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Famous Mineral Localities: DAL'NEGORSK PRIMORSKIY KRAY RUSSIA.

The mines near Dal'negorsk [*] in eastern Russia have yielded world-class specimens of fluorite, pyrrhotite, ilvaite, datolite, danburite and calcite, plus fine examples of apophyllite, chalcopyrite, galena, hedenbergite, manganaxinite, sphalerite and other minerals. The mines are still in production, and are open to visitors by prearrangement.

INTRODUCTION

The first significant exposure of fine Dal'negorsk mineral specimens to the Western mineralogical community took place at the Munich Show in 1988. That was the first year in which Russian collectors and museums were able to freely visit and exhibit in the West as a result of the new glasnost policy. One of Russia's leading private collectors, Vladimir Pelepenko, put in several display cases of beautiful Russian specimens that left showgoers stunned. Huge, colorless, water-clear fluorite crystals, giant pyrrhotite crystal groups, large and lustrous black ilvaites, superb galena groups and outrageous fist-size crystals of green danburite the like of which no one in the West had ever seen made quite an unforgettable impression. Though unlabeled, the specimens were later revealed to be from the mines around the far eastern town of Dal'negorsk.

Since that time, many more excellent specimens have made their way onto the Western mineral market and now reside in major private and public collections. Conducted tours for collectors are permitted by the friendly mine management, and visitors have even been allowed to collect their own specimens underground. There is no predicting how long the mines will remain open and productive, but for now they remain one of Russia's best sources for new mineral specimens.

LOCATION

The town of Dal'negorsk is located a little over 35 km inland from the sea of Japan and 300 km northeast of Vladivostok, in the Rudnaja ("Ore") River Valley. It serves as the center of a very active mining area; a narrow-gauge railway for hauling ore passes directly through the center of town. Other ore deposits in the area include Kavalerovo (disseminated cassiterite), Sinerecenskoe (a skarn deposit that has yielded beautiful andradite-grossular), and Zabytoe (greisens and pegmatites yielding good topaz).

The mines are situated on the western slope of the Sikhote-Alin Range, in an area of taiga and mixed forest with subtropical vegetation in the deep valleys. Temperatures can reach close to 90[degree]F in April, with high humidity and encephalitis-bearing mosquitoes adding to the discomfort.

Up until 1972 the River was known by its Chinese name, Tetyukhe. But in that year a decree by the Supreme Soviet ordered that all geographic features in Siberia be given Russian names to replace names of other ethnic origins, so Tetyukhe was renamed the Rudnaja ("ore") River, and the ore deposits took on the name of a nearby town, Dal'negorsk (Lisitsyn and Malinko, 1994). Nevertheless, some specimen labels even now still carry some spelling variation of Tetyukhe; these should all be relabeled Dal'negorsk. (The name simply means "most distant or remote mining town.")

HISTORY

The area around Dal'negorsk was for many years under the control of Manchuria, but in the late 1800's it became the focus of Russian expansion and settlement. The Dal'negorsk mineral deposits were discovered by the Chinese in 1872, and were mined for silver and borosilicates for glassmaking. In 1887 Russians moved into the area and purchased the rights to the Verchniy mine. Operations to extract copper, lead and zinc began in 1897. In 1910 a railway was completed to the Sea of Japan, and Dal'negorsk ore was shipped to the United States, Holland and Germany.

World War I resulted in closure of the mines, and in 1924 the mining rights were sold to a British company, Tetyukhe Mining Corporation. The lease was for 20 years but Russia forced the British to leave in 1931 and nationalized the mining operations.

For many years following the opening of the lead-zinc mines, the steep, pale-colored cliffs near the mining offices were assumed to be marbleized limestone. In 1945 a visiting geologist named S. S. Smirnov observed that the fine datolite specimens found in the polymetallic ore cavities might indicate the presence of some type of boron orebody in the area. In the following year an extensive sampling program discovered that the cliffs facing the river valley were not limestone at all but solid, massive datolite. Consequently a large-scale boron-mining operation developed at Dal'negorsk, along with chemical plants to reduce the ore to useful boron compounds; this operation has grown to surpass the local metal mining in economic importance, and has become Russia's primary source of boron.

Two Russian mining companies currently have active operations in the Dal'negorsk area. The Bor Company operates the Bor open pit for datolite (boron), and the Dal'polymetal Company owns six mines, three currently operating, for the recovery of lead, zinc, bismuth, silver, cadmium and indium. In 1997 they celebrated the centennial of Russian mining at Dal'negorsk.

GEOLOGY

The geology of the Dal'negorsk region is tectonically complex because of its relationship to a major subduction zone on the Pacific Rim. Here the oceanic plate moving westward plunges into the mantle at the continental boundary, as oceanic sediments accrete at the continental margin.

The oldest rocks in the area are oceanic limestones, sandstones and siltstones of Upper Triassic to Upper Jurassic age. Deformed lenses and sheets of these units collided with the continental margin as a result of plate movement, and are intensely faulted and intruded by igneous rocks. The earliest intrusions consist of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary andesite-granodiorite associated with the formation of sulfide deposits.

The Dal'negorsk boron deposits appear to be paragenetically related to two post-orogenic magmatic complexes, the Sikhote Alin and the Dolinna. The Sikhote Alin complex consists of small potassium-alkali-rich intrusions (shonkinite, essexite-diabase, trachyandesite, leucitic trachyte) with high boron and titanium content. Rare-earth element (REE) studies show a positive europium anomaly which is unique among the various intrusive rocks of the region. Xenoliths of eclogite and lherzolite suggest a mantle origin; isotopic studies indicate an emplacement age around 35.6 to 70.5 million years. The datolite itself has been dated at 32-38 million years.

The Dolinna complex is known only from core-drilling samples taken from depths of 1100 to 1200 meters. The potassic latite granites are high in chromium, with an REE europium depletion similar to that of island-arc andesites, and thus are of shallower magmatic origin than the Sikhote Alin complex. The Dolinna complex has been dated at 32-56 million years. Danburite mineralization at Dal'negorsk appears to be directly associated with the Dolinna granites (Lisitsyn and Malinko, 1994).

The Dal'negorsk boron deposits consist of several boron-rich skarn bodies extending for 3.5 km parallel to the local fold structures. The main orebody, in the central part of the deposit, is over 500 meters thick and dips vertically. The complex and colorfully banded skarn rock has been used for ornamental stone lining the interiors of some metro stations in Moscow, and covering the floor of the mineralogical museum in the Northeast Complex Institute of the Russian Academy of Science at Magadan.

The first skarn was formed during the Late Cretaceous. It contains grossular, wollastonite, hedenbergite, and danburite. This was followed by the intrusion of andesite and diabase dikes. This andesite filled some of the pockets which had formed in the earlier skarn. Next, there was a second period of skarn formation of a lesser quantity than the first. The second skarn has andradite, less wollastonite, more hedenbergite, and datolite. At this time all the danburite in the Bor pit was altered to datolite. All the sulfide deposits in the district formed during the second period of skarn formation.

