective factors related to adolescent health. The resulting data provide information on a variety of health-related behaviors, including violence, and link health behavior and health status to characteristics of the family, peer, school, and community environments of adolescents. In addition this study will examine how behaviors and conditions of adolescence predict the achievement of health in early adulthood (ages 18-23 years). The initial survey questioned adolescents enrolled in grades 7-12 in the fall of 1994.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Office of Minority Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of Minority Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of Population Affairs, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of Women's Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept of Health and Human Services; National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Science Foundation; Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Christine A. Bachrach, (301) 496-1174, cb112e@nih.gov

Nurse Home Visitation Program

The Nurse Home Visitation Program is a 20-year model of research in which nurses visit mothers during pregnancy and continue their visits through the child's second birthday to improve pregnancy outcomes, promote child health and development, and strengthen families' economic self-sufficiency. This program, currently under way in New York, Colorado, and Tennessee, appears to benefit high-risk families, particularly low-income unmarried women, reducing rates of childhood injury, child abuse and neglect, and other risk factors for early-onset antisocial behavior in children. Long-term follow-up of the children in two of the studied locations indicated that by the age of 15, they had fewer behavioral problems related to the use of drugs and alcohol, fewer instances of running away, fewer arrests and convictions, and fewer sexual partners, as compared to counterparts randomly assigned to receive comparison services.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)

The PATHS Curriculum, based in Washington state, teaches children about self-control, understanding emotions, and problem solving. The PATHS curriculum has been evaluated using students in both regular education and special education classrooms. Students who received the PATHS curriculum demonstrated better knowledge of emotions than children who did not receive the curriculum. This emotional knowledge is thought to underlie the development of necessary social skills such as friendship development and maintenance, anger management, conflict resolution, and appropriate problem solving.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Relationship Between Early Nonparental Child Care Quality and Later School Readiness: The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

This study examines the interactions of personality, family and school characteristics on school success and achievement, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse. The study follows 7,200 children in 80 Chicago neighborhoods. The study relates information about the children to information about urban neighborhoods throughout the city of Chicago in an attempt to understand how neighborhood characteristics affect children's lives.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: James Griffin, (202) 219-2168, James_Griffin@ed.gov

Role of Family and School in Promoting Positive Developmental Outcomes for Young Children in Violent Neighborhoods

The University of Maryland is examining the effects of neighborhood violence on preschoolers, the role of family and schools in reducing the impact of violence, and the effectiveness of early childhood antiviolence interventions. It is using a sample of 104 African American families with children in Head Start Centers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

Lead/Funder: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, Dept. of Education.

Contact: Joe Caliguro, (202) 219-1596, Joseph_Caliguro@ed.gov

School Associated Violent Deaths Study (SAVD)

This study is examining homicides and suicides associated with schools and identifying common features of school-related violent deaths. The study includes events occurring to and from school, as well as on both public or private school property, or while someone was on the way to or from an official school-sponsored event. The original study was published in 1996. The second part of the study examining deaths from 1994-1998 will be completed in 2000.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Dept. of Education; Dept. of Justice.

Contacts: Mark Anderson, (770) 488-4762, MEA6@cdc.gov or Joanne Kaufman, (770) 488-1532, JTK1@cdc.gov

School Safety Technology Program

With the creation of the Safe School Initiative in the fiscal year 1999 budget, Congress directed the National Institute of Justice to use existing funds to develop new, more effective safety technologies such as less obtrusive weapons detection and surveillance equipment and information systems that provide communities quick access to information they need to identify potentially violent young people. Funding was provided to more than 30 projects and technical assistance activities in the fiscal year 1999 and the National Institute of Justice continues reaching out to representatives of the education community to learn their security needs and identify opportunities to enhance the use of technology. The National Institute of Justice regional National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers (NLECTC) have designated points of contact at each Center to help evaluate school safety needs and to be a technical information resource for school safety and security personnel in their multi-state regions. The Centers have also added school safety (law enforcement personnel) to their Regional Advisory Councils. The National Institute of Justice is coordinating with other federal experts in school security to develop programs that respond to articulated technology needs to improve safety in our schools. Some ideas for the National Institute of Justice Safe School Technology Program have come from a fiscal year 1999 solicitation for safe school technologies. Eight awards were made for a total of $1.5 million on topics as diverse as training tools, novel duress alarms, entry control evaluations, and information sharing systems. The National Institute of Justice will continue expanding its technology research, development, and evaluation activities in 2000, emphasizing in particular: 1) concealed weapons detection, 2) surveillance, 3) information systems, and 4) training and technical assistance (this fourth approach will be used to better implement the first three).

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Raymond Downs, (202) 307-0646, downsr@ojp.usdoj.gov

Therapeutic Foster Care

This model offers a community-based intervention for serious and chronic offending delinquents. Therapeutic foster parents are carefully selected and supported with research-based procedures for working with serious and chronic delinquents in their homes. Treatment typically lasts six to seven months. This intervention results in fewer runaways and fewer program failures than the usual placement in group homes (where delinquents are brought together), is less expensive, and is dramatically more effective in reducing delinquency than traditional group homes. The Foster Family-based Treatment Association, developed under the National Institute of Mental Health leadership, now has some 400 members across the United States who promote the use of this research-based effective model.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

Young Children's Mental Health Research Initiative

The Administration on Children and Families and the National Institute of Mental Health have awarded several research grants as the core component of a new young children's mental health research initiative designed to develop and test applications of theory-based research or state-of-the-art techniques for preventing, identifying and/or treating children's mental health disorders within a Head Start context. These projects will help develop screening tools for identifying behavior problems in preschool children, test the effectiveness of research-based classroom interventions for very young children with serious disruptive behavior problems, and assess the mental health needs of this vulnerable population.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Administration on Children and Families, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Cheryl Boyce, (301) 443-5944, cboyce@nih.gov or Kimberly Hoagwood, (301) 443-3364, khoagwoo@nih.gov

RESEARCH SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION ACTIVITIES

Best Practices to Prevent Violence by Children and Adolescents: A Sourcebook

This project has brought together a wide range of experts in the field of youth violence prevention to identify strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents and to describe "best practices" to implement these strategies. The sourcebook briefly describes four strategies with strong evidence of effectiveness in preventing and reducing youth violence. These are 1) parent- and family-based strategies that combine training in parenting skills with other educational and therapy components; 2) home visiting strategies that involve nurse visits to homes of high-risk families to impart information, health care, and other support services; 3) social cognitive strategies, training or curricula that address emotional, social, and cognitive development -- these are usually conducted in a school setting, but also could be offered in community and family settings; and 4) mentoring that matches a child or adolescent with an adult mentor who provides guidance and serves as a role model. The sourcebook provides concrete, practical information to help schools and community groups implement programs that incorporate these strategies and offer resources for further information.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Tim Thornton, (770) 488-4646, TNT1@cdc.gov

