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Faunal remains from the settlement site of Pada/Pada asula arheozooloogilisest materjalist.


The first excavations on the settlement site of Pada were undertaken in 19771979 under the supervision of Toomas Tamla. Extensive investigations followed in 1980-1982, when an area of 1800 sq m was excavated (TaMJIa 1978; 1980; 1983). Archaeological fords as well as the [sup.14]C analyses indicate that the settlement site was used mainly in the (7th?) 8th-10th/11th centuries; the second hillfort of Pada can be regarded as contemporaneous with the settlement (TaMJIa 1984, 362). The location of the animal bones recovered from the sites of Pada in the 1970s, including the faunal remains from the second hillfort of Pada is unknown; therefore I cannot compare the material from the settlement site and the hillfort. In view of the fact that the cultural layer of the second hillfort of Pada was thin, poor in finds and severely disturbed by ploughing (TaMJIa 1980, 379), we may presume that the faunal remains recovered there were rather scanty and most likely quite fragmentary.

The aim of the paper is to establish, on the basis of faunal remains recovered from the Pada settlement site, the species' structure and slaughter ages of the animals. The slaughter ages suggest the aims of animal husbandry--meat animals, draught animals, etc. On the basis of bone measurements the sizes of the domestic animals of the Viking Age are established. The results are compared with the investigation results of faunal remains from other contemporaneous sites of Estonia, as well as the records from Russia and Sweden.

Material and methods

In the present article only the faunal remains recovered from the settlement site of Pada in 1980-1982 are discussed. It comprises approximately 4800 animal bones and bone fragments, 2233 of them (including 1 human bone) determinable. The anatomical and species' composition of the material is presented in Table 1. Besides, a small number of bird (35) and fish (6) bones were found. The scarceness of bird and fish bones is probably due to the excavation methods.

For determining the age of the specimens, the ages of the ossification of epiphyses and the eruption of permanent teeth presented by I. A. Silver (1969) were used. The identification of sheep and goat bones was performed on the basis of the diagnostic traits presented by Joachim Boessneck, Harms-Hermann Muller and Manfred Teichert (1964). The minimal number of specimens, expressing the smallest possible number of animals in the discussed find complex, was determined, using the method of recurrent bone fragments and their stage of the ossification of epiphyses, or, on jaw bones, the stage of the development of teeth. The minimal number of specimens was calculated separately for each excavation plot and then added together. For the measuring of the bones the method recommended by Angela von Driesch (1976) was used. Only the measurements of the bones with completely ossified epiphyses were used. Nevertheless, some growth of bones immediately after the ossification of epiphyses cannot be precluded. On the basis of recent material it has been established that the diameter of pig bones proceeds to increase slightly also after the ossification of the epiphyses; the continuation of the growth of bones cannot be precluded in sheep either (Davis 1996, 599). The shoulder height of cattle was calculated on the basis of the constants elaborated by Jonni Fock (1966), for the calculation of the shoulder height of sheep the constants recommended by Dietrich Haak (1965) were used.

Representation of species and skeletal parts

The overwhelming majority of the remains belong to domestic animals; wild animals and seals are represented moderately (Fig. 1). Cattle (Bos taurus) occupy clearly the first place among domestic animals, bones of sheep and goats (Ovis aries et Capra hircos) make up slightly less than one third of the faunal remains. Horse (Equus caballos) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) are nearly equally represented, the number of horse bones being slightly larger (Fig. 2). A few bones belong to a dog (Canis familiaris) and one fragment, though probably of a later date, belongs to a cat (Felis domesticas).

From north Estonian settlement sites of the period we have presently for comparison only the results of the analysis of the faunal remains from the Kaberla settlement site (Vedru 2003, 97-99) and there the relative importance of cattle and horse bones was considerably smaller (31.6% and 6.3%,respectively) and the relative importance of sheep/goat and pig bones was considerably higher--40.3% and 19.4% (Maldre 2003). The settlement of Kaberla, however, is not a very good site for comparison, since the faunal remains recovered there were scanty and poorly preserved. In the faunal remains from Ira hillfort (excavations of 1953-1957; Lang 1996, 36, 568) the relative importance of horse bones was higher than in Pada--nearly 22%,the percentage of cattle bones was slightly smaller (33.4%) and the relative importance of sheep/goat and pig bones about the same as in Pada (Eesti talurahva ajalugu, 1991, 86). In Uugla, western Estonia, cattle bones made up 47%, sheep/goat bones 31%, pig bones 14% and horse bones 8% of all bones of domestic animals recovered from the excavation of 2005 (Maldre 2005). In the Viking Age settlement site of Tornimae, Saaremaa Island (Magi 2005) cattle bones made up 32%, sheep/goat bones 49%, pig bones 15% and horse bones 4% of all bones of domestic animals (Maldre 2006). In the settlement of Linnaaluste, Rapla County (Konsa et al. 2002; 2003) the species' structure in different excavation plots was different but summarily sheep and goat bones constituted about a half, cattle bones about one third, pig bones 13% and horse bones only 5% of all bones of domestic animals (Maldre 2004). In the settlement site of Rouge in southern Estonia, horse bones constitute almost 40% of all bones of domestic animals while the percentage of cattle bones is 27%, pig bones 20% and sheep/goat bones only 13%. In the faunal remains from the hillfort of Rouge horse and cattle are almost equally represented (27-28%), the percentage of sheep/goat bones is 20% and pig bones 24% ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1965, appendix II). In the Viking Age and early medieval settlement sites of Sweden the relative importance of different species of domestic animals also differs quite considerably. The percentage of horse bones varies in them from 1% to 14% (Wigh 2001, 102, 117). According to Venjamin Tsalkin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1956, 176) in Pskov (late 1st millennium) and Staraya Ladoga (7th-9th centuries), cattle bones made up approximately 58% of all bones of domestic animals (dog and cat bones, which were considerably more numerous there than in our material, were not taken into consideration). The percentage of pig bones was 25-30%, sheep and goat bones 7-8% and horse bones 4% in Staraya Ladoga and 10% in Pskov. Among the faunal remains from Staraya Ladoga from the 9th-10th centuries the relative importance of pig bones had slightly increased and that of cattle and horse bones decreased. In other regions of Russia the importance of horse bones was larger than in north-western Russia ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1956, 142-143).