Smirnov et al. (1983) have observed that mineral formation at the Verchniy mine involved four phases: (1) the pre-ore skarn phase with wollastonite and garnet depositing at over 600[degrees]C, (2) the skarn-sulfide phase forming at 400[degrees] to 600[degrees]C, (3) the sphalerite-galena phase forming at 120[degrees] to 350[degrees]C, and (4) the chalcedonycalcite phase at 20[degrees] to 100[degrees]C, in which minerals were deposited as druses in open cavities. Coarse-aggregate hedenbergite at shallow depths grades into a finer grained variety with increasing axinite at depth. The sphalerite:galena ratio increases with depth, as total metal concentration decreases. The ores were precipitated from colloform solutions, as evidenced by residual parent solution in some open cavities which consists of a jelly-like silica gel.

The major host rocks for the sulfide and boron deposits are the skarn. The primary skarn minerals are wollastonite, hedenbergite, garnet (andradite and grossular), and manganaxinite. The altered skarns contain, in addition, datolite, hisingerite, quartz, calcite, sepiolite, and siderite (Bulavko, 1984).

Of particular interest to mineral collectors are the ancient hydrothermal cavities found in the host rock. These range from a few centimeters across to house-size. Although some became filled during the last period of intrusion, others remained open as an ideal environment for the crystallization of fine mineral specimens.

Some geologists believe that the skarns are so atypical as to require a different classification, such as "high-temperature hydrothermal-metasomatic" similar to the deposits at Trepca, Yugoslavia and El Potosi, Mexico (Hamet and Stedra, 1994).

MINES

There are eight mines in the area immediately surrounding Dal'negorsk (within 15 kin). Today, four of these mines are operating and four are closed. The minerals described in this article are from these eight mines. In the larger region around Dal'negorsk there are additional mines and minerals not listed here. The names given for the mines generally follow the suggestions of Smith and Smith (1995) and local usage. Because in the Russian language the mine name used must agree with the noun following it, the names will appear as several variants. For example the name of one mine is the Nikolaevskiy mine, but the Nikolaevskoe deposit is also referred to in the literature. The names are given as the Russian name transliterated into English, followed by the English translation of the name. The first two are operated by the Bor Company, and the others by the Dal'polymetal company.

Bor Pit or Quarry

The Bor (Boron) quarry, opened in 1958, is the only operating open pit in the area, and is being mined for datolite as a source of boron. (Note: the iy ending is not used because there are several meanings for the word bor in Russian and the least confusing name is simply Bor.) In Dal'negorsk the local people call it "Kar'er Bor" or just the "Kar'er" (quarry). There are two parts to the mine at present: the central pit and the west pit. They may ultimately merge into one large pit. The mine now produces 200,000 tons a year of boron concentrate (8 to 10 percent [B.sub.2][O.sub.3]) from ore with 30 to 45 percent datolite (Carr, 1994).

Danburitiy Mine

The Danburitiy (Danburite) mine is an abandoned open pit once mined briefly for boron. It is also referred to as the "east pit." Since it is separated from the central pit by a river and highway, and is the only locality where danburite has been found, a distinct name is appropriate.

First Sovietskiy Mine

The First Sovietskiy (Soviet) mine opened in 1934 and closed around 1965. Specimens are still available from local collectors.

Second Sovietskiy Mine

The Second Sovietskiy (Soviet) mine also opened in 1934, and is still operating at present. The name is applied to a series of mines on the same deposit. Earlier mine names used included the Eastern Partizan mine, Western Partizan mine, and Svetly Otvod mine. At the Dal'negorsk Museum the specimens from these mines are all labeled Second Sovietskiy mine.

Sentyabr'skiy Mine

The Sentyabr'skiy (September) mine opened in the early 1930's and has been closed for 30 years. Underground access is still available to collectors, and specimens from this mine are continuing to be found and sold.

Verchniy Mine

The Verchniy (Upper) mine was the first mine in the region, and is still in operation. It was initiated as an open pit mine before 1897, by the Chinese, but is now an underground operation. The surface workings are still accessible to collecting. The oldest workings at the very top of the hill are known as the Brenner mine, after an early British mine director at Dal'negorsk.

Below the Brenner workings are several large open pits and underground workings that constitute the Verchniy mine proper. The main underground workings are entered by a tunnel at the bottom of the hill. The upper workings exploit an oxidized Pb-Zn-Cu deposit and its well-developed gossan. A number of fine secondary minerals can still be collected there.

Nikolaevskiy Mine

The Nikolaevskiy (Nickolas) mine was opened in 1982 and at present is the largest producer in the district.

Sadoviy Mine

The Sadoviy (Garden) mine is currently closed and no mineral specimens are being produced; very few were found there in the past.

Other mines in the Dal'negorsk region have produced specimens; most of the mineral dealers in Dal'negorsk sell specimens from these deposits and often they are labeled as being from Dal'negorsk. Kavalerovo, which is about 70 km from Dal'negorsk, has produced some very good fluorite: green and purple octahedrons, cubes and complex crystals. Some sphalerite and galena specimens are also on the market from Kavalerovo. Local Dal'negorsk collectors can differentiate the Kavalerovo specimens from Dal'negorsk specimens. Many of the Dal'negorsk dealers collect at the Blue River garnet deposit about 180 km from Dal'negorsk. There are many specimens of andradite and green quartz from Sinya Rechka for sale; some of the quartz is outstanding, and has sometimes been labeled as coming from Dal'negorsk.

MINERALS

Over 160 minerals (Table 1) have been reported from the Dal'negorsk area. Information about the minerals and their occurrence is from Bulavko, personal communication, 1995 and 1997; England, personal communication, 1996; Ponomarenko, personal communication, 2000; Hamet and Stedra, 1992; Lisitsyn and Malinko, 1994; an unpublished report by K. A. Moysyuk and E. E. Dramsheva, 1989; and information from company reports where the following are cited: C. P. Garbuzov, 1982; L. N. Khetchikov, 1953; and B. V. Kuznetsov, 1979. Table 2 is a summary of the occurrence of the minerals which occur as outstanding specimens.

Acanthite [Ag.sub.2]S

Acanthite is found in small amounts with other sulfides in the district. Masses up to 1 cm (but no crystals) have been recovered at the Verchniy mine.

Actinolite [Ca.sub.2][(Mg,Fe).sub.5][Si.sub.8][O.sub.22][(OH).sub.2]

Actinolite is a rare accessory mineral in skarns throughout the district, especially in the Bor pit.

Adamite [Zn.sub.2]([AsO.sub.4])(OH)

Attractive green cuprian adamite occurs at the Brenner mine, in radiating aggregates to 1 cm and as crude crystals to over 2 cm. During the summer of 2000 several hundred adamite specimens were recovered from the Brenner workings. Specimens were preserved for a time in the Dal'negorsk Museum.

