Printer Friendly

Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil/ Acaros de pena (Acari: Astigmata) associados com aves em um fragmento de Mata Atlantica no Nordeste do Brasil.

1. Introduction

Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) occur in every order of birds worldwide (Gaud and Atyeo, 1996; Mironov and Proctor, 2008). They inhabit the skin (dermicoles), the surface of feathers (plumicoles) or the inner calamus (syringicoles) (Proctor, 2003). Many species exhibit high host specificity resulting from, among other reasons, their morphological and physiological adaptations to the structure of feathers and the transmission mechanism between parents and offspring, pairs, or through any behavior that promotes contact between hosts (Proctor and Owens, 2000; Proctor, 2003). Thus, each group of birds generally has a distinct acarofauna at some taxonomic level (Gaud and Atyeo, 1976, 1996).

In Brazil, a country that harbors one of the richest avifaunas in the world (ca. 1800 species), knowledge of feather mite species is inversely proportional to host diversity (Valim et al., 2011). Several recent systematic and taxonomic studies have contributed to knowledge of the Brazilian feather mites (e. g. Hernandes and Valim, 2005, 2006; Valim and Hernandes, 2006, 2008, 2010; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov et al., 2008; Valim et al., 2011; Hernandes, 2012, 2013a, b). Among the main studies aimed at identifying and inventorying feather mites in country are those carried on Cerrado areas (wooded grasslands) in the Central Brazil (Kanegae et al., 2008; Enout et al., 2012). In the Northeast region, few investigations in the Atlantic Forest contributed to the knowledge of mites associated with passerines (Roda and Farias, 1999) and, more specifically, to the family Emberizidae (Lyra-Neves et al., 2003).

In light of the limited knowledge of feather mites associated with the Brazilian avifauna, especially in the Northeast, the aim of this study is to survey the feather mites associated with birds from a fragment of seasonal deciduous Atlantic Forest.

2. Materials and Methods

Mites were collected from freshly killed birds from Olho D'agua Forest, located in the municipality of Macaiba, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil (270 ha, 5[degrees]53'S and central coordinates 35[degrees]23'W, 40m average altitude). The collection of birds was authorized by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) under permanent zoological material collection license number 19849-1 (authentication code: 28111788; date of issue: 27/04/2009).

Mites were searched for over the entire length of each specimen's body (head, dorsum, venter, wings and tail), under stereoscope. Samples were removed and preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Mites from the suborder Astigmata were mounted on glass slides in Hoyer's medium (Flechtmann, 1975) and identified to the lowest possible level with the aid of keys of Gaud and Atyeo (1996) and subsequent literature (e.g. Mironov, 2004; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov and Gonzalez-Acuna, 2011; Hernandes, 2012, 2013a, b). Authorities of acarine species are included in Table 1; bird nomenclature followed the CRBO (2011). All birds were taxidermied and deposited in the Ornithological Collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Feather mites were deposited in the mite collection of the Department of Zoology, Sao Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP. The prevalence of mites was calculated according to Bush et al. (1997).

3. Results

A total of 172 birds belonging to 38 species (28 Passeriformes and ten non-Passeriformes) were examined (Table 1). The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of host birds (Table 1). Three new species of the genera Trouessartia, Calcealges, and Paragabucinia were described based on material collected in this study (Hernandes, 2014a, 2014b, 2015).

Fifteen mite taxa were identified at the species level, sixteen at genus level and three only at subfamily level, distributed into the superfamilies Analgoidea (families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae and Trouessartiidae) and Pterolichoidea (families Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae). Among undetermined species, most of which are probably still undescribed, are representatives of the genera Amerodectes (Proctophyllodidae) and Trouessartia (Trouessartiidae), including estimated thirteen and ten new species, respectively (Table 1).

The most prevalent feather mite family in the bird community was Proctophyllodidae (71.5%), with 13 taxa found in association with 26 host species, followed by Trouessartiidae (45.9%), found on 17 host species, and Psoroptoididae (16.2%), found on six and one species of Passeriformes and Piciformes, respectively; the remaining families had a prevalence of less than 5%. The family Proctophyllodidae was found in association with all Passeriformes examined, in addition to the non-passerine families Trochilidae and Trogonidae (Table 1).

Species of the genus Trouessartia were recovered from 72 birds (41.9%), followed by species of the genus Amerodectes, reported in 65 birds (37.8%), Nycteridocaulus and Mesalgoides, associated with 30 and 23 individuals (17.4% and 13.4%, respectively). The remaining taxa showed a prevalence of less than 10% (Table 2).

Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil (Table 1).

4. Discussion

The high prevalence of Proctophyllodidae, the most common feather mite family found on flight feathers of passerines, is often reported in inventory studies of feather mites (Lyra-Neves et al., 2003; Kanegae et al., 2008; Enout et al., 2012), and may be due to the wide range of species associated with passerines and hummingbirds (Valim and Hernandes, 2010; Enout et al., 2012), as well as the ecology of their representatives. The family usually inhabits the ventral and dorsal portions of remiges and rectrices, which are easy-to-sample microhabitats for those examining birds (Proctor, 2003). Another reason why proctophyllodids, and in fact also trouessartiids are so frequently reported is that the most common method for capturing birds in ornithological surveys, i.e., mistnets, is often biased to capture passerines (Passeriformes) and hummingbirds (Apodiformes). In addition, field ornithologists often collect wing feathers for ectoparasites, which are the natural habitat of mites of these families.

The subfamily Proctophyllodinae was represented in this study by a considerable number of species. Anisophyllodes candango, described from Elaenia chiriquensis in the Central Brazil (Hernandes et al., 2007), was recorded for the first time also on E. chilensis, confirming its relationship with the subfamily Elaeniinae (Tyrannidae). Diproctophyllodes dielytra is known for its association with Pipridae (Valim et al., 2011), and is herein reported from another bird of this family, Neopelma pallescens. Also from the latter host, Mimicalges neopelmae was recently described (Hernandes, 2013a) based on specimens collected in the present study.

Species of Nycteridocaulus were hosted by five bird species belonging to four families in the present study. Among the eight described species of the genus, three were recovered in the present study: N. pectinatus on Tolmomyas flaviventris, confirming the association originally reported in Trindad (Atyeo, 1966); N. bilobatus on Cnemotriccus fuscatus; and N. foliatus, on Myiopagis viridicata, the last two hosts are reported for the first time in such associations. Other undetermined species of this genus were associated with Basileuterusflaveolus and Synallaxis scutata, previously reported as hosts of Nycteridocaulus tyranni, in Central Brazil (Kanegae et al., 2008). Those two species are herein regarded as new to science.

The species of the subfamily Pterodectinae, Hemitriccodectes furcatus, was found on both Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer and H. striaticollis (Hernandes, 2013b). Species of the genera Allodectes, Toxerodectes, Trochilodectes, and Xynonodectes, all of them restricted to hummingbirds (Trochilidae) (Park and Atyeo, 1975), are herein reported for the first time in association with these birds (Table 1).

The family Trouessartiidae was widely distributed among the bird species studied. Calcealges formicivorae was recently described from Formicivora grisea (Hernandes, 2015). Despite the wide occurrence of species of Trouessartia in association with around ten previously documented families of Passeriformes in the country, their occurrence in the families Rhynchocyclidae and Vireonidae were hitherto unknown, and widens the knowledge of their host groups. One species of this genus, T. picumni Hernandes, was recently described from Picumnus temmincki, being the first species of this genus to be described from a non-passerine host (Hernandes, 2014a).

In Brazil, three genera of Pteronyssidae are known to be associated with the families Picidae and Ramphastidae (Pterotrogus, Pteronyssoides and Ramphastobius). The genus Pterotrogus was registered in species of Piciformes and Apodiformes in the Federal District, Amazonas, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo (Valim et al., 2011; Hernandes, 2012); and Pteronyssoides was reported on Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Hirundinidae) in Pernambuco and Tocantins (Roda and Farias, 1999; Enout et al., 2012). Ramphastobius sp. was recorded on a host of the family Ramphastidae in Parana and Amazonas (Valim et al., 2011), and the recently described species, R. scutatus, previously known only from Picumnus cirratus (type-host), is herein reported on P. fulvescens.

The family Gabuciniidae is represented in Brazil by two species: Piciformobia guirae Alzuet, Cicchino and Abrahamovich, found on Guira guira (Cuculidae) in Sao Paulo state; and Tocolichus allepimerus Gaud and Atyeo, which has Selenidera maculirostris (Ramphastidae) as type-host, reported in Santa Catarina state (Valim et al., 2011). The family was cited for the last time by Alzuet et al. (1988), and here, one recently described species of Paragabucinia, P. brasiliensis Hernandes was found on Hydropsalis albicollis (Caprimulgidae) (Hernandes, 2014b).

In recent years, the few studies in Brazil investigating the association between arthropods and birds were conducted at the family or genus level (e.g. Marini et al., 1996; Roda and Farias, 1999; Lyra-Neves et al., 2003; Roda and Farias, 2007). The lack of research dealing with specific relationships points to the little attention paid to collecting samples for taxonomic studies, as well as the scarcity of specialists (Arzua and Valim, 2010). However, recent taxonomic efforts have slowly contributed to increase the knowledge of the group (e.g. Hernandes and Valim, 2005, 2006; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov et al., 2008; Valim and Hernandes, 2008, 2010).

The species richness of feather mites in Brazil is estimated to be at least five times greater than that currently known (Valim et al., 2011). The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations reported in the present study, supports these estimates and shows the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.23313

Acknowledgements

We thank the staff of the Laboratory of Ornithology of UFRN, especially Matheus Meira, Tonny Marques, Guilherme Toledo, Phoeve Macario, Priscila Sabino, Victor Fernandes, Thanyria Camara, Damiao Valdenor de Oliveira, Elaine Bandeira and Ismael Queiroz for their essential support in field work during collection. HMS was funded by Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), and FAH was funded by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP 2011/50145-0, 2011/20805-8).

References

ALZUET, AB., CICCHINO, AC. and ABRAHAMOVICH, AH., 1988. Consideraciones taxonomicas y relaciones hospedatorias de los generos Coraciacarus Dubinin 1956, Piciformobia Gaud y Atyeo 1975 y Capitolichus Gaud y Atyeo 1975 (Acari, Astigmata, Gabuciniidae), con descripcion de tres nuevas especies. Revista de la Asociacion de Ciencias Naturales del Litoral, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 49-67.

ARZUA, M. and VALIM, MP, 2010. Bases para o estudo qualitativo e quantitativo em aves. In VON MATTER, S., STRAUBE, FC., PIACENTINI, VQ., ACCORDI, IA. and CANDIDO JUNIOR, JF. (Eds.). Ornitologia e conservacao: ciencia aplicada, tecnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro: Technical Books. p. 347-366.

ATYEO, WT, 1966. A new genus and six new species of feather mites primarily from Tyranni (Acarina: Proctophyllodidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 481-492.

ATYEO, WT. and GAUD, J., 1968. Two feather mite genera (Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from birds of the families Oxyruncidae and Pipridae (Passeriformes, Tyranni). Bulletin of the Nebraska State Museum, vol. 8, p. 209-215.

BUSH, AO., LAFFERTY, KD., LOTZ, JM. and SHOSTAK, AW., 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. The Journal of Parasitology, vol. 83, no. 4, p. 575-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284227. PMid:9267395.

Comite Brasileiro de Registros Ornitologicos--CRBO, 2011. Listas das aves do Brasil. Sao Paulo: Comite Brasileiro de Registros Ornitologicos. 37 p.

ENOUT, AMJ., LOBATO, DNC., DINIZ, FC. and ANTONINI, Y, 2012. Chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) and feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. Parasitology Research, vol. 111, no. 4, p. 1731-1742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3016-5. PMid:22773045.

FLECHTMANN, CHW., 1975. Elementos de acarologia. Sao Paulo: Livraria Nobel. 344 p.

GAUD, J. and ATYEO, WT., 1976. Discordances entre les aires de repartition geographique des parasites et celles de leurs hotes chez les sarcoptiformes plumicoles. Acarologia, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 329-344. PMid:1020635.

GAUD, J. and BARRE, N., 1992. Falculiferidae (Astigmata, Pterolichoidea) parasites de oiseaux Columbiformes des Antilles II. Le genre Falculifer. Acarologia, vol. 33, no. 4, p. 367-375.

GAUD, J. and ATYEO, WT., 1996. Feather mites of the world (Acarina, Astigmata): the supraspecific taxa (Part. I). Annales du MuseeRoyal de l'Afrique Centrale, vol. 277, p. 1-187.

HERNANDES, FA. and VALIM, MP., 2005. A new species of Pterodectes Robin, 1877 (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) from the palebreasted thrush, Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae). Zootaxa, vol. 1081, p. 61-68.

HERNANDES, FA. and VALIM, MP., 2006. Two new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, vol. 1235, p. 49-61.

HERNANDES, FA., 2012. Two new feather mite species (Acari, Pteronyssidae) from the white-barred piculet, Picumnus cirratus (Aves, Piciformes). Folia Parasitologica, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 301-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.042. PMid:23327012.

HERNANDES, FA., 2013 a. Three new proctophyllodine feather mites (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines in Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes). Journal of Natural History, vol. 47, p. 1-13.

HERNANDES, FA., 2013b. A new genus and species of pterodectine feather mite (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from Tod-Tyrants in Brazil (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae). Acta Parasitologica/Witold Stefahski Institute of Parasitology, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 309-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0153-7. PMid:23990427.

HERNANDES, FA., 2014a. Five new species of the feather mite genus Trouessartia Canestrini from South America (Acari: Trouessartiidae). Zootaxa, vol. 3856, p. 50-72.

HERNANDES, FA., 2014b. The feather mites of nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae), with descriptions of two new species from Brazil (Acari: Xolalgidae, Gabuciniidae). Folia Parasitologica, vol. 61, p. 173-181.

HERNANDES, FA., 2015. Two new feather mites of the genus Calcealges Gaud (Acari: Trouessartiidae) from antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) in Brazil. Systematic Parasitology, vol. 91, p. 241-252.

HERNANDES, FA., VALIM, MP. and MIRONOV, SV., 2007. Two new genera and five new species of the feather mite subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from suboscine birds in Brazil. Journal of Natural History, vol. 41, no. 41-44, p. 2653-2681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930701644718.

KANEGAE, MF., VALIM, M., FONSECA, MA., MARINI, MA. and FREIRE, MNS., 2008. Acaros plumicolas (Acari: Astigmata) em aves do Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 31-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032008000100003.

LYRA-NEVES, RM., FARIAS, AMI. and TELINO JUNIOR, WR., 2003. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari) and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil. Re-vista Brasileira de Zoologia, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 481-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752003000300019.

MARINI, MA., REINERT, BL., BORNSCHEIN, MR., PINTO, JC. and PICHORIM, MA., 1996. Ecological correlates of ectoparasitism on Atlantic Forest birds, Brazil. Ararajuba, vol. 4, p. 93-102.

MIRONOV, SV., 2004. Taxonomic notes on four genera of the feather mite subfamily Pandalurinae (Astigmata: Psoroptoididae). Acarina, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 3-16.

MIRONOV, SV., LITERAK, I. and CAPEK, M., 2008. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Zootaxa, vol. 1947, p. 1-38.

MIRONOV, SV. and PROCTOR, HC., 2008. The probable association of feather mites of the genus Ingrassia (Analgoidea: Xolalgidae) with the blue penguin Eudyptula minor (Aves: Sphenisciformes) in Australia. The Journal of Parasitology, vol. 94, no. 6, p. 1243-1248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1579.1. PMid:18576859.

MIRONOV, SV. and GONZALEZ-ACUNA, D., 2011. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile and Cuba. Zootaxa, vol. 3057, p. 1-48.

MIRONOV, SV. and GONZALEZ-ACUNA, D., 2013. New feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899 (Acariformes: Trouessartiidae) from the white-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps (Orbigney et Lafresnaye) (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) in Chile. Acarina, vol. 21, p. 123-132.

PARK, CK. and ATYEO, WT., 1972. The species of a new subfamily of feather mites, the Allodectinae (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae). Redia (Firenze), vol. 52, p. 653-678.

PARK, CK. and ATYEO, WT., 1974. The pterodectine feather mites of hummingbirds: the genus Trochilodectes Park and Atyeo. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 9, p. 156-173.

PARK, CK. and ATYEO, WT., 1975. The pterodectine feather mites of hummingbirds: the genusXynonodectes Park and Atyeo. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 10, p. 128-144.

PROCTOR, H. and OWENS, I., 2000. Mites and birds: diversity, parasitism and coevolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol. 15, no. 9, p. 358-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S01695347(00)01924-8. PMid:10931667.

PROCTOR, HC., 2003. Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata): ecology, behavior, and evolution. Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 48, no. 1, p. 185-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev. ento.48.091801.112725. PMid:12208818.

RODA, SA. and FARIAS, AMI., 1999. Acaros plumicolas em aves Passeriformes da Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 879-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751999000300025.

RODA, SA. and FARIAS, AMI., 2007. Acaros plumicolas em beija-flores no municipio de Vicencia, Pernambuco, Brasil. Lundiana, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 13-16.

VALIM, MP. and HERNANDES, FA., 2006. Redescriptions of four species of the feather mite genus Pterodectes Robin, 1877 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) described by Herbert F. Berla. Acarina, vol. 14, p. 41-55.

VALIM, MP. and HERNANDES, FA., 2008. Redescriptions of five species of the feather mite genus Pterodectes Robin, 1877 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) with the proposal of a new genus and a new species. Acarina, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 131-157.

VALIM, MP. and HERNANDES, FA., 2010. A systematic review of feather mites of the Pterodectes generic complex (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) with redescriptions of species described by Vladimir Cerny. Acarina, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 3-35.

VALIM, MP., HERNANDES, FA. and PROCTOR, HC., 2011. Feather mites of Brazil (Acari: Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea). International Journal of Acarology, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 293-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.519719.

Silva, HM. (a) *, Hernandes, FA. (b) andPichorim, M. (a)

(a) Laboratorio de Ornitologia, Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia--DBEZ, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte--UFRN, Campus Central, 3000, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072-970, Natal, RN, Brazil

(b) Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho"--UNESP, Bela Vista, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil

* e-mail: honaramorgana@gmail.com

Received: December 10, 2013--Accepted: March 10, 2014--Distributed: August 31, 2015
Table 1. Associations between feather mites (Acari, Astigmata)
and birds from Olho D'agua Forest, Macaiba, Rio Grande do Norte
(RN), Brazil, examined between October 2011 and July 2012.

Birds                     NE         %

Acciptridae               1          0

Buteo brachyurus          1          0
Vigors

Caprimulgidae             2         100

Hydropsalis               2         100
albicollis
(Gmelin)

Columbidae                1         100

Leptotila                 1         100
verreauxi
Bonaparte

Picidae                   5         100

Picumnus                  5         100
fulvescens
Stager

Trochilidae               8          75

Amazilia
fimbriata                 3         100
(Gmelin)

Anopetia
gounellei                 2         100
(Boucard)

Chlorostilbon             1         100
notatus (Reich)

Phaethornis
pretrei (Lesson           1          0
& Delattre)

Phaethornis ruber         1          0
(Linnaeus)

Trogonidae                2          50

Trogon curucui            2          50
Linnaeus

Furnariidae               3         100

Synallaxis                1         100
frontalis
Pelzeln

Synallaxis                2         100
scutata Sclater

Parulidae                 16        100

Basileuterus              6         100
culicivorus
(Deppe)

Basileuterus              10        100
flaveolus
(Baird)

Pipridae                  8         100

Neopelma
pallescens                8         100
(Lafresnaye)

Rhynchocyclidae           20        100

Hemitriccus
margaritaceiventer        4         100
(d'Orbigny &
Lafresnaye)

Hemitriccus               4         100
striaticollis
(Lafresnaye)

Tolmomyias                12        100
flaviventris
(Wied)

Thamnophilidae            34        61.7

Formicivora grisea        15         80

(Boddaert)

Taraba major              1          0
(Vieillot)

Thamnophilus              18         50
pelzelni Hellmayr

Thraupidae                16        93.7

Dacnis cayana             2         100
(Linnaeus)

Lanio pileatus            1          0
(Wied)

Tachyphonus rufus         12        100
(Boddaert)

Tangara cayana            1         100
(Linnaeus)

Troglodytidae             6         100

Cantorchilus              6         100
longirostris
(Vieillot)

Turdidae                  14        78.5

Turdus
amaurochalinus            12         75
Cabanis

Turdus
leucomelas                2         100
Vieillot

Tyrannidae                26        76.9

Camptostoma               1         100
obsoletum
(Temminck)

Casiornis fuscus          1          0
Sclater & Salvin

Cnemotriccus              11        100
fuscatus (Wied)

Elaenia chilensis         7         42.8
Hellmayr

Elaenia                   4         100
spectabilis
Pelzeln

Euscarthmus               1          0
meloryphus Wied

Myiopagis                 1         100
viridicata
(Vieillot)

Vireonidae                10         40

Hylophilus                6          50
amaurocephalus
(Nordmann)

Cyclarhis                 1         100
gujanensis
(Gmelin)

Vireo olivaceus           3          0
(Linnaeus)

Total                    172        80.8

                                                            Taxonomic
Birds                                    Feather Mites      Literature

Acciptridae

Buteo brachyurus      --                 --
Vigors

Caprimulgidae

Hydropsalis           Gabuciniidae       Paragabucinia      Hernandes
albicollis                               brasiliensis       (2014b)
(Gmelin)                                 Hernandes (1,2)

Columbidae

Leptotila             Falculiferidae     Falculifer         Gaud and
verreauxi                                leptotilae Gaud    Barre
Bonaparte                                and Barre (1)      (1992)

Picidae

Picumnus              Analgidae          Analges sp.        Gaud and
fulvescens                                                  Atyeo
Stager                                                      (1996)

                      Psoroptoididae     Picalgoides sp.    Mironov
                                         (2)                (2004)

                      Pteronyssidae      Ramphastobius      Hernandes
                                         scutatus           (2012)
                                         Hernandes (2)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia       Hernandes
                                         picumni Hernandes  (2014a)

Trochilidae

Amazilia
fimbriata             Analgidae          Protalginae        Gaud and
(Gmelin)                                                    Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Proctophyllodidae  Xynonodectes sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                                         Allodectes         Park and
                                         amaziliae Park     Atyeo
                                         and Atyeo (1)      (1972)

                                         Trochilodectes     Park and
                                         mucronatus Park    Atyeo
                                         and Atyeo (2)      (1974)

                                         Toxerodectes sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Anopetia                                                    Gaud and
gounellei            Proctophyllodidae   Allodectes sp.     Atyeo
(Boucard)                                                   (1996)

Chlorostilbon         Analgidae          Protalginae        Gaud and
notatus (Reich)                                             Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Proctophyllodidae  Trochilodectes     Gaud and
                                         sp.                Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                                         Xynonodectes sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                                         Allodectes sp.     Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                                         Toxerodectes sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Phaethornis
pretrei (Lesson       --                 --
& Delattre)

Phaethornis ruber     --                 --
(Linnaeus)

Trogonidae

Trogon curucui        Proctophyllodidae  Proctophyllodinae  Gaud and
Linnaeus                                                    Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Furnariidae

Synallaxis            Proctophyllodidae  Tyrannidectes sp.  Mironov
frontalis                                                   and
Pelzeln                                                     Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

Synallaxis            Proctophyllodidae  Tyrannidectes sp.  Mironov
scutata Sclater                                             and
                                                            Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Proctophyllodidae  Nycteridocaulus    Gaud and
                                         sp.                Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Xolalgidae         Ingrassiinae       Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Parulidae

Basileuterus          Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
culicivorus                                                 and
(Deppe)                                                     Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Basileuterus          Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Gaud and
flaveolus                                Nycteridocaulus    Atyeo
(Baird)                                  sp.                (1996)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Xolalgidae         Xolalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                         (1)                Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Pipridae

Neopelma              Proctophyllodidae  Diproctophyllodes  Atyeo and
pallescens                               dielytra           Gaud
(Lafresnaye)                             (Trouessart) (2)   (1968)

                                         Mimicalges         Hernandes
                                         neopelmae          (2013b)
                                         Hernandes (1,2)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Rhynchocyclidae

Hemitriccus
margaritaceiventer    Proctophyllodidae  Hemitriccodectes   Hernandes
(d'Orbigny &                             furcatus           (2013a)
Lafresnaye)                              Hernandes (1,2)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                                                            Hernandes
                                                            (2013a)

Hemitriccus           Proctophyllodidae  Hemitriccodectes
striaticollis                            furcatus
(Lafresnaye)                             Hernandes (2)

Tolmomyias            Proctophyllodidae  Tyranniphyllodes   Hernandes
flaviventris                             sp. (2)            et al.
(Wied)                                                      (2007)

                                         Nycteridocaulus    Atyeo
                                         pectinatus Atyeo   (1966)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Thamnophilidae

Formicivora grisea    Proctophyllodidae  Nanopterodectes    Mironov et
(Boddaert)                               sp.                al. (2008)

                                         Proctophyllodinae  Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Calcealges         Hernandes
                                         formicivorae       (2014b)
                                         Hernandes (1,2)

Taraba major          --                 --
(Vieillot)

Thamnophilus          Proctophyllodidae  Nanopterodectes    Mironov et
pelzelni Hellmayr                        formicivorae       al. (2008)
                                         (Mironov) (2)

Thraupidae

Dacnis cayana         Analgidae          Analges sp.        Gaud and
(Linnaeus)                                                  Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov and
                                                            Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                                         Proctophyllodes    Gaud and
                                         sp.                Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Lanio pileatus        --                 --
(Wied)

Tachyphonus rufus     Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov and
(Boddaert)                                                  Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.

Tangara cayana        Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes        Mironov et
(Linnaeus)                               tangarae           al. (2008)
                                         (Mironov)

Troglodytidae

Cantorchilus          Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov and
longirostris                                                Gonzalez-
(Vieillot)                                                  Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Turdidae

Turdus
amaurochalinus        Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes        Valim and
Cabanis                                  turdinus (Berla)   Hernandes
                                                            (2006)

                                         Proctophyllodes    Gaud and
                                         sp.                Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Turdus
leucomelas            Proctophyllodidae
Vieillot

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Tyrannidae

Camptostoma           Proctophyllodidae  Proctophyllodinae
obsoletum
(Temminck)            Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Casiornis fuscus      --                 --
Sclater & Salvin

Cnemotriccus          Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
fuscatus (Wied)                                             and
                                                            Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                                         Nycteridocaulus    Atyeo (1966)
                                         bilobatus Atyeo
                                         (1,2)

                      Psoroptoididae     Mesalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Xolalgidae         Ingrassiinae       Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Elaenia chilensis     Proctophyllodidae  Anisophyllodes     Hernandes
Hellmayr                                 candango           et al.
                                         (2)                (2007)

                                         Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
                                         Hernandes et al.   and
                                                            Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia       Mironov
                                         elaenia Mironov    and
                                         and Gonzalez-      Gonzalez-
                                         Acuna              Acuna
                                                            (2013)

Elaenia               Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
spectabilis                                                 and
Pelzeln                                                     Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Euscarthmus           --                 --
meloryphus Wied

Myiopagis             Proctophyllodidae  Nycteridocaulus    Atyeo
viridicata                               foliatus Atyeo     (1966)
(Vieillot)                               (1,2)

                                         Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
                                                            and
                                                            Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Vireonidae

Hylophilus            Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
amaurocephalus                                              and
(Nordmann)                                                  Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

                      Trouessartiidae    Trouessartia sp.   Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

                      Xolalgidae         Xolalgoides sp.    Gaud and
                                                            Atyeo
                                                            (1996)

Cyclarhis             Proctophyllodidae  Amerodectes sp.    Mironov
gujanensis                                                  and
(Gmelin)                                                    Gonzalez-
                                                            Acuna
                                                            (2011)

Vireo olivaceus       --                 --
(Linnaeus)

Total

NE: number of birds examined; %: Prevalence. (1): feather mite
recorded for the first time in Brazil. (2): previously unknown
association. The first five families (Accipitridae to Trogonidae)
are non-Passeriformes, and the remainders are Passeriformes. Gaud
and Atyeo (1996) was used to identify most taxa to family and
genus; literature used to identify to species is indicated in the
far right column.

Table 2. Absolute frequency (FA) and prevalence (%) of feather
mite genera (Acari, Astigmata), at generic level, associated with
birds from Olho D'agua Forest, Macaiba, Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
Brazil, examined between October 2011 and July 2012.

                                           Genera         FA    %

ANALGOIDEA           Analgidae            Analges         2    1.2
                 Proctophyllodidae      Amerodectes       65   37.8
                                         Allodectes       4    2.3
                                       Anisophyllodes     2    1.2
                                     Diproctophyllodes    8    4.7
                                         Mimicalges       6    3.5
                                      Nanopterodectes     17   9.9
                                      Nycteridocaulus     30   17.4
                                      Proctophyllodes     2    1.2
                                        Toxerodectes      3    1.7
                                       Trochilodectes     3    1.7
                                       Tyrannidectes      3    1.7
                                      Tyranniphyllodes    6    3.5
                                        Xynonodectes      3    1.7
                  Psoroptoididae        Mesalgoides       23   13.4
                                        Picalgoides       5    2.9
                   Pteronyssidae       Ramphastobius      5    2.9
                    Xolalgidae          Xolalgoides       4    2.3
                  Trouessartiidae       Trouessartia      72   41.9
                                         Calcealges       7    4.1
PTEROLICHOIDEA     Faculiferidae         Faculifer        1    0.6
                   Gabuciniidae        Paragabucinia      2    1.2
COPYRIGHT 2015 Association of the Brazilian Journal of Biology
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Silva, H.M.; Hernandes, F.A.; Pichorim, M.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:Aug 1, 2015
Words:4267
Previous Article:Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species/Gema axilar e periciclo envolvidos no...
Next Article:Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Brazilian sardinella, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) from...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters