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Factors Affecting Consumer Attention in Billboards Advertising.

Byline: Javed Hussain and Rizwan Khan Nizamani


This study is concerned to the billboards advertising and their impact over the consumer attention. The main aim of this study is to understand the consumer attention towards billboards whether the target audience gives importance to the billboards or not. Final results indicate number of factors in the billboards advertising which attracts the customer. A customer gives proper attention to billboards advertising due to billboards advertising Size Color Location Celebrity and Images. All these variables have positive impact on the customer attention.

Keywords: Customer Advertising Billboards Consumer attention


Tellis (1997) stated about trademark awareness communication innovation in relevance to advertising about brands. It has been found that promotion is effective in growing consciousness and to some extent sales as the media is widespread and more easily accessible by various people around the world. Restricted to billboard form of advertising which is the basis of this research study it is seen that the numbers of posters and the period of the campaign the site of a billboard they all have an effect on the possibility and incidence of contact. This is an important study to understand the dynamic trends of outdoor advertising and latest new ups and downs in the billboard industry.

Outdoor advertising is a form of medium of advertising. This form of advertising requires various measures to communicate and reach to its target audience. The advertisements are seen from then and now there has been a lot of changes because the environment is changing and the people are changing their interests and preferences. Advertising has also molded itself accordingly to fulfill its purpose of attracting customers/consumers to purchase their product/brand and generate revenues. The outdoor advertising is known as ATL (Above the Line) and indoor advertising is BTL (Below the line). Advertising trend is like fashion which dynamically changes its origin. Express the message to the targeted audience through any form of the medium non-personal and paid activity which comes under the umbrella of advertising.

Billboards/Hoardings are one of the competitive edge in the advertising medium. There has been development in this industry extensively as now billboards have shifted to electronic boards and every now and then new technology is emerging which is also being incorporated in advertising. Cut-out billboards are seemingly a new trend in billboards these days. The billboard lobby spends millions of dollars each year to influence central state and local billboards controls. Hence it is taken as cheaper widely accessible convenient and attractive. Research related to billboard advertising was on billboards usage government regulation authorities and the outcome of these advertising. This particular study examines the impact of billboards advertising on customer attention and also examines the key features in billboards like color size location graphics and simplicity of billboard that really attract the people in billboards advertising.

Findings of this research will be applicable to the advertising industry and it will definitely help to organizations to achieve the targeted results.

Literature Review

Several studies show that people which do not like billboards high-tech products and any other feature which are displayed on billboards frequently bear the force of citizen hatred and anger.

Similarly there are hitches in using billboard advertising in relevance to the audience watching it. Billboards with shifting messages only add to the distraction. In high stress situation such as heavy traffic volumes along major roads this tendency is pronounced even more. First the changing of the message is itself a gently compelling distraction. Second a driver can read a normal billboard quickly and return his or her attention to the highway; with numerous messages a billboard is most probable to grab and preserve the driver's interest. Finally the drivers passing a shifting billboard might crane their necks to recognize the next advertisement rather than focus on the upcoming traffic obstacle (Vespe 1997).

Majority of the companies opt for outdoor advertising that impacts on the geographic location and sales response is more effective (Schlossberg 1990). According to Meurs and Aristoff (2009) billboard advertisements determines the creative appeal in the favor of brand/product credit. It develops more understandable branding and an addition of new- product in order to improve product recognition. Through large text pictures of celebrity representing product/brand small headlines do portray the brand's outlook and other relevant information such as price (Blasko 1985). Many users consider that advertisement dish up varied functions based on symbolism and other advertisement tools are a substitute in comparison to billboards. A research by Mustafa Sukran and Olgun (2007) suggested that out-of-doors promotions generate various ideas; successful updating influencing customers that are responsive to the situation. Outdoor commercials are attractive outstanding and their visibility is increasing.

Outdoor advertising is in the midst of a technological revolution that benefits advertisers travelers and communities as their target market. As the information grows by quantum leaps the world of outdoor communications is also benefiting to generate business revenues the number and range of users and brilliance in creativity. At the forefront of new technological advances within the outdoor industry competitive message billboards are now being placed at ideal sign locations nationwide. Changeable message trend allows a win-win solution for stakeholders.

The society gets high profile marketing technology without increasing the number or size of billboards. In an advertising industry location is considered almost everything" to satisfy advertisers and viewers. Advertisers receive exceptional creative opportunities to marketplace their messages because billboards particularly changeable copy messages are well organized (Laible 1997). Advertising can be used by an organization to provide consumers with information and related benefits about its products. To the extent that advertising minimize searching costs through the stipulation of low cost information it is collectively beneficial. However few journalists discussed that marketing is repeatedly worn in habits that are injurious to civilization; advertising effects have been considered extensively in fact empirically (Netter 1982).