Expansion of Effective Youth Interpersonal Violence Prevention Programs

Researchers at the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the University of Colorado (CSPV) have generated descriptions of specific programs that met a set of evaluation criteria for effectiveness in preventing youth violence. These programs are termed Blueprints for Violence Prevention. The CSPV also provides technical assistance for communities that are implementing these programs and has developed a list of programs that need minor additional support to meet CSPV criteria. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control are supporting dissemination of information on Blueprints programs and replication and evaluation of a promising school-based prevention program.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: LeRoy Reese, (770) 488-4646, LIR4@cdc.gov

The Expert Panel

The Expert Panel, comprised of prominent scholars and researchers, will review programs designed to address youth substance use and violence prevention. The panel will evaluate programs submitted for review and make recommendations to the Secretary of Education who will announce the programs that have been designated as exemplary or promising.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Ann Weinheimer, (202) 708-5939, Ann_Weinheimer@ed.gov

Guidelines for School Programs to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

These guidelines will help state and local educational agencies and schools promote safety and teach students the skills needed to prevent future injuries and violence. They will provide guidance for all components of a coordinated school health program for all grades (k-12). Strategies were identified through an extensive search of the literature and were reviewed by an expert panel. The expert panel used a three-stage Delphi process to determine which strategies will be recommended in the guidelines. The guidelines are expected to be ready for release at the end of the year 2000.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Dept. of Education; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Dept. of Transportation; Indian Health Service, Dept. of Health and Human Services; US Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency; Emergency Medical Services for Children, Dept. of Transportation and Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Lisa Barrios, (770) 488-3215, LIC8@cdc.gov

Health, Mental Health, and Safety in Schools Guidelines

The Maternal and Child Health Bureau is funding the development of a compendium of health, mental health and safety guidelines for schools. Non-governmental partners in this effort include the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Association of School Nurses, and a steering committee of 15 health, education, mental health, and safety organizations. The compendium will include policies, guidelines, procedures and standards for schools, districts, school boards, and other organizations that address health, mental health, and safety issues for students and school staff.

Lead/Funder: Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Stephanie Bryn, (301) 443-6091, sbryn@hrsa.gov

NIH Expert Panel on Violence Research

The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and National Institute of Nursing Research convened an expert panel in October 1999 to assess the National Institutes of Health research on violence. This expert panel drew on a number of previous conferences, working groups, and reports on this topic to examine the many research recommendations that have already been made, assess progress in critical areas of need, and determine appropriate areas for enhanced National Institutes of Health research. This effort included a focus on the feasibility of systematic research on the effectiveness of combining individual-level interventions with community-level interventions. Such research addresses violence and a range of negative outcomes by building on successful public health interventions (eg, smoking reduction and HIV risk reduction) based on a strong foundation in the basic behavioral sciences.

Lead/Funder: National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Farris Tuma, (301) 443-5944, ftuma@nih.gov

Partnerships for Preventing Violence Satellite Telecasts

In collaboration with the Prevention Institute and the Harvard School of Public Health, six national, facilitated, interactive satellite broadcasts are being conducted. These Partnership telecasts provide train-the-trainer education addressing violence prevention at the school and community levels. More than 80 facilitated sites participate and hundreds of other sites receive downlinks from the telecasts.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education; Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Indian Health Service, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Charlotte Gillespie, (202) 260-1862, Charlotte_Gillespie@ed.gov or Stephanie Bryn, (301) 443-6091, sbryn@hrsa.gov

Pre-Conference Institute and Monograph to Disseminate Knowledge on Children who Witness Violence

This pre-conference institute will be conducted at the April 2000 conference for the National Head Start Association. Highlights of the discussions during the institute will be synthesized in a monograph that will be printed and disseminated for use by Head Start staff across the country. The goal of the pre-conference institute and monograph is to synthesize and disseminate knowledge that will improve prevention efforts and facilitate the early identification and treatment of young children who have witnessed violence and their families.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Gail Ritchie, (301) 443-1752, Gritchie@samhsa.gov

Prevention Evaluation Research Registry for Youth (PERRY)

PERRY currently includes approximately 10,000 citations related to effective youth violence prevention interventions that could be implemented in schools. The Registry is used as the basis for qualitative and quantitative research syntheses and to conduct specialized literature searches both internally and for constituents. PERRY is still under development and expected to be fully operational by December 2000.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Lisa Barrios, (770) 488-3215, LIC8@cdc.gov

Prevention of Mental Health Disorders

The Center for Mental Health Services is actively involved in projects that will prevent or delay the onset of mental disorders. While research is clear about the fact that people with mental illnesses are no more violent than the general population, it also shows that early identification of people at risk of violence, combined with preventive interventions, promotes healthy mental functioning and decreases violence. Among the Center for Mental Health Services' prevention efforts are 1) a consensus report on the conceptual and practical issues in measuring the effectiveness of school-based mental health prevention programs; 2) a study to examine the process of implementing a mental health prevention agenda in New York; 3) a monograph and an audio-taped course for CEU credit on training mental health professionals to deliver preventive services; and 4) distribution of 1,000 copies of Depression: On the Edge, a video designed to be used by schools and communities for early detection and prevention of youth suicide.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Gail Ritchie, (310) 443-1752, Gritchie@samhsa.gov

Proposal to Help Convene Three Policy Forums on Crime Issues for State Policymakers

The National Governors' Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) is collaborating with the National Institute of Justice to convene three policy forums for Governor's policy advisors. The policy forums will inform Governor's policy advisors and state policymakers about the latest research on crime prevention and about effective administration of juvenile and criminal justice and corrections institutions. The forums will provide opportunities to examine best practices currently being implemented at both the state and local levels that exemplify current research. Participants will have time to share their experiences and outline the political, policy, administrative, and programmatic strategies they have found to be effective. Following each forum, the NGA Center staff will complete an Issue Brief highlighting the issues, research findings, and best practice examined. The Issue Briefs will be disseminated to relevant state policymakers and posted on the Juvenile Crime page of the NGA Web site.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Erin Dalton, (202) 514-5752, daltona@ojp.usdoj.gov

