Fall in number of strike days.
The average number of days lost through action each year has been under a million over the last 20 years, compared to 12.9 million in the 1970s and 7.2 million in the 1980s, said the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD).
But unions are finding new ways to put employers under pressure, with almost 1,000 ballots for industrial action held last year, said the report. Only 149 of these resulted in strikes, but even the threat of industrial action can damage an employer's reputation, said the CIPD.
Mike Emmott, employee relations adviser at the CIPD, said: "Union tactics have shifted in recent years, reflecting a perception that industrial action organised on traditional lines is no longer a reliable tool for achieving trade union objectives. Our research confirms that most employee relations practitioners focus more on preventing rather than managing conflict."