Alabandite MnS

Massive black alabandite has been found in a tunnel connecting the Verchniy and Nikolaevskiy mines.

Anatase [TiO.sub.2]

Anatase crystals have been found as a rare secondary mineral in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Andorite PbAg[Sb.sub.3][S.sub.6]

Andorite has been identified with other sulfides in granules to 1.2 cm and small crystals to 1 mm from the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Andradite [Ca.sub.3][Fe.sub.2][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.3]

Andradite occurs as a skarn mineral throughout the district; it is a major component of the skarn in the Verchniy pit, and is found as dark green crystals to 2 cm in the Bor pit. The reddish brown andradite crystals being sold by Dal'negorsk dealers are actually from the Blue River occurrence about 180 km away.

Anglesite [PbSO.sub.4]

Anglesite has been found as microcrystals in the Brenner mine and as an alteration coating on galena in the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Antimony Sb

Native antimony has been identified as microscopic inclusions in bismuth from the Bor pit.

Apatite group [Ca.sub.5][([PO.sub.4]).sub.3]F (?)

Crystals of apatite (as yet unanalyzed) are found as microscopic accessories in skarns throughout the district.

Apophyllite [Kca.sub.4][Si.sub.8][O.sub.20](F,OH).[8H.sub.2]O

Apophyllite occurs as good specimens of clear, white, green and pink crystals up to 6 cm and as fine-grained crusts coating quartz, calcite and datolite. Crystal forms include the typical {111}, {100} and {001}. Apophyllite is found as good specimens at the Bor pit and the Verchniy mine, but in the past the best and largest specimens have come from the Sadoviy mine. The pink crystals to 1.5 cm are the most desirable.

Aragonite [CaCO.sub.3]

Aragonite is an uncommon secondary mineral in the district, found as acicular masses at the Second Sovietskiy mine, as crystals and twins to 3 cm in the Bor pit, and as small crystals in the Verchniy mine. Recently a pocket of greenish aragonite with nice pyrite crystals was discovered at the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Arsenic As

Native arsenic, intergrown with stibarsen (SbAs), is found in the Bor pit rarely as black crusts and radial aggregates.

Arsenopyrite FeAsS

Well-crystallized arsenopyrite is common in the district, as crystals to 2 cm with galena in the First Sovietskiy mine, as crystals to 3 cm in the Verchniy and Nikolaevskiy mines, and as small crystals from the Second Sovietskiy mine. Arsenopyrite is often associated with pyrrhotite. The habit consists of typical crystals and twins with (110) and {014) dominant. A superb specimen from the Nikolaevskiy mine, 24 cm across and covered with arsenopyrite and calcite crystals, was preserved for a time in the Dal'negorsk Museum.

Aurichalcite [(Zn,Cu).sub.5][([CO.sub.3]).sub.2][(OH).sub.6)]

Blue to blue-green aurichalcite spherules up to 8 mm in size are found at the Brenner and Verchniy mines.

Azurite [Cu.sub.3][([CO.sub.3]).sub.2][(OH).sub.2]

Thin, blue coatings of poorly crystallized azurite occur in the Bor pit, the Brenner mine and the First Sovietskiy mine.

Barite [BaSO.sub.4]

Crystallized barite is encountered occasionally in the Verchniy mine.

Beudantite [PbFe.sub.3]([AsO.sub.4])([SO.sub.4])[(OH).sub.6]

Beudantite has been identified as microcrystals in gossan from the Brenner mine by B. England (personal communication, 1995).

Bismuth Bi

Masses and nodules of native bismuth to 16 cm have been found in skarn at the Bor pit and as a rare mineral in the Nikolaevskiy mine. The nodules contain numerous inclusions of other species including hedleyite, joseite, hessite, electrum and graphite.

Bismutite [Bi.sub.2]([CO.sub.3])[O.sub.2]

Bismutite has been identified as an alteration product in the Bor pit.

Bornite [Cu.sub.5][FeS.sub.4]

Massive bornite occurs with galena in the September and Second Sovietskiy mines, and at the latter also with chalcopyrite.

Boulangerite [Pb.sub.5][Sb.sub.4][S.sub.11]

Boulangerite has been found rarely in the deep portions of the Nikolaevskiy mine as typical acicular "feather ore," and rarely also at the First Sovietskiy mine. It was originally assumed to be jamesonite.

Bournonite [PbCuSbS.sub.3]

Bournonite has been found in good crystals up to 1 cm in size at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Brochantite [Cu.sub.4]([SO.sub.4])[(OH).sub.6]

Brochantite has been found with other oxidized Pb-Cu minerals in the Brenner mine, and as an alteration of tennantite in the Bor pit.

Calcite [CaCO.sub.3]

Calcite is a common gangue mineral throughout the district. It occurs in a large variety of habits: thin plates to 40 cm, rhombohedrons to 45 cm, scalenohedrons to 60 cm (2 feet!), and long and short prisms, plus a range of combinations of the above. At least four generations of calcite formation have been identified by Bulavko (personal communication, 1995). The largest crystals come from the Verchniy mine. Twins on {0001} and {0112} have also been found. The crystals are commonly transparent and colorless to white, manganoan pink (Second Sovietskiy mine), brown and nearly black. Calcite pseudomorphs after axinite (to 2 cm) and after danburite (to 15) cm have been found in the Bor pit. Many of the large hydrothermal cavities encountered during mining are completely lined with spectacular calcite crystals.

Carrollite Cu[(Co,Ni).sub.2][S.sub.4]

Carrollite is one of the minerals identified as microscopic inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Cassiterite [SnO.sub.2]

Cassiterite is a rare accessory mineral at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Cerussite [PbCO.sub.3]

Cerussite occurs as acicular microcrystals in the secondary PbZn suite at the Brenner mine, and is also found at the Second Sovietskiy mine and the Verchniy mine.

Chalcanthite [CuSO.sub.4].[5H.sub.2]O

Chalcanthite is found with other secondary copper minerals in the First Sovietskiy mine.

Chalcopyrite [CuFeS.sub.2]

Chalcopyrite is present with other sulfides but not in sufficient quantity to constitute ore. It is found as bright yellow tetragonal disphenoids and twinned crystals up to 6 cm in size, associated with pyrrhotite, galena and sphalerite at the First Sovietskiy, Second Sovietskiy, Sentyabr'skiy and Nikolaevskiy mines as well as the Bor pit. A pocket in the Nikolaevskiy mine yielded crystals up to 40 cm across.

Chalcocite [Cu.sub.2]S

Chalcocite is rare in the district; it has been found with bornite in the Sentyabr'skiy mine.

Chalcophanite (Zn,Fe,Mn)[Mn.sub.3][O.sub.7]*3[H.sub.2]O

Chalcophanite occurs as microcrystals in gossan at the Brenner mine (B. England, personal communication).