Research to Classroom Project

The purpose of Research to Classroom (RTC) is to identify curricula with credible evidence of effectiveness in reducing health risk behaviors among young people. RTC also provides information and training for interested educators from state and local education agencies, departments of health, and national nongovernmental organizations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies and disseminates information on these Programs that Work to help inform local and state choices. The choice to adopt a curriculum ultimately rests with local decision makers and must address community standards and needs. To date, Research to Classroom has identified five Programs that Work to prevent sexual risk behaviors and two programs to prevent tobacco use or promote tobacco use cessation. During the year 2000, Research to Classroom will begin evaluating violence prevention curricula.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Lisa Barrios, (770) 488-3215, LIC8@cdc.gov

Resilience Initiative

The theoretical basis for the Center for Mental Health Services' School Violence Prevention Programs draws heavily on the CMHS Resilience Initiative, a strength-based approach to promoting healthy development and preventing youth violence. This project includes the following: 1) a Working Paper, Resilience: Status of Research and Research-Based Programs; 2) a Resilience Working Group Meeting of 22 outstanding researchers to begin to put a solid scientific basis under the study of the "resilience" construct; 3) producing a public broadcasting system special to disseminate knowledge regarding resilience; 4) using indigenous models of resilience in violence prevention for Native American children and young people; 5) developing a model of resilience and violence prevention for Asian American and Pacific Islander young people; and 6) publishing a summary volume for policy makers and the general public of Fostering Resilient Children, Youth, Families, and Communities: Strengths-Based Research and Policy, a book being developed by the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Resilience.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Nancy J. Davis, (301) 443-2844, Ndavis1@samhsa.gov

Role of Group Psychotherapy in Preventing Violence

The American Group Psychotherapy Association is researching and writing a report that 1) identifies, describes, and evaluates the relative effectiveness of group psychotherapy techniques to improve the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at risk for disruptive behaviors and violence, and 2) identifies and describes model school- and community-based interventions that incorporate group psychotherapy principles into a comprehensive approach to stress and violence reduction.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov

School Violence Prevention: Communications Campaign

The Center for Mental Health Services has carded out a variety of activities as part of a communications campaign: The Gallup Organization and Porter Novelli were awarded a communications contract; the American Psychological Association developed the Reason to Hope initiative which includes white papers and violence prevention materials; and a satellite telecommunications program on stress reduction for teachers was conducted in collaboration with the National Education Association.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov

Taking Stock of Risk Factors for Child/Youth Externalizing Behavior Problems

A proliferation of research on child and adolescent conduct problems has occurred over the last 15 years. This resulted in an extensive array of risk factors, processes, and targets for intervention. In order to fully capitalize on this extensive research base and contribute effectively to public mental health, it is vital for the field to take stock of what is known about child and youth conduct problems and to clearly articulate ways for advancing research and interventions. In 1998, the National Institute of Mental Health began a process of Taking Stock of Risk Factors for Child/Youth Externalizing Behavior Problems. Externalizing behavior problems refers to a range of rule-breaking behaviors including aggression, defiance, lying, stealing, truancy, delinquency, and criminal acts. The Taking Stock process involves three key objectives: 1) to identify and describe what is known about risk factors and processes that contribute to externalizing behavior problems; 2) to identify gaps in our knowledge about risk factors and processes; and 3) to describe the kinds of research and research methodologies needed to advance the field. The initial report will provide an executive summary of the first of these objectives -- describing what is known about existing risk factors and processes for externalizing behavior problems. The full report should be available in summer 2000.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Della Hann, (301) 443-9700, dhann@nih.gov

Violence Against Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth

A recent report suggested that the unusually high rate of suicide among gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people is related to the persistent harassment they experience, especially from peers. Violence based on sexual orientation is now widely recognized as a serious problem in the United States. Recent studies suggest that hate crime survivors manifest higher levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The goal of this procurement is to develop a "white paper" summarizing existing research on violence against gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people and the impact of such violence on victims and their families.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Gwendolyn Bennett, (301) 443-3897, Gbennett@samhsa.gov

PROGRAMMATIC ACTIVITIES

Bridge Over Troubled Waters

Through a grant to the International Faith Community Information & Services Clearinghouse and Training Center of the Howard University School of Divinity, Washington, DC, this education, training, and technical assistance project is designed to build partnerships between local faith communities, nonprofit organizations, and public and assisted housing residents to create safer neighborhoods. Youth-focused violence, crime, and substance abuse prevention programs such as mentoring, after-school tutoring, recreation, and rites of passage programs are some of the strategies implemented.

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Bertha Jones, (202) 708-1197, Bertha_M._Jones@hud.gov

COPS in Schools

Many communities are discovering that trained, sworn law enforcement officers assigned to schools make a difference. The presence of these officers provides schools with on-site security and a direct link to local law enforcement agencies. To help hire community policing officers to work in schools, the COPS in Schools initiative provides an incentive for law enforcement agencies to build working relationships with schools to use community policing efforts to combat school violence. The COPS in Schools initiative reduces the local match requirement for law enforcement agencies seeking to hire additional officers in and around schools. Grants are awarded to provide for a designated portion of salary and benefits for each new officer over a three-year period.

Lead/Funder: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Christine Keyser, (202) 616-9196, christine.keyser@usdoj.gov

COPS in Schools: A Community Policing Model for SRO Training

The COPS Office, in collaboration with the National School Safety Center and more than 30 local and national leaders in law enforcement, education, child development, school safety, and public health -- has developed a community policing model for school resource officer (SRO) programs. This model delineates three primary responsibilities of an SRO: Problem Solver and Liaison to Community Resources; Educator; and Safety Specialist and Law Enforcer. The unique demands placed on SROs require that we provide them with appropriate tools to promote school safety. The COPS Office and the National School Safety Center are pioneering the effort to provide those tools by developing a comprehensive training for SROs and school administrators based on the COPS in Schools model. To assist in the design, development, and delivery of this training, the National School Safety Center has partnered with the Yale Child Study Center, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, Center for the Prevention of School Violence, National Crime Prevention Council, Street Law Incorporated, National Association of School Resource Officers, National Alliance for Safe Schools, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. This training is flexible and allows grantees to tailor their program to meet their unique local school and community needs.