For instance parents and community organizers were worried about the effect on their kids of daily publicity to scores of billboards cheering them to smoke and drink. At the same time a protester priest was busy in a high profile movement to deface billboards in his mostly poor African- American rural community as a way to call media notice to the problem. Subsequently a member of the Chicago City Council responded to community apprehension by holding hearings on future legislation to ban all outdoor advertising of tobacco products in Chicago. The tobacco manufacturing spends more or less four billion dollars for each year tout their unsafe products. Tobacco and alcohol firms grade among the peak five promotional organization in magazines and newspaper. The top four billboard advertisers are all tobacco companies in western zone and cigarette is the most heavily advertised product in the outdoor media.

Recently trends in cigarette advertising put forward on promotional behavior such as consumer sampling trade promotions and sponsorship for sporty civic or cultural events (Diana Hackbarth Silvestri Cosper and William 1995).

Daniel Smith Park and Whan (1992) found that brand extensions imprison larger market share in addition to appreciate better advertising efficiency than individual variety. In relevance to sales comeback Bhargava and Donthu (1994) promotion is immediate excluding arbitrated by the advertising plan. Tellis (1997) hypothesized that functions may rely on kind awareness message known to the concise experience of the outdoors medium (Whitehill and Tinkham 1989).


H1: Message in Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H2: Size of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H3: Color Scheme of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H4: Location of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H5: Celebrity of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H6: Simplicity and Creativity of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H7: Well Organized Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H8: Text Style of Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H9: Images in Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

H10: Cut-out Billboards has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

Research Methods

Method of Data Collection

Primary data was used for the analysis which was collected from different age groups of people with their different life style as well this data was collected from Iqra University Karachi and the surrounding areas of university students of university were taken as respondents in the data.

Sampling Technique Sample Size and Statistical Test

The restricted non probability sampling technique was used while the respondents of 21-28 age groups were included in the sample of 300 observations. To evaluate the hypotheses of this paper one sample T-Test has been deployed.

Instrument of Data Collection

Data was collected through a simple questionnaire; instrument was contained on twenty one questions including multi-chotomous and likert scale questions. Very few questions consist of common question like: respondent name respondent age and date. The constructs which were taken to test the customer perceptions include the size of billboard color of billboard location of billboards images in billboards celebrity in the billboards creativity and simplicity of billboards text style in billboards well organized billboards and cut-out billboards.

Findings and Results

Table 1:

###One Sample T Test

###Test Value= 4 (Agreement)

###Mean Value Standard


###of Variables Deviation

###H1: Message in Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H2: Size of Billboards has a positive impact on


###Customer Attention.

###H3: Color Scheme of Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H4: Location of Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H5: Celebrity of Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H6: Simplicity and Creativity of Billboards


###has a positive impact on Customer Attention.

###H7: Well Organized Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H8: Text Style of Billboards has a positive


###impact on Customer Attention.

###H9: Images in Billboards has a positive impact


###on Customer Attention.

###H10: Cut-out Billboards has a positive impact


###on Customer Attention.

The findings of this paper as shown in table 1 reveal that the size color location of billboards and the images in billboards matters for winning the attentions of the audience/ customers. While the rest of outlined constructs they really don't matter for audience attentions.

Discussion and Conclusion

Advertising is moving towards modernization with rapid growth. Sizes of Billboards Location of Billboards Images in Billboards and Color Scheme of Billboards have positive impact on customer attention in billboards advertising.

It's evident that billboard advertising is one of the most attractive appeals to the target audience and being a core competency it is cheaper convenient and easily accessible to masses. Thus the results favor the stated notion and the objective of the research that billboards through its various constructs matters for the winning the attention. References

Bhargava M. and Donthu N. (1994). Sale Response to Outdoor Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research. 39(4) 7-18.

Blasko V. J. (1985). A Content Analysis of the Creative Characteristics of Outdoor Advertising. National vs. Regional Differences. Conference of the American Academy of Advertising.

Daniel C. Smith C. Park. and Whan P. (1992). The Effects of Brand Extensions on Market

Share and Advertising Efficiency. Journal of Marketing Research 29 296-313.

Diana P. Hackbarth Silvestri B. Cosper. and William. (1995). Tobacco and Alcohol Billboards in 50 Chicago Neighborhoods: Market Segmentation to Sell Dangerous Products to the Poor. Journal of Public Health Policy 16 213-230.

Laible M. (1997). Changeable Message Signs: A Technology Who's Time Has Come. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 16 173-176.

Meurs L. V. and Aristoff M. (2009). Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work. Journal of Advertising Research 49(1) 82-91.

Mustafa G. Sukran K. and Olgun K.(2007). The effects of outdoor advertisements on consumers: A case study. Studies in business and economics 5(2) 70-88.

Netter J. M. (1982). Excessive Advertising: An Empirical Analysis. The Journal of Industrial Economics 30 361-373.

Schlossberg H. (1990). Satisfying customers is a minimum; you really have to delight' them. Marketing News 24 10-11. Tellis G. (1997). One Exposure of Three Factors. Journal of Advertising Research 37 75- 80.

Vespe F. (1997). High-Tech Billboards: The Same Old Litter on a Stick. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 16 176-179.

Whitehill K. K. and S. F. Tinkham. (1989). the learning and Retention of Outdoor Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 30 47-51.
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Publication:The South Asian Journal of Management Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Dec 31, 2011
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