Chrysocolla [(Cu,Al).sub.2][H.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5][(OH).sub.4]*n[H.sub.2]O

Chrysocolla is found with the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite in the Brenner mine and also in the Bor pit.

Clausthalite PbSe

Clausthalite was reported from the Bor pit by Lisitsyn and Malinko (1994).

Clinozoisite [Ca.sub.2][Al.sub.3][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.3](OH)

Clinozoisite occurs with other skarn minerals in the Bor pit.

Copper Cu

Small amounts of native copper have been found in the Brenner workings.

Covellite CuS

Covellite has been identified with chalcopyrite at the Nikolaevskiy, Sentyabr'skiy, First Sovietskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Cubanite Cu[Fe.sub.2][S.sub.3]

Cubanite is a rare accessory mineral associated with other sulfides at the First Sovietskiy and Nikolaevskiy mines.

Cummingtonite [(Mg,Fe).sub.7][Si.sub.8][O.sub.22][(OH).sub.2]

Cummingtonite occurs as an accessory mineral in granodiorite in the district.

Cuprite [Cu.sub.2]O

Cuprite occurs in small amounts with malachite and azurite in the Brenner mine.

Danburite Ca[B.sub.2][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.2]

Danburite has been found only in the Danburitiy mine. It occurs as transparent, prismatic crystals from several mm in size to large 40-cm crystals. Most are clear although some of the larger ones are a brown color from clay inclusions. In the Bor open pit danburite is represented by pseudomorphs up to 60 cm which proved to be a mixture of calcite, quartz and datolite. In the ancient hydrothermal cavities filled with andesite large danburite pseudomorphs can be seen lining the cavities; they are mainly calcite with a dark carbonaceous coating. In the cavities not filled with andesite they have been replaced by crystals of quartz and datolite that have the general shape of the danburite. Some danburites from this locality have been irradiated to produce a deep golden orange color.

Dannemorite [Mn.sub.2][(Fe,Mg).sub.5][Si.sub.8][O.sub.22][(OH).sub.2]

Dannemorite has been identified as a rare accessory mineral in skarn at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Datolite [Ca.sub.2][B.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.8][(OH).sub.2]

Datolite is the most common boron mineral in the area and is the major ore of boron in the Bor pit. The average ore contains 8 to 10% [B.sub.2][O.sub.3]. Most of the ore is massive datolite, but some of the hydrothermal cavities contain datolite crystals up to 15 cm, showing a number of elongated prismatic, tabular and equidimensional habits built mostly from {110}, {001} and {201}. There is a wide variety of colors, including colorless, white, blue, green and yellow. The yellow (honey-yellow to brown) color is caused by rare earth elements, and the green color is caused by chromium (Lisitsyn and Malinko, 1994). The best crystallized specimens come from the Bor pit, but green crystals to 5 cm are also found at the Sentyabr'skiy mine; gemmy crystals to 4 cm were once found in the Verchniy mine; and good crystals also occur at the First Sovietskiy mine.

Dickite [Al.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5][(OH).sub.4]

Dickite clay has been identified as a secondary mineral at the Nikolaevskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Diopside CaMg[Si.sub.2][O.sub.6]

Diopside is one of the most common primary skarn minerals in the district. A manganese-rich variety has been found in the Bor pit as thin green crystals up to 10 cm long in datolite. Smaller crystals of this same variety occur at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Dolomite CaMg[([CO.sub.3]).sub.2]

Dolomite occurs in small amounts at the Nikolaevskiy mine, and as massive material in the Bor pit.

Domeykite [Cu.sub.3]As

Domeykite is a member of the suite of unusual sulfides found as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Dussertite [[BaFe.sup.3+].sub.3][([AsO.sub.4]).sub.2][(OH).sub.5]

Dussertite has been found as part of the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine.

Epidote [Ca.sub.2][(Al,Fe).sub.3][[(SiO.sub.4)].sub.3](OH)

Epidote is a common skarn mineral in the Bor pit.

Erythrite [Co.sub.3][([AsO.sub.4]).sub.2]*[8H.sub.2]O

Erythrite occurs as a rare secondary mineral in the Bor pit.

Fluorite [CaF.sub.2]

Fluorite crystals of exceptional size and quality are found at several localities in Dal'negorsk. Green cubic crystals over 40 cm on a side have been found in both the Nikolaevskiy and First Sovietskiy mines. Fluorite also occurs in a variety of other habits and colors. Most notable are the green octahedrons from the First Sovietskiy mine and the perfectly lustrous, colorless ("optical"), water-clear crystals from the Nikolaevskiy mine, which are sometimes referred to as 'invisible fluorites" because of their perfection. Rarely blue and purple crystals to 3 cm are found at the Second Sovietskiy mine. Miners have reported that a single fluorite crystal measuring 1 meter across rolled out of a cavity in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Freibergite [(Ag,Cu,Fe).sub.12][(Sb,As)sub.4][S.sub.13]

Freibergite has been found in the sulfide veins exposed in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Galena PbS

Galena (an important ore mineral at Dal'negorsk) occurs as cubes, cubes modified by octahedrons, and as spinel-law twins flattened on (111). The largest crystals, over 25 cm on a side, are from the Second Sovietskiy mine; the best specimens available at present are from the Nikolaevskiy mine. Some of the galena specimens have a smooth, lustrous, rounded surface that looks as if they have been melted or partially resorbed. Massive galena and crystals to 3 cm have been found in the Bor pit; and crystals up to 6 cm occur at the Sadoviy mine. Most recently, in the summer of 2000, a large pocket of spinel-law galena twins was found in the Second Sovietskiy mine; flat plates of galena up to 15 cm across and covered with sphalerite crystals were recovered.

Galenobismutite [PbBi.sub.2][S.sub.4]

Galenobismutite occurs as a rare accessory sulfide mineral in the Nikolaevskiy and First Sovietskiy mines.

Gersdorffite NiAsS

Gersdorffite is among the trace sulfides that have been identified as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Goethite FeO(OH)

Goethite is a common constituent of the gossan that once covered the Verchniy.

Gold Au

Small amounts of native gold have been found rarely in the Verchniy mine pits.

Graphite C

Graphite occurs as microscopic inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Grossular [Ca.sub.3][Al.sub.2][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.3]

Grossular is among the principal components of skarn in the Verchniy mine, First Sovietskiy mine and the Bor pit, occasionally as good green to yellow-green crystals to 2 cm.

Gypsum [CaSO.sub.4].[2H.sub.2]O

Small crystals of gypsum have been collected near the Brenner mine and at the First Sovietskiy mine.

Hedenbergite [CaFeSi.sub.2][O.sub.6]

Hedenbergite, a common mineral in the skarn, also occurs as sprays of flattened prismatic crystals up to 12 cm long. The best specimens are from the Nikolaevskiy mine, where it is often covered with quartz and ilvaite. Small crystals have also been found in the Bor pit and the First Sovietskiy mine.