Lead/Funder: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Nicholas Lewin, (202) 633-1493, Nicholas.Lewin@usdoj.gov

Developing Violence Prevention Stakeholders' Collaborations Among State Departments of Mental Health and Education

The objective of this procurement is to develop collaborations between mental health and educational systems with key state education and mental health stakeholders to prevent violence among children.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Harriet McCombs, (301) 443-6212, Hmccombs@samhsa.gov

Drug-Free Communities Program

The Drug-Free Communities Program is designed to strengthen community-based coalition efforts to reduce youth substance abuse. Coalitions include community representation from the following areas: youth, parents, business, media, schools, youth-serving organizations, law enforcement, civic, volunteers, fraternal groups, health care professionals, state, local, or tribal government agencies with expertise in the field of substance abuse. Other organizations are included which are involved in substance abuse reduction as well. In fiscal year 1999, after a competitive review process, the Office of National Drug Control Policy and Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention selected 124 grantees in fiscal year 1999 to receive awards up to $100,000 for a one-year period. Ninety-one grantees from 1998 reapplied and were awarded grants. The program enables these coalitions to enhance collaboration and coordination in an effort to prevent illegal drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. In fiscal year 1999, $20 million was available for grants. A new grant announcement appeared in the Federal Register in January 2000. Please refer to the Office of National Drug Control Policy web page, <www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov> for additional information on this program.

Lead/Funder: Office of National Drug Control Policy.

Collaborators: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Gregory Dixon, (202) 395-7253, gregory_1._dixon@ondcp.eop.gov or Sigrid Melus, (202) 395-5016, sigrid_e._melus@ondcp.eop.gov

Enforcing Zero Tolerance for Guns and Other Weapons in Schools

In October 1994, President Clinton signed into law the Gun-Free Schools Act, and issued a Presidential Directive later that month to enforce "zero tolerance" for guns in schools -- if a student brings a gun to school, that student will be expelled for a year. The Department of Education annually collects and reports data from states on their implementation of the Gun-Free Schools Act. For the school year 1997-1998, states reported expelling more than 3,900 students for bringing firearms to school.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Deborah Rudy, (202) 260-1875, Deborah_Rudy@ed.gov

Grants to Reduce Student Suspensions and Expulsions and Ensure Educational Progress of Suspended and Expelled Students

This new grant competition is to enhance, implement and evaluate strategies to reduce the number and duration of student suspensions and expulsions and ensure continued educational progress through challenging course work for students that are suspended or expelled.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Ann Weinheimer, (202) 708-5939, ann_weinheimer@ed.gov

Grassroots Youth Crime Intervention

Through a grant to the National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise, Washington, DC, this innovative program seeks to keep youth residing in public housing away from gang, drug, and crime-related activities. The training takes place at the grassroots level. Youth are exposed to strategies and opportunities that prevent them from engaging in violent and illegal drug activities.

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Tamara Gray, (202) 708-1197 ext. 4050, Tamara_S._Gray@hud.gov

Initiative to Reduce Mental Health Stress for Teachers

The objective of this procurement is to attend to the mental health needs of teachers by providing effective methods to reduce workplace stress. The current stress that many teachers experience because of classroom violence and the aggression of some students is having a negative impact. Teachers are frequently victims of violent crimes and teachers' concerns about their own safety are not without foundation. In an average year, as reported by teachers in both public and private schools, there were nearly 125,000 violent crimes against teachers. The escalation of violence in school settings has seen an increase in the number of teachers who resign their posts and change their field of employment. Teachers who remain in their teaching career experience anxiety, depression, and stress resulting in days of work lost and reduced productivity. This procurement is addressing these stress factors and the impact they have on teachers.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Michele Edwards, (301) 443-7713, Medwards@samhsa.gov

KOBAN: A Safe Haven for Public Housing

Through a grant to the Eisenhower Foundation, Washington, DC, each of the six KOBAN sites, located in six cities throughout the United States and Puerto Rico, provide a safe haven for young people -- a place where young people can participate in programs without fear of drug-related violence -- and a police mini-station. The programs provide workshops on conflict resolution and drug, violence, crime, and gang prevention services with demonstrated outcomes.

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Tamara Gray, (202) 708-1197 ext. 4050, Tamara_S._Gray@hud.gov

Middle School Coordinator Initiative

The Middle School Coordinator Initiative will allow school districts to hire and train school safety coordinators to improve the quality of drug and violence prevention programs in middle schools. A recent Department of Education study concluded that to have an impact on students, prevention programs must have available a prevention coordinator at least half-time, if not full-time. By providing these coordinators in middle schools, this initiative will support early intervention efforts that can make a long-term impact on reducing youth drug use and creating safer schools. The Department of Education will award $50 million in funds for this initiative through a national grant competition, and will support coordinators to help plan, design, implement, and evaluate successful drug and violence prevention programs for middle schools across the country.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Ethel Jackson, (202) 260-2812, Ethel_Jackson@ed.gov

National Youth Violence Prevention Training

Through a grant to the SPARTA Consulting Corporation of Bethesda, Md., workshops led by experts in the field of youth violence prevention offer skill-building exercises and showcase model programs for public housing communities. Focus groups discuss specific issues such as residents' concerns about violence, management techniques for preventing violence, and the role of law enforcement in a community-based violence prevention program. SPARTA has developed a 500-page curriculum that provides prevention, intervention, and treatment solutions to youth violence that focus on protective and risk factors for various age groups.

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Marvin Klepper, (202) 708-1197, Marvin_E._Klepper@hud.gov

Peacemaker Corps

The Department of Housing and Urban Development, in collaboration with the Friends of the United Nations and the Simon Youth Foundation, provided a grant to the SPARTA Consulting Corporation of Bethesda, Md., to develop and implement the Peacemaker Corps. This program is designed to provide exceptional youth with the skills to initiate violence prevention activities in their schools and communities. Youth leaders are invited to the two-day training and receive instruction in conflict resolution, mediation, tolerance, community organization, and peer mentoring. The Peacemakers, from public housing and surrounding communities, are then encouraged to pursue violence prevention at the grass roots level.

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Marvin Klepper, (202) 708-1197, Marvin_E._Klepper@hud.gov

Public Housing Graduates Program

Through a grant to the Center for Community Change, Washington, DC, this program provides a new approach to providing services to low-income teens. The program is being modeled in six public housing neighborhoods in Washington, DC, and offers a comprehensive needs assessment and support plan with nine components including Youth Court, Youth Leadership/Toastmaster Training, Healthy Todays and Tomorrows (focuses on conflict management), and Sister-to-Sister and Brother-to-Brother (focuses on problem-solving).