The distribution of bones by skeletal parts is presented in Fig. 3. The first thing that strikes the eye in the diagram is the low percentage of horn cores of cattle, sheep and goats. The faunal remains from the Pada settlement are sufficiently well preserved, so the small number of horns cannot be explained by taphonomic losses. We may presume that most of sheep and cattle were hornless. Since skull fragments of hornless sheep occur among the faunal remains, it seems plausible. But the situation is slightly different with cattle. First, not a single skull fragment of hornless cattle has been discovered, not only from the Pada settlement site but also from the whole of Estonian archaeozoological material. Second, the cattle skull fragments from Pada comprise very few bones of occipital part. It looks as if the horns were removed from the skull and discarded in some other place or taken away from the settlement altogether. The high percentage of other skull bones is not caused by the large number of teeth only, fragments of mandibles and maxillae and other skull parts are also numerous. The bones of fleshy parts of carcass (Fig. 3: 3-5) are represented quite equally, regardless of species (1), only the percentage of ribs and vertebrae of horse is somewhat lower. The bones of the distal ends of extremities of different species are, for some unknown reason, very modestly represented. Nevertheless the figure demonstrates clearly that the remains belong to locally butchered animals. The fact that the anatomical structure of horse bones does not differ from other species supports the speculation that horse flesh was also used for food.


The excavations of the Pada settlement site brought to light several refuse pits that also provided animal bones. The species' and anatomical structure of the faunal remains recovered from the pits and the rest of the site did not vary greatly (Figs 4-5).

There are slightly more cattle bones and less sheep/goat and horse bones in the pits. Pig bones are represented almost equally (the nearly complete piglet skeleton (only pelvis and hind limbs were missing)--a total of 39 bones--found from one of the pits I regarded as one bone in the diagram). Seal bones are slightly more numerous in the pits, other game bones (except elk) are represented by single fragments and their distribution may be incidental. The majority of elk bones bore working traces and none of them came to light in the pits.

The anatomical structure of faunal remains from the territory of the settlement site was quite similar for all species. Skull bones of pig are somewhat more represented, the percentage of the distal parts of extremities is equal for horse and cattle and sheep/goat and pig. The distribution of the bones from the pits is irregular, probably caused by the scantiness of the material--the pits provided only 236 determinable bone fragments. On the basis of the investigation results it seems that no substantial difference can be observed between the cultural layer in the settlement and the refuse pits, at least not in the archaeozoological aspect.



Cattle (Bos taurus)

10% of cattle were butchered at the age under 6 months, a few additional percents between 6-18 months. Until the age of 2.5 years the curve ascends slightly. Further the graph becomes salutatory and it can be said that only 30-50% of the specimens were butchered younger than four years of age (Fig. 6). The older specimens probably formed dairy cattle and draught animals may also be represented. The investigations carried out in Sweden revealed that in Swedish Viking Age settlements 50% or even more of cattle were butchered before the age of 4 (after Wigh 2001, 106, fig. 67), i.e. the situation was quite similar to that in Pada.

Information about the size of cattle raised in Pada is very scanty. On four mandibles it was possible to measure the length of the alveolar row [P.sub.2-4] , which remained between 46.1-53.0 mm (average 49.7 mm). The measurements of limb bones of cattle are presented in Tabs 2-4.

Unfortunately we do not have sufficient data for comparison from other Viking Age settlements and hillforts of Estonia. Nevertheless we can assert that the average measurements of cattle bones from Pada are mostly larger than in the Latest Iron Age hillfort of Varbola and the medieval material of Estonia.


To calculate the shoulder height of cattle, maximal length of metatarsal and metacarpal bones is generally used. The faunal remains from the Pada settlement contained three wholly preserved metacarpal bones and only one metatarsal bone. The measurements and proportions of all three metacarpals are very similar. On the basis of such scanty material it is not possible to establish whether these bones belong to males or females, but comparing them with faunal remains from Birka (Wigh 2001, 68-69) and the measurements and proportions of Estonian medieval cattle (Maldre 1997, 709; in print) we may assume that they belong to cows. On the basis of the length of metacarpal bones we may suggest that the shoulder height of the animals was about 109-110 cm. The metatarsal bone is very massive and, compared with our medieval record, would suit a bull. In that case the presumable shoulder height of the animal would be even 119 cm.