Hedleyite [Bi.sub.7][Te.sub.3]

Hedleyite is one of the rare microminerals comprising the suite of inclusions found in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Hematite [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]

Hematite has been found as small 5-mm rosettes in the Second Sovietskiy mine, as small crystals in the Sadoviy mine, as massive material with garnet in the Bor pit and in alteration zones and gossans throughout the district. It also occurs as pseudomorphs after ilvaite in the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Hemimorphite [Zn.sub.4][Si.sub.2][O.sub.7][(OH).sub.2].[H.sub.2]O

Hemimorphite occurs as small, colorless crystals with other secondary Pb-Zn-Cu minerals in the Brenner mine, and as small, pale blue, botryoidal crusts with smithsonite from the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Hessite [Ag.sub.2]Te

Hessite is a member of the suite of rare microminerals found as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Heulandite [(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba).sub.5]([Al.sub.9][Si.sub.27])[O.sub.72]*[26H.sub.2]O

Heulandite has been found as single crystals to 2 cm on manganaxinite from the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Hisingerite [Fe.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5][(OH).sub.4]*[2H.sub.2]O

Hisingerite occurs as typical earthy masses and coatings in altered skam in the Bor pit, and also in the Verchniy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Hydrozincite [Zn.sub.5][(CO.sub.3]).sub.2][(OH).sub.6]

White coatings of microcrystalline hydrozincite have been found in the Brenner workings.

Ikunolite [Bi.sub.4][(S,Se).sub.3]

Ikunolite is a member of the suite of rare microminerals found as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Ilmenite [FeTiO.sub.3]

Ilmenite occurs as an accessory mineral in rocks throughout the district.

Ilvaite [CaFe.sub.2][FeOSi.sub.2][O.sub.7](OH)

Ilvaite occurs as superb, lustrous black prismatic crystals up to 10 cm in size, in sulfide ore and in boron-rich skarn. Good specimens showing dominant {110} and {111} have come from the Nikolaevskiy, First Sovietskiy and Verchniy mines, where it is associated with quartz, calcite, hedenbergite and datolite. Very small crystals have been found in the Bor pit. Pseudomorphs of calcite, siderite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, iron oxides, clays and quartz after Ilvaite are common, and range in color from brown to black. Ilvaite spherules to 3 cm have been found on diopside from the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Jamesonite [Pb.sub.4][FeSb.sub.6][S.sub.14]

Jamesonite specimens from the Nikolaevskiy mine are thought to be at least in part boulangerite. It is possible that both minerals are present in acicular aggregates where they are not visually distinguishable from each other.

Jarosite [KFe.sub.3][([SO.sub.4]).sub.2][(OH).sub.6]

Jarosite is a common component of the gossan at the Brenner mine.

Johannsenite [CaMn.sup.2+][Si.sub.2][O.sub.6]

Some of what was initially thought to be diopside from the Bor pit has proven to be the manganese pyroxene, johannsenite.

Joseite [Bi.sub.4][TeS.sub.2]

Joseite is a member of the suite of rare microminerals found as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit.

Kutnohorite Ca([Mn.sup.2+],Mg,[Fe.sup.2+])[([CO.sub.3]).sub.2]

Kutnohorite occurs as blocky, lusterless, milky white crystals to 5 or 10 mm in size, usually on quartz crystals, in the Bor pit.

Laumontite [CaAl.sub.2][Si.sub.4][O.sub.12][4H2.sub.]O

Laumontite is found as small, white, prismatic crystals in the Second Sovietskiy mine, the Danburitiy pit and the Bor pit.

Lepidocrocite [gamma]-[Fe.sup.3+]O(OH)

Lepidocrocite has been identified as an earthy component of the "limonite" in the Verchniy mine and other mines in the area.

Litharge PbO

Litharge is a member of the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine.

Lollingite [FeAs.sub.2]

Lollingite has been identified in microscopic blebs and masses in ore from the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Ludwigite [Mg.sub.2][FeBO.sub.5]

Ludwigite is a boron mineral found as microscopic inclusions in native arsenic from the Bor pit.

Magnesioferrite [MgFe.sub.2][O.sub.4]

Magnesioferrite, like ludwigite, has been found as microscopic inclusions in native arsenic from the Bor pit.

Magnetite [Fe.sub.3][O.sub.4]

Magnitite is a microscopic accessory mineral in gabbro and in carbonate rocks near contacts with diabase intrusions.

Malachite [Cu.sub.2]([CO.sub.3])[(OH).sub.2]

Malachite coatings are part of the suite of secondary Pb-Zn-Cu minerals at the Brenner mine, and are also found in the Bor pit and the First Sovietskiy mine.

Manganaxinite [Ca.sub.2][Mn.sup.2+][Al.sub.2][Bsi.sub.4][O.sub.15](OH)

Manganaxinite is a common constituent of the skarns, and also occurs in cavities. Curved masses of bladed lustrous, translucent brown bladed crystals up to 10 cm long are found in the Bor pit and Sentyabr'skiy mine. Smaller crystals are found in the Verchniy and Second Sovietskiy mines. Most crystals are the typical brown color, but green crystals have also been found.

Marcasite [FeS.sub.2]

Small spherical masses of marcasite have been found in association with pyrite and pyrrhotite in the Nikolaevskiy, First Sovietskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Margarite [CaAl.sub.2]*[Al.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.10][(OH).sub.2]

Margarite, a brittle mica, is a rare accessory mineral in the Dal'negorsk skarn deposits.

Matildite [AgBiS.sub.2]

Matildite occurs as minute embedded masses in ores of the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Melanterite [FeSO.sub.4].[7H.sub.2]O

Greenish brown melanterite has been found as an alteration product of iron sulfides in the Brenner mine.

Miargyrite [AgSbS.sub.2]

Miargyrite has been reported as a rare accessory sulfide mineral in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Millerite NiS

Millerite is present as microscopic inclusions in sulfide ores at the Bor pit.

Mimetite [Pb.sub.5][([AsO.sub.4]).sub.3]Cl

Mimetite microcrystals have been identified in the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine (B. England, personal communication, 1995).

Minium [Pb.sub.3][O.sub.4]

Minium has been identified in the gossan of the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine.

Montmorillonite [(Na,Ca).sub.0.3][(Al,Mg).sub.2][Si.sub.4][O.sub.10][(OH).sub.2].[nH. sub.2]O

Montmorillonite clay is found as thin coatings at the Verchniy mine and as white massive material at the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Muscovite [KAI.sub.2]([Si.sub.3]Al)[O.sub.10][(OH,F).sub.2]

Muscovite occurs as microscopic flakes resulting from metasomatic alteration in all of the mines.

Nontronite [Na.sub.0.3][Fe.sub.2][(Si,Al).sub.4][O.sub.10].[nH.sub.2]O

Yellow to yellow-green nontronite clay occurs on chalcedony at the Bor pit.

Olivine group [[(Fe,Mg,Mn,Ni).sup.2+].sub.2][SiO.sub.4] ?

A mineral of the olivine group (exact composition unknown) occurs in ultramafic rocks intersected by a tunnel connecting the Nikolaevskiy and Verchniy mines.

Opal [SiO.sub.2]*[nH.sub.2]O

Massive white common opal is common in the Bor pit.

Owyheeite [Pb.sub.10-2x][Ag.sub.3-x][Sb.sub.11x][S.sub.28]

Owyheeite has been identified as a rare accessory sulfide mineral at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Palygorskite [(Mg,Al).sub.2][Si.sub.4][O.sub.10](OH).[4H.sub.2]O

"Mountain leather" mats of palygorskite up to 50 x 50 cm have been found in the First Sovietskiy, Second Sovietskiy and Verchniy mines.

Phlogopite [KMg.sub.3][AlSi.sub.3][O.sub.10][(OH).sub.2]

Phlogopite is an uncommon component of Dal'negorsk skarns.

Plumbojarosite [PbFe.sub.6][([SO.sub.4]).sub.4][(OH).sub.12]

Plumbojarosite occurs as a component of the gossan at the Brenner mine.

Polybasite [(Ag,Cu).sub.16][Sb.sub.2][S.sub.11]

Polybasite is found rarely as microscopic crystals in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Prehnite [Ca.sub.2][Al.sub.2][Si.sub.3][O.sub.10][(OH).sub.2]

Prehnite is found as a minor component of dike rock at the Nikolaevskiy mine and Bor pit.

Proustite [Ag.sub.3][AsS.sub.3]

Proustite has been found as a rare accessory sulfide mineral in the First Sovietskiy mine.

Pumpellyite [Ca.sub.2](Mg,Fe)[Al.sub.2]([SiO.sub.4])([Si.sub.2][O.sub.7)[(OH).sub .2].[H.sub.2]O

Dark green pumpellyite in earthy compact masses has been reported from the Bor pit.

Pyrargyrite [Ag.sub.3][SbS.sub.3]

Pyrargyrite has been found as a rare accessory sulfide micromineral in the Nikolaevskiy and First Sovietskiy mines.

Pyrite [FeS.sub.2]

Pyrite has been found as cubic crystals to 10 cm and as large crystalline masses up to 24 cm at the Verchniy and Nikolaevskiy mines. It also forms pseudomorphs after pyrrhotite at the Nikolaevskiy mine, and occurs as small crystals at the First Sovietskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Pyrolusite [MnO.sub.2]

Pyrolusite in black powdery masses and coatings occurs in small quantities at the Bor pit and in the Verchniy, Nikolaevskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Pyromorphite [Pb.sub.5][([PO.sub.4]).sub.3]Cl

Pyromorphite microcrystals have been identified in the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine.

Pyrrhotite FeS

Pyrrhotite occurs as first-generation flat hexagonal plates and parallel aggregates, and as second-generation prismatic crystals and columnar aggregates up to 25 cm across. It also occurs as attractive rosettes of flat plates. The largest and best specimens are from the Nikolaevskiy mine. Some of the pyrrhotite is replaced by pyrite. Small crystals have also been found in the Verchniy and First Sovietskiy mines.

Quartz [SiO.sub.2]

Quartz is among the most common minerals in the ancient hydrothermal pockets, many of which have yielded hundreds of crystallized specimens. They are transparent and range in color from milky white to smoky, citrine, red, pale green and pale amethyst. The Bor pit has produced pale amethyst crystals to 15 cm and smoky crystals to 5 cm. Chalcedony is also found in the Bor pit. Crystals composed almost entirely of termination faces with little or no prism development (and often doubly terminated) have been found at the Verchniy, Nikolaevskiy, Second Sovietskiy and Sentyabr'skiy mines, associated with ilvaite and hedenbergite. Red quartz was first encountered in a pocket at the Second Sovietskiy mine in 1996; the crystals are red in the outer zone, with a white core, and are up to 8 cm in length. Most, if not all, of the red and orange crystals have been etched in hydrofluoric acid. Clusters can be spectacular. In the same pocket were found large pseudomorphs of iron oxides and clays after ilvaite. Quartz pseudo morphs after danburite have been found in the Bor pit. Most recently (2000) a large pocket of pale green quartz crystals with no prism faces was found in the Second Sovietskiy mine. These pseudo-bipyramidal crystals, ranging from less than 1 cm to more than 10 cm across, make striking specimens. Japan-law quartz twins have been found in the Bor pit, the Verchniy mine, and the Nikolaevskiy mine. An unusual X-shaped Japan-law twin on axinite from Dal'negorsk (no mine name given) is pictured in Lapis (24, no. 2, p. 7, February 1999).

Rhodochrosite [MnCO.sub.3]

Rhodochrosite has been found as small pink crystals in the Nikolaevskiy and Verchniy mines.

Rhodonite (Mn,Fe,Mg,Ca)[SiO.sub.3]

Small amounts of pink rhodonite have been reported from the Sadoviy mine.

Rutile [TiO.sub.2]

Acicular rutile has been found as inclusions in quartz from the First Sovietskiy mine, and as small masses in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Safflorite [CoAs.sub.2]

Safflorite has been identified as microscopic inclusions in native arsenic from the Bor pit.

Scheelite [CaWO.sub.4]

Scheelite is said to occur very rarely in the Nikolaevskiy mine; good crystals are not mentioned.

Scolecite [CaAl.sub.2][Si.sub.3][O.sub.10].[3H.sub.2]O

Scolecite has been found as acicular white material in the Sadoviy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Scorodite [FeAsO.sub.4].[2H.sub.2]O

Scorodite microcrystals have been identified in the Pb-Zn-Cu secondary suite at the Brenner mine, and as a rare secondary mineral in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Senarmontite [Sb.sub.2][O.sub.3]

Senarmontite has been identified as a rare secondary mineral in the Bor pit.

Sepiolite [Mg.sub.4][Si.sub.6][O.sub.15][(OH).sub.2].[6H.sub.2]O

Sepiolite occurs in altered skarns in the Sadoviy, First Sovietskiy and Nikolaevskiy mines.

Serpentine group

Dark green serpentine has been reported from a tunnel connecting the Nikolaevskiy and Verchniy mines.

Siderite [Fe.sup.2+][CO.sub.3]

Siderite occurs at Dal'negorsk in a range of compositions grading into other carbonate species. Most of the carbonates form spherical aggregates to 6 cm in various shades of gray, green, yellow and brown. Siderite is also known as bright rhombs and scalenohedrons with quartz, calcite and sulfides from the Nikolaevskiy and Verchniy mines.

Silver Ag

Silver is a member of the suite of rare minerals found as inclusions in bismuth nodules from the Bor pit; it has also been identified in ore from the First Sovietskiy mine.

Skutterudite [CoAs.sub.2-3]

Skutterudite has been reported from the Bor pit.

Smithsonite [ZnCO.sub.3]

Smithsonite occurs as pale green, violet, blue, gray, white and brown botryoidal crusts associated with aurichalcite and other minerals of the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite at the Brenner mine. It also forms white botryoidal balls to 3 cm from the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S

Sphalerite is common at Dal'negorsk, as tetrahedral crystals showing twinning and parallel growth. Attractive crystals have been found at the Nikolaevskiy mine (to 16 cm), the First Sovietskiy mine (to 2 cm), the Verchniy mine (to 3 cm) and the Sadoviy mine (to 8 cm). It occurs intermixed with other sulfides, as is occasionally seen as a coating on chalcopyrite crystals. Small amounts of massive sphalerite have been seen in the Bor pit.

Spinel [MgAl.sub.2][O.sub.4]

Spinel has been found as a rare accessory mineral in the Nikolaevskiy mine; the color was not noted.

Stannite [Cu.sub.2][FeSnS.sub.4]

Stannite has been identified as an accessory mineral in the sulfide suite at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Stephanite [Ag.sub.5][SbS.sub.4]

Stephanite has been identified as a rare accessory mineral in the sulfide suite at the First Sovietskiy mine.

Sternbergite [AgFe.sub.2][S.sub.3]

Sternbergite has been identified as n rare accessory mineral in the sulfide suite at the First Sovietskiy mine.

Stibarsen SbAs

Stibarsen occurs intergrown with native arsenic in masses up to 12 cm in the Bor pit.

Stibnite [Sb.sub.2][S.sub.3]

Stibnite is an accessory mineral in the sulfide suite at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Stilbite [NaCa.sub.2][Al.sub.5][Si.sub.13][O.sub.36].[14H.sub.2]O

White crystals of stilbite to 3 cm have been found at the Second Sovietskiy mine.

Stilpuomelane [K(Fe,Al).sub.10][Si.sub.12][O.sub.30][(OH).sub.12]

Stilpnomelane occurs as an accessory mineral in rocks of the district.

Talc [Mg.sub.3][Si.sub.4][O.sub.10][(OH).sub.2]

Talc has been found associated with an ultramafic body encountered in a tunnel connecting the Verchniy and Nikolaevskiy mines.

Tellurobismuthite [Bi.sub.2][Te.sub.3]

Tellurobismuthite has been identified as microscopic grains in the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Tennantite [(Cu,Ag,Fe,Zn).sub.12][As.sub.4][S.sub.13]

Tennantite occurs as masses up to 4 cm across in skarn in the Bor pit.

Tetrahedrite [(Cu,Fe,Ag,Zn).sub.12][Sb.sub.4][S.sub.13]

Tetrahedrite has been found as single crystals to 2 cm, with quartz from the Second Sovietskiy mine, and as small crystals with pyrrhotite from the Nikolaevskiy and First Sovietskiy mines.

Titanite [CaTiSiO.sub.5]

Titanite has been reported as an accessory mineral in rocks of the district.

Thometzekite Pb[(Cu,Zn).sub.2][([AsO.sub.4]).sub.2]*[2H.sub.2]O

The rare mineral thometzekite has been reported from the gossan of the Brenner mine, as part of the secondary Pb-Zn-Cu suite (B. England, personal communication, 1995). This may be only the second known world occurrence after the type locality at Tsumeb, Namibia.

Thomsonite [Ca.sub.2]Na[[Al.sub.5][Si.sub.5][O.sub.20]]*[6H.sub.2]O

Thomsonite has been found as a rare mineral in the Bor pit.

Tourmaline group

Tourmaline of an undetermined species has been found in skarn at the Bor pit and also at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Tremolite [Ca.sub.2][(Mg,Fe).sub.5][Si.sub.8][O.sub.22][(OH).sub.2]

Tremolite occurs as a component of skarn in the Bor pit and the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Valentinite [Sb.sub.2][O.sub.3]

Valentinite has been found as a rare secondary mineral in the Bor pit.

Valleriite 4(Fe,Cu)S*3(Mg,Al)[(OH).sub.2]

Valleriite has been identified as a rare accessory sulfide in the First Sovietskiy and Nikolaevskiy mines.

Vesuvianite [Ca.sub.10][Mg.sub.2][Al.sub.4][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.5][([Si.sub.2][O.su b.7]).sub.2][(OH).sub.4]

Vesuvianite occurs as a component of skarn at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Vonsenite [Fe.sub.3][BO.sub.5]

Vonsenite has been identified as belonging to the suite of microminerals found as inclusions in native arsenic at the Bor pit.

Weddellite Ca([C.sub.2][O.sub.4])*[2H.sub.2]O

Small, cloudy crystals of weddellite have been identified in a pocket with whewellite at the Nikolaevskiy mine (Ponomarenko, personal communication, 2000).

Whewellite Ca([C.sub.2][O.sub.4])*[H.sub.2]O

Whewellite in good crystals up to 7 cm has been found in a single pocket, with wedellite, in the Nikolaevskiy mine in 1987 (Ponomarenko, personal communication, 2000).

Willemite [Zn.sub.2][SiO.sub.4]

Willemite has been found as small white needles and white crusts in the Verchniy pit.

Wittichenite [Cu.sub.3][BiS.sub.3]

Wittichenite has been identified as microscopic masses in ore at the Nikolaevskiy mine.

Wollastonite [CaSiO.sub.3]

Wollastonite is a common component of skarn throughout the district. Fine-grained wollastonite with hedenbergite comprises the white to green skarn from the Bor pit that is utilized as an ornamental stone. Material with wollastonite fibers up to 2 cm long is also known from the same mine.

Wurtzite ZnS

Wurtzite occurs rarely in sulfide ores of the Nikolaevskiy and Second Sovietskiy mines.

Zinkenite [Pb.sub.9][Sb.sub.22][S.sub.42]

Acicular zinkenite, looking like jamesonite in habit and color, has been identified on specimens from Dal'negorsk (X-ray identification; Brad Van Scriver, personal communication).

Zircon [ZrSiO.sub.4]

Zircon occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks of the Dal'negorsk area.

Zoisite [Ca.sub.2][Al.sub.3][([SiO.sub.4]).sub.3](OH)

Zoisite has been identified as an accessory mineral in skarn at the Sadoviy mine.

DAL'NEGORSK MUSEUMS

The City Museum in Dal'negorsk has a remarkable mineral collection. The head of the Geology Department at the Museum is Nadezda Bulavko. She was born in Minsk and studied geology in Moldavia and Moscow, and has devoted her life to the collection and study of Dal'negorsk minerals. She has personally collected thousands of specimens. In the Museum the minerals are arranged by mine, with many hundreds of specimens from each mine on exhibit. There is a second smaller museum at the Bor Company plant that also has an excellent collection of minerals from the Bor pit.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank Gennady Skoublov for arranging (RG's) trips to Dal'negorsk, and for reading the manuscript. Also, we would like to thank the following people from Dal'negorsk for their hospitality and for sharing information on the region: Victor Nikiforov, Sasha Zaytsev, Victor Korchevskiy, Natasha Korchevskaya, and Vladimir Dmitriev. We want to give special credit to Nadezda Bulavko, who shared her life's work with us. Brian England, Klim Moysyuk and Victor Ponomarenko added several minerals to the list.

(*.) [FOREIGN LANGUAGE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]Heropck; the apostrophe is the transliteration of the cyrillic letter b, which is not pronounced but serves to soften the pronunciation of the preceding consonant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BULAVKO, N. V. (1984) Relationship between skarns and hydro-thermal polymetallic ores. In Dal'negorsk Ore District Geology, Krasnov, E. V., and Buriy, G. I., editors. Vladivostok, p. 125-136. (in Russian).

CARR, D. (editor) (1994) Industrial Minerals and Rocks. Sixth edition, SMME, Littleton, Colorado, p. 181.

HAMET, M., and STEDRA, V. (1992) Die blei-zink und borlagerstatte Dalnegorsk in Ostsibirien. Mineralien Welt, 6, 46-53.

HAMET, M., and STEDRA, V. (1994) Il giacimento a Pb-Zn-B di Dalnegorsk, Siberia oriental. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 17 (3), 259-270.

KIEVLENKO, E. S., TSCHUPROV, V. I., and DRAMSCHEVA, E. E. (1987) Dekorativnye kollekcionnye mineraly. Nedra, Moskva.

LISITSYN, A., and MALINKO, S. (1994) The Dal'negorsk boron deposit: a unique mineralogical object. World of Stones, 4, 30-40.

MALINKO, S. V., DUBINCUK, V. T., and NOSENKO, N. A. (1992) Samorodnys bismut v datolitovych rudach Dalnegorskovo bornovo mestoroshdenya. Mineralogitscheskij Zhurnal, 14 (1), 42-52.

NATAROV, A. G., SVERSHNIKOVA, O. L., and GALJUK, V. A. (1972) Pervaya nachodka andorita v. sssr. Doklady Akademia Nauk SSSR, 206 (1), 189-192.

SMIRNOV, V. I. (1978) Rudnye mestorozhdenya SSSR. Nedra, Moskva, 1-3.

SMIRNOV, V. I. (editor), GINZBURG, A. I., GRIGORIEV, V. M., and YAKOVLEV, G. F. (1983) Studies of Mineral Deposits. Mir Publishers, Moscow, p. 112-113.

SMITH, B., and SMITH, C. (1995) A guide to mineral localities in the former Soviet Union. Mineralogical Record, 26, 517-549.

Table 1. Mineral species reported from the Dal'negorsk area.

Native Elements

Antimony

Arsenic

Bismuth

Copper

Gold

Graphite

Silver

Stibarsen

Sulfides, Sulfosalts

Acanthite

Alabandite

Andorite

Arsenopyrite

Bornite

Boulangerite

Bournonite

Carrollite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcocite

Covellite

Cubanite

Freibergite

Galena

Galenobismutite

Gersdorffite

Jamesonite

Lillianite

Linnaeite

Marcasite

Matildite

Miargyrite

Millerite

Owyheeite

Polybasite

Proustite

Pyrargyrite

Pyrite

Pyrrhotite

Sphalerite

Stannite

Stephanite

Sternbergite

Stibnite

Tellurobismuthite

Tennantite

Tetrahedrite

Valleriite

Wittichenite

Wurtzite

Zinkenite

Tellurides, Arsenides, Selenides

Altaite

Clausthalite

Domeykite

Hedleyite

Hessite

Ikunolite

Joseite

Lollingite

Safflorite

Skutterudite

Halides

Fluorite

Oxides, Hydroxides

Anatase

Cassiterite

Chalcophanite

Cuprite

Goethite

Hematite

Ilmenite

Lepidocrocite

Litharge

Magnesioferrite

Magnetite

Minium

Pyrolusite

Rutile

Senarmontite

Spinel

Valentinite

Carbonates

Aragonite

Aurichalcite

Azurite

Bismutite

Calcite

Cerussite

Dolomite

Hydrozincite

Kutnohorite

Malachite

Rhodochrosite

Siderite

Smithsonite

Oxalates

Weddellite

Whewellite

Sulfates

Anglesite

Barite

Brochantite

Chalcanthite

Gypsum

Jarosite

Melanterite

Plumbojarosite

Borates

Ludwigite

Vonsenite

Phosphates

Apatite

Pyromorphite

Tungstates

Scheelite

Arsenates

Adamite

Beudantite

Dussertite

Erythrite

Mimetite

Scorodite

Thometzekite

Silicates

Actinolite

Albite

Andradite

Apophyllite

Chlorite group

Chrysocolla

Clinozoisite

Cummingtonite

Danburite

Dannemorite

Datolite

Dickite

Diopside

Epidote

Grossular

Hedenbergite

Hemimorphite

Heulandite

Hisingerite

Ilvaite

Johannsenite

Laumontite

Manganaxinite

Margarite

Montmorillonite

Muscovite

Nontronite

Olivine group

Opal

Orthoclase

Palygorskite

Phlogopite

Prehnite

Pumpellyite

Quartz

Rhodonite

Scolecite

Sepiolite

Serpentine

Siderophyllite

Stilbite

Stilpnomelane

Talc

Thomsonite

Titanite

Tourmaline group

Tremolite

Vesuvianite

Willemite

Wollastonite

Zircon

Zoisite
Table 2. Distribution of the common minerals in the mines of the
Dal'negorsk region. X = mineral is found at that mine; R = the mineral
is found in that mine but only rarely; and G = the mineral is found as
good to outstanding specimens in that mine.
               Mines
Minerals        Bor   Danburitiy  First Sovietskiy  Second Sovietskiy
Apophyllite      G        R              X                  R
Calcite          G        X              G                  G
Chalcopyrite     X        R              G                  X
Danburite                 G
Datolite         G        X              G                  R
Fluorite         X        R              G                  X
Galena           R                       X                  G
Hedenbergite     X        R              X                  X
Ilvaite          X                       G                  X
Manganaxinite    G        X              X                  X
Quartz           G        X              X                  G
Pyrrhotite                               X                  X
Sphalerite       X                       X                  G
Minerals       Sentyabr'skiy  Verchniy  Nikolaevskiy  Sadoviy
Apophyllite          R           G           X           G
Calcite              X           G           G           X
Chalcopyrite         X           X           G           X
Danburite
Datolite             G           G           R
Fluorite                         R           G           X
Galena               X           X           G           X
Hedenbergite         R           X           G
Ilvaite              X           G           G
Manganaxinite        G           G           X           R
Quartz               X           G           G           X
Pyrrhotite                       X           G
Sphalerite           X           X           G           X
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Author:Grant, Raymond; Wilson, Wendell E.
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Geographic Code:4EXRU
Date:Jan 1, 2001
Words:8755
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