Lead/Funder: Office of Public and Indian Housing, Office of Public and Assisted Housing Delivery, Community Safety and Conservation Division, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Contact: Bertha Jones, (202) 708-1197, Bertha_M._Jones@hud.gov

Resilience and Violence Prevention for Asian American and Pacific Islander Youth

In September 1999, the Center for Mental Health Services awarded a 12-month contract to the Georgetown University Child Development Center to develop a violence prevention and resiliency model for Asian American and Pacific Islander youth that builds upon current mainstream models where appropriate, incorporates appropriate ethnic and cultural variables, and synthesizes components of promising practices in violence prevention for the extremely heterogeneous Asian American and Pacific Islander populations.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Tiffany Ho, 301-443-2892, tho@samhsa.gov

Safe and Drug-Free Schools National Programs

This program is comprised of a number of projects, including a) funding to support the National Resource Center for Safe Schools which offers training and technical assistance to enable schools and communities to create safe school environments; b) continuation awards for grants to improve the effectiveness of prevention programming for youth; c) a grant to support the Partnerships for Preventing Violence Satellite Training Telecasts, a six-part series taking a cross-disciplinary approach to the complex problem of violence in our schools and communities; d) a grant to support the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education (NCCRE), providing training and technical assistance nationwide to advance the development of conflict resolution education programs in schools, juvenile justice settings and youth service organizations and community partnership programs; and e) a recognition program that identifies and honors schools that have implemented programs of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing student drug use, reducing violent behavior, and creating safe and orderly environments for learning.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Collaborators: Dept. of Justice; Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Charlotte Gillespie, (202) 260-1862, Charlotte_Gillespie@ed.gov

Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act State and Local Grants

This program will award $439 million in formula grants to states in Fiscal Year 2000. Funds are used to support drug and violence prevention programs in virtually every school district in the nation.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Debbie Rudy, (202) 260-1875, Deborah_Rudy@ed.gov

Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative

SS/HS is a collaborative effort of the Federal Departments of Education, Justice, and Health and Human Services. Grants of $1 million to $3 million were awarded in September 1999, to 54 local education authorities who have formal partnerships with local mental health and law enforcement agencies. These partnerships have developed and will implement comprehensive plans to promote healthy development, foster resilience in the face of adversity, and prevent violence. The plans consist of six main areas: 1) school safety; 2) alcohol and other drugs, and violence prevention and early intervention programs; 3) school and community mental health prevention and treatment services; 4) early childhood psychosocial and emotional development programs; 5) educational reform; and 6) safe school policies. Grant awards totaled $105 million.

Lead/Funder: Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, Dept. of Education; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Karen Dorsey, (202) 708-4674, karen_dorsey@ed.gov; Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov; Meg Small, (202) 205-2855, meg_small@ed.gov; or Kellie Dressier, (202) 514-4817, dresslek@ojp.usdoj.gov

School and Community Action Grants

The School and Community Action Grant Program funded 40 grantees in 22 states in fiscal year 1999. These grantees have selected an evidence-based practice or practices to prevent youth violence and to foster the healthy development of children and youth, and foster resilient adaptation in the face of adversity. The local communities selected the exemplary practices that best meets the specific community's needs. They will build consensus to implement and sustain the practice(s) and will actually implement the practice over 12 months. The ultimate goal of the grant is to enable the local communities to sustain the chosen exemplary practice(s) utilizing local funds.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Tiffany Ho, (301) 443-2892, Tho@samhsa.gov or Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov

School-Based Partnerships -- School-Related Crime Prevention and Safety Initiative

The School-Based Partnerships grant program provides policing agencies with a unique opportunity to work with schools and community-based organizations to address persistent school-related crime problems. Three-hundred seventy-five grants were awarded in fiscal year 1998 and fiscal year 1999 for law enforcement agencies and schools to focus on a primary school-related crime or disorder problems occurring in or around an elementary or secondary school. Grant recipients use problem-solving methods to understand the causes of the problem; develop specific tailored responses to that problem; and assess the impact of those responses.

Lead/Funder: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Kate Spang, (202) 514-8074, Kathryn.Spang2@usdoj.gov

Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS)

Starting Early Starting Smart is funded through an innovative public/private partnership between the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Casey Family Program. It is an early childhood program designed as a child-centered, family-focused, and community-based initiative delivering integrated behavioral health services to young children (birth to 7 years of age) and their families. Grantees are located in diverse early childhood settings: Head Start, primary care clinics, and preschool/child care settings. School systems are involved through affiliations, such as Head Start programs located in the public schools. The SESS projects work with multiple ethnic groups including African Americans, Hispanic populations, Caucasians, American Indians, and Asian populations. Grantees provide an integrated system of: case management, pediatric primary care, home visitation, dyadic therapy, parent education, support groups, language development, reading readiness, domestic violence treatment and education, in-home support, mental health services, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and services to meet special needs (eg, speech therapy, physical therapy). As a result of these interventions, it is expected that children's and families' access to and utilization of behavioral health services will increase, children's development will be enhanced, and family functioning will improve.

Lead/Funder: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health.

Collaborators: Administration on Children and Families, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Dept. of Education.

Contact: Pat Salomon, MD, (301) 443-7762, Psalomon@samhsa.gov

The 21st Century Community [earning Centers Program

The Department of Education awards grants to rural and inner-city public schools to enable them to plan, implement, or expand projects that benefit the educational, health, social services, cultural, and recreational needs of the community. The fiscal year 1999 budget included a $200 million expansion that provides safe and educational after-school opportunities for up to 500,000 children. This increase will give more school-aged children in rural and urban communities across the country positive learning opportunities and keep more kids off the streets in the after-school hours when most violent juvenile crime occurs.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: 21stCCLC@ed.gov

Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

The campaign targets youth aged 9-18, especially the vulnerable middle-school adolescents (aged 11-13), their parents, and the adults who influence the choices young people make. To get the word out across every economic and cultural boundary, the Campaign uses a mix of modern communications techniques -- from advertising and public relations to interactive media -- and all possible venues -- from television programs to after-school activities -- to educate and empower young people to reject illicit drugs. The campaign also teams up with civic and non-profit organizations, faith-based groups, and private corporations to engage people in prevention efforts at school, at work, and at play. Through partnership with various organizations, the campaign seeks to provide information on protective and risk factors, and promote research-based information that contributes to the prevention of substance abuse, violence, and other unhealthy life choices.

Lead/Funder: Office of National Drug Control Policy.

Collaborators: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, Dept. of Education.

Contact: Alan Levitt, (202) 395-6744, alan_m._levitt@ondcp.eop.gov

RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Annual Reports on School Safety (October 1998, October 1999)

This series of annual reports describes the nature and scope of school violence and steps that communities can take to develop a comprehensive school safety plan. The reports highlight what schools, students, parents, police, businesses, and elected officials can do to create safe learning environments and describe schools and communities doing an exemplary job to create and maintain safe school environments. The reports also list resources for information on school safety and crime prevention issues.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Collaborators: Dept. of Justice.

Contacts: Meg Small, (202) 205-2855, Meg_Small@ed.gov or Kellie J. Dressler, (202) 514-4817, dresslek@ojp.usdoj.gov

Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in US Schools: A Guide for Schools and Law Enforcement Agencies

This document, published in October 1999, provides basic guidelines to law enforcement agencies and school administrators and encourages their collaboration as they make decisions on what, if any, security technologies should be included in their safe school strategies. It can help schools and their law enforcement partners analyze their vulnerability to violence, theft, and vandalism and suggest possible technologies to address them in an appropriate and effective manner. The guide describes existing commercially available technologies, some of which schools are already using. It encourages thoughtful consideration of the potential safety benefits that may accrue from their use as well as commitments that they may incur for capital investments, site modifications, staffing, training, maintenance, and repair. Topic areas include: security concepts and operational issues; video surveillance; metal detection (walk-through portals, hand-held scanners, and X-ray baggage scanners); entry control; and duress alarms. A bibliography of resources is also provided. The document may not replace the need for consultants nor does it provide detailed instructions on how to install equipment or make cost estimates. However, much practical advice is provided that should allow schools and the law enforcement agencies that serve them to make informed decisions on security technology.

Lead/Funder: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Collaborators: Dept. of Education.

Contact: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 851-3420, www.ncjrs.com

Basic Emergency Life Saving Skills (BELSS)

The Basic Emergency Life Saving Skills (BELSS) framework is being developed in collaboration with the American Association for Health Education, American Red Cross, American Trauma Society, Children's Safety Network, Education Development Center, Inc., National Association of School Nurses, and National SAFE KIDS Campaign. It is intended to provide a framework for teaching developmentally appropriate emergency life saving skills to children and adolescents. The BELSS framework was developed to increase the number of school districts that require proficiency in first aid and CPR as a condition for high school graduation and is intended for people who teach emergency skills to children and adolescents and those who design first aid and CPR programs.

Lead/Funder: Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Emergency Medical Services for Children, Dept. of Transportation and Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Dept. of Transportation; Dept. of Education.

Contact: Stephanie Bryn, (301) 443-6091, sbryn@hrsa.gov

Blueprints: A Violence Prevention Initiative

This publication describes a project initiated by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV) at the University of Colorado at Boulder to identify juvenile violence prevention programs. To date, CSPV has identified 10 prevention and intervention programs that meet scientific standards of proven program effectiveness. CSPV is in the process of identifying additional programs. The 10 model programs, called Blueprints, have been effective in reducing adolescent violent crime, aggression, and substance abuse. CSPV and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention have entered into a cooperative agreement to provide training and technical assistance to community organizations and program providers interested in implementing one of these programs.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools

Certain manifestations of street violence have encroached on schools, including gangs, bullying, weapon possession and use, substance abuse, and community violence. Educators, parents, and students are concerned and want to revitalize schools and make them safer. In particular, students often express fear of personal victimization and violence experienced by other students and, consequently, they do not attend school. Numerous prevention and intervention strategies have emerged to ensure schools are safe. These strategies include the Gang Resistance Education and Training Program, the Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach, the National Youth Gang Center, the Safe Alternatives and Violence Education Curriculum, the Adolescent Social Action Program, the Parents and Schools Succeeding in Providing Organized Routes to Travel Program, and the Gang Resistance Is Paramount Program. Although existing programs represent a good start, more such programs are needed to create safe schools in every community. Data on the percent of students reporting the presence of guns at school in 1995 and on characteristics of school-associated violent deaths between 1992 and 1994 are provided.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Combating Truancy

Truancy prevention initiatives have been shown to keep more children in school and dramatically reduce daytime crime. The Department of Education issued a manual to every school district nationwide outlining the central characteristics of a comprehensive truancy prevention policy and highlighting model initiatives in cities and towns across the country.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Sara Strizzi, (202) 708-5937, Sara_Strizzi@ed.gov

Combating Violence and Delinquency: The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan

The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan has eight objectives: 1) provide immediate intervention and appropriate sanctions and treatment for delinquent juveniles; 2) prosecute certain serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders in criminal court; 3) reduce youth involvement with guns, drugs, and gangs; 4) provide opportunities for children and youth; 5) break the cycle of violence by addressing youth victimization, abuse and neglect; 6) strengthen and mobilize communities; 7) support the development of innovative approaches to research and evaluation; and 8) implement an active public outreach campaign on effective strategies to address juvenile violence. The action plan describes effective strategies to meet these objectives and presents examples of successful programs. A report and summary are available.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings

This guide is designed for educators, juvenile justice practitioners, and others in youth-serving organizations to heighten awareness of conflict resolution education and its potential to help settle disputes peacefully in a variety of settings. The guide defines conflict as a natural condition and examines the origins of conflict, responses to conflict, and the outcomes of those responses. It presents the essential principles, foundation abilities, and problem-solving processes of conflict resolution; discusses the elements of a successful conflict resolution program; and introduces four approaches to implementing conflict resolution education.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Dept. of Education.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Development, Production, and Dissemination of Two Radio Programs for "The Infinite Mind" Show

The objective of this procurement is to make information on youth violence prevention, suicide prevention, and resilience-enhancing activities widely available. The target audience includes community leaders, advocates, family members and the concerned public.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Michele Edwards, (301) 443-7713, Medwards@samhsa.gov

Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools (August 1998)

This guide provides information on early and imminent warning signs for troubled children and principles to ensure that signs are not misinterpreted. It also includes suggestions for developing violence prevention and crisis response plans, intervening during a crisis to ensure safety, and responding in the aftermath of a tragedy. The guide also provides action steps for educators, students, and parents to help create safe schools.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Collaborators: Dept. of Justice; Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contacts: Sara Strizzi, (202) 708-5937, Sara_Strizzi@ed.gov or Kellie J. Dressler, (202) 514-4817, dresslek@ojp.usdoj.gov

Families and Schools Together

Describes the Families and Schools Together (Fast) program process, cost and funding sources, and history of success. In the Fast program, 10 to 15 families participate in 8 to 10 weekly sessions of family bonding activities, followed by monthly follow-up sessions for two years. The program systematically strengthens the bonds of at-risk youth to their family, school, and community. Ten years after its creation, the Fast program is being implemented in more than 450 schools in 31 states and five countries.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Families and Schools Together: Building Relationships

Describes the Families and Schools Together (Fast) program methods. This program addresses youth violence and juvenile delinquency by building relationships between youth, their families, peers, teachers, school staff, and other members of the community. In addition to describing each session of the eight-week Fast program and the two-year Fast Works follow-up program, the Bulletin presents findings of evaluation studies that have found Fast effective, offers budget information, and provides sources of further information.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Fight for Your Rights: Take a Stand Against Violence CD/Action Guide

Working with MTV and the National Center for Conflict Resolution, the Department of Education and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention created Fight for Your Rights: Take a Stand Against Violence CD/Action Guide. This guide consists of music and recorded comments on the subject of violence from best-selling rock, rap, and pop performing artists. It also features an educational CD-ROM created by the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education in conjunction with the Department of Justice. The guide and interactive CD-ROM promote the message that disagreements do not need to escalate to the point of violence. The CD-ROM provides practical steps for resolving conflict, along with poignant examples, in an interactive format driven by the user. One million copies of the CD and guide will be manufactured and distributed free of charge to young people via a toll-free number operated by the Department of Justice and promoted on MTV.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Sara Strizzi, (202) 708-5937, Sara_Strizzi@ed.gov

To Order: Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, (877) 284-1188

Hands Without Guns

This publication provides information on Hands Without Guns, a public health and education campaign designed to combat gun violence by providing a forum for positive youth voices. Building on the model of positive youth development, the campaign engages young people as violence prevention advocates in their communities. Through its media outreach, Hands Without Guns seeks to reduce the demand for guns among youth. Through in-school and after-school workshops, young people are provided with the tools they need to be involved in all aspects of the media campaign, including the development and production of antiviolence materials.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Indicators of School Crime and Safety (1998, 1999)

This joint annual report on school safety by the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Justice Statistics is a companion document to the Annual Report on School Safety. This report provides detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government.

Lead/Funder: National Center for Education Statistics, Dept. of Education; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contacts: Kathryn Chandler, (202) 219-1767, Kathryn_Chandler@ed.gov or Michael Rand, (202) 616-3494, randm@ojp.usdoj.gov

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report

This report, prepared by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. It brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report provides baseline information on juvenile population trends; patterns of juvenile victimization, including homicide, suicide, and maltreatment; the nature and extent of juvenile offending, including data on arrest rates, antisocial behavior, and juveniles in custody; and the structure, procedures, and activities of the juvenile justice system, including law enforcement agencies, courts, and corrections. This report updates information originally presented in Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report, the benchmark publication issued in 1995.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Preventing Bullying: A Manual for Schools and Communities (October 1998)

This manual provides actions steps for schools, teachers, students and parents to stop bullying in schools. It highlights effective bullying prevention programs and provides resources for further information.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Sara Strizzi, (202) 708-5937, Sara_Strizzi@ed.gov

Preventing Youth Hate Crime: A Manual for Schools and Communities (December 1997)

This manual provides actions steps for schools, teachers, students and parents to confront and eliminate hate-motivated behavior among young people. It highlights effective hate crime prevention programs and provides resources for further information.

Lead/Funder: Dept. of Education.

Contact: Sara Strizzi, (202) 708-5937, Sara_Strizzi@ed.gov

Preventing Violence the Problem-Solving Way

Based on more than 20 years of research on specific interpersonal, cognitive, and problem-solving skills, intervention methods were developed to test the hypothesis that behavior can be modified by focusing on thought processes rather than behaviors themselves. These skills relate to high-risk behaviors that may develop into serious problems such as violence and substance abuse. This approach to child rearing deals with social cognition and social adjustment. The central theme is that certain interpersonal cognitive thinking skills play a crucial role in the social adjustment of both parent and child. This Bulletin describes the use of these skills by Raising a Thinking Child, a primary prevention program for parents and their children aged 4-7, through its "I Can Problem Solve" curriculum.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Reaching Out to Youth Out of the Education Mainstream

The Youth Out of the Education Mainstream (YOEM) initiative seeks to raise public awareness of this problem and the need for programs to help at-risk youth continue their education and become contributing members of society. The YOEM initiative consists of sharing information through regional meetings, providing intensive training and technical assistance to 10 demonstration sites, and disseminating resource documents to support communities working to help young people avoid the school-related risks that can seriously damage their life chances and lead to juvenile delinquency. Both prevention and intervention strategies recognize that the vast majority of children have the ability to learn academic, personal, and social skills that will help them become self-sufficient and productive adults. A one-day meeting in May 1996 announced the initiative and was attended by more than 325 representatives from the juvenile justice system, law enforcement, education, business community, foundations and associations, social services, youth-serving agencies, and other related fields.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Reducing Youth Violence: A Comprehensive Approach Multimedia CD-ROM, Ver. 2.0

This interactive disk provides juvenile justice practitioners, researchers, and policymakers with a broad array of publications and technical assistance and other resources on prevention and intervention programs for at-risk juveniles and those involved with the juvenile justice system. The disk uses the latest Web-based technology and offers full search capability.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This material is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

Research-Based Guide for Parents to Prevent Violence and Foster the Healthy Development of Children

This guide will contain research-based information on what is known about preventing youth violence, supporting the healthy development of children, and enhancing resilience. The booklet will present an overview of the research on the pathways to healthy child development, the risk factors for negative outcomes, and the strengths and supports needed to ensure a healthy trajectory for child development. Principles underlying the promotion of mental health and the healthy development of children will also be a part of this booklet.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Anne Mathews-Younes, (301) 443-0554, Amathews@samhsa.gov

School and Community Interventions to Prevent Serious and Violent Offending

This publication describes school and community interventions shown to reduce risk factors for drug abuse and serious and violent juvenile (SVJ) offending. Based on findings of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders (a group of researchers convened to study the population of SVJ offenders), this Bulletin examines five types of school interventions (structured playground activities, behavioral consultation, behavioral monitoring, metal detectors, and schoolwide reorganization) and eight types of community interventions (citizen mobilization, situational prevention, comprehensive citizen intervention, mentoring, afterschool recreation programs, policing strategies, policy changes, and mass media interventions).

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

School Health Finance Project Database

To assist school health professionals in obtaining funding, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established a website that includes a database of information about funding sources that support school health programs, including violence prevention programs. This database can be accessed by clicking on the Funding Opportunities heading on CDC's Division of Adolescent and School Health's home page at http://www.cdc.gov/ nccdphp/dash. The School Health Finance Project database provides information on federal categorical funding, federal block grant funding, and private sector funding. The database also contains specific examples of how states use federal funds to support school health programs.