The faunal remains of Pada also contained cattle bones with pathological features or anomalies. In one of the mandibles the bone of processes condylaris has become porous and glistens sporadically, which indicates that during the animal's lifetime the cartilage of the articular surface had been destroyed, most likely by arthrosis. Some teeth with irregular wear were also found. The faunal remains also contained tarsal and carpal bones with pathological changes--in four cases fused os centrogeartale and os tarsale III were found, and one os carpi ulnare had exostoses. One metacarpal and one metatarsal bone had small exostoses at the edges of proximal articular surface; some phalanges with deformations of proximal articular surface were also found. Exostoses could be observed also at the edges of some lumbar vertebraes.

Sheep and goat (Ovis aries et Capra hircus)

Mandibles and maxillae and epiphyses of sheep and goat produce quite different diagrams of slaughter age (Fig. 7). No specimen could be established, butchered under the age of 6 months. Faunal remains from Pada did not contain any mandible or maxilla with unerupted first molar. The bones of juvenile specimens were represented, but since it was not possible to establish slaughter age on their basis, they could not be individually included in the diagram. Up to 20% of the animals could have been butchered during the first 12 months, up to one third before the age of 18 months. On the basis of mandibles nearly a half of sheep and/or goats were butchered before the age of two years, but the maxillae and epiphyses give a considerably lower result. Since most of the mandibles and maxillae were preserved only fragmentarily and quite frequently without teeth, the slaughter age of older animals was not possible to establish, the state of epiphyses suggests that slightly below 70% of the specimens were butchered before the age of 3 years, and only about 10% were allowed to live over 3.5 years. Since the percentage of older animals is relatively low, we may assume that sheep and goats were also kept for their meat. Among the faunal remains from Viking Age settlements of Sweden (Pollista and Angdala) more than 30% of sheep jaw bones belong to specimens butchered before the age of 9 months, the age interval of 3/4 2 years is relatively poorly represented, and about 20% of animals have been allowed to live over 4 years. Since in Swedish towns sheep of the age group 3/4-2 years are clearly over-represented, it seems plausible that animals of this age group were sold in towns as mutton (Wigh 2001, 107).


About the appearance of sheep and goats the faunal remains from Pada provide no substantial information. Although only a few horn cores were found, a sheep skull fragment with a piece of horn core was discovered. The diameters of the bases of horn cores were 21 mm and 31 mm, base perimeter was 90 mm, thus the skull fragment might belong to a horned ewe. Two skull fragments belong to hornless ewes. Horns cores and skull fragments of rams could not be discovered among the remains. Horns cores of goats (females as well as males) were also few and fragmentary.

Sheep and goat bones suitable for measuring were also few among the faunal remains from Pada. It was possible only to measure the length of the alveolar row [M.sup.1-3] of one maxilla (44.5 mm), and the length of the alveolar row [P.sub.2-4] on two mandibles (20.9 mm and 21.8 mm). The measurements of sheep bones are presented in Tabs 5-7.

The metacarpal bones of sheep suggest the shoulder height of 64.3 cm, shoulder heights calculated on the basis of metatarsal bones stay in the interval 55.26.4 cm (average 59.9 cm). The shoulder heights in the medieval faunal remains of Estonia are quite similar, but the Viking Age sheep of Sweden were, on the average, a couple of centimetres higher, as suggested by the faunal remains from Birka (Wigh 2001, 95-96).

The health problems observed on sheep/goats mainly concerned teeth. One mandible lacked [P.sub.2], another one had [M.sub.3] not erupted (the wear stage of [M.sub.2] was f, [M.sub.3] was visible in the mandible). [P.sub.3] in one mandible was slightly askew and [P.sub.4] was unevenly worn.

Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)

The diagram of pigs' slaughter age (Fig. 8) indicates, quite expectedly, that the bones overwhelmingly belong to young specimens. 10-15% of the specimens have been butchered before the age of 6 months, by the end of the first year apparently about 40% (the result calculated on the basis of epiphyses, however, seems too high). 20% have been butchered before the age of 18 months. In the interval of 18-24 months the curve of slaughter age does not rise, the diagram of epiphyses indicates that the rest of the animals were butchered before the age of 2.5 years. At any rate, no pig bones belonging to an older animal could be found among the faunal remains from the Pada settlement. They might occur among mandibles. In at least one mandible of a sow the P4 wear stage (TWS) according to Annie Grant's (1982) method was 10 and the wear stage of [M.sub.1] was 17-18, which may mean that the wear stage of [M.sub.1]-[M.sub.3] (MWS) was 34-38.

The slaughter ages of pigs in the Viking Age settlements of Sweden indicate that the majority of pigs were butchered at the age of 2-5 years but the teeth of animals older than 5 years also occur among the faunal remains. In urban material, bones of young pigs prevail. Bengt Wigh (2001, 106-107) explained it with the fact that there were more woodlands around settlements, which provided sufficient food for pigs and therefore it was possible in settlements to keep older pigs to get a larger amount of pork. The percentage of older pigs was higher also in towns with more forested surroundings, e.g. in Sigtuna. In the settlement of Pada the food supply of pigs should not have presented a problem, therefore it remains disputable why the pigs there were butchered so young. As a matter of fact, in the faunal remains from the Viking Age towns the percentage of older pigs was also higher than in the settlement of Pada. For example in Birka slightly less than 80% of pigs have been butchered before the age of 2.5 years and more than 90% before the age of 3.5 (Wigh 2001, 80). Apparently such age structure of pigs sufficed the meat requirement of the inhabitants of the Pada settlement and keeping older animals in larger numbers was neither necessary nor economically efficient.


Among pig bones the measurable ones were few, as always (Tab. 8), since most of the pigs were butchered young. Therefore it is not possible to establish the presumable shoulder heights of pigs.

At least in one mandible of a pig (boar) [P.sub.1] was missing, and in the same mandible [P.sub.2] and [P.sub.3] are located abnormally far from each other.

Horse (Equus caballus)

Bone fragments suitable for determining the slaughter ages of horses were also too few. Different bones give greatly varying results (Fig. 9) and on the basis of this scanty information we may assume that up to a quarter of the animals could have been butchered before the age of 2 years. However, the assumption that 50% of the specimens were butchered before the age of 3.5 years seems illogical and this is confirmed also by the results from mandibles and maxillae.

We do not have any information about the slaughter ages of horses from the neighbouring regions to compare with, and on this subject our records do not provide very reliable results either. The measurements of horse bones are presented in Tabs 9-10. The metacarpal bone which was wholly preserved could belong probably to a specimen with shoulder height of 128-136 cm.


In one mandible of a horse [M.sub.3] is shortened, one [P.sub.2] has a considerably more worn rostral part and one [P.sub.2] has a more worn caudal part. Several tarsal bones have exostoses and changes probably caused by inflammations--in one case III and IV tarsal bones are fused, in one case III and IV tarsal bones and os tarsale centrale are fused. Two calcanea and two astragali also have exostoses; one of these calcanea was probably fused with astragalus. One pathological calcanus and astragalus belong to the same specimen (Fig. 10a). Most of the pathological tarsal bones come from the right hind limb. Large exostoses can be observed also on the sides of one I phalanx; articular surfaces are not damaged (Fig. 10b).

Since horse bones and cattle bones have been crushed similarly, it may be assumed that horse flesh was used for food as well. This is also confirmed by knife cuts on some bones. Large (III) metacarpals and metatarsals of horses were used to make skates; small ones (II and IV) could have been used as awls (Luik & Maldre 2005, 26266).



The analysis of faunal remains indicates that hunting did not belong among the main occupations of the inhabitants of the Pada settlement--only 1% of all bones belong to wild animals and 2% to seals. The importance of fishing also seems to have been insignificant, but since the excavations were urgent rescue excavations, it is possible that most of fish bones remained unnoticed. Elk (Alces alces) bones are mostly antler fragments with working traces and fragments of antler artefacts. The antlers may have been found in the forest and thus have no connection whatever with hunting. A fragment of a metacarpal bone (II or IV; with working traces) and a fragment of astragalus might suggest hunting. Deciding by their size, four bones (2 teeth, 1 metacarpal and 1 metatarsal fragment) could belong to wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus) and three bones (radius and 2 metatarsal fragments) to wolf (Canis lupus). Beaver (Castor fiber) is represented by one femur, and hare (Lepes sp.) by five bones (2 metatarsal and 3 metacarpal/metatarsal bones). Since odd bison (Bison bonasus) bones have been found from the Rouge settlement and hillfort (llaaaep 1965, 293) and Pahklimagi of Viljandi (Saks & Valk 2001), and maybe also from the hillfort of Unipiha (Paaver 1970), which all have been dated similarly, I paid special attention to the largest bones of bovids, but no bone could be identified as bison's. Seals' (Phocidae) bones are relatively rare--only 36 fragments. All parts of carcass are represented (Fig. 11). It is pointless to analyse the anatomical composition of seal bones in greater detail on the basis of such scanty material.


Among seal bones juvenile, young and adult specimens are represented. One sacrum bears knife traces. Pathological changes were not observed on seal bones.

Game and seal bones are rare also among the faunal remains from the Iru hillfort--wild animals 1% and seals 2% of all determined animal bones (Paaver 1966). Among the faunal remains from the settlement site of Kaberla the ratio of bones indicating game and seal hunting is about the same (Maldre 2003). Among the finds recovered from the Uugla settlement site, western Estonia, in 2005 game and seal bones are missing altogether (Maldre 2005). The faunal remains from both Kaberla and Uugla also contained only a few fish bones. The percentage of seal bones is considerably higher among the faunal remains from the Tornimae settlement site, Saaremaa Island (12.5%), and a number of fish bones were also found here (Maldre 2006). An interesting case is the Viking Age settlement site of Linnaaluste: in two excavation plots game bones were missing altogether, three fragments of elk antler were found from one excavation, and in one excavation game bones (elk, beaver, bear) constituted nearly 15% of all determined bones (Maldre 2004). The relative importance of game bones is considerably higher in the faunal remains from south Estonian Viking Age sites: in the settlement of Rouge game bones constitute 48% and in the hillfort of Rouge even 57% of all bones ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1965). Among the faunal remains from the Unipiha hillfort the percentage of game bones is somewhat lower--21 % of all determined bones (Paaver 1970). In southern Estonia main game were beaver and elk whose bones constitute about 90% of all game bones from the settlement as well as the hillfort of Rouge. Faunal remains from the hillfort of Unipiha were scanty--only 57 game bones were found, 18 of them belonging to beaver and 17 to elk.


The menu of the inhabitants of the settlement of Pada contained mainly meat of domestic animals, suggestions of game are few and fowl and fish also seem to have been of no importance. Game bones are generally rare among the Viking Age fords from northern Estonia. The percentage of seal bones is relatively high only in the Tornimae settlement, Saaremaa, evidently owing to the fact that the settlement was located on the coast while the other investigated settlements were located at some distance from the sea.

The anatomical composition of faunal remains indicates that, more or less, all parts of carcass are represented. It means that animals were raised on the spot. The anatomical structure and crushing of horse bones do not differ much from the respective features in cattle bones, which suggests the use of horse flesh for food. Special mention should be made of the fact that the faunal remains contain very few horns of cattle, sheep and goats. This makes an impression that horns (together with occipital bones) were taken to some other place. Horns and bones of distal parts of limbs are often associated with hide working; these bones were left attached to the hides that were sent to tanner (Schibler 1991). Among the faunal remains from Pada, however, only horns are clearly under-represented; metacarpal and metatarsal bones as well as phalanges occur in large numbers. The small number of horns among faunal remains has been observed also in other Estonian Viking Age settlements.

In animal husbandry cattle dominated. Nearly a quarter of cattle were butchered before the age of 2 years, 30-50% of cattle were butchered before the age of 4 years. Such age structure suggests mainly dairy cattle and draught animals but raising cattle for beef was not insignificant either. Slightly less than one third of determined animal bones belong to sheep and goats. On the basis of bones determined to species sheep seems to have prevailed, the percentage of goats was apparently low. Most of the sheep were butchered before the age of 3.5 years. The absence of bones of small lambs can be explained by the fact that lambs provide very little meat. The importance of pig breeding was evidently moderate in Pada. Since pigs are always bred for pork, it is only natural that most of the pigs were butchered young. Still it is somewhat surprising that no carcass bones, suitable for age determination, were found belonging to a specimen older than 3.5 years. Nevertheless, some mandible fragments (at least one of them belonging to a sow) might belong also to older specimens. Horse bones were even more numerous than pig bones and they include remains of juvenile, young and adult specimens. The diagram of slaughter ages of horses was similar to that of cattle but since the number of bone fragments suitable for age determination was small, the results may be arbitrary. Most likely such age and species' structure of animals/herd was optimal considering natural conditions and the fact that probably animals were reared only for local use.

The faunal remains from Pada provide very little information about the size of the animals. They were probably somewhat larger than at the end of the Iron Age and in the Middle Ages but the differences were not substantial. The faunal remains also included bones with pathological changes, mainly tooth anomalies; on some cattle and horse bones the traces of inflammation of carpal and tarsal joints could be observed.


The author wishes to thank Lus Soon who translated this paper.


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Liina Maldre, Institute of History, Tallinn University, 6 Ruutli St., Tallinn 10130, Estonia;

Artikli eesmargiks on Pada asulakohast kogutud loomaluude pohjal valja selgitada karja liigiline struktuur ja loomade tapavanused, mis viitavad omakorda loomapidamise eesmarkidele--lihaloomad, tooloomad jne. Luude mootmete alusel on puutud kindlaks teha viikingiaegsete koduloomade suurust. Tulemusi on vorreldud Eesti teistest sama perioodi muististest kogutud loomaluude analuusitulemustega, samuti Rootsi materjalidega.

Esimesed kaevandid tehti Pada asulas Toomas Tamla juhendamisel aastail 1977-1979, ulatuslikumad arheoloogilised uuringud toimusid seal aastail 1980-1982. Nii arheoloogiline leiumaterjal kui ka [sup.14]C-analuusid naitavad, et asula pohiliseks kasutusperioodiks oli 7 (?)/8.-10/11. sajand. Artiklis on kasitletud aastail 1980-1982 Pada asulast kogutud arheozooloogilist materjali.

Pada asula elanike toidulaual oli pohiliselt ainult koduloomade liha, ulukilihale viitavat materjali on vaga vahe, ka linnulihal (sh kana) ja kalal ei paistnud erilist tahtsust olevat. Linnu- ja kalaluude nork esindatus voib olla pohjustatud ka kaevamismetoodikast. Jahiloomade luid on pohjapoolse Eesti viikingiaegses materjalis uldse vaga vahe. Hulgeluude osatahtsus on vordlemisi suur ainult Saaremaal Tornimae asulakohas, kuid koige toenaolisemalt on see pohjustatud asjaolust, et nimetatud asula paiknes taiesti rannikul, ulejaanud uuritud asulakohad asetsesid aga merest monevorra kaugemal. Louna-Eestis oli kuttimine viikingiajal margatavalt intensiivsem: Rouge linnuse luumaterjalis moodustavad ulukiluud koguni 57% koigist maaratud loomaluudest.

Loomaluude anatoomiline koostis naitab, et rohkemal voi vahemal maaral on esindatud koik kerepiirkonnad. Hobuseluude anatoomiline struktuur ja purustuse aste ei erine oluliselt veiseluude omast, seetottu voib arvata, et ka hobuseliha tarvitati toiduks. Eraldi vaarib aramarkimist asjaolu, et materjalis on vaga vahe veiste, lammaste ja kitsede sarvjatkeid. Seega jaab mulje, et sarvjatked (koos kuklapiirkonna luudega) on viidud kuhugi mujale. Sarvjatkeid ja jasemete distaalsete osade luid seostatakse sageli nahkade tootlemisega, need luud jaeti parkimisele viidavate nahkade kulge. Pada asula materjalis on siiski ilmselgelt alaesindatud ainult sarvjatked, kambla- ning poialuid ja varbalulisid sisaldab luuaines arvukalt. Sarvjatkete vaga vaikest hulka on taheldatud ka teiste Eesti viikingiaegsete asulate arheozooloogilises materjalis.

Karjakasvatuse pohirohk oli Pada asulas veisekasvatusel. Ligikaudu veerand veistest tapeti enne 2-aastaseks saamist, 30-50% veistest tapeti enne 4-aastaseks saamist. Taoline vanuseline struktuur viitab eelkoige piimakarjale ja tooloomadele, kuid paris tahtsusetu ei olnud ka veisekasvatus liha saamise eesmargil. Veidi alla kolmandiku maaratud loomaluudest kuuluvad lammastele ja kitsedele. Liigini maaratud luude hulga pohjal naib, et valdavalt oli tegemist siiski lammastega, kitsede osatahtsus oli ilmselt suhteliselt vaike. Enamik lammastest tapeti enne 3,5-aastaseks saamist. Vaikeste tallede luude peaaegu taielik puudumine materjalis on pohjendatav asjaoluga, et talledelt saab vaga vahe liha. Seakasvatuse osatahtsus oli Pada asulas suhteliselt tagasihoidlik. Kuna sigu peetaksegi ainult liha saamise eesmargil, siis on ka loomulik, et enamik neist tapeti noorelt. Siiski on monevorra ullatav, et materjalis pole mitte uhtki vanuse maaramist voimaldavat kereluud, mis oleks kuulunud ule 3,5-aastasele isendile. Moned alaloualuude fragmendid (neist vahemalt uks kindlasti emise oma) voiksid kuuluda siiski ka vanematele isenditele. Hobuseluid on arvuliselt isegi rohkem kui sealuid ja nende hulgas on nii juveniilsete, noorte kui ka taiskasvanud isendite jaanuseid.

Hobuste tapavanuste graafik on usna sarnane veiste omaga, aga kuna vanuse maaramist voimaldavate luufragmentide hulk on vaike, siis voivad tulemused ka juhuslikud olla. Toenaoliselt oli karja selline liigiline ja vanuseline koostis optimaalne antud looduslikes oludes ja tingimustes, kus loomi kasvatati ainult enda tarbeks.

Loomade suuruse kohta annab Pada asula materjal suhteliselt vahe infot. Loomad olid toenaoliselt monevorra suuremad kui rauaaja lopul ja keskajal, kuid erinevused polnud vaga suured. Materjalis esineb ka patoloogiliste muutustega luuleide: pohiliselt hammastiku arenguanomaaliaid ja veistel ning hobustel ka deformeerunud randme- ja kannaluid. Arheozooloogiline materjal naitab, et kuttimine ei kuulunud kindlasti Pada asula elanike pohitegevuste hulka: metsloomade luid on 1% ja hulgeluid 2% kogu luuainesest. Podraluudest moodustavad enamiku tootlemisjalgedega sarvefragmendid ja sarvesemete katked. Nende puhul voib olla tegemist ka metsast korjatud sarvedega ja kuttimisega ei pruugi sellel uldse mingit seost olla. Jahipidamisele voiksid viidata kamblaluu fragment (II voi V; tootlemisjalgedega) ja kontsluu katke. Suuruse jargi otsustades voiks neli luud (2 hammast, 1 kambla- ja 1 poialuukatke) kuuluda metsseale ja kolm luud (kodarluu ja 2 poialuu fragmenti) olla parit hundi skeletist. Kobras on esindatud uhe reieluuga ja janes viie luuleiuga. Suhteliselt vahe (ainult 36 fragmenti) on hulgeluid. Esindatud on koik kerepiirkonnad. Hulgeluude hulgas on nii juveniilsete, noorte kui ka taiskasvanud isendite omi. Patoloogilisi muutusi pole hulge-luudel taheldatud.

(1) I excluded from the figure the ribs of the nearly complete skeleton of a piglet, found from one of the refuse pits, since they would have increased the percentage of ribs and vertebrae to an abnormally high level.
Table 1. The species' and anatomical composition of
faunal remains (number of bone fragments/minimal number of specimens)

Tabll 1. Luuainese lugiline ja anatoomiline koostis
(luufragmentide arv/isendite minimaalne arv)

                            Cornus/     Cranium    Mandibula    Dentes

Bos taurus                    6/3         96/11      69/17      117/13
Ovis aries                    2/2         14/4        2/1
Capra hircus                  6/6          3/1
Ovis aries/                               27/7       47/15      105/20
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.                           25/10      25/12       30/8
Equus caballus                            15/6       13/6        55/9
Canis familiaris                                      2/2         1/1
Felis domesticus (1)
Alces alces                   14/4
Bos taurus?
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)
Sus ferus?                                                        2/2
Canis lupus?
Castor fiber
Lepus sp.
Phocidae                                [3.sup.2]
Rodentia                                   1
Homo sapiens

Total                         28         184         158        310
%                              1.3         8.2         7.1       13.9

                           Vertebrae     Costae     Scapula

Bos taurus                     83          40        30/12
Ovis aries                     20          21         4/2
Capra hircus
Ovis aries/                    14          31        18/10
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.                14          30         6/5
Equus caballus                 13          1          3/2
Canis familiaris                                      1/1
Felis domesticus (1)
Alces alces
Bos taurus?
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)
Sus ferus?
Canis lupus?
Castor fiber
Lepus sp.
Phocidae                       7           2
Homo sapiens

Total                        151         125         62
%                              6.8         5.6        2.8

                            Humerus      Radius et      Ossa
                                           ulna       carpalia

Bos taurus                    32/9        65/19        26/8
Ovis aries                    18/12       11/5
Capra hircus                   4/2         7/5
Ovis aries/                   20/9        60/14         1/1
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.               16/8        21/10
Equus caballus                12/6        22/7          5/2
Canis familiaris                           2/2
Felis domesticus (1)
Alces alces
Bos taurus?                                1/1
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)
Sus ferus?
Canis lupus?                               1
Castor fiber
Lepus sp.
Phocidae                    [7.sup.3]      1
Homo sapiens

Total                        109         191          32
%                              4.9         8.6         1.4

                              Os          Issa coxae   Femur

Bos taurus                   50/12         38/12       48/11
Ovis aries                   12/8           2/1         5/2
Capra hircus                  3/2
Ovis aries/                  20/6          27/14       22/9
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.               8/5           6/6         3/3
Equus caballus               17/5           8/3         6/3
Canis familiaris                            1/1
Felis domesticus (1)                                    1/1
Alces alces
Bos taurus?                                             1/1
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)
Sus ferus?                    1/1
Canis lupus?
Castor fiber                                            1/1
Lepus sp.
Phocidae                                    2            1
Homo sapiens                                             1

Total                        111           84           89
%                              5.0          3.8          4.0

                            Patella     Tibia et       Ossa
                                         fibula      tarsalia

Bos taurus                    1/1        54/22         87/24
Ovis aries                    1/1         5/2          13/5
Capra hircus
Ovis aries/                   1/1        47/13          5/3
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.               1/1        10/4           4/2
Equus caballus                1/1        20/9          37/9
Canis familiaris                          1/1           1/1
Felis domesticus (1)
Alces alces                                             1/1
Bos taurus?
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)                  1/1
Sus ferus?
Canis lupus?
Castor fiber
Lepus sp.
Phocidae                                  6             3
Homo sapiens

Total                         5         144          151
%                             0.2         6.4          6.8

                              Os            Os             Ossa
                           metatarsale    metapodiale    Sesamoidea

Bos taurus                    57/16          4/2            2/1
Ovis aries                    14/9
Capra hircus                   2/2
Ovis aries/                   26/7           1/1
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.                1/1           2/2
Equus caballus                17/8           7/3            1/1
Canis familiaris
Felis domesticus (1)
Alces alces                                  1/1
Bos taurus?                    1/1
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)
Sus ferus?                     1/1
Canis lupus?                   2
Castor fiber
Lepus sp.                      2/1           3/1
Phocidae                       1
Homo sapiens

Total                        124            18              3
%                              5.6           0.8            0.1

                           Phalanges      Total         %

Ovis aries/                    2         474/20       21.2
  Capra hircus
Sus scrofa dom.                4         206/20        9.2
Equus caballus                35         288/15       12.9
Canis familiaris                          9/4          0.4
Felis domesticus (1)                       1/1         0.0
Alces alces                               16/4         0.7
Bos taurus?                                3/2         0.1
  Alces alces?
Capreolus capreolus? (1)                   1/1         0.0
Sus ferus?                                 4/3         0.2
Canis lupus?                               3/2         0.1
Castor fiber                               1/1         0.0
Lepus sp.                                  5/2         0.2
Phocidae                       3          36           1.5
Rodentia                                   1/1         0.0
Homo sapiens                               1/1         0.0

Total                        154        2233         100
%                              6.9       100

(1) Probably of a later date.
(2) One fragment belongs to the Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus)
(determined by L. Loougas).
(3) One fragment belongs to Grey Seal and one fragment to the
Harp Seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus)
(determined by L. Lougas).

Table 2. The measurements (mm) of forelimbs of cattle

Tabel 2. Veiste esijasemete luude mootmed (mm)

              Radius                      Os metacarpale

          Prox.   Dist.   Length   Prox.   Dist.   Min.         Diaph.
                                                   width of     index

Min.              61.1    181.1    52.4    50.8       27.4      14.9
Max.              71.3    183.5    61.7    64.0       27.9      15.3
Avg.      76.5    65.3    182.4    56.2    56.1       27.6      15.1
[sigma]            5.1      1.2     4.7     4.3        0.3       0.2
n          1       4        3       5       9          3         3

Table 3. The measurements (mm) of hind limbs of cattle

Tabel 3. Veiste tagajasemete luude mootmed (mm)

           Tibia                                           Calcaneus
           dist.       Lat.       Med.         Dist.        length

Min.        51.9       58.3       53.4          36.2
Max.        64.7       67.0       61.2          45.5
Avg.        58.2       61.8       56.7          39.3         133.3
[sigma]      3.9        2.7        2.3           3.1
n           16         18         16            17             1

                             Os metatarsale

           Length     Prox.      Dist.     Min. width of     Diaph.
                                             diaphysis       index

Min.                   41.5       49.0          26.9
Max.                   52.0       56.4          28.0
Avg.       214.5       48.3       53.9          27.5          13.1
[sigma]                 3.3        3.4           0.8
n            1          7          4             2             1

Table 4. The measurements (mm) of the phalanges of cattle

Tabel 4. Veiste varbalulide mootmed (mm)

                      Phalanx I

           Max.     Prox.    Dist.    Diaph.

Min.       49.1     25.7     23.7     20.6
Max.       58.0     34.1     31.4     26.7
Avg.       54.4     29.3     27.6     23.6
[sigma]     2.0      2.3      2.5      1.7
n          23       20       23       21

                      Phalanx II                Phalanx III

           Lat.     Prox.    Dist.    Diaph.   Max.     Dors.

Min.       32.9     24.5     19.4     18.8     64.4     49.0
Max.       39.5     32.8     30.6     25.5     84.2     61.9
Avg.       36.3     28.6     24.2     21.8     71.2     53.6
[sigma]     2.1      2.5      3.3      2.2      6.4      3.9
n          12       15       13       15       10       10

Table 5. Measurements (mm) of bones of forelimbs of sheep

Tabe1 5. Lammaste esijasemete luude mootmed (mm)

          Humeros   Radius                  Os metacarpale
          dist.     prox.
                            Length   Prox.   Dist.   Min.        Diaph.
                                                     width of    index

Min.       25.4      28.7            19.7    23.5      13.3
Max.       31.2      29.5            21.9    25.9      14.3
Avg.       28.9      29.1   132.6    20.7    24.5      14.0      10.8
[sigma]     2.1       0.6             1.0     1.2       0.6
n           11        2       1       5       3         3         1

Table 6. Measurements (mm) of bones of hind limbs of sheep

Tabe1 6. Lammaste tagajasemete luude mootmed (mm)

              Tibia     Calcaneus                 Talus
              dist.      length
                                      Lat.        Med.        Dist.

Min.          22.6        50.9        25.3        24.7        16.6
Max.          29.4        52.2        26.6        25.9        18.3
Avg.          25.3        51.4        26.0        25.3        17.2
[sigma]        1.7         0.7         0.9         0.8         0.9
n              14           3           2           2           3

                               Os metatarsale

             Length       Prox.       Dist.       Min.        Diaph.
                                                width of      index

Min.          121.3       17.6        20.4        10.2         8.1
Max.          146.0       18.9        23.3        11.8         8.5
Avg.          131.7       18.1        22.0        10.7         8.3
[sigma]       10.3         0.6         1.2         0.6         0.2
n               4           4           4           5           4

Table 7. Measurements (mm) of sheep phalanges

Tabe1 7. Lammaste varbalulide mootmed (mm)

                 Phalanx I                       Phalanx II

          Max.   Prox.   Dist.   Diaph.   Lat.   Prox.   Dist.   Diaph.

Min.      31.5   11.1    10.2     8.1     18.0    9.9     9.0     7.6
Max.      36.9   11.7    10.9     9.9     19.9   10.8     9.3     8.4
Avg.      33.0   11.3    10.6     9.1     19.1   10.3     9.1     8.1
[sigma]    2.1    0.2     0.2     0.5     1.0     0.5     0.2     0.4
n          9      9       9       9       3       3       3       3

Table 8. Measurements (mm) of pig bones

Tabel 8. Sealuude mootmed (mm)

            Humeros distale    Radius proximale    Tibia distale

Min.             42.6              26.3               29.8
Max.             38.4              29.5               30.0
n                 2                 2                  2

Table 9. Measurements (mm) of horse bones

Tabel 9. Hobuseluude mootmed (mm)

             Radius               Os metacarpale III
                         Max.      Prox.      Dist.      Diaph.

Min.          70.5                  42.5                  28.3
Max.          71.7                  48.1                  32.5
Avg.          71.0      216.5       44.8       45.7       30.4
[sigma]        0.6                   2.4                   3.0
n              3          1          4          1          2

                      Talus              Os metatarsale III      Tibia
              Lat.     Med.     Dist.      Prox.      Dist.

Min.          50.3     50.3     44.2       46.9                  62.0
Max.          58.3     57.3     51.4       49.3                  75.4
Avg.          54.7     54.6     47.9       48.1       43.8       67.0
[sigma]        2.6      2.5      2.7        1.7                   4.8
n              9       10        8          2          1          9

Table 10. Measurements (mm) of horse phalanges

Tabel 10. Hobuste varbalulide mootmed (mm)

                 Phalanx I                       Phalanx II

          Max.   Prox.   Dist.   Diaph.   Max.   Prox.   Dist.   Diaph.

Min.      76.3   49.8    38.5     28.8    38.5   46.2    39.9     40.4
Max.      86.0   56.3    45.4     35.2    49.4   52.8    49.8     44.7
Avg.      80.6   53.2    41.8     32.3    43.9   49.0    45.0     41.4
[sigma]    3.7    2.3     2.1      2.3     4.9    2.8     3.6      1.9
n         10      9      11       10       4      5       6        5

Fig. 1. The relative importance of domestic and
wild animals and seals.

Joon 1. Kodu- ning metsloomade ja huljeste osatahtsus.

Domestic animals   97%
Game                1%
Seals               2%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Fig. 2. The relative importance of the species
of domestic animals.

Joon 2. Koduloomaliikide osatahtsus.

Bos      46%
Equus    13%
Cap/Ov   31%
Canis     0%
Sus      10%
Felis     0%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Maldre, Liina
Publication:Estonian Journal of Archaeology
Date:Jun 1, 2007
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