Lead/Funder: Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Jenny Osorio, (770) 488-3165, Jao4@cdc.gov

School Violence Prevention: Interactive Technology

Contracts were awarded to several companies for the development of interactive CD-ROM technology for children, parents, and teachers to prevent youth violence. The presentation of serious material in an interactive format shows promise for engaging students in knowledge transfer activities, improving their decision-making skills, and changing attitudes and behaviors about violence. The Center for Mental Health Services is developing a broad portfolio of violence prevention technical assistance materials via interactive multimedia and accompanying text teacher/parent guides. The materials are aimed at assisting elementary, middle, and high school students, as well as their teachers and parents in developing positive attitudes, adequate knowledge, and effective skills to prevent school-based violence. The material or tool kits will be used by school districts, in schools and homes to prevent school-based violence and its associated mental health consequences. The tool kits will be presented in developmentally appropriate frameworks that address the needs and learning styles of children, adolescents, parents and teachers who are considered at risk for violence either as aggressors, victims, or bystanders in urban, rural, suburban, and tribal populations.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Harriet McCombs, (301) 443-6212, Hmccombs@SAMHSA.gov

Violence After School

This publication presents information on temporal patterns (time of day, school vs. non-school day) of violent crimes committed by and against juveniles, excerpted from Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report. The Bulletin presents the most recent available data from victim survey and police incident reports, emphasizes that serious violent crime involving juveniles peaks in the hours immediately after the close of school, and discusses implications of the data for community strategies to reduce violent juvenile crime. The Bulletin is part of the 1999 National Report Series. Each Bulletin in the series highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: This publication is available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, a component of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, (800) 638-8736, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

RESOURCE AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE CENTERS

Children's Safety Network Technical Assistance Resource Centers

The Children's Safety Network Technical Assistance Resource Centers offer training and technical assistance to assist states, schools, and communities to prevent child and adolescent injuries and violence. They provide information, training, and technical assistance to facilitate the development and enhancement of injury and violence prevention programs.

Lead/Funder: Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Emergency Medical Services for Children, Dept. of Transportation and Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Stephanie Bryn, (301) 443-6091, sbryn@hrsa.gov or Carol Delany, (301) 443-5848, cdelany@hrsa.gov

Hamilton Fish National Institute on School and Community Violence

In 1997, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention funded the creation of the Hamilton Fish National Institute on School and Community Violence at George Washington University to test the effectiveness of violence prevention methods and to develop more effective school-based strategies. As part of the Institute, a consortium of seven universities was formed. Each university in the consortium works directly with a local school system to implement and test schoolwide interventions that promote safety by reducing fighting and bullying, truancy, and drug use and enhancing positive student interaction. Through this effort, the Institute is identifying programs that can and should be replicated to reduce violence in America's schools and their immediate communities.

Lead/Funder: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Kellie J. Dressler, (202) 514-4817, dresslek@ojp.usdoj

Mental Health in Schools TA Resource Centers

These two national training and technical assistance resource centers were designed to promote the expansion and improvement of mental health services for school-aged children and adolescents. The Resource Centers address barriers to learning and promote healthy development by gathering and disseminating information, developing materials, providing direct assistance, training, and facilitating networking and the exchange of ideas.

Lead/Funder: Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Contact: Trina Anglin, (301) 443-4291, tanglin@hrsa.gov

National Center for Conflict Resolution Education

The Illinois State Bar Association operates the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education. This center has been established to offer training, technical assistance, and information to help schools, juvenile facilities, and youth-serving organizations select and put in place quality conflict resolution education programs.

Lead/Funder: Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, Dept. of Education; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Robin Delany-Shabazz, (202) 307-9963, delany@ojp.usdoj.gov

National Resource Center for Safe Schools

The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory operates the National Resource Center for Safe Schools. This center, funded by the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, has been established to offer training, technical assistance, and information to help schools and communities create safe school environments.

Lead/Funder: Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, Dept. of Education; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice.

Contact: Robin Delany-Shabazz, (202) 307-9963, delany@ojp.usdoj.gov

Safe Schools/Healthy Students Action Center

A cooperative agreement was entered into with the National Mental Health Association and its partner, the National Association of School Psychologists, to develop a Safe Schools/Healthy Students Action Center. This center will provide training and technical assistance to grantees of the Safe Schools/Healthy Students initiative.

Lead/Funder: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Collaborators: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Dept. of Justice; Dept. of Education.

Contact: Gail Ritchie, (301) 443-1752, Gritchie@samhsa.gov

White House Council on Youth Violence

This White House Council provides coordination of policy initiatives on youth violence across the agencies of the federal government. Duties of the Council include the development of a national information center that will provide a single point of access to federal resources, programs and information on youth violence, an inventory of federal activities on the internet, reports on various aspects of the problem, oversee expansion of the Safe Schools/Healthy Students initiative, provide tools for parents to deal with the issue, coordinate the federal research agenda, including stimulating cross-agency research collaboration, and foster the development of new interagency initiatives and policy.

Lead/Funder: The White House.

Collaborators: Dept. of Education, Dept. of Health and Human Services, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Dept. of Justice, Dept. of Labor, and Dept. of the Treasury.

Contacts: Sonia Chessen, (202) 456-6716, Sonia_G._Chessen@opd.eop.gov, Marie Burke, (202) 456-6716, or Susan Blumenthal, (202) 456-6716.

Compiled by Lisa C. Barrios, DrPH, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop K-33, Atlanta, GA 30341-3717; 770/488-3215 (phone); 770/488-3112 (fax); or <LIC8@cdc.gov>. Contributions by: Katie Baer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Gwendolyn Bennett, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Anne Bergan, US Dept. of Justice; Stephanie Bryn, Health Resources and Services Administration; Sue Callaway, US Dept. of Housing and Urban Development; Darlind Davis, Office of National Drug Control Policy; Ray Downs, US Dept. of Justice; Kellie Dressier, US Dept. of Justice; Tiffany Ho, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Naomi Karp, US Dept. of Education; Anne Mathews-Younes, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Nataki MacMurray, Office of National Drug Control Policy; Eileen O'Brien, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Mary Overpeck, National Institutes of Health; Winnie Reed, US Dept. of Justice; Meg Small, US Dept. of Education; and Farris Tuma, National Institutes of Health.
COPYRIGHT 2000 American School Health Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2000 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Barrios, Lisa C.
Publication:Journal of School Health
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2000
Words:18313
Previous Article:Longitudinal Tracking and Retention in a School-Based Study on Adolescent Smoking: Costs, Variables, and Smoking Status.
Next Article:The Role of Process Evaluation in the Training of Facilitators for an Adolescent Health Education Program.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters